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1.
Univ. salud ; 24(1): 76-84, ene.-abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1361188

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La COVID-19 es una enfermedad que desencadena infecciones respiratorias graves como el síndrome respiratorio agudo severo, que puede requerir atención prolongada intra y extrahospitalaria. Objetivo: Brindar recomendaciones y pautas para una correcta evaluación y tratamiento del paciente con COVID-19 mediante la rehabilitación pulmonar. Materiales y métodos: Revisión de la literatura en las bases de datos MEDLINE, PEDRO, Scielo y en Google Scholar, a partir de las palabras clave: COVID-19, Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto, Enfermedades pulmonares, Rehabilitación, pruebas de función respiratoria, Unidad de cuidado intensivo; seleccionando, aquellos artículos que presentaran información sobre rehabilitación en pacientes con COVID-19 y otras alteraciones con compromiso similar como el Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo y las Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales Difusas. Resultados: Para realizar una intervención en paciente con COVID-19 u otra alteración respiratoria como Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto y Enfermedad Pulmonar Intersticial Difusa, es necesario realizar un adecuado diagnóstico de la enfermedad, una minuciosa evaluación integral y una intervención basada en las necesidades de cada individuo. Conclusiones: El paciente intrahospitalario puede recibir intervención enfocada a evitar el deterioro funcional y una vez son dados de alta la rehabilitación pulmonar extrahospitalaria podría ser una alternativa eficaz en el tratamiento para los pacientes.


Introduction: COVID-19 is a disease that triggers serious respiratory infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, which requires treatment on an inpatient and outpatient basis. Objective: To provide recommendations and guidelines for the appropriate assessment and treatment of COVID-19 patients through pulmonary rehabilitation. Materials and methods: A literature review using MEDLINE, PEDRO, Scielo and Google Scholar databases and the keywords: COVID-19, Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Pulmonary diseases, Rehabilitation, Respiratory function tests, Intensive Care Unit. Articles that described information regarding rehabilitation in COVID-19 patients and other similar dysfunctions such as Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Diffuse Interstitial Lung Diseases. Results: It is necessary to carry out an appropriate disease diagnosis, a detailed integral assessment, and an intervention based on the needs of each patient in order to intervene with either COVID-19 patients or cases with other respiratory dysfunctions such as Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Diffuse Interstitial Lung Disease. Conclusions: Inpatients can be subjected to an intervention focused on avoiding functional failure. Once they are discharged, outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation could be an effective treatment alternative for these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rehabilitation , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Tract Infections , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Critical Care , Lung Diseases
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 75-87, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362684

ABSTRACT

O cigarro eletrônico surgiu como uma tentativa para minimizar a dependência ao uso de tabaco, entretanto, engloba controvérsias e dúvidas acerca das reais implicações para o organismo humano. Diante disso, o presente estudo tem como objetivo realizar uma revisão da literatura a fim de relacionar o uso de cigarro eletrônico com suas consequências para os humanos. Os estudos analisados relatam experimentos in vitro e in vivo em camundongos, demonstrando menor concentração de poluentes e nocividades no cigarro eletrônico comparado ao convencional, porém, seu potencial efeito maléfico está relacionado à composição do e-líquido, à maneira do uso e à variedade de aromas presentes nos produtos. Além disso, foram verificadas lesões celulares, hiperreatividade das vias aéreas, liberação de citocinas ­ IL-8, IL-10 e TNF, redução da ação antimicrobiana de queratinócitos e potencial apoptose nas células alveolares. Foi observado também um aumento em até cinco vezes da concentração de carboxihemoglobina em comparação ao cigarro comum e um aumento na auto renovação de células de adenocarcinoma pulmonar de células não pequenas, devido à expressão de SOX2. Observa-se também que em casos de DPOC, o cigarro eletrônico não apresenta agravamentos na fisiologia respiratória, contrapondo outras ocorrências como asma, pneumonia, câncer de pulmão e doenças infecciosas que podem ser ocasionadas ou exacerbadas pelo seu uso. Contudo, pelo curto prazo de observação de seus efeitos, não é possível determinar com precisão a segurança dos cigarros eletrônicos, dessa forma, faz-se necessário que mais pesquisas longitudinais sejam desenvolvidas, auxiliando, assim, na construção de evidências sobre a segurança dos cigarros eletrônicos e na regulamentação futura do produto.


Electronic cigarettes emerged as an attempt to minimize tobacco dependence. However, its use is surrounded by controversies and doubts about the real implications for the human organism. Therefore, this study aims at performing a review of the most recent literature to corelate the use of e-cigarettes with their consequences for the human body. The analyzed studies relate in vitro and in vivo experiments on mice, demonstrating lower concentration of pollutants and harmfulness in the electronic cigarette than in conventional cigarettes. However, its potential harmful effect is related to the composition of the e-liquid, in its use and in the variety of aromas in the products. In addition, cellular lesions, airway hyperreactivity, release of IL-8, IL-10 and TNF cytokines could be observed, as well as reduced keratinocyte antimicrobial action and potential apoptosis in alveolar cells. An increase of up to five-fold the concentration of carboxyhemoglobin in comparison to ordinary cigarettes and an increase in self-renewal of non-small pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells due to the expression of SOX2 have also been related. It could also be observed that in COPD cases, e-cigarettes do not present worsening in respiratory physiology, which contrasts with other occurrences such as asthma, pneumonia, lung cancer, and infectious diseases that can be caused or exacerbated by its use. However, due to the short term of observation of the effects, the safety of e-cigarettes could not be accurately determined, thus, the need for further longitudinal research is necessary, which could be used to help build evidence about the safety of e-cigarettes and also to create future regulation of the product.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Lung Diseases , Pneumonia/complications , Asthma/complications , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Smoking , Disease , Lung Injury , Tobacco Use , Vaping , Smokers , E-Cigarette Vapor/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms
3.
Radiol. bras ; 55(2): 71-77, mar.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365296

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess interobserver agreement among radiologists regarding the current Fleischner Society diagnostic criteria for usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) patterns on computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: Using the Fleischner Society criteria for UIP CT patterns, five raters, working independently, categorized the high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of 44 patients with interstitial lung disease who underwent lung biopsy. The raters also evaluated the presence, extent, and distribution of the most relevant imaging findings, as well as indicating their level of confidence in the most likely diagnosis and in up to three diagnostic hypotheses. Results: There was moderate to substantial interobserver agreement regarding the UIP patterns on HRCT—kappa statistic (κ) = 0.59-0.61. Interobserver agreement for the binary scores was substantial (κ = 0.77-0.79), whereas that for the presence of honeycombing was almost perfect (κ = 0.81-0.96). There was agreement regarding at least one of the three diagnostic hypotheses in only 36.4% of the cases. For the level of confidence in the most likely diagnosis, there was only slight to fair agreement (κ = 0.19-0.21). Conclusion: Interobserver agreement regarding the current Fleischner Society CT criteria for UIP was moderate to substantial among raters with varying levels of experience. There was only slight to fair agreement regarding the diagnostic hypotheses and for the level of confidence in the most likely diagnosis.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a concordância interobservador entre radiologistas para os critérios atuais da Fleischner Society para categorias diagnósticas de pneumonia intersticial usual (PIU) em tomografia computadorizada (TC). Materiais e Métodos: Cinco observadores categorizaram independentemente as imagens de TC de 44 pacientes com doença pulmonar intersticial que foram submetidos a biópsia pulmonar empregando as últimas categorias de diagnóstico da Sociedade Fleischner para UIP. Também foram avaliadas presença, extensão e distribuição dos achados de imagem mais relevantes, bem como a confiança no diagnóstico mais provável e em até três hipóteses diagnósticas. Resultados: Houve concordância moderada a alta para as categorias diagnósticas entre os observadores (κ = 0,59-0,61). A concordância interobservador para a pontuação binária foi alta (κ = 0,77-0,79), enquanto para a presença de faveolamento foi considerada de alta a muito alta (κ = 0,81-0,96). Houve concordância em uma das três hipóteses diagnósticas em apenas 36,4% dos casos. Baixa concordância foi encontrada para o diagnóstico mais provável (κ = 0,19-0,21). Conclusão: A concordância entre observadores para os critérios atuais de TC da Fleischner Society para UIP foi moderada a alta entre observadores com diferentes níveis de experiência. Houve baixa concordância nas hipóteses diagnósticas e quanto ao grau de confiança no diagnóstico primário.

4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 183-190, Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365348

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to ascertain the long-term respiratory effects of COVID-19 pneumonia through pulmonary function tests in follow-ups at 1 and 6 months. METHODS: Our study was conducted between August 1, 2020 and April 30, 2021. At 1 month after discharge, follow-up evaluations, PFTs, and lung imaging were performed on patients aged above 18 years who had been diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. In the 6th month, the PFTs were repeated for those with pulmonary dysfunction. RESULTS: A total of 219 patients (mean age, 49±11.9 years) were included. Pathological PFT results were noted in the 1st month for 80 patients and in the 6th month for 46 (7 had obstructive disorder, 15 had restrictive disorder, and 28 had small airway obstruction) patients. A significant difference was found between abnormal PFT results and patient-described dyspnea in the 1st month of follow-up. The 6-month PFT values (especially those for forced vital capacity) were statistically significantly lower in the patients for whom imaging did not indicate complete radiological improvement at the 1-month follow-up. No statistically significant difference was found between the severity of the first computed tomography findings or clinical condition on emergency admission and pulmonary dysfunction (Pearson's chi-square test, P=0.904; Fisher's exact test, P=0.727). CONCLUSION: It is important that patients with COVID-19 pneumonia be followed up for at least 1 month after discharge to be monitored for potential long-term lung damage. PFTs should be administered to those in whom ongoing dyspnea, which started with COVID-19, and/or full recovery were not identified in pulmonary imaging.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Respiratory Function Tests , Vital Capacity , Follow-Up Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
5.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO5510, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360408

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To present the frequency and species diversity of non-tuberculous mycobacteria, estimate the prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease, describe the epidemiological profile, and determine the follow-up of patients with non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease living in a region with a high burden of tuberculosis. Methods This a retrospective cohort observational study using data records obtained from the Instituto Adolfo Lutz - Santos and from the São Paulo Sistema de Vigilância de Tuberculose do Estado de São Paulo in the period between 2000 and 2009. The studied variables were: socio-demographic characteristics, current and past history of tuberculosis, aspects related to diagnosis, and treatment and associated diseases. Results We included 319 non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolates in the study, corresponding to 257 patients. The species Mycobacterium kansasii (28.5%) and Mycobacterium fortuitum (16.6%) presented the higher occurrence. In 10.9% (24) of the patients, there was a criterion for confirming a case of pulmonary disease due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria. In relation to gender and age, male and individuals over 50 years old were the most frequent. Considering the confirmed cases, 47.8% had a past history of tuberculosis. Conclusion The lack of information about the cases is evident, since pulmonary disease due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria is not mandatory. The therapeutic regimen according to the identified species is fundamental for success in combating the infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Besides that, information about the regional epidemiology of pulmonary disease caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria and the search for associations with other comorbidities are important to establish the correct treatment. In order to improve surveillance of pulmonary diseases by non-tuberculous mycobacteria, we suggest the implantation of a sentinel surveillance and of population-based studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Middle Aged , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria
6.
J. bras. pneumol ; 48(2): e20210382, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365054

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To characterize the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) requiring immunosuppression. Only 5 to 10% of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis develop tuberculosis, and certain groups of patients have an increased risk of illness, such as the immunocompromised. Patients with ILDs are frequently treated with immunosuppressants and, therefore, might have a higher risk of developing the disease. Methods Prospective study conducted at the ILD reference center of the Federal University of Paraná from January 2019 to December 2020. The screening of LTBI was performed with the use of the tuberculin skin test (TST). Results The sample consisted of 88 patients, of whom 64.8% were women, with a mean age of 61.4 years. The most frequent diagnoses were autoimmune rheumatic disease ILD (38.6%) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (35.2%). The most common immunosuppressant in use at the time of the TST was prednisone, either in combination with mycophenolate (19.3%) or alone (17.1%). The majority of participants had fibrotic lung disease, characterized by a reticular interstitial pattern on chest computed tomography (79.5%) and moderate to severe functional impairment (mean FVC 69.2%). A prevalence of LTBI of 9.1% (CI 95%, 2.1%-15.1%) was found, with a TST median of 13. Conclusion Patients with ILD who are treated with immunosuppressants are not commonly screened for LTBI, despite being under a greater risk of progression to active disease. This study suggests the need for a more cautious approach to these patients.


RESUMO Objetivo Caracterizar a prevalência de Infecção Latente por Tuberculose (ILTB) em pacientes com Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais (DPIs) que necessitam de imunossupressão. Apenas 5 a 10% dos indivíduos infectados pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis desenvolvem tuberculose, sendo que certos grupos de pacientes apresentam maior risco de doença, tais como os imunocomprometidos. Pacientes com DPIs são frequentemente tratados com imunossupressores, portanto, podem apresentar maior risco de desenvolver a doença. Métodos Estudo prospectivo conduzido no Centro de Referência para DPI da Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), entre Janeiro de 2019 e Dezembro de 2020. O rastreio de ILTB foi realizado por meio da Prova Tuberculínica (PT). Resultados A amostra foi composta por 88 pacientes, dos quais 64,8% eram mulheres, com, em média, 61,4 anos de idade. Os diagnósticos mais frequentes foram DPI associada a doença reumática autoimune (DRAI) (38,6%) e pneumonite de hipersensibilidade (35,2%). Prednisona foi o imunossupressor mais comumente utilizado à época da PT, em combinação com micofenolato (19,3%) ou isoladamente (17,1%). A maioria dos participantes tinha doença pulmonar fibrótica, caracterizada por infiltrado reticular em tomografia computadorizada de tórax (79,5%), bem como comprometimento funcional moderado a grave (Capacidade Vital Forçada (CVF) média de 69,2%). Observou-se uma prevalência de ILTB de 9,1% (Intervalo de Confiança (IC) 95%, 2,1%-15,1%), com mediana da PT de 13. Conclusão Não é comum que pacientes com DPI tratados com imunossupressores sejam avaliados quanto à presença de ILTB, apesar de estarem sob um maior risco de progressão para doença ativa. Este estudo sugeriu a necessidade de uma abordagem mais cuidadosa em relação a esses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(4): 690-698, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345226

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) é o método de escolha para avaliar as dimensões e a função do ventrículo direito (VD), e a insuficiência pulmonar (IP). Objetivos Avaliar a acurácia da ecocardiografia bidimensional (ECO 2D) em estimar a função e as dimensões do VD e o grau de IP, e comparar os resultados obtidos pela ECO 2D com os da RMC. Métodos Comparamos os relatórios de ECO e RMC de pacientes cuja indicação para RMC havia sido para avaliar VD e IP. Um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Incluímos 51 pacientes com cardiopatia congênita com idade mediana de 9,3 anos (7-13,3 anos). Observou-se uma baixa concordância entre ECO 2D e RMC quanto à classificação da dimensão (Kappa 0,19; IC 95% 0,05 a 0,33, p 0,004) e da função do VD (Kappa 0,16; IC 95% -0,01 a +0,34; p 0,034). O tamanho do VD foi subestimado pela ECO 2D em 43% dos casos, e a função do VD foi superestimada pela ECO 2D em 29% dos casos. O grau de concordância entre os métodos quanto à classificação da IP não foi significativo (Kappa 0,014; IC 95% -0,03 a +0,06; p 0,27). Houve uma tendência de a ECO 2D superestimar o grau da IP. Conclusões A ECO 2D mostrou baixa concordância com a RMC quanto às dimensões e função do VD, e grau de IP. Em geral, a ECO subestimou as dimensões do VD e superestimou a função do VD e o grau de IP quando comparada à RMC.


Abstract Background Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is the method of choice for assessing right ventricular (RV) dimensions and function, and pulmonary insufficiency (PI). Objectives To assess the accuracy of two-dimensional echocardiography (2D ECHO) in estimating RV function and dimensions, and the degree of PI, and compare the 2D ECHO and CMR findings. Methods We compared ECHO and CMR reports of patients whose indication for CMR had been to assess RV and PI. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results We included 51 congenital heart disease patients, with a median age of 9.3 years (7-13.3 years). There was poor agreement between 2D ECHO and CMR for classification of the RV dimension (Kappa 0.19; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.33, p 0.004) and function (Kappa 0.16; 95% CI -0.01 to +0.34; p 0.034). The RV was undersized by 2D ECHO in 43% of the cases, and RV function was overestimated by ECHO in 29% of the cases. The degree of agreement between the methods in the classification of PI was not significant (Kappa 0.014; 95% CI -0.03 to +0.06, p 0.27). 2D ECHO tended to overestimate the degree of PI. Conclusions The 2D ECHO showed a low agreement with CMR regarding the RV dimensions and function, and degree of PI. In general, ECHO underestimated the dimensions of the RV and overestimated the function of the RV and the degree of PI as compared with CMR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional , Heart Defects, Congenital , Stroke Volume , Echocardiography , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Reproducibility of Results , Ventricular Function, Right , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(4): 447-450, July-Aug. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285096

ABSTRACT

Abstract Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the skin variably, according to genetic and environmental factors. Some patients may benefit from systemic treatment with immunobiological agents, drugs that can be accompanied by several adverse effects. A case of a 58-year-old patient undergoing treatment for psoriasis with adalimumab for five years is reported. Alterations compatible with interstitial pneumonia were detected with important regression after adalimumab discontinuation. This case is relevant due to the scarcity of reports on late pulmonary adverse effect of anti-TNF treatment of psoriasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psoriasis/chemically induced , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/chemically induced , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Adalimumab/adverse effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors , Middle Aged
10.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(3): 280-286, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279331

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives To evaluate the impact of invasive mechanical ventilation associated with two serum inflammatory cytokines and clinical indicators, on the second day of life, as predictors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very low birth weight preterm infants. It was hypothesized that the use of invasive mechanical ventilation in the first hours of life is associated with biomarkers that may predict the chances of preterm infants to develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Methods Prospective cohort of 40 preterm infants with gestational age <34 weeks and birth weight <1500 g. The following were analyzed: clinical variables; types of ventilator support used (there is a higher occurrence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia when oxygen supplementation is performed by long periods of invasive mechanical ventilation); hospitalization time; quantification of two cytokines (granulocyte and macrophage colony stimulating factor [GM-CSF] and eotaxin) in blood between 36 and 48 h of life. The preterm infants were divided in two groups: with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Results The GM-CSF levels presented a significantly higher value in the bronchopulmonary dysplasia group (p = 0.002), while eotaxin presented higher levels in the group without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (p = 0.02). The use of continuous invasive mechanical ventilation was associated with increased ratios between GM-CSF and eotaxin (100% sensitivity and 80% specificity; receiver operating characteristic area = 0.9013, CI = 0.7791-1.024, p < 0.0001). Conclusions The duration of invasive mechanical ventilation performed in the first 48 h of life in the very low birth weight infants is a significant clinical predictor of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The use of continuous invasive mechanical ventilation was associated with increased ratios between GM-CSF and eotaxin, suggesting increased lung injury and consequent progression of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/diagnosis , Respiration, Artificial , Infant, Premature , Biomarkers , Prospective Studies
11.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278672

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Spontaneous lung herniation (SLH) refers to a protrusion of the lung into an irregular opening through the parietal pleura occurring at the level of the chest wall, diaphragm, or mediastinum. This is a rare entity, and only about 300 cases have been reported worldwide. The following is the first case of SLH reported in Ecuador. Case presentation: This is a 59-year-old male patient with no history of trauma or chronic respiratory diseases. He attended the emergency department due to a 3-day history of hemoptysis, moderate pain in the right hemithorax, edema, submammary hematoma, and a chest wall hernia that was evident during respiratory movements and the Valsalva maneuver. A non-contrast chest CT scan showed free fluid in the right pleural cavity, alveolar patchy infiltrate, protrusion of the medial segment of the middle lobe, and displaced fractures in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th ribs of the right hemithorax. Pneumonia, pleural effusion, and SLH with right rib fractures were diagnosed. Due to the patient's symptoms, surgical management with right thoracotomy with parasternal incision was decided to reduce the herniated lung parenchyma. Three months after surgery, follow-up imaging scans showed correct disposition of the osteosynthesis material. The patient did not present any discomfort, so follow-up and multidisciplinar^ medical management were continued. Conclusions: SLH is a very rare condition. Its diagnosis is mainly clinical, characterized by chest pain, presence of the hernial defect and sometimes a history of cough, as in this patient. The diagnosis is currently very precise, but treatment options are still under debate. However, surgical intervention is unquestionably the safest choice for achieving the best outcomes due to the rapid improvement of symptoms and the prevention of recurrences.


RESUMEN Introducción. La hernia pulmonar espontánea (HPE) es una protrusión del pulmón en una abertura anormal a través de la pleura parietal que se presenta a nivel de la pared torácica, el diafragma o el mediastino. Esta es una entidad infrecuente de la que solo se han reportado algo más de 300 casos a nivel internacional. A continuación, se presenta el primer caso de HPE reportado en Ecuador. Presentación del caso. Paciente masculino de 59 años sin antecedentes de trauma, ni patologías respiratorias crónicas, quien asistió al servicio de urgencias por cuadro clínico de 3 días de evolución consistente en hemoptisis, dolor en hemi-tórax derecho de moderada intensidad, edema, hematoma a nivel submamario y defecto herniario de la pared torácica que se evidenciaba durante los movimientos respiratorios y la maniobra de Valsalva. La tomografía simple de tórax mostró líquido libre en cavidad pleural derecha, infiltrado alveolar en parche, protrusión del segmento medial del lóbulo medio y fracturas desplazadas en la 2°, 3°, 4° y 5° costilla del hemitórax derecho. Se diagnosticó neumonía, derrame pleural y HPE con fracturas costales derechas. Se decidió dar manejo quirúrgico con toracotomía derecha con incisión paraesternal. Luego de 3 meses de postoperatorio, los controles de imagen mostraron correcta disposición de material de osteosíntesis. El paciente no presentó molestias y continuó en seguimiento y con manejo médico multidisciplinario. Conclusiones. La HPE es una patología infrecuente de diagnóstico principalmente clínico que se caracteriza por dolor torácico, presencia del defecto herniario y en algunas ocasiones antecedente de tos. El diagnóstico actualmente es muy preciso; sin embargo, su tratamiento aún se encuentra en discusión, pero sin dudas la intervención quirúrgica es la opción que aporta mejores resultados debido a la rápida mejoría de los síntomas y a que previene recidivas.

12.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 78(3): 239-244, May.-Jun. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285489

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los trastornos genéticos que afectan la homeostasis del surfactante pulmonar son una causa importante del síndrome de dificultad respiratoria en el recién nacido a término y de enfermedad pulmonar intersticial difusa en niños. El transportador ABCA3 (ATP binding cassette A3) interviene en la producción normal del surfactante que recubre el interior de las paredes alveolares y funciona como agente tensioactivo. Caso clínico: Recién nacido a término que presentó dificultad respiratoria a los 3 días de vida y requirió ventilación mecánica. Los estudios para determinar otras causas de enfermedad pulmonar fueron negativos. Se realizó una biopsia de pulmón para realizar estudios de microscopía óptica y microscopía electrónica. Esta última mostró pequeños cuerpos lamelares anómalos, además de condensaciones electrodensas periféricas, características de las mutaciones del transportador ABCA3. Se inició tratamiento con pulsos de metilprednisolona, hidroxicloroquina, azitromicina y corticoides inhalados a dosis altas, y la respuesta clínica y radiológica fue favorable durante el seguimiento. Conclusiones: La correlación de las características clínicas y de las imágenes (tomografía y microscopía electrónica) puede ser útil para el diagnóstico de la disfunción del surfactante pulmonar, especialmente en los países de bajos y medianos recursos que no disponen de estudios genéticos para determinar las diferentes mutaciones del transportador ABCA3. Este es uno de los primeros casos reportados en Perú con respuesta adecuada al tratamiento y evolución favorable durante el seguimiento.


Abstract Background: Genetic disorders affecting pulmonary surfactant homeostasis are a major cause of respiratory distress syndrome in full-term newborn and childhood interstitial lung disease. The ABCA3 transporter (ATP binding cassette A3) intervenes in the normal production of surfactant that covers the interior of alveolar walls and plays a fundamental role as a surfactant. Case report: Male term newborn who presented respiratory distress 3 days after birth and required mechanical ventilation. Studies to determine other causes of lung disease were negative. Lung biopsy was performed for the study with light microscopy and electron microscopy. Electron microscopy showed small abnormal lamellar bodies in addition to peripheral electrodense condensations characteristic of ABCA3 transporter mutation. Treatment was started with pulses of methylprednisolone, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and high-dose inhaled corticosteroids, finding a favorable clinical and radiological response to follow-up. Conclusions: Correlation of clinical characteristics and images (tomography and electron microscopy) can be useful for the diagnosis of lung surfactant dysfunction, especially in low and medium-income countries where genetic studies to determine the different ABCA3 transporter mutations are not available. This is one of the first cases reported in Peru with an adequate response to treatment and favorable evolution to follow-up.

13.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(1): 155-160, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150543

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El objetivo de este artículo fue reportar el caso de un paciente con antecedente de enfisema bulloso bilateral que le ocasionó un neumotórax persistente de difícil tratamiento. Caso clínico. Se trata de un paciente de 50 años de edad con diagnóstico de neumotórax asociado con un enfisema bulloso bilateral, en quien estaba contraindicado el tratamiento quirúrgico. El cuadro clínico comenzó con dolor en el hemitórax derecho y disnea, que se fue intensificando hasta el punto de no tolerar el decúbito. En la radiografía de tórax se observó colapso del pulmón derecho con múltiples bulas en ambos pulmones, por lo que se practicó una pleurotomía mínima alta derecha. La evolución del paciente no fue favorable por persistir el neumotórax, lo cual llevó al uso de un tratamiento alternativo. Discusión. En los pacientes con neumotórax persistente por enfisema bulloso bilateral sin indicación quirúrgica, el talco es una alternativa menos invasiva para lograr una sínfisis pleural con buenos resultados, método cuya utilidad se demuestra


Introduction. The aim of this report was to present the case of a patient with a history of bilateral bullous emphysema that causes a persistent pneumothorax that was difficult to treat. Clinical case. This is a 50-year-old patient diagnosed with pneumothorax associated with bilateral bullous emphysema, in whom surgical treatment being contraindicated. The clinical picture began with pain in the right hemithorax and dyspnea, which intensified to the point of not tolerating decubitus. In the chest X-ray, collapse of the right lung was observed with multiple bullae in both lungs, therefore a right upper minimum pleurotomy was performed. The patient's evolution was not favorable due to persisting pneumothorax, which led to the use of an alternative treatment. Discussion. In patients with persistent pneumothorax due to bilateral bullous emphysema without surgical indication, talc is a less invasive alternative to achieve a pleural symphysis with good results, a method whose utility is demonstrated


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumothorax , Diagnostic Imaging , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Lung Diseases
14.
Chinese Journal of Rheumatology ; (12): 521-524, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910201

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical characters and prognosis of patients with systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis associated interstitial lung disease (SoJIA-ILD).Methods:Clinical manifestations, imaging features and prognosis were analyzed in 75 patients with SoJIA between October 2010 and December 2019 in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University.Results:Seventy-five patients with SoJIA were enrolled. Among 12 children with SoJIA-ILD, 6 were male and 6 were female. The mean age of onset was (7.9±2.6) years. All of the 12 patients had fever. Ten patients had arthritis which mainly occurred in large joints. The incidence of arthritis was knee, hip and shoulder from high to low. Two patients had no joint involvement at the onset of the disease and had no joint symptoms during the follow-up. Nine patients (75%) had fever, rash and arthritis at the same time. The clinical features of ILD were mostly nonspecific, including cough in 8 cases (75%), shortness of breath in 7 cases (58%), chest pain in 3 cases (25%), velcro sound in 4 cases (33%) and pulmonary hypertension in 1 case (8%). Inflammatory indicators were all signifi-cantly elevated, among which was CRP (235±112) mg/L, ESR (39±25) mm/1 h, serum ferritin (SF) (1 312±384) ng/ml and serum amyloid A (SAA) (212±101) mg/L. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest presented as reticular or line shadows in 12 patients, consolidation in 7 patients, ground interlobular septal thickening in 5 patients, glass opacity in 4 patients and honeycomb lung in 1 patient. ILD occurred in 4 cases (33%) in the early stage of SoJIA (disease course ≤6 months), and 8 cases (67%) in the medium and late stages of the disease course (>6 months), but all appeared in the active status of SoJIA. All of 12 patients received glucocorticoids therapy, 11 patients received high dose of glucocorticoid (>1 mg·kg -1·d -1) and 2 pa-tients received intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy. All of 12 patients were treated with glucocorti-coids combined with immunosuppressant or disease modifying antirheumatic drugs and 5 patients needed dual therapy or triple therapy. One case had been treated with biological agents before the occurrence of lung injury and the other 11 cases had not used biological agents before. After the diagnosis of SoJIA complicated with ILD, 4 cases were treated with tocilizumab. Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) was found in 7 cases and 25% had MAS for two times or more. Ten patients had partial remission or complete remission and 2 patients died of respiratory failure. Conclusion:SoJIA-ILD maybe asymptomatic at the early stage of the disease. It is associated with disease activity of SoJIA. HRCT examination is very important for early diagnosis. Patients with SoJIA-ILD have higher rate of recurrence, death and MAS. It needs to arouse the clinicians' attention.

15.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 1138-1142,1147, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909675

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis and treatment of interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are difficult, due to the complicated classification and the unknown etiology. In the scope of ILD, in addition to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), there are some diseases still progressing after active treatment, the degree of fibrosis continues to aggravate, lung function continues to deteriorate and the early mortality rate rises. Their prognosis are similar to IPF. We collectively refer to these diseases with similar progression as progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease (PF-ILD). PF-ILD is a new concept which was put forward in recent years. However, there is no clear consensus to guide the diagnosis and treatment of such diseases. This review comprehensively elaborates the definition, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and future research directions of PF-ILD, which will help us better understand and manage PF-ILD in the future.

16.
Journal of Leukemia & Lymphoma ; (12): 593-598, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907220

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the predictive value of blood routine and blood biochemical indicators for immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy-related interstitial pneumonia (IP) in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).Methods:The data of 151 newly-diagnosed DLBCL patients treated with rituximab combined with chemotherapy in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from December 2017 to October 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. According to whether IP occurred, the patients were divided into IP group and non-IP group. The patient's clinical data and baseline laboratory test results were collected. The differences in clinicopathological features and laboratory indicators between IP group and non-IP group were analyzed. In addition, the relationship between the variety of blood routine and blood biochemical indicators and the occurrence of IP was analyzed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the selected indicators to predict the occurrence of IP was drawn, and the predictive performance of each indicator was analyzed.Results:The incidence of IP was 9.3% (14/151) in DLBCL patients after receiving immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy. The lymphocyte count (LYM) in IP group at the first diagnosis was higher than that in non-IP group [1.60×10 9/L (1.40×10 9/L, 2.51×10 9/L) vs. 1.28×10 9/L (0.89×10 9/L, 1.78×10 9/L), U=-2.194, P=0.028], but there was no significant difference in the levels of platelet count, neutrophil count, monocyte count, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (α-HBDH), serum albumin (ALB) and the proportion of patients with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) between the two groups (all P > 0.05). Compared with the laboratory indicators in non-IP group before the 4th cycle of treatment, LYM and ALB in IP group were significantly reduced at IP onset [0.72×10 9/L (0.46×10 9/L, 0.92×10 9/L) vs. 0.93×10 9/L (0.71×10 9/L, 1.15×10 9/L), 32.9 g/L (28.6 g/L, 34.9 g/L) vs. 40.3 g/L (36.1 g/L, 43.1 g/L)], but LDH and α-HBDH increased [332 U/L (255 U/L, 396 U/L) vs. 233 U/L (200 U/L, 286 U/L), 277 U/L (206 U/L, 315 U/L) vs. 189 U/L (159 U/L, 229 U/L)], and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). The proportion of patients with elevated CRP in IP group was high than that in non-IP group [100.0% (14/14) vs. 56.9% (78/137), P=0.001]. The area under ROC curve of LYM, ALB, LDH and α-HBDH alone for predicting the occurrence of IP was 0.668, 0.820, 0.789 and 0.802. The best cut-off values of ALB, LDH and α-HBDH was 34.6 g/L, 241 U/L and 199 U/L. ALB had the highest sensitivity for predicting the occurrence of IP (81.8%). The areas under ROC curve of ALB+LDH, ALB+α-HBDH, LDH+α-HBDH, ALB+LDH+α-HBDH for predicting the occurrence of IP was 0.850, 0.844, 0.777 and 0.851, respectively. LDH+α-HBDH had the highest predictive sensitivity (92.9%), but the specificity was low (53.3%). The prediction sensitivity (both 78.6%) and specificity (both 86.1%) of ALB+LDH and ALB+LDH+α-HBDH were high. Conclusions:DLBCL patients are at risk of IP during immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy. The increased LYM at initial diagnosis is a risk factor for the occurrence of IP. The variety of LYM, ALB, LDH, α-HBDH and CRP during the treatment may be related to the occurrence of IP. Among them, ALB, LDH and α-HBDH have important predictive values for the occurrence of IP.

17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3905-3914, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921475

ABSTRACT

Microfluidic chip technology integrates the sample preparation, reaction, separation and detection on a chip. It consists a network of microchannels, which controls the whole system through fluid. With the advantages of portability, high throughput, and the ability to simulate the microenvironment in vivo, it has a broad application prospect in the research of disease diagnosis, pathogenesis and drug screening. Pulmonary inflammatory disease is a common disease usually caused by bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Early pneumonia is often difficult to diagnose due to lack of obvious respiratory symptoms or the symptoms are mostly atypical, but the disease progresses rapidly. Recently, microfluidic chip technology has been increasingly used to the study of pulmonary inflammatory diseases. In particular, it has been used to develop a "lung-on-a-chip" model, which can reproduce the key structure, function and mechanical properties of human alveolar capillary interface (i.e., the basic functional unit of a living lung), and well simulate the alveoli in vitro. Compared with the cell and animal models, this multifunctional micro experimental platform has great advantages. This article summarizes the advances of using microfluidic chips for the research and diagnosis of pulmonary inflammatory diseases, with the aim to provide new ideas for researchers in this area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Lung , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques , Microfluidics
18.
Cancer Research and Clinic ; (6): 527-532, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912919

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the occurrence and risk factors of interstitial pneumonia (IP) in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) after the treatment of CHOP-like regimens containing liposomal doxorubicin.Methods:The clinical data of 145 newly diagnosed and newly treated DLBCL patients who were admitted to the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from January 2013 to June 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, of which 73 cases were treated with RCDOP regimen containing liposomal doxorubicin, and 72 cases were treated with RCHOP regimen. The incidence of IP was compared between the two groups, and the risk factors of IP were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression.Results:In 145 patients, 34 patients (23.4%) developed IP; most cases of IP occurred during 3 to 5 cycles of chemotherapy, accounting for 79.4% (27/34); when IP occurred, the median cycles of chemotherapy was 4 cycles. The incidence of IP in RCDOP regimen group and RCHOP regimen group were 31.5% (23/73) and 15.3% (11/72), and the difference was statistically significant ( χ2 = 5.319, P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the application of liposomal doxorubicin ( OR = 2.416, 95% CI 1.059-5.509, P = 0.036) and age ≥60 years old ( OR = 2.505, 95% CI 1.127-5.567, P = 0.024) were independent risk factors for the occurrence of IP. Conclusions:The application of liposomal doxorubicin is a risk factor for the occurrence of IP in DLBCL patients. The prevention and monitoring of IP should be strengthened after 4 cycles of treatment with RCDOP regimen, especially for patient ≥ 60 years of age.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911430

ABSTRACT

To investigate the predictive value of [ 18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission computed tomography(PET)/CT for disease progression in patients with dermatomyositis (DM) and interstitial lung diseases (ILD). Sixty-seven DM patients who underwent [ 18F] FDG-PET/CT imaging were retrospectively analyzed from January 2012 to September 2017 at PLA General Hospital. Their clinical manifestations and imaging characteristics were recorded. Compared with those chronically progressed (C-ILD), patients with rapid progression (RP-ILD) had significantly higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and standardized uptake value (SUV) in lungs ( P<0.05). In patients with RP-ILD, SUV in lungs was positively correlated with age, disease course, and ESR. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested that when lung SUV cut off value was 2.25, the sensitivity and specificity to predict disease progression was 77.8% and 72.8%, respectively. Old age, longer disease course, low creatine kinase level, higher ESR, and high SUV are prognostic factors for DM-associated ILD.

20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2565-2584, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888872

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary administration route has been extensively exploited for the treatment of local lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and respiratory infections, and systemic diseases such as diabetes. Most inhaled medicines could be cleared rapidly from the lungs and their therapeutic effects are transit. The inhaled medicines with extended pulmonary exposure may not only improve the patient compliance by reducing the frequency of drug administration, but also enhance the clinical benefits to the patients with improved therapeutic outcomes. This article systematically reviews the physical and chemical strategies to extend the pulmonary exposure of the inhaled medicines. It starts with an introduction of various physiological and pathophysiological barriers for designing inhaled medicines with extended lung exposure, which is followed by recent advances in various strategies to overcome these barriers. Finally, the applications of the inhaled medicines with extended lung exposure for the treatment of various diseases and the safety concerns associated to various strategies to extend the pulmonary exposure of the inhaled medicines are summarized.

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