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1.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 303-313, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364958

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine independent predictors of inguinal lymph node (ILN) metastasis in patients with penile cancer. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed all patients with penile cancer who underwent surgery at our medical center in the last ten years (n=157). Using univariate and multivariate logistic-regression models, we assessed associations with age, medical-history, phimosis, onset-time, number and maximum diameter of involved ILNs measured by imaging, pathological T stage, degree of tumor differentiation and/or cornification, lymphatic vascular infiltration (LVI), nerve infiltration, and ILN metastases. Interaction and stratified analyses were used to assess age, phimosis, onset time, number of ILNs, cornification, and nerve infiltration. Results: A total of 110 patients were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were significantly correlated with ILN metastasis: maximum diameter of enlarged ILNs, T stage, pathological differentiation, and LVI. Among patients with a maximum ILN diameter ≥1.5cm, 50% had lymph node metastasis whereas 30.6% patients with a maximum ILN diameter <1.5cm showed LNM. Among 44 patients with stage Ta/T1, 10 showed ILN metastases, while 47.0% patients with stage T2 showed ILN metastases. Among 40 patients with highly differentiated penile-cancer, eight showed ILN metastasis, while 47.1% patients with low-to-middle differentiation showed ILN metastases. The rate of LNM was 33.3% in the LVI-free group and 64.3% in the LVI group. Conclusion: Our single-center results suggested that maximum ILN diameter, pathological T stage, pathological differentiation, and LVI were independent risk factors for ILN metastases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Penile Neoplasms/surgery , Penile Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936084

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a neural network model for predicting lymph node metastasis in patients with stage II-III gastric cancer. Methods: Case inclusion criteria: (1) gastric adenocarcinoma diagnosed by pathology as stage II-III (the 8th edition of AJCC staging); (2) no distant metastasis of liver, lung and abdominal cavity in preoperative chest film, abdominal ultrasound and upper abdominal CT; (3) undergoing R0 resection. Case exclusion criteria: (1) receiving preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy; (2) incomplete clinical data; (3) gastric stump cancer.Clinicopathological data of 1231 patients with stage II-III gastric cancer who underwent radical surgery at the Fujian Medical University Union Hospital from January 2010 to August 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 1035 patients with lymph node metastasis were confirmed after operation, and 196 patients had no lymph node metastasis. According to the postoperative pathologic staging. 416 patients (33.8%) were stage Ⅱ and 815 patients (66.2%) were stage III. Patients were randomly divided into training group (861/1231, 69.9%) and validation group (370/1231, 30.1%) to establish an artificial neural network model (N+-ANN) for the prediction of lymph node metastasis. Firstly, the Logistic univariate analysis method was used to retrospectively analyze the case samples of the training group, screen the variables affecting lymph node metastasis, determine the variable items of the input point of the artificial neural network, and then the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) to train N+-ANN. The input layer of N+-ANN was composed of the variables screened by Logistic univariate analysis. Artificial intelligence analyzed the status of lymph node metastasis according to the input data and compared it with the real value. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by drawing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and obtaining the area under the curve (AUC). The ability of N+-ANN was evaluated by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, negative predictive values, and AUC values. Results: There were no significant differences in baseline data between the training group and validation group (all P>0.05). Univariate analysis of the training group showed that preoperative platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), preoperative systemic immune inflammation index (SII), tumor size, clinical N (cN) stage were closely related to postoperative lymph node metastasis. The N+-ANN was constructed based on the above variables as the input layer variables. In the training group, the accuracy of N+-ANN for predicting postoperative lymph node metastasis was 88.4% (761/861), the sensitivity was 98.9% (717/725), the specificity was 32.4% (44/136), the positive predictive value was 88.6% (717/809), the negative predictive value was 84.6% (44/52), and the AUC value was 0.748 (95%CI: 0.717-0.776). In the validation group, N+-ANN had a prediction accuracy of 88.4% (327/370) with a sensitivity of 99.7% (309/310), specificity of 30.0% (18/60), positive predictive value of 88.0% (309/351), negative predictive value of 94.7% (18/19), and an AUC of 0.717 (95%CI:0.668-0.763). According to the individualized lymph node metastasis probability output by N+-ANN, the cut-off values of 0-50%, >50%-75%, >75%-90% and >90%-100% were applied and patients were divided into N0 group, N1 group, N2 group and N3 group. The overall prediction accuracy of N+-ANN for pN staging in the training group and the validation group was 53.7% and 54.1% respectively, while the overall prediction accuracy of cN staging for pN staging in the training group and the validation group was 30.1% and 33.2% respectively, indicating that N+-ANN had a better prediction than cN stage. Conclusions: The N+-ANN constructed in this study can accurately predict postoperative lymph node metastasis in patients with stage Ⅱ-Ⅲ gastric cancer. The N+-ANN based on individualized lymph node metastasis probability has better accurate prediction for pN staging as compared to cN staging.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging , Neural Networks, Computer , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery
3.
Cancer Research and Clinic ; (6): 137-141, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934645

ABSTRACT

Objective:To systematically evaluate the diagnostic value of fine-needle aspiration washout fluid for measuring thyroglobulin (FNA-Tg) and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in cervical lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.Methods:Chinese Journal Full-Text Database, Wanfang Database, VIP Chinese Science and Technology Journal Database and other databases from January 2016 to December 2020 were retrieved. And then diagnostic trials from the databases regarding the comparison of FNA-Tg and FNAC in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma with neck lymph node metastasis based on the histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard were included. The literatures were screened out according to the diagnostic test inclusion criteria recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration Screening and Diagnostic Test Methods Group; and then the quality of the included literatures was evaluated and feature information was extracted. Review Manager 5.0 and MetaDiSc software were used to conduct Meta analysis, and a summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve of FNAC and FNA-Tg in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was drawn to calculate the area under the curve and to judge the diagnostic efficacy.Results:A total of 19 articles and 2 792 cervical lymph nodes were finally included. The sensitivity of FNAC and FNA-Tg in the diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma was 0.80 (95% CI 0.78-0.81) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.91-0.93), respectively; the specificity was 0.93 (95% CI 0.92-0.95) and 0.91(95% CI 0.89-0.93); the diagnostic odds ratio was 51.55 (95% CI 38.61-68.81) and 110.03 (95% CI 82.18-147.32), respectively; the areas under the SROC curve was 0.900 and 0.968, respectively. Conclusions:The accuracy of FNA-Tg in the diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma is higher than that of FNAC. FNA-Tg can be used as an important diagnosis supplement to FNAC and it can be widely used in clinical practice.

4.
Cancer Research and Clinic ; (6): 92-96, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934635

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the predictive effect of intraoperative selective lymph node frozen pathological examination on central lymph node metastasis in thyroid papillary carcinoma (PTC).Methods:A total of 721 PTC patients who underwent primary radical thyroidectomy and central lymph node dissection in Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University from January 2015 to June 2019 were selected. All patients underwent intraoperative selective lymph node frozen pathological examination. According to the paraffin section pathological diagnosis results, there were 449 cases of thyroid micropapillary carcinoma (PTMC) and 272 cases of non-PTMC. The association of the frozen pathological examination results of intraoperative prelaryngeal lymph nodes, anterior tracheal lymph nodes and paratracheal lymph nodes with the pathological results of postoperative central lymph nodes was analyzed in all patients and those with central lymph node positive confirmed by postoperative pathological examination in different groups stratified by tumor long diameter, including 192 cases in PTMC group, 142 cases in long diameter >1 cm and <2 cm group and 55 cases in long diameter ≥2 cm group; postoperative paraffin pathological results were treated as the gold standard. The sensitivity and false negative rate of intraoperative frozen pathological examination in the diagnosis of central lymph node metastasis were calculated.Results:There were 42.8% (192/449) and 72.4% (197/272) of PTMC patients and non-PTMC patients with central lymph node metastasis, respectively. Among 192 PTMC patients with central lymph node metastasis, the sensitivity of prelaryngeal lymph nodes, paratracheal lymph nodes and anterior tracheal lymph nodes was 28.1% (47/167), 61.4% (70/114) and 53.8% (91/169), respectively based on the intraoperative frozen pathological diagnosis. The sensitivity and false negative rate of intraoperative frozen pathological examination in the diagnosis of central lymph node metastasis was 72.4% (139/192) and 27.6% (53/192), respectively. Among 197 non-PTMC patients with central lymph node metastasis, the sensitivity of prelaryngeal lymph nodes, paratracheal lymph nodes and anterior tracheal lymph nodes was 49.7% (82/165), 51.6% (96/186) and 64.7% (112/173), respectively based on the intraoperative frozen pathological results. The sensitivity and false negative rate of intraoperative frozen pathological examination in the diagnosis of central lymph node metastasis was 84.8% (167/197) and 15.2% (30/197), respectively. The sensitivity of intraoperative lymph node frozen pathological results in the diagnosis of central lymph node metastasis for patients with thyroid capsule involvement in PTMC group, long diameter > 1 cm and < 2 cm group and long diameter ≥ 2 cm group was 81.7% (116/142), 81.7% (103/126) and 92.2% (47/51), respectively.Conclusions:Cervical central lymph node metastasis of PTC is common. Intraoperative frozen pathological examination of prelaryngeal lymph nodes, anterior tracheal lymph nodes and paratracheal lymph nodes can effectively predict whether the central lymph nodes are involved, and this hint is more obvious when the tumor long diameter is more than 2 cm and the thyroid capsule is involved.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933632

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect of tumor deposit (TD) on the prognosis of patients with stage Ⅲ colon cancer after radical resection.Methods:The clinicopathological data of patients with stage Ⅲ colon cancer after radical surgery at the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital from Jan to Dec 2015 were analyzed collected. Clinicopathological characteristics such as tumor location, degree of differentiation, mismatch repair status, lymphatic and venous invasion, and preoperative CEA and CA19-9 levels were used to study the effect of TD on the postoperative survival of patients.Results:Among the 155 patients with stage Ⅲ colon cancer, 37 (23.9%) had tumor deposits. The incidence of tumor deposits was higher in patients with intravascular tumor thrombus and preoperative serum CA19-9 elevation ( χ2=9.567, P=0.002; χ2=11.561, P=0.003); Patients with tumor deposits had worse overall survival and disease-free survival than those without cancer nodules (OS: P=0.029, DFS: P=0.025). Multivariate COX analysis found that tumor deposit was an independent risk factor for postoperative overall survival and disease-free survival ( HR=1.990, 95% CI: 1.032-3.835, P=0.040; HR=2.416, 95% CI : 1.205-3.820, P=0.009). Conclusions:Tumor deposit is an independent risk factor affecting postoperative overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with stage Ⅲ colon cancer. For patients with lymph node metastasis, incorporating TD into TNM staging can more accurately predict the postoperative prognosis.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933631

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the risk factors of lymph node metastasis (LNM) in early gastric cancer (ECG), and establish a risk-prediction model based on LNM.Method:Four hundred and twenty-seven EGC patients undergoing curative radical gastrectomy were enrolled in this study. The risk factors for LNM of ECG were analyzed with Logistic regression. LNM risk was stratified and risk-predicting model was established. The risk-predicting model was measured by area under ROC curve. According to the same standard, clinical data of 133 patients with EGC who underwent radical surgery were selected for external verification of the model.Results:The frequency of LNM was 13.3% (32/427) in EGC patients. The LNM ratio of intramucosal carcinoma and submucosal carcinoma was 1.3% (3/237), 15.3% (29/190) respectively. Ulcer presence, tumor size >2 cm, undifferentiated tumor, submucosal invasion, neural invasion, and vascular tumor thrombus were significantly associated with LNM in EGC patients ( χ2=3.408, 16.379, 4.808, 29.804, 25.305, 47.120, respectively P<0.05). Multivariate analysis suggested that ulcer presence, tumor size >2 cm, depth of invasion, neural invasion, and vascular tumor thrombus were independent predictors of LNM in EGC patients, ( OR=0.326, 2.924, 11.824, 13.047, 7.756, respectively P<0.05). LNM predicting model is established, P=e

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933630

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate CT and or MRI imaging in the diagnosis of lateral lymph node metastasis in patients of middle and low rectal cancer.Methods:In this study, 112 lateral lymph nodes were harvested in 79 patients with middle and low rectal cancer. The relationship between the preoperative imaging features of the lateral lymph nodes and the postoperative pathology was evaluated.Result:Thirty-eight cases (48%) were pathologically confirmed to have lateral lymph node metastasis. The diameter of metastasis-positive lateral lymph nodes was significantly larger than that of metastasis-negative lateral lymph nodes ( P<0.01). Multivariate analysis of clinical features and imaging features found that, tumors poorly differentiated, mucinous adenocarcinoma, signet ring cell carcinoma ( P=0.006), and the largest short diameter of the lateral lymph node ≥7 mm ( P=0.024), uneven density or signal ( P=0.022) were independent risk factors for lateral lymph node metastasis. Conclusion:Poor tumor differentiation, lateral lymph node maximum short diameter ≥7 mm, density or signal unevenness are independent risk factors for lateral lymph node metastasis in middle and low rectal carcinoma.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932739

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the impact of number and location of metastatic lymph nodes on prognosis of patients after radical resection for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC).Methods:A retrospective study was conducted on 105 patients who underwent radical resection and lymphadenectomy for ICC at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University from January 2010 to December 2020. There were 49 males and 56 females, with age of (58±10) years old. These patients were divided into 2 groups using the TNM staging (8th edition) into the N0 stage group ( n=62) and N1 stage group ( n=43). Using the NMLN staging, those with 0, 1-2, and >3 number of metastatic lymph nodes (NMLN) were divided into 3 groups: the stage 0 group ( n=62), stage 1 group ( n=24), and stage 2 group ( n=19). Of the 43 patients with lymph node metastasis, they were divided into 2 groups according to whether the lymph node metastasis was limited to the first lymph node station: the first station metastasis group ( n=11) and the non-first station metastasis group ( n=32). The general data, extent of lymph node dissection, pathological examinations, and postoperative survival outcomes of these patients were collected. Determination of risk factors for prognosis of ICC after radical resection was carried out. Results:The median number of lymph node harvested, or the detection of N0 and N1 staging were 6 (3, 8) and 6 (3, 10), respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups ( Z=-1.10, P>0.05). Overall survival of patients in the N0 stage group was better than the N1 stage group (32.0 vs. 9.0 months, χ 2=23.99, P<0.001). The median survival times of patients in the stage 0, stage 1 and stage 2 groups were 32.0, 14.0 and 6.0 months, respectively. There was a significant difference in overall survival among the 3 groups (χ 2=32.18, P<0.001). The time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves showed that NMLN staging had better prognostic predictive ability than the N staging. The median survival times of the first station metastasis group and the non-first station metastasis group were 18.0 and 7.0 months, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (χ 2=2.21, P>0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor carbohydrate antigen 125>35.0 U/ml ( HR=4.297, 95% CI:2.418-7.634), hepatolithiasis ( HR=2.713, 95% CI:1.499-4.911), T4 staging ( HR=2.934, 95% CI:1.478-5.825), NMLN stage 1 ( HR=2.759, 95% CI:1.500-5.077) and NMLN stage 2 ( HR=7.376, 95% CI:3.553-15.312) were independent risk factors affecting prognosis of ICC after radical resection ( P<0.05). Conclusion:Lymph node metastasis was an important poor prognostic risk factor after radical resection of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The prognosis of ICC patients was related to the NMLN, but it was not related to the location of metastatic lymph nodes.

9.
Chinese Journal of Radiology ; (12): 279-285, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932508

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the value of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI) parameters combined with T 2WI texture analysis of primary lesions of rectal adenocarcinoma in preoperative prediction of lymph node metastasis with short diameter ≤9 mm. Methods:Retrospective analysis was performed on 115 cases of rectal adenocarcinoma confirmed by surgical pathology in Affiliated Provincial Hospital of Anhui Medical University from June 2015 to October 2020. All patients underwent total mesorectal resection and received conventional rectal MRI and IVIM-DWI scan before surgery. According to the pathological results of lymph node, the patients were divided into lymph node metastatic group ( n=44) and non-metastatic group ( n=71). IVIM-DWI parameters of primary rectal adenocarcinoma were measured including apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo diffusion coefficient (D *) and perfusion fraction (f). The region of interest (ROI) of the whole lesion of rectal adenocarcinoma was delineated on axial T 2WI; then the ROIs were imported into GE Analysis Kit software to extract 3D texture feature. The differences of IVIM-DWI parameters and texture feature parameters were compared between two groups using independent sample t test or Mann-Whitney U test. The optimal texture feature parameters with independent predictive function were screened by multivariate logistic regression. Then the texture feature model and combined model based IVIM-DWI and texture feature parameters were established. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the performances of IVIM-DWI, texture feature parameters, texture feature model and combined model in predicting lymph node metastasis in patients with rectal adenocarcinoma. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) were compared with DeLong test. Results:Among all the IVIM-DWI parameters, the D * and f values of primary rectal adenocarcinoma were significantly different between the lymph node metastasis group and the non-lymph node metastasis group ( Z=3.39, P=0.001, Z=-3.06, P=0.002); no statistical significance was found in the ADC and D values between two groups (both P>0.05). A total of 828 texture feature parameters were obtained based on T 2WI of primary lesion of rectal adenocarcinoma, among which 3 optimal texture feature parameters were selected, including firstorder_Skewness, shape_Sphericity and glcm_Idn. The ROC curve results showed that the AUC of D * and f were 0.689 and 0.670, respectively. The AUC of 3 texture feature parameters were 0.651, 0.628, 0.631, respectively. The AUC of texture feature model and the combined model were 0.775 and 0.803. The AUC of combined model was larger than D *, f and the three texture feature parameters (all P<0.05). Conclusion:IVIM-DWI parameters combined with T 2WI texture feature parameters in primary lesion of rectal adenocarcinoma show good diagnostic efficacy in preoperative prediction of lymph node metastasis with short diameter≤9 mm.

10.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 401-405,410, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932078

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the predictive value of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), squamous cell carcinoma-associated antigen (SCCAg) and miRNA let-7a in lymph node metastasis and postoperative recurrence in patients with laryngeal cancer.Methods:A total of 82 patients with laryngeal cancer in the Second Central Hospital of Baoding from November 2017 to October 2019 were selected as the research subjects, including 18 cases of lymph node metastasis (metastasis group) and 64 cases of non metastasis (non metastasis group). The blood routine was tested before operation, and the baseline data, serum VEGF, SCCAg and miRNA let-7a levels were compared between the two groups. Logistic regression was used to analyze the related influencing factors of lymph node metastasis in patients with laryngeal cancer. The correlation between serum VEGF, SCCAg, miRNA let-7a levels and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC)curve was used to analyze the value of each index and the combined diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in patients with laryngeal cancer. After 1 year of follow-up, the serum VEGF, SCCAg and miRNA let-7a levels of patients with or without recurrent laryngeal cancer were compared. ROC curve was used to evaluate the value of VEGF, SCCAg, and miRNA let-7a in predicting the recurrence of laryngeal cancer.Results:There were statistically significant differences in tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, degree of infiltration, degree of differentiation, serum VEGF, SCCAg, and miRNA let-7a levels between the metastasis group and non metastasis group (all P<0.05). Serum VEGF, SCCAg, miRNA let-7a levels in patients with laryngeal cancer were related to TNM stage, degree of infiltration and degree of differentiation (all P<0.05). The combined diagnosis of serum VEGF, SCCAg and miRNA let-7a levels in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in patients with laryngeal cancer showed that the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 88.89% and 70.31%, respectively. The serum VEGF and SCCAg levels of patients with recurrence after operation were higher than those without recurrence, and the level of miRNA let-7a was lower than those without recurrence (all P<0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of combined serum VEGF, SCCAg and miRNA LET-7a levels in predicting postoperative recurrence of laryngeal cancer were 72.97% and 91.11%, respectively. Conclusions:VEGF, SCCAg, miRNA let-7a in patients with laryngeal cancer have a certain correlation with clinicopathological characteristics, which can assist in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis and help clinical prediction of postoperative recurrence in patients with laryngeal cancer, and provide a reference for the formulation of clinical treatment plans.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931160

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the biological behavior of small tumor (≤1.0 cm) breast cancer with axillary lymph node metastasis as the first symptom, and to provide a powerful reference for clinical accurate treatment.Methods:The clinical, pathological and follow-up data of 60 breast cancer patients with small tumor and axillary lymph node metastasis as the first symptom admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University and the Third Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University from 2017 to 2019 were analyzed retrospectively (study group). Meanwhile, non-small tumor with negative lymph node (control group A), non-small tumor with positive lymph node (control group B) and small tumor with negative lymph node (control group C) were included as control groups. Selected estrogen receptor(ER), progesterone receptor(PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2(Her-2) and Ki67 to compare and analyze the difference between primary lesions and axillary lymph node metastasis, and made a comprehensive analysis with the follow-up data.Results:There were no statistically significant differences in the four indexes in primary lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes between the study group and the control group ( P>0.05). The expression of HER-2 in control group B, study group, control group C, control group A showed a decreasing trend. In the study group, there were 19 cases with >3 axillary lymph node metastasis, the positive rate of HER-2 was 11/19, and 37 cases with 3 lymph node metastasis, the positive rate of HER-2 was 21.6%(8/37), the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the expression of ER, PR and Ki67 ( P>0.05). In control group B, there was no significant difference between the groups with >3 axillary lymph node metastasis and 3 groups ( P>0.05). Combined with the follow-up data, in the study group with >3 lymph node metastasis, there were 4 cases with distant metastasis and Ki67 expression rate was 4/4, while there were 13 cases with no distant metastasis and Ki67 expression rate was 5/13, the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05). Conclusions:The expressions of ER, PR, Her-2 and Ki67 in primary breast cancer including small tumor and axillary lymph node metastasis are consistent. In most cases, the overall condition can be evaluated by biological indicators of primary disease, but some patients do have inconsistencies, which should arouse the attention of clinicians for comprehensive condition evaluation. Her-2 positive expression seems to be related to axillary lymph node metastasis as a whole, especially in small tumor breast cancer with T≤1.0 cm. For patients with axillary lymph node metastasis and invasive ductal carcinoma with primary lesion ≤1.0 cm, the high expression of Ki67 seems to indicate that distant metastasis is more likely to occur in the longer term.

12.
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 310-313,C1, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930015

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of rectal neuroendocrine tumor with lymphatic metastasis.Method:There were 153 case who were diagnosed with RNET, among them, there were 10 patients(6.5%) with lymphatic metastasis in Affiliated Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology from January 2012 to December 2020, including 4 males and 6 females, aged from 32 to 71 years old, and the median age was 56.5 years.Results:Of the 10 patients, 3 had tumors < 1 cm in diameter, 4 had 1 to 2 cm, and 3 had > 2 cm. Preoperative CT examination was performed in 10 patients, of which 9 suggested lymphatic metastasis; preoperative MRI examination was performed in 7 patients, of which 6 suggested lymphatic metastasis. All patients were received radical resection, in which Miles operation was performed in 2 cases, Dixon operation in 6 cases, and additional Dixon operation after endoscopic submucosal dissection in 2 cases.All patients were followed up for 51 months (ranged from 14 to 118 months). Nine patients had no recurrence or metastasis, and one patient had abdominal metastasis 40 months after surgery and died after 31 months of comprehensive treatment.Conclusions:Lymphatic metastasis is rare in rectal neuroendocrine tumor. Imaging examination has important reference value for judging the status of lymphatic metastasis. For rectal neuroendocrine tumor with lymphatic metastasis, radical resection is effective.

13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1108-1119, Nov.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340043

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Reviewing surgical procedures using fasciocutaneous and myocutaneous flaps for inguinal reconstruction after lymphadenectomy in metastatic penile cancer. Material and Methods: We reviewed the current literature of the Pubmed database according to PRISMA guidelines. The search terms used were "advanced penile cancer", "groin reconstruction", and "inguinal reconstruction", both alone and in combination. The bibliographic references used in the selected articles were also analyzed to include recent articles into our research. Results: A total of 54 studies were included in this review. About one third of penile cancers are diagnosed with locally advanced disease, often presenting with large lymph node involvement. Defects in the inguinal region resulting from the treatment of metastatic penile cancer are challenging for the surgeon and cause high patient morbidity, rendering primary closure unfeasible. Several fasciocutaneous and myocutaneous flaps of the abdomen and thigh can be used for the reconstruction of the inguinal region, transferring tissue to the affected area, and enabling tensionless closure. Conclusions: The reconstruction of defects in the inguinal region with the aid of flaps allows for faster postoperative recovery and reduces the risk of complications. Thus, the patient will be able to undergo potential necessary adjuvant treatments sooner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Penile Neoplasms/surgery , Penis/surgery , Surgical Flaps , Inguinal Canal/surgery , Lymph Node Excision , Lymphatic Metastasis
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(5): 943-956, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286797

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis is a rare disease in developed countries but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A crucial prognostic factor is the presence of inguinal lymph node metastases (ILNM) at the time of diagnosis. At least 25% of cases have micrometastases at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, we performed a literature review of studies evaluating factors, both clinical and pathological, predictive of lymph node metastases in penile SCC. Materials and methods: Studies were identified using PubMed and search terms included the following: penile cancer, penile tumor, penile neoplasm, penile squamous cell carcinoma, inguinal lymph node metastasis, lymph node metastases, nodal metastasis, inguinal node metastasis, inguinal lymph node involvement, predictors, and predictive factor. The number of patients and predictive factors were identified for each study based on OR, HR, or RR in multivariate analyses, as well as their respective significance values. These were compiled to generate a single body of evidence supportive of factors predictive of ILNM in penile SCC. Results: We identified 31 studies, both original articles and meta-analyses, which identified factors predictive of metastases in penile SCC. The following clinical factors were predictive of ILNM in penile SCC: lymphovascular invasion (LVI), increased grade, increased stage (both clinical and pathological), infiltrative and reticular invasion, increased depth of invasion, perineural invasion, and younger patient age at diagnosis. Biochemically, overexpression of p53, SOD2, Ki-67, and ID1 were associated with spread of SCC to inguinal lymph nodes. Diffuse PD-L1 expression, increased SCC-Ag expression, increased NLR, and CRP >20 were also associated with increased ILNM. Conclusions: A multitude of factors are associated with metastasis of SCC of the penis to inguinal lymph nodes, which is associated with poor clinical outcomes. The above factors, most strongly LVI, grade, and node positivity, may be considered when constructing a nomogram to risk-stratify patients and determine eligibility for prophylactic inguinal lymphadenectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Penile Neoplasms/surgery , Prognosis , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis
15.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(4): 389-395, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285703

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Regional metastases of cutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinoma occur in approximately 5 % of cases, being the most important prognostic factor in survival, currently with no distinction between parotid and neck metastasis. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic features among patients with head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma exhibiting regional metastasis. Methods A retrospective analysis of patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma who underwent parotidectomy and/or neck dissection from 2011 to 2018 at a single institution tertiary center was performed. Patient demographics, clinical, surgical and pathological information, adjuvant treatments, and outcome at last follow-up were collected. Outcomes included disease recurrence and death due to the disease. Prognostic value of clinic pathological features associated with disease-specific survival was obtained. Results Thirty-eight cases of head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with parotid and/or neck metastasis were identified. Overall, 18 (47.3 %) patients showed parotid metastasis alone, 12 (31.5 %) exhibited neck metastasis alone and 8 (21.0 %) had both. A primary tumor in the parotid zone (Hazard Ratio ‒ HR = 5.53; p = 0.02) was associated with improved disease-specific survival. Poorer disease-specific survival was observed in patients with higher primary tumor diameter (HR = 1.54; p = 0.002), higher depth of invasion (HR = 2.89; p = 0.02), invasion beyond the subcutaneous fat (HR = 5.05; p = 0.002), neck metastasis at first presentation (HR = 8.74; p < 0.001), number of positive lymph nodes (HR = 1.25; p = 0.004), and higher TNM stages (HR = 7.13; p = 0.009). Patients presenting with isolated parotid metastasis during all follow-ups had better disease-specific survival than those with neck metastasis or both (HR = 3.12; p = 0.02). Conclusion Head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with parotid lymph node metastasis demonstrated better outcomes than cases with neck metastasis.


Resumo Introdução As metástases regionais do carcinoma espinocelular cutâneo de cabeça e pescoço ocorrem em aproximadamente 5% dos casos, sendo esse o fator prognóstico mais importante na sobrevida, atualmente sem distinção entre metástases de parótida e cervicais. Objetivo Avaliar as características prognósticas em pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular cutâneo de cabeça e pescoço com metástase regional. Método Foi feita uma análise retrospectiva de pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular cutâneo submetidos à parotidectomia e/ou esvaziamento cervical entre 2011 e 2018 em um único centro terciário de uma única instituição. Dados demográficos dos pacientes, informações clínicas, cirúrgicas e patológicas, tratamentos adjuvantes e desfechos no último acompanhamento foram coletados. Os desfechos incluíram recorrência e morte devido à doença. O valor prognóstico das características clínico-patológicas associadas à sobrevida específica da doença foi obtido. Resultados Foram identificados 38 casos de carcinoma espinocelular cutâneo de cabeça e pescoço com metástase de parótida e/ou pescoço. No geral, 18 (47,3%) pacientes apresentaram metástase da parótida isolada, 12 (31,5%) apresentaram metástase cervical isolada e 8 (21,0%) apresentaram ambos. Um tumor primário na região da parótida (Hazard ratio [HR] = 5,53; p = 0,02) foi associado a melhor sobrevida específica. Pior sobrevida específica foi observada em pacientes com maior diâmetro do tumor primário (HR = 1,54; p = 0,002), maior profundidade de invasão (HR = 2,89; p = 0,02), invasão além da gordura subcutânea (HR = 5,05; p = 0,002), metástase cervical na primeira apresentação (HR = 8,74; p < 0,001), conforme maior número de linfonodos positivos (HR = 1,25; p = 0,004) e estágios TNM mais elevados (HR = 7,13; p = 0,009). Os pacientes que apresentaram metástase da parótida isolada durante todo o acompanhamento apresentaram melhor sobrevida específica do que aqueles com metástase cervical ou ambos (HR = 3,12; p = 0,02). Conclusão Os casos de carcinoma espinocelular cutâneo de cabeça e pescoço com metástase intraparotídea demonstraram melhores desfechos do que aqueles com metástase cervical.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Parotid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
16.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(2): 248-256, 20210000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223908

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los microcarcinomas papilares de tiroides son tumores de hasta 10 mm en su diámetro mayor. Su tratamiento es sujeto de debate y se propone, desde seguimiento clínico, hasta intervención quirúrgica temprana. Este estudio buscó identificar factores de riesgo relacionados con compromiso ganglionar, que permitan una mejor selección de los pacientes en nuestro medio, en quienes se propone manejo quirúrgico inmediato o vigilancia activa, en consonancia con la clasificación del riesgo de progresión. Métodos. Estudio de cohorte analítica ambispectiva que incluyó pacientes con microcarcinoma papilar de tiroides llevados a tiroidectomía más vaciamiento central. Se caracterizó la población y se realizó un análisis de regresión logística multivariado para definir factores preoperatorios asociados al compromiso ganglionar. Adicionalmente, se evaluó de manera retrospectiva la eventual asignación a grupos de riesgo de progresión, según los criterios de Miyauchi, y su comportamiento respecto al estado nodal. Resultados. Se incluyeron 286 pacientes. El 48,9 % presentó compromiso ganglionar, y de estos, el 33,5 % presentó compromiso ganglionar significativo, que modificó su clasificación de riesgo de recaída. De estos últimos, el 59,5 % hubiesen sido manejados con vigilancia activa, según los criterios propuestos por Miyauchi. Se identificó que la edad menor de 55 años, los ganglios sospechosos en la ecografía y los nódulos mayores de 5 mm, se relacionan con compromiso ganglionar significativo. Discusión. El manejo quirúrgico inmediato parece ser una opción adecuada para pacientes con sospecha de compromiso ganglionar en ecografía preoperatoria, pacientes menores de 55 años y nódulos mayores de 5 mm. Es posible que los actuales criterios para definir vigilancia activa no seleccionen adecuadamente a los pacientes en nuestro medio.


Introduction. Papillary thyroid microcarcinomas are tumors up to 10 mm in greatest diameter. Its treatment is subject of debate, and it is proposed from clinical follow-up to early surgical intervention. The aim of the study was to identify risk factors related to lymph node involvement, which allow a better selection of patients in our setting, in whom immediate surgical management or active surveillance is proposed, in accordance with the classification of risk of progression.Methods. Ambispective analytic cohort study that included patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma who underwent thyroidectomy and central dissection. The population was characterized and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to define preoperative factors associated with lymph node involvement. Additionally, eventual assignment to progression risk groups, according to the Miyauchi criteria, and their nodal state were evaluated.Results. 286 patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma were included. Among them, 48.9% had lymph node disease, and 33.5% had a significant lymph node disease that increased their relapse risk classification. Of the latter, 59.5% could have had a conservative treatment, under Miyauchi's criteria. For ages < 55 years old, suspect nodes in ultrasound and nodules > 5 mm were identified as related to significant lymph node involvement.Discussion. Immediate surgical management appears to be an appropriate option for patients with suspected lymph node involvement on preoperative ultrasound, patients younger than 55 years and nodules larger than 5 mm. It is possible that the current criteria for defining active surveillance do not adequately select patients in our setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms , Neck Dissection , Carcinoma, Papillary , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Lymphatic Metastasis
17.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(2): 77-80, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283556

ABSTRACT

El carcinoma oculto de tiroides está poco reportado. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 59 años. Durante un control por hipotiroidismo se solicitó ecografía cervical, la que mostró áreas hipoecogénicas en lóbulo derecho, una formación nodular hiperecogénica circunscrita no sospechosa de 8 mm y una adenopatía cervical periglandular derecha de 20 x 12 x 8 mm con áreas quísticas y microcalcificaciones, asociadas a hipervascularización. Se solicitó punción aspirativa por aguja fina del ganglio linfático, con resultado de citología negativa para células neoplásicas. El examen microscópico es compatible con tiroiditis, por lo que no es posible descartar metástasis. Se realizó biopsia del ganglio linfático, el que se informa como metástasis ganglionar linfática de 1.3 cm, histología de carcinoma papilar variedad folicular, sin invasión extracapsular. Se realizó tiroidectomía total y disección cervical derecha. El estudio anatomopatológico reportó una tiroiditis crónica de Hashimoto con un nódulo fibroso hialinizado de 0,4 cm negativo para tumor maligno y metástasis en 4 de 28 ganglios linfáticos, sin invasión extracapsular. El tamaño de la metástasis fue de 0,3 a 0,9 cm. Posteriormente se administró 100 mci de radioyodo. Actualmente, la paciente está en buenas condiciones y mantiene controles con ecografía y tiroglobulina periódicos.


Occult thyroid carcinoma is under-reported. The case of a 59-year-old woman is presented. During a check-up for hypothyroidism, a cervical ultrasound was requested, which showed hypoechogenic areas in the right lobe, an 8 mm nonsuspicious circumscribed hyperechogenic nodular formation and a 20 x 12 x 8 mm right cervical periglandular lymphadenopathy with cystic areas and microcalcifications, associated with hypervascularisation. Fine needle aspiration of the lymph node was requested, with negative cytology results for neoplastic cells. Microscopic examination was compatible with thyroiditis, so metastasis could not be ruled out. A biopsy of the lymph node was performed, which was reported as a 1.3 cm lymph node metastasis, histology of papillary carcinoma of the follicular variety, without extracapsular invasion. Total thyroidectomy and right cervical dissection were performed. The anatomopathological study reported chronic Hashimoto's thyroiditis with a 0.4 cm hyalinised fibrous nodule negative for malignant tumour and metastases in 4 of 28 lymph nodes, without extracapsular invasion. The size of the metastasis was 0.3 to 0.9 cm. Subsequently, 100 mci of radioiodine was administered. The patient is currently in good condition and maintains regular ultrasound and thyroglobulin monitoring.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/secondary , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Lymph Nodes/pathology
18.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021335, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345354

ABSTRACT

Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix is a rare neoplasm with a low propensity for lymph node metastasis. The present case refers to an appendicular mucinous adenocarcinoma with inguinal lymph node metastasis. A 71-year-old woman underwent an appendectomy due to a clinical presentation of acute appendicitis. However, the histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed a mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix. After staging, the patient underwent a right hemicolectomy and was proposed for adjuvant chemotherapy. At the 3rd year of follow-up, inguinal lymphadenopathy was diagnosed, which biopsy confirmed inguinal node metastases from primary colorectal cancer, with areas of extracellular mucin. Restaging revealed liver and peritoneal metastasis, and the patient was proposed for palliative chemotherapy. Appendicular neoplasms, due to their rarity, represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. This clinical case depicts an unusual metastasis pathway for an unusual neoplasm.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Aged , Appendiceal Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Appendectomy , Lymphadenopathy/complications
19.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 874-880, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922140

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer ranks the first cancer-related morbidity and mortality in China. Tumor metastasis always predicts the poor prognosis for patients. Moreover, lymphatic metastasis is one of the most significant predictors of poor prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and lymphangiogenesis represents the bridge that functionally facilitates tumor lymphatic metastasis. In this review, we first discussed the molecular mechanisms of tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis and the interaction between tumor microenvironment and lymphatic endothelial cells, then, summarized the role of non-coding RNA in regulating tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis in recent frontier studies, with the aim to provide some novel insights on NSCLC-related lymphangiogenesis research, diagnosis and treatment.
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Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Disease Progression , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lymphangiogenesis , Lymphatic Metastasis , Lymphatic Vessels , Tumor Microenvironment , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911618

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the clinical, pathological features and prognosis of patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy with standard or extended lymph node dissection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.Methods:A retrospective study was performed on 158 pancreatic head cancer patients who underwent radical resection at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from Jul 2017 to Feb 2019. The clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis between the standard dissection group and the extended dissection group were compared. The relationship between the number of examined lymph nodes, positive lymph nodes, and the lymph node ratio, together with their relationship with survival were analyzed.Results:Survival analysis showed no statistical difference in survival between the standard resection group and the extended resection group ( P=0.99). There were statistical differences in gender and age composition between the two group, but no significant differences in operation time, blood loss, or postoperative complications were found. Patients with less examined lymph nodes tended to be of stage N0. examined lymph nodes is positively correlated with positive lymph nodes but is not significantly correlated with lymph node ratio. Positive lymph nodes is strongly correlated with lymph node ratio. The location of lymph node metastasis was not survival-related. Conclusions:There is no prognostic difference between standard lymph node dissection and extended lymph node dissection in pancreatic cancinoma patients after Whipple procedure.

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