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1.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 39(2): 1-9, abr.jun.2024. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1556498

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O implante de prótese mamárias é uma das cirurgias mais realizadas no mundo. Ao longo do tempo, diversos materiais foram utilizados com objetivo de reconstituir o volume mamário. Apesar das melhorias técnicas, cirúrgicas e da segurança dos implantes atuais, os pacientes são confrontados com potenciais complicações "não usuais": rupturas intracapsulares e extracapsulares, hematomas tardios e deformidade de contorno, silicone intralinfonodal ou herniação da cápsula fibrosa. A ressonância magnética (RMN) é a modalidade de imagem mais útil para investigação dessas complicações. Método: Trata-se de uma série de casos em que foram levantadas alterações ditas "não usuais", pela baixa frequência ou ausência na citação da literatura, após cirurgias de inclusão de prótese de silicone. Os dados foram coletados da experiência pessoal da clínica privada de um dos autores, na cidade de Brasília-DF, entre abril de 2015 e março de 2023. Resultados: Foram um total de 211 pacientes avaliados, e foram encontradas alterações menos frequentes nas RMN de 12 pacientes (5,68%), das quais: 5 com volumosa quantidade de líquido pericapsular, 3 com granuloma capsular, 1 seroma tardio com conteúdo hemorrágico,1 rotura intra e extracapsular, 1 nódulo junto à cápsula fibrosa do implante, 2 linfonodopatia axilar ipsilateral, 1 silicone intralinfonodal, 1 edema do músculo peitoral, 2 tumor desmoide e 1 herniação da cápsula fibrosa. Conclusão: Estima-se que existam 50 milhões de mulheres com próteses de mama no mundo. Com base nesse dado, o número de complicações ditas "não usuais" passa a ser um desafio diagnóstico para o cirurgião plástico e o radiologista.


Introduction: Breast prosthesis implantation is one of the most performed surgeries in the world. Over time, different materials were used to reconstitute breast volume. Despite technical and surgical improvements and the safety of current implants, patients are faced with potential "unusual" complications: intracapsular and extracapsular ruptures, late hematomas and contour deformity, intra-nodal silicone, or herniation of the fibrous capsule. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most useful imaging modality for investigating these complications. Method: This is a series of cases in which so-called "unusual" changes were reported, due to their low frequency or lack of mention in the literature, after surgeries to include a silicone prosthesis. The data were collected from the personal experience of one of the authors in his private clinic, in the city of Brasília-DF, between April 2015 and March 2023. Results: A total of 211 patients were evaluated, and less frequent changes were found in the MRI of 12 patients (5.68%), of which: 5 with a large amount of pericapsular fluid, 3 with capsular granuloma, 1 late seroma with hemorrhagic content, 1 intra and extracapsular rupture, 1 nodule close to the implant's fibrous capsule, 2 axillary lymph node disease ipsilateral, 1 intra-nodal silicone, 1 pectoral muscle edema, 2 desmoid tumor and 1 herniation of the fibrous capsule. Conclusion: It is estimated that there are 50 million women with breast implants in the world. Based on this data, the number of so-called "unusual" complications becomes a diagnostic challenge for the plastic surgeon and radiologist.

2.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 50(3): 319-334, May-June 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558077

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To create a nomogram to predict the absence of clinically significant prostate cancer (CSPCa) in males with non-suspicion multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) undergoing prostate biopsy (PBx). Materials and Methods: We identified consecutive patients who underwent 3T mpMRI followed by PBx for suspicion of PCa or surveillance follow-up. All patients had Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System score 1-2 (negative mpMRI). CSPCa was defined as Grade Group ≥2. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed via backward elimination. Discrimination was evaluated with area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC). Internal validation with 1,000x bootstrapping for estimating the optimism corrected AUROC. Results: Total 327 patients met inclusion criteria. The median (IQR) age and PSA density (PSAD) were 64 years (58-70) and 0.10 ng/mL2 (0.07-0.15), respectively. Biopsy history was as follows: 117 (36%) males were PBx-naive, 130 (40%) had previous negative PBx and 80 (24%) had previous positive PBx. The majority were White (65%); 6% of males self-reported Black. Overall, 44 (13%) patients were diagnosed with CSPCa on PBx. Black race, history of previous negative PBx and PSAD ≥0.15ng/mL2 were independent predictors for CSPCa on PBx and were included in the nomogram. The AUROC of the nomogram was 0.78 and the optimism corrected AUROC was 0.75. Conclusions: Our nomogram facilitates evaluating individual probability of CSPCa on PBx in males with PIRADS 1-2 mpMRI and may be used to identify those in whom PBx may be safely avoided. Black males have increased risk of CSPCa on PBx, even in the setting of PIRADS 1-2 mpMRI

3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(3): e202310167, jun. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1555016

ABSTRACT

La clorhidrorrea congénita es un trastorno genético infrecuente pero importante caracterizado por una alteración grave del balance hidroelectrolítico como resultado de un defecto en la absorción intestinal de cloruros. Los niños afectados presentan diarrea persistente, deshidratación y malnutrición; el control médico y del desarrollo son complejos. Mejorar la detección prenatal es esencial para facilitar la atención del paciente, las intervenciones tempranas y el asesoramiento genético informado. Sin embargo, a pesar de los avances de la medicina, la naturaleza compleja y la escasa frecuencia de esta entidad, constituyen un desafío para la detección prenatal. En este estudio, se reporta el caso de una embarazada donde los estudios por imágenes de resonancia magnética fetales identificaron en forma efectiva las características típicas de la clorhidrorrea congénita. Se proveen conocimientos sobre las complejidades del diagnóstico y se sugieren caminos para las estrategias de detección temprana de esta enfermedad.


Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare but significant genetic disorder characterized by severe electrolyte imbalances resulting from impaired intestinal chloride absorption. Affected children experience persistent diarrhea, dehydration, and malnutrition, complicating medical and developmental care. The enhancement of prenatal detection is crucial for improved patient management, early interventions, and informed genetic counseling. However, despite advancements in medicine, the complex nature and rarity of CCD make prenatal detection challenging. In this study, we report a fetal case where prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) effectively identified the distinctive characteristics of CCD, providing insights into the complexities of diagnosis and suggesting avenues for enhanced early detection strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Diarrhea/congenital , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/diagnosis , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Diarrhea/etiology , Genetic Counseling
4.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 39(1): 1-4, jan.mar.2024. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552843

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A recente preocupação sobre a segurança dos implantes de silicone tem levado muitas mulheres a buscarem a retirada de seus implantes, mesmo sem aparente complicação nas mamas. Por outro lado, muitos cirurgiões não se sentem confortáveis em realizar o explante por receio de que a paciente não gostará do resultado estético após a cirurgia. A ressonância nuclear magnética (RNM) é um recurso valioso para avaliação diagnóstica das mamas e pode ser usada no planejamento do explante. O objetivo é demonstrar como a análise sistematizada das imagens da ressonância magnética das mamas pode auxiliar no planejamento do explante de silicone. Método: Uma análise detalhada dos cortes axial e sagital da RNM foi feita para avaliar a quantidade de tecido em cada mama. Essas imagens foram apresentadas às pacientes durante a consulta pré-operatória para que elas pudessem perceber, com clareza, o quanto o implante influencia no tamanho de suas mamas. No mesmo momento, foram apresentadas fotos de pós-operatório de pacientes com características semelhantes para que a paciente pudesse analisar, de forma mais objetiva, se ficaria satisfeita ou não com a estética das mamas após o explante. Resultados: As pacientes demonstraram alto grau de compreensão das imagens apresentadas e se mostraram satisfeitas com esta análise detalhada de expectativa de resultado. Conclusão: A comparação das imagens da RNM das mamas e das imagens de resultados de pós-operatório confere maior objetividade ao diálogo pré-operatório, favorecendo a compreensão do resultado esperado e trazendo maior clareza à decisão pelo explante.


Introduction: Recent concerns about the safety of silicone implants have led many women to seek the removal of their implants, even without apparent breast complications. On the other hand, many surgeons do not feel comfortable performing the explant for fear that the patient will not like the aesthetic result after surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a valuable resource for diagnostic evaluation of the breast and can be used in explant planning. The objective is to demonstrate how the systematic analysis of breast MRI images can assist in planning silicone explantation. Method: A detailed analysis of the axial and sagittal MRI sections was performed to assess the amount of tissue in each breast. These images were presented to patients during the preoperative consultation so that they could clearly understand how much the implant influences the size of their breasts. At the same time, post-operative photos of patients with similar characteristics were presented so that the patient could analyze, more objectively, whether or not she would be satisfied with the aesthetics of her breasts after explantation. Results: The patients demonstrated a high degree of understanding of the images presented and were satisfied with this detailed analysis of expected results. Conclusion: The comparison of breast MRI images and postoperative results images provides greater objectivity to the preoperative dialogue, favoring the understanding of the expected result and bringing greater clarity to the decision for explantation.

5.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 88(1): 3-10, mar. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550715

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: La resonancia magnética (RM) de próstata es uno de los métodos diagnósticos para la identificación del carcinoma de próstata. La escala PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging and Reporting Data System) es el sistema usado para la interpretación de estas imágenes. Es importante, para su reproducibilidad, la estandarización y la evaluación de dicha escala. Objetivo: Determinar la concordancia inter- e intraobservador de la versión 2.1 del PI-RADS. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo, evaluando 129 RM de pacientes con sospecha de cáncer de próstata por tres radiólogos con diferentes años de experiencia y en dos momentos del tiempo, usando el puntaje PI-RADS 2.1. Se evaluó la concordancia intra- e interobservador. Resultados: La concordancia interobservador fue sustancial (kappa > 0,6) en todos los observadores, siendo la categoría 5 la de mayor acuerdo interobservador. Se observó una alta reproducibilidad intraobservardor, con la mayor kappa siendo de 0,856. Cuando se realizó el análisis según años de experiencia de los radiólogos, la concordancia interobservador fue significativa en todos los casos. Conclusiones: El sistema de clasificación PI-RADS 2.1 es reproducible para las diferentes categorías y aumenta la concordancia cuando se trata de lesiones con mayor probabilidad de cáncer clínicamente significativo.


Abstract Background: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the prostate is a key diagnostic tool for identifying prostate carcinoma. The Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) scale is the standard system for interpreting these images. Standardizing and evaluating this scale is crucial for ensuring consistent and reproducible results. Objective: This study aims to assess both the interobserver and intraobserver agreement of the PI-RADS version 2.1. Material and methods: In this retrospective observational study, 129 prostate MRI scans from patients with suspected prostate cancer were evaluated. Three radiologists, each with different levels of experience, analyzed these scans at two separate times using the PI-RADS 2.1 scoring system. Both intraobserver and interobserver agreements were measured. Results: The study found substantial interobserver agreement (kappa > 0.6) across all categories, with category 5 showing the highest level of agreement. Intraobserver reproducibility was also high, with the highest kappa value reaching 0.856. Further analysis based on the radiologists’ years of experience revealed significant interobserver agreement in all instances. Conclusions: The PI-RADS 2.1 classification system demonstrates high reproducibility across different categories, particularly for lesions more likely to be clinically significant cancers. This underscores its reliability in varied diagnostic scenarios.

6.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 88(1): 23-30, mar. 2024. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550717

ABSTRACT

Resumen En las últimas décadas, la resonancia magnética (RM) ha cobrado un rol fundamental en el diagnóstico, la estadificación y el seguimiento de los pacientes con cáncer de recto. En la estadificación inicial, que sean o no tumores localmente avanzados es lo que determina el tratamiento neoadyuvante o quirúrgico, respectivamente. Posterior a la neoadyuvancia, los pacientes que logren una respuesta clínica completa pueden ser considerados para la inclusión dentro de un esquema de vigilancia activa, comúnmente conocido como watch and wait (WW). La estrategia WW se basa en tres pilares, que son el examen digital rectal, la endoscopía y la RM, buscando detectar la presencia temprana de recrecimiento tumoral. En relación a la RM, la secuencia potenciada en T2 de alta resolución, junto con la de difusión (DWI) y el mapa de ADC, son las piezas clave para la detección temprana de recrecimiento. La estrategia de WW lleva a evitar cirugías resectivas con una alta morbilidad y deterioro de la calidad de vida. El examen digital rectal y la endoscopía son métodos de vigilancia complementarios a la RM, con su principal limitación en lesiones sin compromiso mucoso. Esta razón posiciona a la RM como un pilar indispensable para su implementación, detectando no solo áreas de recrecimiento parietal, sino también aquellas extramurales no accesibles por los otros métodos de vigilancia. En nuestro conocimiento, este es el primer ensayo iconográfico que se centra en el análisis estricto del recrecimiento tumoral en pacientes bajo esquema de WW por RM. El objetivo es enfatizar el protocolo de estudio en estos pacientes y mostrar las distintas formas de recrecimiento tumoral con el fin de lograr su detección temprana.


Abstract During the last decades, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an strategic tool for diagnosis, staging and surveillance in patients with rectal cancer. To differentiate patients with locally advanced rectal tumors from those who do not, determinate neoadjuvant therapy or total mesorectal excision, respectively. After neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, those who achieve complete clinical response may be considered for inclusion in an active surveillance scheme known as “watch and wait” (WW). WW strategy consists of three pillars, rectal digital exam, endoscopy and the MRI, and the main purpose is to reach the early detection of tumoral regrowth. Regarding MRI, the high-resolution T2-weighted images in conjunction with DWI, and the ADC map plays a key role in this instance. WW leads to avoid resective surgeries with high morbidity rates. The rectal digital exam and endoscopy are complementaries to MRI, whose main limitation is the detection of lesions with no mucosal involvement. This reason places the MRI as a cornerstone in tumoral regrowth, detecting not only luminal regrowth, but those in which the rectal wall is not involved, and thus, not accessible for the other surveillance methods. To our knowledge, this is the first pictorial essay in which imaging regrowth patterns are described. The purpose of this is to emphasize the MRI protocol study and to describe the different forms of tumoral regrowth in order to reach the early tumoral regrowth detection.

7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 50(1): 37-45, Jan.-Feb. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558039

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) is increasingly used for risk stratification and preoperative staging of prostate cancer. It remains unclear how Grade Group (GG) interacts with the ability of mpMRI to determine the presence of extraprostatic extension (EPE) on surgical pathology. Methods: A retrospective review of a robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) database from 2016-2020 was performed. Radiology mpMRI reports by multiple attending radiologists and without clear standardization or quality control were retrospectively assessed for EPE findings and compared with surgical pathology reports. The data were stratified by biopsy-based GG and a multivariable cluster analysis was performed to incorporate additional preoperative variables (age at diagnosis, PSA, etc.). Hazard ratios were calculated to determine how mpMRI findings and radiographic EPE relate to positive surgical margins. Results: Two hundred and eighty nine patients underwent at least one mpMRI prior to RALP. Preoperative mpMRI demonstrated sensitivity of 39.3% and specificity of 88.8% for pathological EPE and had a negative predictive value (NPV) of 49.5%, and positive predictive value (PPV) of 84.0%. Stratification of NPV by GG yielded the following values: GG 1-5 (49.5%), GG 3-5 (40.8%), GG 4-5 (43.4%), and GG 5 (30.4%). Additionally, positive EPE on preoperative mpMRI was associated with a significantly decreased risk of positive surgical margins (RR: 0.655; 95% CI: 0.557-0.771). Conclusions: NPV of prostate mpMRI for EPE may be decreased for higher grade tumors. A detailed reference reading and image quality optimization may improve performance. However, urologists should exercise caution in nerve sparing approaches in these patients.

8.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 380-385, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007257

ABSTRACT

As a non-invasive, simple, and reproducible examination, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an important application value in evaluating liver reserve function. Currently in clinical practice, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI is mainly used to measure liver parenchymal signal intensity parameters, magnetic resonance relaxation time parameters, biliary tract enhancement parameters, and liver volume parameters to evaluate the liver reserve function of patients. In recent years, the use of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in predicting liver reserve function in residual liver tissue after liver tumor surgery has become one of the hotspots in clinical research, and certain progress has been made in related studies in China and globally. This article reviews the research advances in recent years.

9.
JOURNAL OF RARE DISEASES ; (4): 102-107, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006904

ABSTRACT

Gliomas are the most common primary intracranial tumors in adults, among which high-grade glioma patients are characterized by short survival and poor prognosis. The diagnosis, treatment, evaluation of effective treatments, and prognosis prediction of high-grade gliomas are of great significance for improving patient survival. Conventional enhanced magnetic resonance imaging has deficiencies in delineating tumor extent, identifying tumor progression and treatment-related changes. Therefore, there is a broad consensus to incorporate amino acid PET, and 18F-FET PET inparticular, into the diagnostic and therapeutic process of high-grade gliomas. In this article, we review the new research progress of 18F-FET PET in the diagnosis and treatment of adult high-grade glioma in recent years.

10.
International Eye Science ; (12): 171-181, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005377

ABSTRACT

Orbital disorders include conditions originating from the orbital bones, surrounding tissues, and post-orbital septum. They also include systemic ailments affecting the orbit. Different clinical symptoms make up the complex range of orbital disorders. Because these disorders mostly impact the orbital area instead of the intraocular compartment, there is little diagnostic usefulness for typical ophthalmic visual tests. As such, the primary instruments for diagnosing and evaluating orbital illnesses have become ophthalmic imaging modalities, including ocular ultrasonography(B-scan), computed tomography(CT), and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). One way to improve the precision and promptness of diagnosing orbital diseases is to standardize the functioning of widely used imaging equipment and define the radiological features of orbital abnormalities. Such programs are crucial for the care of patients with orbital disorders since they considerably reduce the number of misdiagnoses and missed diagnoses in these individuals. The underlying concepts, operational techniques, and normal and pathological imaging findings associated with common diagnostic tools for orbital illnesses are all thoroughly reviewed in this guideline. The objective is to improve primary healthcare settings' diagnostic competence in the field of orbital pathology and to standardize procedures for diagnosing orbital disorders.

11.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 720-725, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016515

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the value of biliary score and hepatic signal intensity-to-muscle signal intensity ratio (HMR) obtained by multiphase contrast-enhanced MRI scan using Gd-EOB-DTPA in evaluating the pathological grade of liver fibrosis. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the MRI and clinical data of 51 patients with chronic hepatitis B liver fibrosis in Wuming Hospital Affiliated to Guangxi Medical University from January 2020 to May 2023. The 51 patients with liver fibrosis were divided into low-grade group (S1-S2) and high-grade group (S3-S4). GE Architact 3.0T MR scanner was used to perform MRI scans, including routine plain scan and contrast-enhanced scan at arterial phase, portal venous phase, delayed phase, hepatobiliary phase, and excretory phase, and biliary score and HMR were measured for the patients with different grades of liver fibrosis. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test or the Fisher’s exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to evaluate the value of MRI indicators in determining the pathological grade of liver fibrosis. ResultsAmong the 51 patients with liver fibrosis, there were 30 patients in the low-grade group and 21 in the high-grade group. Compared with the high-grade group, the low-grade group had significantly higher biliary score (3.67±0.55 vs 2.57±0.75, t=6.05, P<0.001) and HMR at portal venous phase (2.38±0.76 vs 1.97±0.18, t=2.41, P=0.020), delayed phase (2.48±0.70 vs 1.99±0.27, t=3.09, P=0.003), and hepatobiliary phase (4.10±0.63 vs 3.16±0.47, t=5.81, P<0.001). The above indicators had an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.86, 0.79, 0.82, and 0.88, respectively, in distinguishing low- and high-grade liver fibrosis, with a positive rate of 70%, 63.3%, 83.3%, and 96.7%, respectively, and a negative rate of 90%, 95.2%, 74.1%, and 100%, respectively, in the diagnosis of high-grade liver fibrosis. Biliary score combined HMR had an AUC of 0.95, with a positive rate of 85.7% and a negative rate of 96.7%. ConclusionBiliary score and HMR at hepatobiliary phase obtained by multiphase contrast-enhanced MRI scan using Gd-EOB-DTPA has a relatively high diagnostic efficacy in distinguishing between low- and high-grade liver fibrosis and a certain guiding value for the diagnosis and treatment of liver fibrosis in clinical practice.

12.
Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice ; (12): 223-231, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013381

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the impact of autonomic nerve function on motor function in patients with post-stroke depression (PSD) from the perspective of regional homogeneity (ReHo). MethodsFrom January to December, 2020, a total of 60 inpatients and outpatients with cerebral infarction in the Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University were divided into control group (n = 30) and PSD group (n = 30). Two groups were assessed using Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), modified Barthel Index (MBI) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured. Ten patients in each group were selected randomly to undergo resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to calculate ReHo. ResultsAll HRV indices were lower in PSD group than in the control group (|t| > 2.092, P < 0.05). In PSD group, FMA and MBI scores showed positive correlations with 24-hour standard deviation of normal-to-normal R-R intervals (SDNN), the root mean square of successive differences between normal heartbeats over 24 hours (RMSSD), the percentage of differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals over 24 hours that were greater than 50 ms (PNN50), total power (TP), very low frequency power (VLF) and low frequency power (LF) (r > 0.394, P < 0.05), and showed negative correlations with HAMD scores (|r| > 0.919, P < 0.001). HAMD scores in PSD group were negatively correlated with SDNN, RMSSD, PNN50, TP and VLF (|r| > 0.769, P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, the ReHo increased in PSD group in the right rectus gyrus (142 voxels, t = 6.575), the left medial and paracingulate gyri (204 voxels, t = 4.925) (GRF correction, P-Voxel < 0.005,P-Cluster < 0.05); and reduced in the right cerebellum (191 voxels, t = -6.487), the left middle temporal gyrus (140 voxels, t = -5.516), and the left precentral gyrus (119 voxels, t = -4.764) (GRF correction, P-Voxel < 0.005,P-Cluster < 0.05) in PSD group. ConclusionAutonomic nerve function is related to motor dysfunction in patients with PSD. The modulation of emotional, cognitive and motor brain regions by the autonomic nervous system may play a role in influencing the motor function in patients with PSD.

13.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 600-605, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013144

ABSTRACT

Hepatic steatosis can be observed in chronic liver diseases of different etiologies. The main predisposing factors for hepatic steatosis include chronic viral hepatitis, cholestatic liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Simple fatty liver disease is the initial manifestation of hepatic steatosis, followed by steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. With the development of medical imaging technology, magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) has been widely used in the diagnosis of fatty liver disease (FLD) in clinical practice. MRI-PDFF is gradually becoming the gold standard for the noninvasive diagnosis of FLD due to its high accuracy and good repeatability. This article reviews the clinical application of MRI-PDFF in liver fat quantification and related research advances.

14.
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases ; (12): 296-301, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013091

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the clinical manifestations, histopathological characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of simultaneous unilateral primary tumors of different pathological types in the parotid gland.@*Methods@#A case of simultaneous unilateral primary parotid gland tumors, i.e., adenolymphoma and basal cell adenoma, was reviewed and analyzed in combination with the literature.@*Results@#The patient discovered a lump in the right parotid gland area one month prior to presentation, and a tumor was palpated in the shallow lobe of the right parotid gland before surgery. According to MR images, the initial diagnoses were tumors of the shallow and deep lobes of the right parotid gland. The tumors of the deep and shallow lobes were excised with part of the gland, and the facial nerves were dissected under general anesthesia. Postoperative pathology revealed an adenolymphoma in the shallow lobe of the right parotid gland and a basal cell adenoma with cystic transformation in the deep lobe. The surgical effect was good, with no complications, and there was no recurrence after 1 year of follow-up. A review of the relevant literature showed that multiple primary tumors of the parotid gland can manifest as the simultaneous presence of two or more types of tumors on both sides or on one side, and the disease is mainly treated with surgery.@*Conclusion@#Multiple unilateral primary parotid gland tumors are rare. Imaging examinations need to be combined with clinical evaluations to prevent missed diagnoses. Surgery is the first treatment option, and patients with benign tumors have a good prognosis.

15.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(1): e20230072, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527811

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT It is estimated that lymphatic malformations in children account for 6% of all benign vascular malformations. New medical therapies have been developed for the management of lymphatic orbital disease. The purpose of this article was to describe a clinical case of orbital venolymphatic malformation in a 10-year-old boy, causing proptosis and palpebral edema. The lesion was initially treated with local sclerotherapy. However, the lesion relapsed, and was successfully treated with oral sirolimus. Prospective studies are warranted to determine the appropriate dose and extend the indications of sirolimus in these patients.


RESUMO A incidência de malformações linfáticas em crianças é estimada em 6% de todas as malformações vasculares benignas. Têm sido desenvolvidos novos tratamento para doenças linfáticas orbitárias. Nosso objetivo é descrever um caso clínico de malformação venolinfática orbitária em um menino de 10 anos de idade, causando proptose e edema palpebral. A lesão foi tratada inicialmente com escleroterapia local. No entanto, a lesão teve recidiva e foi tratada com sucesso com sirolimo oral. Ainda são necessários estudos prospectivos para estabelecer a dose apropriada e a duração do tratamento com sirolimo nesses pacientes.

16.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(1): e2021, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527819

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This article reports the case of an 11-year-old male patient with a history of proptosis and low progressive visual acuity in the left eye. He presented with a best corrected visual acuity of 20/25 in the right eye and light perception in the left eye. Exotropia and limitation in adduction were observed in the left eye. On automated perimetry, inferiortemporal quadrantopsia was observed in the right eye, while total scotoma was observed in the left eye. On magnetic resonance imaging, there was an expansive lesion in the left optic nerve, extending to the brainstem with chiasmatic involvement. This article aims to report a case of optic pathway glioma, as well as to discuss its clinical findings and their interconnection with the current literature.


RESUMO Este artigo relata o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, 11 anos de idade, com história de proptose e baixa de acuidade visual progressiva. Ao exame oftalmológico apresentava melhor acuidade visual de 20/25 em olho direito e percepção de luz em olho esquerdo. Existia exotropia e limitação à adução no olho esquerdo. À campimetria automatizada, observou-se quadrantopsia temporal inferior em olho direito e escotoma total em olho esquerdo. À ressonância magnética, evidenciou-se lesão expansiva em trajeto do nervo óptico esquerdo estendendo-se até região do tronco encefálico, com acometimento quiasmático. O objetivo deste artigo é relatar o glioma de vias ópticas, bem como discutir os achados e sua interligação com a literatura atual.

17.
Radiol. bras ; 57: e20230094en, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558808

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare information on highly complex radiological procedures—computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)—between the public and private health care systems, across the five regions of Brazil, in terms of the numbers of radiological devices and examinations performed, between 2015 and 2021. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive time series analysis of secondary data in the public domain, available from the Information Technology Department of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System, an entity of the Brazilian National Ministry of Health (NMH) that is responsible for collecting and storing health-related information in Brazil. The analysis included the numbers of CT and MRI scanners; the volumes and types of examinations; the type of institution (public or private); the regions of the country; and the years (2015 to 2021). Results: Progressive increases in the numbers of CT and MRI devices, as well as in the volumes of examinations, were observed over the years in all regions of the country. The private sector showed higher rates of equipment acquisition and of growth in the number of examinations. However, the public health care system did not reach the equipment targets set by the NMH, whereas the private health care system surpassed those targets. A greater number of examinations were performed in the private sector than in the public sector. Conclusion: During the period evaluated, the public health care system did not meet the equipment or examination targets recommended by the NMH, in any of the regions of the country, unlike the private health care system, which exceeded both in all of the regions.


Resumo Objetivo: Comparar informações sobre procedimentos radiológicos de alta complexidade - tomografia computadorizada (TC) e ressonância magnética (RM) -, considerando o número de aparelhos e o quantitativo de exames nas esferas pública e privada nas cinco regiões brasileiras entre 2015 e 2021. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo de série temporal que utilizou dados secundários do Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, órgão do Ministério da Saúde (MS) responsável pela coleta e armazenamento das informações relacionadas à saúde no Brasil. Analisamos os números de aparelhos e de exames de TC e RM, considerando os tipos de aparelhos e exames, instituição (pública ou privada), região brasileira e ano (2015 a 2021). Resultados: Houve aumento de aparelhos e exames de TC e RM em todas as regiões ao longo dos anos. A esfera privada apresentou maior aquisição desses aparelhos e crescimento no número de exames. O sistema público não atingiu o número de aparelhos preconizado pelo MS, enquanto o sistema privado superou a recomendação. Observou-se maior número de exames na esfera privada quando comparada à pública. Conclusão: O sistema público não atendeu aos números de aparelhos e exames realizados preconizados pelo MS, diferentemente da esfera privada, em todas as regiões no período estudado.

18.
Radiol. bras ; 57: e20230111en, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558815

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the indications for and results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations for breast cancer screening at a cancer center in Brazil. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective observational study, based on electronic medical records, of patients undergoing MRI for breast cancer screening at a cancer center in Brazil. Results: We included 597 patients between 19 and 82 years of age. The main indications for MRI screening were a personal history of breast cancer, in 354 patients (59.3%), a family history of breast cancer, in 102 (17.1%), and a confirmed genetic mutation, in 67 (11.2%). The MRI result was classified, in accordance with the categories defined in the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, as benign (category 1 or 2), in 425 patients (71.2%), probably benign (category 3), in 143 (24.0%), or suspicious (category 4 or 5), in 29 (4.9%). On MRI, 11 malignant tumors were identified, all of which were invasive carcinomas. Among those 11 carcinomas, six (54.5%) were categorized as minimal cancers (< 1 cm), and the axillary lymph nodes were negative in 10 (90.9%). The cancer detection rate was 18.4/1,000 examinations, and the positive predictive value for suspicious lesions submitted to biopsy was 37.9%. Conclusion: In our sample, the main indication for breast MRI screening was a personal history of breast cancer. The results indicate that MRI is a highly accurate method for the early detection of breast neoplasms in this population.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar as indicações e resultados de exames de ressonância magnética (RM) para rastreamento de câncer de mama em um centro oncológico no Brasil. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo observacional, realizado mediante análise retrospectiva de pacientes submetidos a RM das mamas para rastreamento de câncer de mama, por meio de revisão do prontuário eletrônico em um centro oncológico. Resultados: Foram incluídas 597 pacientes com idade variando de 19 a 82 anos. As principais indicações para rastreamento foram história pessoal de câncer de mama em 354 (59,3%) pacientes, história familiar em 102 (17,1%) e mutação genética confirmada em 67 (11,2%). O resultado da RM foi benigno (BI-RADS 1 ou 2) em 425 (71,2%) pacientes, provavelmente benigno (BI-RADS 3) em 143 (24,0%) e suspeito (BI-RADS 4 ou 5) em 29 (4,9%). Foram identificados 11 tumores malignos na RM, todos carcinomas invasivos, porcentagem de cânceres "mínimos" (< 1 cm) de 54,5% e porcentagem de axila negativa de 90,9%. A taxa de detecção de câncer na RM foi 18,4/1000 exames e o valor preditivo positivo para as lesões suspeitas submetidas a biópsia foi 37,9%. Conclusão: A principal indicação para RM de rastreamento na nossa população foi história pessoal de câncer de mama. Os resultados mostraram que a RM constitui um método com alta acurácia para detecção precoce de neoplasias da mama nessa população.

19.
Radiol. bras ; 57: e20230125, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558816

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multi-echo Dixon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in hepatic fat quantification, in comparison with that of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), on 3.0-T MRI. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five adults with no known liver disease underwent MRI in a 3.0-T scanner for determination of the hepatic fat fraction, with two techniques: multi-echo Dixon, in a manually drawn region of interest (ROI) and in the entire liver parenchyma (automated segmentation); and MRS. The diagnostic accuracy and cutoff value for multi-echo Dixon were determined, with MRS being used as the reference standard. Results: The mean fat fraction obtained by multi-echo Dixon in the manually drawn ROI and in the entire liver was 5.2 ± 5.8% and 6.6 ± 5.2%, respectively, whereas the mean hepatic fat fraction obtained by MRS was 5.7 ± 6.4%. A very strong positive correlation and good agreement were observed between MRS and multi-echo Dixon, for the ROI (r = 0.988, r2 = 0.978, p < 0.001) and for the entire liver parenchyma (r = 0.960, r2 = 0.922, p < 0.001). A moderate positive correlation was observed between the hepatic fat fraction and body mass index of the participants, regardless of the fat estimation technique employed. Conclusion: For hepatic fat quantification, multi-echo Dixon MRI demonstrated a very strong positive correlation and good agreement with MRS (often considered the gold-standard noninvasive technique). Because multi-echo Dixon MRI is more readily available than is MRS, it can be used as a rapid tool for hepatic fat quantification, especially when the hepatic fat distribution is not homogeneous.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a acurácia diagnóstica da técnica multieco Dixon na quantificação da gordura hepática em comparação com a espectroscopia por ressonância magnética (ERM), em exames de RM 3.0-T. Materiais e Métodos: Cinquenta e cinco participantes adultos sem doença hepática conhecida foram submetidos a RM 3.0-T para determinação da fração de gordura hepática, usando duas técnicas: multieco Dixon (em ROI desenhada manualmente e em segmentação automatizada para todo o parênquima hepático) e ERM. A precisão diagnóstica e o valor de corte para multieco Dixon foram determinados usando a ERM como padrão de referência. Resultados: A fração de gordura média usando multieco Dixon na ROI desenhada manualmente e na segmentação automatizada do fígado inteiro foi 5,2 ± 5,8% e 6,6 ± 5,2%, respectivamente. A fração de gordura hepática média usando ERM foi 5,7 ± 6,4%. Correlação positiva muito alta e forte concordância foram observadas entre ERM e multieco Dixon, tanto para ROI (r = 0,988, r2 = 0,978, p < 0,001) quanto para todo o parênquima hepático (r = 0,960, r2 = 0,922, p < 0,001). Correlação positiva moderada foi observada entre a fração de gordura hepática e o índice de massa corpórea dos participantes usando ambas as técnicas de estimativa de gordura. Conclusão: Multieco Dixon demonstrou correlação positiva muito alta e concordância com a ERM (muitas vezes considerada padrão de referência não invasivo) para quantificação de gordura hepática. Uma vez que o multieco Dixon está mais prontamente disponível do que a ERM, pode ser usado como uma ferramenta rápida para a quantificação da gordura hepática, especialmente na distribuição não homogênea da gordura.

20.
Radiol. bras ; 57: e20230126en, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558817

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acute calcific periarthritis (ACP) is defined as periarticular inflammation associated with intra-articular deposits of hydroxyapatite and other basic calcium phosphate crystals. Patients with ACP present with a sudden onset of pain, together with localized swelling, as well as erythema, tenderness, and reduced range of motion. Familiarity with the clinical and radiological manifestations of ACP aids in the diagnosis and helps differentiate it from other conditions, particularly infectious or inflammatory pathologies such as septic arthritis and gout, thereby reducing the number of unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The objective of this pictorial essay is to illustrate the imaging findings of ACP in various joints, with an emphasis on the findings obtained by magnetic resonance imaging.


Resumo A periartrite cálcica aguda (PCA) é uma inflamação periarticular aguda associada a depósitos justa-articulares de hidroxiapatita e outros cristais básicos de fosfato de cálcio. Os pacientes apresentam início súbito de dor, edema localizado, eritema, sensibilidade e redução da amplitude de movimentos. A familiaridade com as manifestações clínicas e radiológicas da PCA facilita o diagnóstico e permite diferenciá-la de outras entidades, em particular, com doenças infecciosas ou inflamatórias, como artrite séptica e gota, reduzindo procedimentos diagnósticos e terapêuticos desnecessários. O objetivo deste ensaio iconográfico é ilustrar os achados de imagem de PCA em algumas articulações, com ênfase na ressonância magnética.

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