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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(1): e20230072, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527811

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT It is estimated that lymphatic malformations in children account for 6% of all benign vascular malformations. New medical therapies have been developed for the management of lymphatic orbital disease. The purpose of this article was to describe a clinical case of orbital venolymphatic malformation in a 10-year-old boy, causing proptosis and palpebral edema. The lesion was initially treated with local sclerotherapy. However, the lesion relapsed, and was successfully treated with oral sirolimus. Prospective studies are warranted to determine the appropriate dose and extend the indications of sirolimus in these patients.


RESUMO A incidência de malformações linfáticas em crianças é estimada em 6% de todas as malformações vasculares benignas. Têm sido desenvolvidos novos tratamento para doenças linfáticas orbitárias. Nosso objetivo é descrever um caso clínico de malformação venolinfática orbitária em um menino de 10 anos de idade, causando proptose e edema palpebral. A lesão foi tratada inicialmente com escleroterapia local. No entanto, a lesão teve recidiva e foi tratada com sucesso com sirolimo oral. Ainda são necessários estudos prospectivos para estabelecer a dose apropriada e a duração do tratamento com sirolimo nesses pacientes.

2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 87(1): e2021, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527819

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This article reports the case of an 11-year-old male patient with a history of proptosis and low progressive visual acuity in the left eye. He presented with a best corrected visual acuity of 20/25 in the right eye and light perception in the left eye. Exotropia and limitation in adduction were observed in the left eye. On automated perimetry, inferiortemporal quadrantopsia was observed in the right eye, while total scotoma was observed in the left eye. On magnetic resonance imaging, there was an expansive lesion in the left optic nerve, extending to the brainstem with chiasmatic involvement. This article aims to report a case of optic pathway glioma, as well as to discuss its clinical findings and their interconnection with the current literature.


RESUMO Este artigo relata o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, 11 anos de idade, com história de proptose e baixa de acuidade visual progressiva. Ao exame oftalmológico apresentava melhor acuidade visual de 20/25 em olho direito e percepção de luz em olho esquerdo. Existia exotropia e limitação à adução no olho esquerdo. À campimetria automatizada, observou-se quadrantopsia temporal inferior em olho direito e escotoma total em olho esquerdo. À ressonância magnética, evidenciou-se lesão expansiva em trajeto do nervo óptico esquerdo estendendo-se até região do tronco encefálico, com acometimento quiasmático. O objetivo deste artigo é relatar o glioma de vias ópticas, bem como discutir os achados e sua interligação com a literatura atual.

3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(6): e202202853, dic. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1518733

ABSTRACT

Se informa de un lipoblastoma perineal en una niña de 5 años localizado en el labio mayor derecho. La lesión aumentó gradualmente en 6 meses. En la ecografía y la resonancia magnética (RM), se observó un tumor heterogéneo sólido limitado con componente graso. Tras su extirpación quirúrgica, el estudio anatomopatológico confirmó un lipoblastoma. El lipoblastoma es un tumor mesenquimatoso benigno poco frecuente de la lactancia y la primera infancia. Los síntomas varían en función de la localización; pueden observarse signos de compresión de los órganos adyacentes. Este tipo de tumores inusuales de los tejidos blandos son más frecuentes en menores de 3 años. Los lipoblastomas se localizan predominantemente en las extremidades, pero también pueden encontrarse en la cabeza y el cuello, el tronco, el mediastino, el riñón, el mesenterio, el retroperitoneo y el perineo. Se debe sospechar su presencia en función de los hallazgos de la ecografía y la RM.


We reported a perineal lipoblastoma in a 5-year-old girl located in the right labia mayor. The lesion gradually increased within 6 months. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a limited solid heterogenous tumor with fatty component. After it had been surgically removed, the anatomopathological examination confirmed that it was a lipoblastoma. Lipoblastoma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor of infancy and early childhood. Symptoms vary depending on localization; signs of compression of adjacent organs may be seen. This type of unusual soft tissue tumors occurred most often in under 3 years old. The localization of lipoblastomas is predominantly in the extremities but may be also found in other sites including the head and neck, trunk, mediastinum, kidney, mesentery, retropritoneum and perineum. The suspicion should be considered according to ultrasound and MRI findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Soft Tissue Neoplasms , Lipoblastoma/surgery , Lipoblastoma/diagnosis , Lipoblastoma/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Kidney/pathology , Neck/pathology
4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 81(11): 980-988, Nov. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527889

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (anti-MOG) antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) is an immune-mediated neurological disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical presentation that is often difficult to distinguish from other demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Objective To describe the clinical and paraclinical characteristics of MOGAD in a Brazilian tertiary center. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of adult and pediatric patients who tested positive for anti-MOG antibodies and presented with clinical and radiological diseases compatible with MOGAD. Results Forty-one patients (10 children) were included: 56% female, 58% Caucasian, mean age at onset 31 years (range 6-64), with a mean disease duration of 59.6 months (range 1-264 months). The most frequent onset presentation was optic neuritis (68%), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM, 12%), and myelitis (10%). A monophasic disease course was observed in 49%. EDSS median was 2.1 at the last visit. Most patients (83%) were under continuous immunosuppressive treatment. Azathioprine was the first-line treatment in 59%. In all ADEM cases, conus, and root involvement was radiologically observed on MRI. Conclusion Brazilian MOGAD patients presented with a similar spectrum of previously reported MOGAD phenotypes. Conus and spinal root involvement seems to be frequently present in MOGAD-ADEM and could serve as radiologic characteristics of this clinical entity.


Resumo Antecedentes A doença associada ao anticorpo da glicoproteína da mielina de oligodendrócitos (anti-MOG; MOGAD) é uma doença neurológica imunomediada com um amplo espectro de apresentações clínicas que muitas vezes é difícil de distinguir de outras doenças desmielinizantes, como a esclerose múltipla e o distúrbio do espectro da neuromielite óptica. Objetivo Descrever as características clínicas e paraclínicas da MOGAD em um centro terciário brasileiro. Métodos Revisamos retrospectivamente os prontuários dos pacientes adultos e pediátricos que testaram positivos para anticorpos anti-MOG e apresentaram um quadro clínico e radiológico compatível com MOGAD. Resultados Quarenta e um pacientes (10 crianças) foram incluídos: 56% do sexo feminino, 58% caucasianos, idade média de início da doença foi 31 anos (intervalo de 6-64), com duração média da doença de 59,6 meses (intervalo de 1-264 meses). A apresentação inicial mais frequente foi neurite óptica (68%), seguida pela encefalomielite disseminada aguda (ADEM, 12%) e mielite (10%). Um curso monofásico da doença foi observado em 49%. EDSS foi de 2,1 na última visita. A maioria dos pacientes (83%) estava sob tratamento imunossupressor contínuo. Azatioprina foi o tratamento de primeira linha em 59%. Em todos os casos de ADEM, o envolvimento do cone medular e das raízes espinhais foi observado radiologicamente na ressonância magnética. Conclusão Os pacientes brasileiros com MOGAD apresentam um espectro clínico e radiológico semelhante aos fenótipos de MOGAD relatados anteriormente. O envolvimento do cone e das raízes espinhais parece estar frequentemente presente no MOGAD-ADEM e poderia servir como característica radiológica nesta entidade.

5.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 89(5): 101314, Sept.-Oct. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520505

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: The degree of endolymphatic hydrops in Meniere's disease may be related to hearing loss. However, the results of prior studies have been inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the relationship between endolymphatic hydrops and hearing loss characteristics in Meniere's disease. Methods: This study included 54 patients (62 ears) with Meniere's disease. Patients underwent three-dimensional real inversion recovery sequences for magnetic resonance imaging and puretone audiometry. Endolymphatic hydrops were assessed according to Gurkov's criteria (2011). Correlations between different degrees of endolymphatic hydrops and pure-tone audiometry, as well as staging, were analysed. Results: Pure tone audiometry and staging were higher for vestibular endolymphatic hydrops complicated by cochlear ones than isolated cochlear or vestibular hydrops (both p<0.05). There was no significant correlation between vestibular endolymphatic hydrops and pure-tonal audiometry or staging (all p > 0.05). The degree of hydrops in the middle turn was correlated with the mid-frequency hearing threshold (p<0.05). The degree of cochlear hydrops was correlated with the audiometry, low-frequency hearing thresholds, mid-frequency hearing thresholds and staging (p<0.01). Conclusion: The types and sites of endolymphatic hydrops based on a 3D-real inversion recovery sequence can be used to indicate the degree of hearing loss in patients with Meniere's disease. Level of evidence: Level III.

6.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 87(3): 118-131, oct. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521638

ABSTRACT

Resumen Durante la realización de informes de resonancia magnética (RM) de columna, pueden encontrarse hallazgos extrarraquídeos, normales o patológicos, que no deben ser omitidos por el médico imagenólogo. Estas imágenes casuales, conocidas como “incidentalomas”, pueden ser la causa que originó la realización de la RM o bien ser totalmente asintomáticas. Se describen hallazgos extrarraquídeos habituales en las RM de columna.


Abstract When reading spinal MR examinations normal or abnormal extra spinal changes can be found but they should be described in the report.These findings, known as “incidentalomas”, can be related to the patient’s symptoms or can be asymptomatic. We describe frequent extraspinal findings found on MR of the spine.

7.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1452-1460, oct. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521031

ABSTRACT

Lograr determinar el volumen total de un hígado (VHT), o volumetría hepática, pasa a ser de relevancia en diversas situaciones, tales como, vigilancia del progreso de una enfermedad de carácter crónico, planificación de resecciones y trasplantes hepáticos; y observación del clearance hepático de algunos fármacos hepatotropos. La VHT se puede realizar utilizando métodos de segmentación en el curso de una tomografía computarizada (TC), ya sean estos manual, automáticos, y semiautomáticos; mediante resonancia nuclear (RN), utilizando softwares de distintas generaciones (1ª a 4ª). La medición de VHT está indicada en pacientes sometidos a resecciones hepáticas mayores, en el contexto del tratamiento de neoplasias (carcinoma hepatocelular, colangiocarcinoma, metástasis hepáticas o tumores benignos de gran tamaño), abscesos (piogénicos, amebianos), y después de un traumatismo hepático complejo; así como también en la etapa preoperatoria de un trasplante hepático. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue generar un documento de estudio sobre métodos para determinar volumetría hepática.


SUMMARY: Being able to determine the total hepatic volume (THV), or THV, becomes relevant in various situations, such as monitoring the progress of a chronic disease, planning resections and liver transplants; and observation of the hepatic clearance of some hepatotropic drugs. THV can be performed using segmentation methods in the course of a computed tomography (CT), whether manual, automatic, or semi-automated; by nuclear resonance (NR), using software from different generations (1st to 4st). THV measurement is indicated in patients undergoing major liver resections, in the context of treatment of neoplasms (hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, liver metastases or large benign tumors), abscesses (pyogenic, amoebic), and after liver trauma complex, as well as in the preoperative stage of a liver transplant. The aim of this manuscript was to generate a study document regarding methods for determine hepatic volumetry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
8.
Radiol. bras ; 56(5): 255-262, Sept.-Oct. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529317

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To analyze the association between osteolysis at the prosthesis interfaces, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with multiacquisition variable-resonance image combination selective (MAVRIC-SL) sequences, and clinical severity after knee or hip arthroplasty, as well as to assess interobserver and intraobserver agreement on periprosthetic bone resorption. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 47 patients (49 joints) under postoperative follow-up after knee or hip arthroplasty, with chronic pain, between March 2019 and August 2020. All of the patients completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. The component interfaces were evaluated and ordered into two groups: osseointegrated and osteolytic. Nonparametric tests were used. Results: There were significant differences between the two groups in terms of the mean WOMAC scores: total (p = 0.010); stiffness domain (p = 0.047); and function (p = 0.011) domains. There was substantial interobserver and intraobserver agreement for most analyses of the components. Conclusion: Periprosthetic osteolysis appears to be associated with clinical complaints of pain in the post-arthroplasty scenario, and MAVRIC-SL provides reproducible assessments. It could prove to be an important tool for orthopedists to use in the evaluation of challenging cases of chronic pain after arthroplasty.


Resumo Objetivo: Analisar associação entre osteólise nas interfaces protéticas por ressonância magnética com sequências MAVRIC-SL e a gravidade clínica dos pacientes submetidos a artroplastias de joelho ou quadril. Determinar concordância intraobservador e interobservador na reabsorção óssea peri-implante. Materiais e Métodos: Foi realizado estudo transversal entre março de 2019 e agosto de 2020, com 47 pacientes (49 articulações) em seguimento pós-operatório de artroplastias de joelho ou quadril, com dor crônica, que responderam ao questionário WOMAC. As interfaces dos componentes foram avaliadas e definiram dois grupos: osteointegrado e osteólise. Testes não paramétricos foram usados. Resultados: Houve diferença significativa na média do escore WOMAC entre os grupos (p = 0,010), assim como nos domínios rigidez (p = 0,047) e função (p = 0,011). Houve concordância substancial interobservador e intraobservador para a maioria dos componentes analisados. Conclusão: Osteólise periprótese parece estar associada com a queixa clínica de dor pós-artroplastia, com avaliação reprodutível pela MAVRIC-SL. Isto pode ser uma importante ferramenta para o ortopedista na avaliação de casos desafiadores de dor crônica pós-artroplastia.

9.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(5): 719-726, Sept.-Oct. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529950

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The objectives of this study are to compare absolute values of acromial index (AI) and critical shoulder angle (CSA) obtained in both radiographs and magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the shoulder; and to compare the interobserver and intra-observer agreement for AI and CSA values measured in these image modalities. Methods Patients who had medical indication of investigating shoulders conditions through radiographs and MRI were included. Images were taken to two fellowship-trained shoulder surgeons, which conducted measurements of AI and CSA in radiographs and in MRI. Twelve weeks after the first evaluation, a second evaluation was conducted. Inter- and intra-observer reliability was presented as an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and agreement was classified according to Landis & Koch criteria. The differences between two measurements were evaluated using Bland-Altman plots. Results 134 shoulders in 124 subjects were included. Mean intra-observer ICC for CSA in X-rays and in MRI were 0.936 and 0.940, respectively; for AI, 0.908 and 0.022. Mean inter-observer ICC for CSA were 0.892 and 0.752 in X-rays and MRI respectively; for AI, ICC values were 0.849 and 0.685. All individual analysis reached statistical power (p< 0.001). Mean difference for AI values measured in X-rays and in MRI was 0.01 and 0.03 for observers 1 and 2, respectively. Mean difference for CSA values obtained in X-rays and MRI was 0.16 and 0.58 for observers 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion Both MRI and X-rays provided high intra- and interobserver agreement for measurement of AI and CSA. Absolute values found for AI and CSA were highly correlated in both image modalities. These findings suggest that MRI is a suitable method to measure AI and CSA. Level of Evidence II, Diagnostic Study.


Resumo Objetivo Os objetivos deste estudo foram comparar os valores absolutos do índice acromial (IA) e do ângulo crítico do ombro (ACO) obtidos em radiografias e ressonâncias magnéticas (RM) do ombro e comparar a concordância interobservador e intraobservador dos valores de IA e ACO medidos nessas modalidades de imagem. Métodos Pacientes com indicação médica de investigação de doenças dos ombros por meio de radiografias e RM foram incluídos no estudo. As imagens foram levadas para dois cirurgiões de ombro treinados que realizaram medidas de IA e ACO em radiografias e RM. Doze semanas após a primeira avaliação, uma segunda avaliação foi realizada. A confiabilidade inter e intraobservador foi apresentada como coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI) e a concordância foi classificada segundo os critérios de Landis e Koch. As diferenças entre duas medidas foram avaliadas por meio de gráficos de Bland-Altman. Resultados Cento e trinta e quatro ombros de 124 indivíduos foram incluídos no estudo. O CCI intraobservador médio para ACO em radiografias e RM foi 0,936 e 0,940, respectivamente; para IA, foi 0,908 e 0,022. O CCI interobservador médio para ACO foi 0,892 e 0,752 em radiografias e RM, respectivamente; para IA, os valores de CCI foram 0,849 e 0,685. Todas as análises individuais apresentaram poder estatístico (p < 0,001). A diferença média dos valores de IA em radiografias e RM foi 0,01 e 0,03 para os observadores 1 e 2, respectivamente. A diferença média dos valores de ACO em radiografias e RM foi 0,16 e 0,58 para os observadores 1 e 2, respectivamente. Conclusão Tanto a RM quanto as radiografias tiveram alta concordância intra e interobservador para medida de IA e ACO. Os valores absolutos de IA e ACO foram altamente correlacionados em ambas as modalidades de imagem. Esses achados sugerem que a RM é um método adequado para determinação de IA e ACO. Nível de Evidência II, Estudo Diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acromion , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Shoulder Impingement Syndrome , Rotator Cuff Injuries
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1267-1272, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514354

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: In the study, it was aimed to predict sex from hand measurements using machine learning algorithms (MLA). Measurements were made on MR images of 60 men and 60 women. Determined parameters; hand length (HL), palm length (PL), hand width (HW), wrist width (EBG), metacarpal I length (MIL), metacarpal I width (MIW), metacarpal II length (MIIL), metacarpal II width (MIIW), metacarpal III length (MIIL), metacarpal III width (MIIIW), metacarpal IV length (MIVL), metacarpal IV width (MIVW), metacarpal V length (MVL), metacarpal V width (MVW), phalanx I length (PILL), measured as phalanx II length (PIIL), phalanx III length (PIIL), phalanx IV length (PIVL), phalanx V length (PVL). In addition, the hand index (HI) was calculated. Logistic Regression (LR), Random Forest (RF), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), K-nearest neighbour (KNN) and Naive Bayes (NB) were used as MLAs. In the study, the KNN algorithm's Accuracy, SEN, F1 and Specificity ratios were determined as 88 %. In this study using MLA, it is understood that the highest accuracy belongs to the KNN algorithm. Except for the hand's MIIW, MIIIW, MIVW, MVW, HI variables, other variables were statistically significant in terms of sex difference.


En el estudio, el objetivo era predecir el sexo a partir de mediciones manuales utilizando algoritmos de aprendizaje automático (MLA). Las mediciones se realizaron en imágenes de RM de 60 hombres y 60 mujeres. Parámetros determinados; longitud de la mano (HL), longitud de la palma (PL), ancho de la mano (HW), ancho de la muñeca (EBG), longitud del metacarpiano I (MIL), ancho del metacarpiano I (MIW), longitud del metacarpiano II (MIIL), ancho del metacarpiano II (MIIW), longitud del metacarpiano III (MIIL), ancho del metacarpiano III (MIIIW), longitud del metacarpiano IV (MIVL), ancho del metacarpiano IV (MIVW), longitud del metacarpiano V (MVL), ancho del metacarpiano V (MVW), longitud de la falange I (PILL), medido como longitud de la falange II (PIIL), longitud de la falange III (PIIL), longitud de la falange IV (PIVL), longitud de la falange V (PVL). Además, se calculó el índice de la mano (HI). Regresión logística (LR), Random Forest (RF), Análisis discriminante lineal (LDA), K-vecino más cercano (KNN) y Naive Bayes (NB) se utilizaron como MLA. En el estudio, las proporciones de precisión, SEN, F1 y especificidad del algoritmo KNN se determinaron en un 88 %. En este estudio que utiliza MLA, se entiende que la mayor precisión pertenece al algoritmo KNN. Excepto por las variables MIIW, MIIIW, MIVW, MVW, HI de la mano, otras variables fueron estadísticamente significativas en términos de diferencia de sexo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Carpal Bones/diagnostic imaging , Finger Phalanges/diagnostic imaging , Metacarpal Bones/diagnostic imaging , Sex Determination by Skeleton/methods , Algorithms , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Carpal Bones/anatomy & histology , Discriminant Analysis , Logistic Models , Finger Phalanges/anatomy & histology , Metacarpal Bones/anatomy & histology , Machine Learning , Random Forest
11.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2023 Jul; 71(7): 2926
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225158

ABSTRACT

Background: In 1978, the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was a remarkable volte-face in the world of diagnostics. Employing the phenomenon of nuclear resonance enables us to exploit the properties of differential protons in living tissues. The ability of providing higher and variable contrast and the absence of ionizing radiations make it superior to computed tomography. Being the diagnostic tool of choice, it is an indispensable part of assessment of the location and characteristics of different ocular and orbital pathologies (vascular, inflammatory, and neoplastic). Purpose: The intrinsic and extrinsic properties of MRI provide multi-parametric imaging, making it of paramount importance in ophthalmological evaluation. Also, MRI-dynamic color mapping provides non-invasive and quantitative assessment of soft tissues in motion. An in-depth knowledge of the basic principle and technique of MRI aids in diagnosing as well optimal planning of surgical interventions. Synopsis: In this video, we shall be displaying the anatomical, clinical, and radiological aspects of MRI with an overlap to make it easier to understand the implications of this miraculous invention. Highlights: A good understanding of MRI analysis makes the ophthalmologists independent and helps in ruling out the differential diagnoses, exact extent and invasion, precise surgical planning and therefore, avoiding tragic outcomes. This video is an attempt to simplify and emphasize on the importance of MRI interpretation for an ophthalmologist.

12.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 6(2): 105-112, jul. 19, 2023. ilus. tab.
Article in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1442647

ABSTRACT

Se presentan dos casos clínicos de pacientes jóvenes con dolor torácico agudo, en ellos, el enfoque multidisciplinario y la resonancia magnética cardíaca jugaron un papel crucial en el diagnóstico y tratamiento. Presentación del caso 1. Un paciente de 20 años con dolor precordial y palpitaciones que mostró elevación de los niveles de enzimas cardíacas en los exámenes de laboratorio. La angiografía coronaria no reveló estenosis significativas. Sin embargo, se confirmó el diagnóstico de miocarditis a través de la resonancia magnética cardíaca, lo que llevó al inicio del tratamiento con medicamentos para lograr una función cardíaca adecuada y la prevención del progreso de la enfermedad. Su evolución clínica fue favorable. Presentación del caso 2. Un paciente de 19 años que presentó un dolor torácico intenso que se irradiaba al brazo izquierdo y mandíbula. Los exámenes de laboratorio reportaron elevación de los niveles de troponinas, que generaron la sospecha de un síndrome coronario agudo. La resonancia magnética cardíaca confirmó el diagnóstico de un infarto agudo de miocardio, y la angiografía coronaria reveló una estenosis significativa en la arteria descendente anterior y una ectasia subsiguiente. Durante la hospitalización, se brindó un enfoque terapéutico integral con la administración de medicamentos, monitoreo, control del dolor y prevención de complicaciones, y el paciente mostró una evolución clínica favorable


Two clinical cases of young patients with acute chest pain are presented, where the multidisciplinary approach and cardiac magnetic resonance played a crucial role in diagnosis and treatment. Case presentation 1. A 20 year old patient with precordial pain and palpitations showed elevated cardiac enzyme levels on laboratory examination. Coronary angiography revealed no significant stenosis. However, the diagnosis of myocarditis was confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, which led to the initiation of drug treatment to achieve adequate cardiac function and prevention of disease progression. His clinical evolution was favorable. Case presentation 2. 19 year old patient presented with severe chest pain radiating to the left arm and jaw. Laboratory tests reported elevated troponin levels, which raised the suspicion of acute coronary syndrome. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, and coronary angiography revealed significant stenosis in the anterior descending artery and subsequent ectasia. During hospitalization, a comprehensive therapeutic approach with medication administration, monitoring, pain control, and prevention of complications was provided, and the patient showed a favorable clinical evolution


Subject(s)
Adult , Chest Pain , El Salvador
13.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 86(4): 359-364, July-Sep. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447375

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the radiologic and clinical features of primary lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed imaging findings and medical records of lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Results: Eleven patients with pleomorphic adenoma and 16 patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma were evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups regarding age or sex. Proptosis was the most common presenting symptom in both groups. Adenoid cystic carcinomas were more likely to present with a palpable mass, diplopia, pain, and sensory loss than pleomorphic adenomas, although the differences were not statistically significant between groups. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in terms of homogeneity and globe indentation between lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma on computed tomography (CT)(all p>0.05). The rates of bone invasion, tumor calcification, and wedge sign were significantly higher in adenoid cystic carcinomas, and bone remodeling was statistically significantly higher in pleomorphic adenomas, on CT(all p<0.05). Pleomorphic adenomas were significantly more likely to show well-defined margins, lobulated contours, heterogeneous contrast enhancement, and hyperintensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (all p<0.05). Conclusion: When differentiating between lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma, evaluation of radiologic features along with clinical features is of great importance. Lobulated contours may be a significant distinguishing radiologic feature suggesting pleomorphic adenoma.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar as características radiológicas e clínicas do adenoma pleomórfico primário e do carcinoma adenoide cístico da glândula lacrimal. Métodos: Este estudo revisou retrospectivamente os achados de imagem e os prontuários médicos de casos de adenoma pleomórfico e carcinoma adenoide cístico da glândula lacrimal. Resultados: Foram avaliados 11 pacientes com adenoma pleomórfico e 16 pacientes com carcinoma adenoide cístico. Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas em relação à idade e sexo. Proptose foi o sintoma de apresentação mais comum em ambos os grupos. Os carcinomas adenoides císticos foram mais propensos que os adenomas pleomórficos a apresentarem massas palpáveis, diplopia, dor e perda sensorial, mas essa diferença entre os grupos não foi estatisticamente significativa. Não houve diferenças estatísticas em termos de homogeneidade e indentação do globo ocular entre os dois tipos de tumores em imagens de tomografia computadorizada (p>0,05). Também à tomografia computadorizada, a invasão óssea, a calcificação do tumor e o sinal em cunha foram mais frequentes nos carcinomas adenoides císticos, enquanto a remodelação óssea foi mais frequente nos adenomas pleomórficos, com significância estatística para todas essas manifestações (p<0,05). À ressonância magnética, os adenomas pleomórficos foram significativamente mais propensos a terem margens bem definidas, contornos lobulados, realce heterogêneo pelo contraste e hiperintensidade na ressonância magnética ponderada em T2 (p<0,05). Conclusão: Ao se diferenciar o adenoma pleomórfico e o carcinoma adenoide cístico da glândula lacrimal, é muito importante avaliar as características radiológicas juntamente com as características clínicas. Os contornos lobulados podem ser uma característica radiológica significativamente distinta em favor do adenoma pleomórfico.

14.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 43(2): 89-92, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1510662

ABSTRACT

El linfoma primario del sistema nervioso central es una forma de enfermedad extraganglionar originada en el cerebro, la leptomeninges, la médula espinal o los ojos. Los tumores espinales son neoplasias de baja prevalencia y pueden causar una morbimortalidad neurológica considerable. El linfoma aislado que surge dentro del conducto dural es la forma menos común de linfoma primario del sistema nervioso central: representa aproximadamente el 1% de los casos y se observa más a menudo en el contexto de diseminación secundaria que como el sitio primario de origen. Los síntomas son inespecíficos y dependen del nivel espinal involucrado. La presentación es insidiosa e incluye dorsalgia, debilidad y dificultad progresiva para la deambulación. La resonancia magnética es la modalidad de elección para búsqueda de lesiones dentro del conducto espinal/raquídeo, en pacientes que presentan síntomas neurológicos. El tratamiento quirúrgico no resulta útil, y el objetivo principal de la cirugía es conocer el diagnóstico histológico. (AU)


A primary central nervous system lymphoma is a form of extranodal disease originating in the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord, or eyes. Spinal tumors are low-prevalence neoplasms and can cause considerable neurological morbidity and mortality. An isolated lymphoma emerging within the dural canal is the rarest form of primary central nervous system lymphoma: it accounts for approximately 1% of cases occurring more often in the context of secondary dissemination than as the primary site of origin. Symptoms are nonspecific and depend on the spinal level involved. The presentation is insidious and includes dorsalgia, weakness, and progressive difficulty in ambulatory function. MRI is the modality of choice to search for lesions within the spinal/rachial canal in patients presenting with neurological symptoms. Surgical treatment is not helpful, and the main objective of surgery is to know the histological diagnosis. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Central Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Central Nervous System/pathology , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology , Positron-Emission Tomography , Laminectomy
15.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 49(3): 299-306, may-June 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440256

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The objective of the present study is to evaluate the anatomy of the inferior hypogastric plexus, correlating it with urological pathologies, imaging exams and surgeries of the female pelvis, especially for treatment of endometriosis. Material and Methods We carried out a review about the anatomy of the inferior hypogastric plexus in the female pelvis. We analyzed papers published in the past 20 years in the databases of Pubmed, Embase and Scielo, and we included only papers in English and excluded case reports, editorials, and opinions of specialists. We also studied two human fixed female corpses and microsurgical dissection material with a stereoscopic magnifying glass with 2.5x magnification. Results Classical anatomical studies provide few details of the morphology of the inferior hypogastric plexus (IHP) or the location and nature of the associated nerves. The fusion of pelvic splanchnic nerves, sacral splanchnic nerves, and superior hypogastric plexus together with visceral afferent fibers form the IHP. The surgeon's precise knowledge of the anatomical relationship between the hypogastric nerve and the uterosacral ligament is essential to reduce the risk of complications and postoperative morbidity of patients surgically treated for deep infiltrative endometriosis involving the uterosacral ligament. Conclusion Accurate knowledge of the innervation of the female pelvis is of fundamental importance for prevention of possible injuries and voiding dysfunctions as well as the evacuation mechanism in the postoperative period. Imaging exams such as nuclear magnetic resonance are interesting tools for more accurate visualization of the distribution of the hypogastric plexus in the female pelvis.

16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 49(3): 359-371, may-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440259

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose Targeted biopsy (TB) combined with systematic biopsy (SB) is an optimized mode of prostate biopsy but can often lead to oversampling and overdiagnosis accompanied by potential biopsy-related complications and patient discomfort. Here, we attempted to reasonably stratify the patient population based on multi-parameter indicators with the aim of avoiding unnecessary SB. Methods In total, 340 biopsy-naïve men with suspected lesions, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) < 20 ng/mL and prostate imaging-reporting and data system (PI-RADS) ≥ 3 enrolled for study underwent both TB and SB. The primary outcome was to determine independent predictors for a valid diagnosis, assuming that only TB was performed and SB omitted (defined as mono-TB), taking TB + SB as the reference standard. The secondary outcomes were exploration of the predictive factors of mono-TB and TB + SB in detection of prostate cancer (PCa) and clinically significant PCa (csPCa). Results The mean PSA density (PSAD) of patient group was 0.27 ng/mL/mL. Multiparametric MRI PI-RADS scores were 3-5 in 146 (42.94%), 105 (30.88%), and 89 (26.18%) cases, respectively. PCa and csPCa were detected in 178/340 (52.35%) and 162/340 (47.65%) patients, respectively. Overall, 116/178 (65.17%) patients diagnosed with PCa displayed pathological consistencies between mono-TB and TB + SB modes. PSAD and PI-RADS were independent predictors of valid diagnosis using mono-TB. Conclusions PSAD combined with PI-RADS showed utility in guiding optimization of the prostate biopsy mode. Higher PSAD and PI-RADS values were associated with greater confidence in implementing mono-TB and safely omitting SB, thus effectively balancing the benefits and risks.

17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 81(6): 533-543, June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447421

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background There is clinical and radiological overlap among demyelinating diseases. However, their pathophysiological mechanisms are different and carry distinct prognoses and treatment demands. Objective To investigate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of patients with myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein associated disease (MOGAD), antibody against aquaporin-4(AQP-4)-immunoglobulin G-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (AQP4-IgG NMOSD), and double-seronegative patients. Methods A cross-sectional retrospective study was performed to analyze the topography and morphology of central nervous system (CNS) lesions. Two neuroradiologists consensually analyzed the brain, orbit, and spinal cord images. Results In total, 68 patients were enrolled in the study (25 with AQP4-IgG-positive NMOSD, 28 with MOGAD, and 15 double-seronegative patients). There were differences in clinical presentation among the groups. The MOGAD group had less brain involvement (39.2%) than the NMOSD group (p = 0.002), mostly in the subcortical/juxtacortical, the midbrain, the middle cerebellar peduncle, and the cerebellum. Double-seronegative patients had more brain involvement (80%) with larger and tumefactive lesion morphology. In addition, double-seronegative patients showed the longest optic neuritis (p = 0.006), which was more prevalent in the intracranial optic nerve compartment. AQP4-IgG-positive NMOSD optic neuritis had a predominant optic-chiasm location, and brain lesions mainly affected hypothalamic regions and the postrema area (MOGAD versus AQP4-IgG-positive NMOSD, p= 0 .013). Furthermore, this group had more spinal cord lesions (78.3%), and bright spotty lesions were a paramount finding to differentiate it from MOGAD (p = 0.003). Conclusion The pooled analysis of lesion topography, morphology, and signal intensity provides critical information to help clinicians form a timely differential diagnosis.


Resumo Antecedentes Há sobreposição clínica e radiológica entre as doenças desmielinizantes. No entanto, seus mecanismos fisiopatológicos são diferentes e apresentam prognósticos e demandas de tratamento distintos. Objetivo Investigar as características de imagens de RM dos pacientes com doença associada à glicoproteína de oligodendrócito de mielina (MOGAD), a doenças do espectro da neuromielite óptica positivas para antiaquaporina-4 imunoglobulina G (AQP4-IgG NMOSD), e pacientes duplamente soronegativos. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo e transversal para analisar as características e frequência das lesões do sistema nervoso central (SNC). Dois neurorradiologistas avaliaram consensualmente as imagens do cérebro, das órbitas e da medula espinhal. Resultados Ao todo, foram incluídos 68 pacientes(25 com AQP4-IgG NMOSD, 28 com MOGAD e 15 duplo-soronegativos). Há diferenças na apresentação clínica entre os grupos. O grupo MOGAD demonstrou menor frequência de comprometimento do cérebro (39.2%) comparado com o AQP4-IgG NMOSD (p = 0.002), com predomínio da distribuição das lesões nas regiões subcortical/justacortical, mesencéfalo, pedúnculos cerebelares médios e cerebelo. O grupo duplo-soronegativo demonstrou maior frequência de comprometimento do cérebro (80%), com lesões de maiores dimensões e com morfologia tumefeita, além de neurite óptica com maior extensão (p = 0.006). O grupo AQP4-IgG NMOSD demonstrou neurite óptica com predomínio na região óptico-quiasmática e as lesões encefálicas acometeram predominantemente as regiões hipotalâmica e área postrema (MOGAD versus AQP4-IgG NMOSD p = 0.013). Além disso, foram observadas mais lesões na medula espinhal (78.3%) e a presença da "bright spotty lesion" foi um achado primordial para a sua diferenciação com os pacientes MOGAD (p = 0.003). Conclusão A análise pormenorizada das características das lesões por RM dos pacientes com doenças desmielinizantes imunomediadas fornece informações fundamentais que auxiliam os médicos no diagnóstico diferencial em um momento oportuno.

18.
Radiol. bras ; 56(3): 119-124, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449029

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate uterine function by using cine magnetic resonance imaging to visualize the contractile movements of the uterus in patients with and without deep infiltrating endometriosis (with or without associated adenomyosis). Materials and Methods: This was a prospective case-control study. The study sample comprised 43 women: 18 in the case group and 25 in the control group. We performed cine magnetic resonance imaging in a 3.0 T scanner, focusing on the presence, direction, and frequency of uterine peristalsis. Results: The frequency of uterine peristalsis was higher in the case group than in the control group, in the periovulatory phase (3.83 vs. 2.44 peristaltic waves in two minutes) and luteal phase (1.20 vs. 0.91 peristaltic waves in two minutes). However, those differences were not statistically significant. There was a significant difference between the patients with adenomyosis and those without in terms of the frequency of peristalsis during the late follicular/periovulatory phase (0.8 vs. 3.18 peristaltic waves in two minutes; p < 0.05). Conclusion: The frequency of uterine peristalsis appears to be higher during the periovulatory and luteal phases in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis, whereas it appears to be significantly lower during the late follicular/periovulatory phase in patients with adenomyosis. Both of those effects could have a negative impact on sperm transport and on the early stages of fertilization.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a função uterina mediante visualização dos movimentos contráteis do útero por meio de cine-ressonância magnética em pacientes com e sem endometriose infiltrativa profunda (com ou sem adenomiose associada). Materiais e Métodos: Estudo caso-controle prospectivo. A amostra foi composta por 43 mulheres, sendo 18 mulheres no grupo caso e 25 mulheres no grupo controle. A cine-ressonância magnética foi realizada com magneto 3.0 T, com foco na presença, direção e frequência do peristaltismo uterino. Resultados: O peristaltismo uterino foi mais frequente nas pacientes do grupo endometriose do que no grupo controle na fase periovulatória (3,83 × 2,44 peristalses em dois minutos) e lútea (1,20 × 0,91 peristalse em dois minutos). No entanto, esses resultados não foram estatisticamente significantes. Nas pacientes com adenomiose, observou-se redução significativa na frequência de peristaltismo durante a primeira fase do ciclo menstrual (3,18 × 0,8 peristalses; p < 0,05). Conclusão: A frequência de peristaltismo uterino parece estar aumentada durante a fase periovulatória e lútea em pacientes com endometriose infiltrativa profunda e significativamente reduzida em pacientes com adenomiose durante a primeira fase do ciclo menstrual. Ambos os efeitos têm potencial de interferir negativamente no transporte de espermatozoides e nos primeiros estágios de fecundação.

19.
Radiol. bras ; 56(3): 145-149, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449030

ABSTRACT

Abstract Radiation-induced secondary tumors constitute a rare complication of radiation therapy and typically occur in or near the irradiated area. Women who undergo thoracic radiotherapy before 30 years of age have a significantly greater lifetime risk of developing breast cancer than do those in the general population. It is recommended that a patient who has previously received thoracic radiotherapy with a radiation dose ≥ 10 Gy subsequently undergo annual screening with mammography and magnetic resonance imaging, beginning eight years after the initial treatment or when the patient has reached 25 years of age (whichever comes later). The treatment of secondary breast cancer in this population should be individualized and should be discussed with a multidisciplinary team to avoid toxicity related to the treatment of the primary cancer.


Resumo Os cânceres secundários induzidos por radiação são complicações raras da radioterapia e geralmente ocorrem na área tratada ou próximo a ela. Mulheres com menos de 30 anos de idade tratadas com radioterapia torácica têm risco significativamente aumentado de desenvolver câncer de mama ao longo da vida, em comparação com a população em geral. Para as pacientes tratadas com irradiação torácica com dose igual ou superior a 10 Gy é recomendado rastreamento anual com mamografia e ressonância magnética iniciando oito anos após o tratamento, desde que este início seja após 25 anos de idade. O tratamento do câncer de mama secundário nessa população deve ser individualizado e discutido com equipe multidisciplinar, para evitar toxicidade relacionada ao tratamento do câncer primário.

20.
Radiol. bras ; 56(3): 131-136, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449040

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To characterize the location of tibial edema related to meniscal degeneration with a flap displaced into the meniscotibial recess (osteomeniscal impingement) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: We evaluated 40 MRI examinations of patients submitted to surgery due to inferior displacement of a meniscal flap tear into the meniscotibial recess and peripheral bone edema. Tibial edema was quantified in the coronal and axial planes. Results: On coronal MRI sequences, edema started in the tibial periphery and extended for a mean of 5.6 ± 1.4 mm, or 7.4 ± 2.1% of the tibial plateau. In the craniocaudal direction, the mean extension was 8.8 ± 2.9 mm. The mean ratio between the extent of craniocaudal and mediolateral edema was 1.6 ± 0.6. In the axial plane, the edema started in the medial periphery and extended for a mean of 6.2 ± 2.0 mm, or 8.2 ± 2.9% of the tibial plateau. In the anteroposterior measurement, the mean start and end of the edema was 21.4 ± 5.4 mm and 35.7 ± 5.7 mm, respectively, or 43.4 ± 10.2% and 72.8 ± 11.1% of the tibial plateau. Conclusion: Apparently, tibial edema resulting from osteomeniscal impingement always starts in the periphery of the meniscus. In the coronal plane, it appears to be more extensive in the craniocaudal direction than in the mediolateral direction. In the axial plane, we found it to extend, on average, approximately 6.2 mm in the mediolateral direction and to be most commonly located from the center to the posterior region of the medial tibial plateau.


Resumo Objetivo: Caracterizar a localização do edema ósseo tibial relacionado a lesão meniscal degenerativa com fragmento deslocado no recesso meniscotibial (impacto osteomeniscal) por meio de ressonância magnética (RM). Materiais e Métodos: Quarenta RMs de pacientes submetidos a cirurgia por fragmento deslocado do menisco medial no recesso meniscotibial e edema ósseo periférico foram avaliadas. Edema ósseo tibial foi quantificado nos planos coronal e axial. Resultados: No plano coronal, o edema iniciou-se na periferia tibial e estendeu-se por 5,6 ± 1,4 mm, ou 7,4 ± 2,1% do platô. Na direção craniocaudal, o edema estendeu-se em média 8,8 ± 2,9 mm. A média entre a extensão do edema craniocaudal e mediolateral foi 1,6 ± 0,6. No plano axial, o edema iniciou-se na periferia medial e estendeu-se por 6,2 ± 2,0 mm, ou 8,2 ± 2,9% da medida da tíbia. Na medida anteroposterior, o edema iniciou-se em 21,4 ± 5,4 mm e terminou em 35,7 ± 5,7 mm ou iniciou-se em 43,4 ± 10,2% e terminou em 72,8 ± 11,1% do platô tibial. Conclusão: O edema ósseo tibial relacionado aos casos de impacto osteomeniscal sempre se inicia na periferia do menisco. Ele é mais extenso na direção craniocaudal do que mediolateral no plano coronal. No plano axial, ele estende-se por 6,2 mm de medial a lateral e é mais frequentemente localizado no centro da região posterior do platô medial.

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