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Rev. chil. nutr ; 48(1)feb. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388458


RESUMEN Diversas agencias internacionales han considerado que la acrilamida puede producir efectos dañinos en la salud de la población debido a una serie de estudios toxicológicos realizados en modelos animales, en los cuales se observan efectos cancerígenos, genotóxicos, neurotóxicos, inmunológicos y en la salud reproductiva. A pesar de la creciente preocupación en diversos países sobre los potenciales efectos en salud humana, los organismos encargados de determinar límites toxicológicos no han definido aún los límites máximos de acrilamida que pueden estar presente en los diferentes tipos de alimentos para que sean inocuos para la población. El objetivo de esta actualización es revisar las regulaciones existentes sobre la acrilamida y enfatizar la necesidad de establecer límites que la industria alimentaria pueda aplicar efectivamente, además de la necesidad de contar con valores máximos diarios tolerables para prevenir los efectos nocivos para la salud de la población.

ABSTRACT Several international agencies have considered that acrylamide can induce deleterious effects in human health due to a series of toxicological studies conducted in animal models, in which carcinogenic, genotoxic, neurotoxic, immunological and reproductive effects have been observed. Despite a growing concern about these effects on human health, agencies responsible for determining toxicological limits in various countries have not yet defined the maximum levels of acrylamide that may be present in the different types of food to be safe for the population. The objective of this updated review is to evaluate the existing regulations on acrylamide and emphasize the need to establish limits that the food industry can effectively apply, in addition to the need to have tolerable daily maximum values to prevent harmful effects on the population health.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906366


Objective:To study the quality evaluation method of Cyperi Rhizoma processed with four excipients. Method:Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) fingerprints of raw products and processed products with four excipients of Cyperi Rhizoma were established, and the changes of chemical components in the fingerprints before and after processing were compared by chemometric analysis. The mobile phase was consisted of methanol (A)-water (B) for gradient elution (0-10 min, 5%-40%A; 10-30 min, 40%-70%A; 30-40 min, 70%A) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>. The injection volume was 3 μL, the column temperature was 35 ℃, and the detection wavelength was 280 nm. The content changes of main index components in Cyperi Rhizoma before and after processing were compared by UPLC. The mobile phase was methanol-water (75∶25) and the detection wavelength was 242 nm. Result:Processing with four excipients had a significant impact on the overall characteristics of chemical components in the fingerprint of Cyperi Rhizoma. A total of 28 characteristic peaks were identified in fingerprints of the raw and processed products. Among them, peaks 1, 2 and 4 were specific peaks of the processed products, peak 5 was characteristic peak of the raw products. Peak 2 was identified as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, peak 24 as cyperenone and peak 27 as <italic>α</italic>-cyperone. The 5-hydroxymethylfurfural produced by the processing with four excipients came from rice vinegar, rice wine and Maillard reaction of polysaccharides in Cyperi Rhizoma. The results of determination showed that there was no significant difference in the content of cyperenone after processing, but the content of <italic>α</italic>-cyperone decreased significantly. Conclusion:In the process of Cyperi Rhizoma processed with four excipients, there are new components produced by structural transformation, which are accompanied by changes in the content of index components. In this study, the quality of raw and processed products of Cyperi Rhizoma can be rapidly and effectively evaluated from qualitative and quantitative aspects.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827937


The chromaticity space parameters of the samples during the processing of Gardeniae Fructus Praeparatus(Jiaozhizi in Chinese herbal name, JZZ) were measured by the visual analyzer to analyze the color variation rule during the processing of JZZ, and the content changes of total reducing sugar, total amino acid and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural(5-HMF) related to Maillard reaction were measured. Pearson correlation analysis and linear regression analysis of the data were carried out by SPSS 24.0 software. The experimental results showed that the objective coloration of the samples in the processing of JZZ was basically consistent with the traditional subjective color judgment; the contents of total reducing sugar and total amino acids showed a decreasing trend during the processing of JZZ, and the content of 5-HMF showed an increasing trend, which was in line with Maillard reaction law. Pearson correlation analysis results showed that there was a significant correlation between the chromaticity space parameters L~*(lightness value), a~*(red green value), b~*(yellow blue value), E~*ab(total color value) and the contents of total reducing sugar, total amino acid and 5-HMF(P<0.01), among which the values of L~*, a~*, b~*, E~*ab were positively correlated with the contents of total reducing sugar and total amino acid, and negatively correlated with the contents of 5-HMF. The results of linear regression analysis also showed that these two were highly correlated. In this study, by establishing the correspondence relationship between the color change of JZZ processing and Maillard reactants, wecan not only provide a basis for the objective digital expression of subjective color of JZZ, but also provide a reference for explaining the processing mechanism of JZZ from a new perspective.

Amino Acids , Color , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Gardenia , Maillard Reaction
Chinese Herbal Medicines ; (4): 56-66, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-842041


Objective: Chinese yam (Shanyao in Chinese, SY) as one of the representatives for Chinese medicines can be used as both of medicine and food with rich nutritional and medicinal value. Most of Chinese herbal medicines need to be processed prior to be used in clinical practice. SY was divided into Maoshanyao (Hairy Shanyao, MSY) and Guangshanyao (Smooth Shanyao, GSY) based on different processing methods at the place of origin, and it also could be processed as stir-fried SY and bran stir-fried SY to meet the different clinical use. Moreover, during the processing of Chinese herbal medicines, more complicated Maillard reaction occurs compared to food processing. Therefore, the objective of this research is to quantify the firepower of SY processing, and combined this with the relevant parameters of Maillard reaction. Methods: The MSY and GSY produced in Shanxi and Henan Provinces were chosen as the research objects. By using thermal analysis technology, we first established the correlation between pyrolysis and processing of SY and its mixtures. We also quantified the firepower of Shaoyao processing, and combined this with the relevant parameters of Maillard reaction (pH value, amino acid, and 5-HMF) and the changes in medicinal ingredients (allantoin). Results: The SY was mainly fried with moderate-fire (190 °C−200 °C), and the starting temperatures of different SY–ingredient mixtures were (176.3 ± 5.33) °C for (honey) bran, and (205.9 ± 8.05) °C for rice. The upper limits of processing temperature were (289.9 ± 6.47) °C for (honey) bran and (298.9 ± 1.15) °C for rice. The cooking time was (10.80 ± 1.76) min for soil stir-fry, (10.31 ± 1.06) min for bran stir-fry, and (8.43 ± 0.68) min for rice stir-fry. Moreover, the pH values and the content of 5-HMF were increased (P < 0.001), while the content of glycine was decreased significantly (P < 0.001) after processing. Conclusion: The results verified and quantified the firepower of traditional processing of SY, and also provided scientific reference for other studies related to SY processing.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846492


Objective: To study the formation regularity and kinetic parameters of advanced glycation end-products during the processing of boiled Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum (CCP). Methods: UV-visible spectrophotometry and UPLC-MS/MS method were used to determine the change of browning index and content of typical advanced glycation end-products, Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine and Nε-(carboxyethyl) lysine, of the processing system of simulated boiled CCP. The formation regularity and kinetic parameters of advanced glycation end-products during the processing of boiled CCP were discussed by constructing glucose and lysine to simulate the Maillard reaction system of CCP processing. Results: The activation energy of browning reaction, Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine and Nε-(carboxyethyl) lysine reaction during processing of boiled CCP were 5.07, 40.44 and 78.47 kJ/mol, respectively, and all of them were zero-order kinetics. The activation energies of the above reactions in the baking process were 6.72, 89.34 and 164.77 kJ/mol, respectively, and all of them were zero-order kinetics. Compared to the formation of Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine, the formation of Nε-(carboxyethyl) lysine required higher activation energy and was more difficult to occur. Conclusion: The temperature changed in the baking process has a significantly higher effect on the kinetic parameters of the advanced glycation end-products than in the boiling process. Long-term higher baking temperature resulted in more advanced glycation end-products produced in the boiled CCP. This study provides a solid theoretical basis for the blocking and inhibition strategies of advanced glycation end-products in the processing of CCP, which is also a great significance for the production of green safety CCP and strengthening the safety of traditional Chinese medicine.

Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(2): 137-143, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002619


La cocción de los alimentos a altas temperaturas en calor seco, produce ciertas modificaciones organolépticas que los hace especialmente apetecibles y objetos de adicción. Esto es resultado de la reacción de Maillard, o glicación, que se produce por unión no enzimática del grupo carbonilo, de azúcares reductores como glucosa y fructosa, con el grupo amino de proteínas y ácidos nucleicos. Junto a los cambios físicos, cambia la estructura química y la función de estos aductos, denominados también glicotoxinas. Además de la glicación exógena, generada durante la cocción de los alimentos, recientemente ha sido referida la glicación in situ, en la luz intestinal, durante la digestión, cuando determinados alimentos no glicados se combinan en el momento de su ingestión. A esto se agrega la glicación endógena extracelular relacionada con la glucosa sanguínea y la intracelular, con metabolitos de la glucólisis y de la fructosa. Desde la década del 70, con el remplazo en gran medida de la sacarosa por fructosa, significativamente más reactiva que la glucosa, aumentó la presencia de productos de glicación en alimentos procesados y bebidas gaseosas. Están documentados sus efectos patogénicos como contribuyentes al estrés oxidativo y a la inflamación, especialmente en diabetes, insuficiencia renal y enfermedad cardiovascular y están siendo explorados en otras enfermedades crónicas, como procesos neurodegenerativos y envejecimiento temprano. Se describen medidas para preservar la salud, atendiendo medios de cocción y procesamiento de los alimentos y recomendaciones sobre hábitos de vida e ingesta de antioxidantes para acción inhibitoria o antagónica sobre las glicotoxinas.

Certain organoleptic modifications by way of processing and cooking foods at high temperatures in dry heat, make them especially appetizing and objects of addiction. It results from Maillard reaction, or glycation, consisting of the non-enzymatic union between carbonyl groups, mainly from reducing sugars as glucose and fructose, with the amino group of proteins and nucleic acids. In addition to physical changes, also the chemical structure and function of these compounds are changed. Besides exogenous glycation generated during the cooking of foods, recently in situ glycation has been reported in the intestinal lumen during digestion, when certain non-glycated foods are combined with fructose at the time of ingestion. In addition, endogenous glycation, which correlates in the extracellular mainly with blood glucose and in the intracellular with glycolysis metabolites and fructose, is specially significant. Since the 70s, with the frequent sucrose replacement by fructose, much more reactive than glucose, the presence of glycation products in processed foods and soft drinks increased.Pathogenic effects of these compounds, also called glycotoxins, are known to contribute to oxidative stress and inflammation. This increases progression of chronic diseases, well documented in diabetes, renal insuficiency, cardiovascular disease and aging process, and are being explore d in many other chronic diseases as neurodegenerative disorders and early aging. Based on the knowledge achieved so far, measures to preserve health are described by attending ways of cooking and processing foods, besides recommendations for life habits and antioxidants dietary intakes for inhibition or antagonism on glycotoxins.

Humans , Maillard Reaction , Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism , Food , Risk Factors , Glycation End Products, Advanced/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851463


Maillard reaction is a non-enzymatic browning reaction which is ubiquitous in the food industry and processing of Chinese materia medica (CMM). Maillard reaction can not only change the color and aroma of CMM, extend the shelf life of CMM, but also produce new active substances in CMM. In addition, a small amount of toxic and harmful substances such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and advanced glycation end-products produced by Maillard reaction have been given increasingly attention. It is of great significance to control the quality of CMM by changing the reaction temperature, time, potential of hydrogen, adding inhibitors, and anti-oxidants to regulate Maillard reaction. This paper reviews the general situation of Maillard reaction research and its research progress on the quality and regulation of CMM, and provides a reference for further research on the regulation of Maillard reaction for the quality control of CMM.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851367


Objective: To investigate the Maillard reaction products and anti-oxidant activity of dichloromethane extraction from Polygonati Rhizoma (PR) after processing. Methods: Three species of PR were prepared by different processing time according to the preparation process of Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. The colour changes of Maillard reaction characteristics during the processing of PR were detected by UV-Vis; The pH changes were detected by pH detector; GC-MS was used to analyze the change of Maillard reaction products (MRPs); DPPH radical scavenging activity was used as the evaluation index of anti-oxidant activity. Results: With the increase of processing time, the MRPs and Browning degree increased, the pH value decreased, and the anti-oxidant activity increased. After processing for 16 h, three species of PR had the same change, showing the characteristics of Maillard reaction. GC-MS analysis detected multiple characteristic MRPs, including 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran- 4-one and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. The DPPH radical scavenging activities of three species of PR were significantly increased after processing for 16 h. Conclusion: During the processing, PR have the characteristic products in Maillard reaction, and with the extension of processing time, the anti-oxidant activity increases regularly. These provide a basis for the material basic research of PR.

Food Sci. Technol (SBCTA, Impr.) ; 38(1): 126-133, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-892256


Abstract Morchella esculenta (L) Pers. is a highly valued edible and medicinal fungus that remains underutilized. For this study, the effects of glycation treatment on antioxidant activity and characteristics of the M. esculenta protein isolate (MPI) were investigated via the Maillard reaction. Conjugation between MPI and xylose was proven via UV-vis, FT-IR, intrinsic fluorescence analysis, and SDS-PAGE. Amino acid analysis revealed involvement of lysine, arginine and tyrosine in MPI, forming a covalent cross-link with xylose. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed that glycated MPI (MPIG) possesses a more favorable thermal stability compared to native MPI (MPIN), heated MPI (MPIH) and an unheated mixture of MPI and xylose (MPI-XM). MPIG exhibited significantly enhanced antioxidant activity compared to MPIN, MPIH, and MPI-XM. These results indicate MPIG can serve as a promising novel source of nutraceutical and functional ingredients that exert antioxidant activity.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-852891


The "black" of Chinese materia medica (CMM) has been criticized all the time. The Maillard reaction exists widely in the course of food processing, which affects the product's color and odor. The suitable conditions of Maillard reaction also exist in the processing of CMM preparation. The Maillard reaction has significant impact to the study of CMM's material basis. So the Maillard reaction and its products in the processing of CMM preparation should be studied. Taking the Danggui Buxue Decoction for instance, the chemical composition of the prescription was consulted by the TCMSP of Northwest A&F University, and then the constituents were classified, the possibility of the Maillard reaction occured in the processing of CMM preparation was analyzed. New ideas on study of material basis of CMM will be put forward.

Rev. chil. nutr ; 44(2): 137-143, 2017. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899813


Samples of cakes (baked biscuit-type products) made with sugar (control) and samples prepared with non-caloric sweeteners (stevia, saccharin and sucralose) were developed and acceptability evaluated using a 5-point hedonic scale test for color, aroma and flavor. The color and aroma results indicated that the cakes made with sugar have significantly larger acceptability than cakes made with non-caloric sweeteners (p< 0.05). In assessing the acceptability of taste there are significant differences between all samples of cakes, with the following descending order according to the sweetener used: sugar > stevia > sucralose > saccharin. Replacement of sugar by non-caloric sweeteners in cakes, decreased the acceptability of the products. One explanation may be because no non-enzymatic browning reactions occur such as Maillard reaction and caramelization, which generate compounds related to color, aroma and flavor of baked foods.

Se elaboraron muestras de queques (productos horneados tipo bizcocho) con azúcar (control) y con edulcorantes no calóricos (estevia, sacarina y sucralosa). Los queques se evaluaron sensorialmente mediante una prueba de aceptabilidad con una escala hedónica de 5 puntos para los parámetros de color, aroma y sabor. Los resultados de color y aroma indican que los queques elaborados con azúcar tienen una aceptabilidad significativamente mayor que los queques elaborados con los edulcorantes no calóricos (p< 0,05). En la evaluación de sabor hubo diferencias significativas entre todas las muestras de queques, con el siguiente orden decreciente según el edulcorante utilizado: azúcar > estevia > sucralosa > sacarina. El reemplazo de azúcar por edulcorantes no calóricos en los queque, disminuyó la aceptabilidad de los productos. Una explicación posible es que no se producen reacciones de pardeamiento no enzimático como reacción de Maillard y caramelización, las que generan compuestos relacionados con el color, aroma y sabor de productos horneados.

Sweetening Agents , Maillard Reaction , Cookies , Sugars , Prepared Foods
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(4): 709-714, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951883


ABSTRACT The Maillard reaction of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and lactose has been previously demonstrated in pharmaceutical formulations. In this study, the activation energy of - hydrohlorothiazide and lactose interaction in the liquid state was ascertained under basic and neutral conditions. Conventional isothermal High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique was employed to ascertain the kinetic parameters using Arrhenius method. Results: The activation energy obtained was 82.43 and 100.28 kJ/mol under basic and neutral conditions, respectively. Consequently, it can be inferred that Maillard reaction is significantly affected by pH, which can be used as a control factor whenever the reaction potentially occurs.

Kinetics , Hydrochlorothiazide/analysis , Lactose/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/classification , Maillard Reaction , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-179990


Aim: To investigate the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) during 28 days storage of the two most consumed brands (B1, B2) of gruel products on the Swedish market. Methodology: The MRPs; furfural, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), N-(1-Carboxyethyl)-L-Lysine (CEL), N-(1-Carboxymethyl)-L-Lysine (CML), fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and melanoidins (brown colour) were selected for analysis. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV spectrophotometry, fluorescence spectrophotometry or tandem mass spectrometry was used for analysis. Results: In general, MRPs were higher in B2 than in B1 at the time of opening the package. The initial content of MRPs in B1 and B2 respectively was as follows: 4.39 and 13.74 μg/g of furfural; 1.11 and 1.47 μg/g of HMF; 73.64 and 134.3 μg/g of total CML; 19.79 and 30.42 μg/g of total CEL; 51.11 and 73.01 AU/g of fluorescent AGEs; 0.52 and 1.45 AU/g of MRPs that absorb light at 420 nm and 1.40 and 3.22 AU/g of MRPs that absorb light at 360 nm. During storage for 28 days, furfural, HMF, MRPs that absorb light at 360 nm and at 420 nm as well as fluorescent MRPs increased significantly by respectively 7, 30, 60, 83 and 21% in B2. In B1, only the fluorescent MRPs (21%) increased during storage. Conclusion: A higher initial content and more pronounced increase of MRPs during 28 days storage time was observed in B2. Consequently, children consuming gruel from B2 are exposed to 1.3-3.1 times more MRPs compared to B1. Considering that a child often sticks to one gruel brand throughout the first years of life and that some MRPs are inflammatory drivers, more studies are required to understand the role of food-process induced chemicals at an early age for future health of the children.

Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 32(1): 154-160, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-753642


Los productos finales de glicación (AGEs) son un grupo heterogéneo de moléculas generadas por medio de reacciones no enzimáticas de glicación y de oxidación de proteínas, lípidos y ácidos nucleicos. La formación aumentada de AGEs ocurre en condiciones tales como la diabetes mellitus y el envejecimiento. AGEs median sus efectos a través de tres mecanismos principales: 1) entrecruzamiento con proteínas de la matriz extracelular, afectando las propiedades mecánicas de los tejidos, 2) entrecruzamiento con proteínas intracelulares alterando sus funciones fisiológicas y 3) unión a sus receptores de superficie RAGE para inducir múltiples cascadas de señales intracelulares. La acumulación de AGEs en las proteínas tisulares ha sido implicada en las complicaciones vasculares diabéticas, tales como la retinopatía, la nefropatía y la neuropatía. En la nefropatía diabética los AGEs contribuyen al desarrollo y progresión de esta enfermedad renal.

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a heterogenous group of molecules that are generated through nonenzimatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Enhanced formation and accumulation of AGEs has been reported to occur in conditions such as diabetes mellitus as well as in natural aging. AGEs mediate their effects through three main mechanism: 1) cross linking extracellular (matrix) proteins thereby affecting tissue mechanical properties, 2) cross linking intracellular proteins thus altering their physiological functios and 3) binding to their cell surface receptor RAGE to inducing multiple intracellular signalling cascades. The accumulation of AGEs in tissue proteins has been implicated in diabetic vascular complications, such as retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. In the diabetic nephropathy AGEs contribute to the development and progression of this renal disease.

Humans , Male , Adult , Diabetes Complications , Glomerular Basement Membrane , Glycation End Products, Advanced , Maillard Reaction
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(2): 68-76, Mar. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745572


Background Industrial food processing induces protein glycation modifications and toxic advanced glycation end products (AGEs) which affect human health. Therefore, it is of interest to monitor AGEs in food processing. The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of lotus seedpod oligomeric procyanidin (LSOPC) concentrations, solution pH value and metal ions on AGE formation by heat treatment of lactose-lysine model solutions. Ne-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML), as one of the common AGEs was also determined by HPLC-MS/MS in this experiment. Results The results showed that LSOPC can inhibit the formation of AGEs effectively at higher concentrations, lower temperature, and it can reverse the promotion function of metal ions because of its high inhibition activity. Also, LSOPC can inhibit CML formation in the Maillard reaction as well. Conclusion These results indicated that LSOPC could be used as functional food ingredients to inhibit AGE formation.

Seeds/chemistry , Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism , Proanthocyanidins/metabolism , Temperature , Maillard Reaction , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Lotus/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lactose/chemistry , Lysine/chemistry , Models, Chemical
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-464346


Objective To study the correlation between storage time and the content of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in Corni Fructus because of the color change caused by storage time. Methods Corni Fructus samples of different storage time with 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 years were collected. The contents of 5-HMF were determined by HPLC. Results The HPLC determination method of 5-HMF in Corni Fructus was established. The contents of 5-HMF varied from undetected value to 0.292 8%, with the increase of storage time of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 years and the color gradually deepened from red, dark red, reddish brown to brown. The contents of 5-HMF in black wine-prepared Corni Fructus were 0.954 4%-1.837%. Conclusion The browning of Corni Fructus is related to the production of 5-HMF. With the extension of storage time of Corni Fructus, the color gradually deepens and the content of 5-HMF increase significantly. The storage time of Corni Fructus can be suggested to be one year.

China Pharmacist ; (12): 916-918,919, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-671116


Objective:To optimize the influencing factors in Maillard reaction products ( MRPs) between valine and glucose/fruc-tose. Methods:The heating time, heating temperature, initial pH value and the molar ratio of amino to carbonyl as the evaluation fac-tors,and the activity of MRPs during the processing of Polygonati Rhizoma on DPPH radical scavenging as the evaluation index,the in-fluencing factors were optimized by L9 (34 ) orthogonal design. Results:The optimal reaction conditions for valine and glucose were as follows:the heating time was 24 h, the heating temperature was 110℃, the initial pH value was 7 and the molar ratio was 1∶3. The optimal reaction conditions for valine and fructose were as follows:the heating time was 8 h, the heating temperature was 120℃, the initial pH value was 9 and the molar ratio was 1∶2. Conclusion:The study provides theoretical basis for the further study on the pro-cessing of Polygonati Rhizoma.

Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-376532


In this study, we examined whether AA can be produced in Fru + Asn and Glc + Asn solutions that are incubated at 37°C for a long time. Acrylamide was observed in both solutions at pH 7.4 and pH 12.0. The Fru + Asn group became a deeper brown, but had a lower AA production rate than the Glc + Asn group at each pH. This suggests the presence of an acrylamide production pathway different from those in related high-temperature processes. Moreover, the generation of acrylamide at pH 7.4 in the Glc + Asn solution at 37°C suggests that acrylamide can be produced as an advanced glycation end product in the living body.<br>

Rev. nutr ; 24(6): 895-904, nov.-dez. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-618436


A reação de Maillard é uma reação de escurecimento não enzimático que pode ocorrer em alimentos e em organismos vivos. Esta revisão tem como objetivo analisar a formação e o papel dos produtos originados a partir da reação de Maillard e seus efeitos na saúde. Para isso foram realizados levantamentos bibliográficos nas bases da área, sem restrição de data. Os resultados da revisão apontam que produtos carbonílicos inter-mediários da reação de Maillard e da peroxidação reagem facilmente com grupamentos aminas de proteínas e ácidos nucleicos, levando a modificações biológicas que podem resultar em complicações observadas no diabetes, aterosclerose e doenças neurodegenerativas. O consumo de produtos da reação de Maillard aumentou nas últimas décadas, devido ao aumento do consumo de alimentos industrializados que, em geral, sofreram processamento térmico. Essas substâncias são biodisponíveis em alguma proporção e, embora ainda não haja consenso sobre os possíveis efeitos deletérios à saúde decorrentes de sua ingestão, a comunidade científica tem expressado preocupação com as implicações em processos patológicos de que participam. Diante desses achados, ressalta-se a necessidade de estimar o consumo dos produtos da reação de Maillard, principalmente por populações vulneráveis, como crianças e diabéticos, a fim de, se necessário, estabelecer consumos diários aceitáveis e ampliar o conhecimento com vistas ao estabelecimento, no futuro, de limites para a indústria de alimentos.

Maillard reaction is the nonenzymatic browning that occurs in foods and living organisms. The objective of this review is to analyze the formation and role of Maillard reaction products and their effects on human health. A literature search was done in the relevant databases for all articles published on the subject. The results of the review show that intermediate carbonyl compounds of the Maillard reaction and peroxidation easily react with the amino groups of proteins and nucleic acids leading to biological changes that can, in turn, lead to complications, such as those seen in diabetes, atherosclerosis and degenerative diseases. Consumption of Maillard reaction products increased in the last decades because of the increased consumption of processed foods, since the production of many processed foods may require the use of heat. These substances are bioavailable to some degree and, although there is no consensus about their harmful effects on human health, the scientific community has expressed concern with their implications on the pathological processes of which they are part. These findings suggest that the intake of these substances, especially by vulnerable individuals, such as children and diabetics, should be estimated for the establishment of acceptable daily intakes, if necessary. More knowledge about these substances may also result in the establishment of a maximum MRP level in processed foods.

Food Analysis , Food Industry , Industrialized Foods , Maillard Reaction
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 36(3)dec. 2011. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-614405


The ingestion of Maillard-reaction products (MRP) has increased over thelast decades in the urban areas and there are evidences that these substancesmay be absorbed and can play an important role in pathologies. PRM determination in processed foods, as well as their ingestion level from the daily diet, have been evaluated by several studies in countries within the Northern hemisphere, but there are no equivalent studies in South America. In this study, we evaluated the contents of furosine (FUR), hydroxymethylfurfural(HMF), carboxymethyllysine (CML) and fluorescent substances in flake cereals, granola-type cereals, medium-roasted coffee and powder milk from different brands. Fluorescent spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography and immunoenzymatic methods were employed. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and principal component analysis. A great variation in MRP content for the same food product was observed. Powder milk, despite being the food product with the highest lipid content, has a low MRP content (average 7.6 mg/100g), while coffee has the highest amount (278.6 mg/100g) due to the severe thermal treatment it undergoes.These data are representative of these food products available in the marketand may be used for estimating MRP intake by the population.

El consumo de productos de la reacción de Maillard (PRM) en las áreas urbanas aumentó en las últimas décadas y hay evidencias de que estas substancias son absorbidas y pueden participar en procesos patológicos. La determinación del teor de PRM en alimentos industrializados, así como el consumo de estos compuestos a partir de la dieta ha sido evaluado en estudios conducidos en países del hemisferio Norte, pero no hay estudios equivalente en la America del Sur. En este trabajo analizamos los tenores de substancias fluorescentes, furosina, hidroximetilfurfural y carboximetillisina encereales del tipo escamas, cereales del tipogranola, café en polvo de torrefacción media, gelatina "diet" y leche en polvo integral dediferentes marcas y lotes. Las técnicas utilizadas fueron espectrofotometría de fluorescencia, cromatografía líquida de alto desempeño y teste inmunoenzimático. Los datos fueron analizados mediante estadística descriptiva y análisis decomponentes principales (PCA). Se observó grande variación en el contenido de PRM en los alimentos analizados. La leche en polvo, apesar de ser al alimento con mayor contenido de lípidos, presentó baja concentración de PRM (tenor medio 7,6mg/100g) mientras el café en polvo presentó el mayor contenido de PRM (278,6mg/100g) debido a la severidad del tratamiento térmico a que es sometido. Los datos obtenidos son representativos de los productos disponibles al consumidor y pueden ser utilizados para estimar el consumo de PRM por la población.

O consumo de produtos da reação de Maillard (PRM), nas áreas urbanas, aumentou nas últimas décadas e há evidências de que estas substâncias são absorvidas e podem tomar parte em processos patológicos. A determinação do teor de PRM em alimentos industrializados, assim como o consumo destes compostos a partir da dieta, têm sido avaliados em estudos conduzidos em países do hemisfério Norte. Não há estudos equivalentes na América do Sul. Neste trabalho, analisamos os teores de substâncias fluorescentes, furosina, hidroximetilfurfural e carboximetillisina em cereais do tipo flocos e do tipo granola, café em pó torra média, gelatina diet e leite integral em pó integral de diferentes marcas e lotes. As técnicas utilizadas foram espectrofotometria defluorescência, cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência e teste imunoenzimático. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva e Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP). Observou-se grande variabilidade no teor de PRM, nos alimentos analisados. O leite em pó, apesar de ser o alimento com maior teor delipídios, apresentou baixa concentração de PRM(teor médio 7,6mg/100g) enquanto o café em pó, apresentou o maior teor de PRM (278,6mg/100g) devido à severidade do tratamento térmico ao qual é submetido. Os dados obtidos são representativos dos produtos disponíveis ao consumidor e podem ser utilizados para estimar o consumo de PRM pela população. Palavras-chave: Reação de Maillard.

Industrialized Foods , Maillard Reaction , Principal Component Analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Fluorescent Dyes/analysis , Spectrometry, Fluorescence , Data Interpretation, Statistical