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1.
Rev. méd. Paraná ; 80(1): 1-4, jan. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380875

ABSTRACT

A insuficiência renal crônica compromete as funções fisiológicas dos rins, e leva o paciente à diálise como terapia; contudo, essa condição gera suscetibilidade à desnutrição. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o perfil epidemiológico e nutricional dos pacientes em hemodiálise e compará-los em relação à doença renal de base. É estudo retrospectivo, descritivo e transversal. Foram coletados dados demográficos, clínicos, antropométricos e laboratoriais de pacientes que estiveram em diálise. Foram incluídos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica e excluídos menores de 18 anos, com dados insuficientes ou com comorbidades que alterassem processo nutricional. Em conclusão, observaram-se 4 principais causas para doença renal crônica: hipertensão arterial crônica, doença renal policística, doença renal terminal e nefropatia diabética, que foi a mais prevalente, com pouca evidência de desnutrição


Chronic renal failure compromises the physiological functions of the kidneys and leads the patient to dialysis as a therapy; however, this condition generates susceptibility to malnutrition. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological and nutritional profile of patients on hemodialysis and to compare them in relation to the underlying renal disease. It is a retrospective, descriptive and cross-sectional study. Demographic, clinical, anthropometric and laboratory data were collected from patients who were on dialysis. Patients with chronic renal failure were included and those under 18 years of age, with insufficient data or with comorbidities that altered the nutritional process, were excluded. In conclusion, 4 main causes of chronic kidney disease were observed: chronic arterial hypertension, polycystic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease and diabetic nephropathy, which was the most prevalent, with little evidence of malnutrition


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Profile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Kidney , Deficiency Diseases , Malnutrition
2.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 44(2): 201-214, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374583

ABSTRACT

Objective: To systematically review the literature focusing on obstetric and perinatal outcomes in women with previous or current eating disorders (EDs) and on the consequences of maternal EDs for the offspring. Methods: The study was performed following the systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. PubMed, SciELO, and Cochrane databases were searched for non-interventional studies published in English or Portuguese from January 1980 to December 2020. Risk of bias was assessed using the Methods guide for effectiveness and comparative effectiveness reviews (American Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality). Results: The search yielded 441 records, and 30 articles were included. The psychiatric outcome associated with EDs in women was mainly perinatal depression. The most prevalent obstetric outcomes observed in women with EDs were vomiting, hyperemesis, bleeding, and anemia. Most studies found maternal anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa to be associated with low birth weight and slow fetal growth. Women with binge EDs delivered children with increased birth weight. Of the 30 studies included, methodological quality was good in seven, fair in eight, and poor in 15 studies. Conclusion: A considerable body of evidence was reviewed to assess obstetric and perinatal outcomes in EDs. Acute and lifetime EDs, especially if severe, correlated with poor perinatal, obstetric, and neonatal outcomes. Obstetricians and general practitioners should be vigilant and screen for EDs during pregnancy.

3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 59(1): 22-28, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374430

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Malnutrition is common in liver cirrhosis patients that is correlated with early complications, morbidity and mortality. Objective The purpose of the study was to assess nutritional status, impact of nutritional screening and intervention in liver cirrhosis patients by evaluating their actual energy and protein intake during hospital stay. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted wherein all patients' nutritional status was defined by Subjective Global Assessment tool. Adequate energy and protein supply were planned and executed by using individualized nutritional plan for patients with dietitian's collaboration. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, body mass index, mid upper arm circumference, hand grip strength and triceps skin-fold thickness. Biochemical tests included haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, volume and concentration, albumin and liver function tests. To record the daily food intake, a 24-hour dietary recall was used. Results Overall 83 patients (mean age 55) were included, among them 46% of patients were moderately malnourished, 12% were normal, while 42% of cirrhotic patients were severely depleted according to Subjective Global Assessment. The mean intake of calories and protein was improved during stay in hospital after nutritional intervention and critical monitoring (P<0.05). Anthropometric measurements at baseline and discharge showed significant differences (P <0.05) in weight, body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness and mid upper arm circumference values, but not in hand grip strength that was associated with malnourishment among patients. Conclusion Providing individualized nutritional intervention and its monitoring by qualified dietitians during hospital stay helps to improve intake in patients that prevent further risk of malnutrition and related complications.


RESUMO Contexto A desnutrição é comum em pacientes com cirrose hepática e está correlacionada com complicações precoces, morbidade e mortalidade. Objetivo O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o estado nutricional, o impacto da triagem nutricional e a intervenção em pacientes com cirrose hepática, avaliando sua ingestão real de energia e proteína durante a internação hospitalar. Métodos Foi realizado um estudo transversal em que o estado nutricional de todos os pacientes foi definido pela ferramenta de Avaliação Global Subjetiva. O fornecimento adequado de energia e proteína foi planejado e executado por meio de plano nutricional individualizado para pacientes com colaboração de nutricionista. As medidas antropométricas incluíram: altura, peso, índice de massa corporal, circunferência do braço médio, força de aderência da mão e espessura da dobra da pele tríceps. Os testes bioquímicos incluíram: hemoglobina, volume e concentração da hemoglobina corpuscular média, albumina e testes de função hepática. Para registrar a ingestão diária de alimentos, foi utilizado um recall dietético de 24 horas. Resultados Ao todo foram incluídos 83 pacientes (média de 55 anos), entre eles 46% dos pacientes estavam moderadamente desnutridos, 12% estavam normais, enquanto 42% dos pacientes cirróticos estavam severamente depletados de acordo com a Avaliação Global Subjetiva. A ingestão média de calorias e proteínas foi melhorada durante a internação hospitalar após intervenção nutricional e monitoramento crítico (P<0,05). As medidas antropométricas na linha de base e descarga apresentaram diferenças significativas (P< 0,05) em peso, índice de massa corporal, espessura da dobra da pele do tríceps e valores médios de circunferência do braço, mas não na força de aderência da mão que estava associada à desnutrição entre os pacientes. Conclusão Proporcionar intervenção nutricional individualizada e seu acompanhamento por nutricionistas qualificados durante a internação hospitalar ajuda a melhorar a ingestão em pacientes que previnem maior risco de desnutrição e complicações relacionadas.

4.
An. Fac. Med. (Perú) ; 83(1): 42-48, ene.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374221

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción. El 13% de la población general es mayor de 60 años. Objetivo. Determinar la situación nutricional del adulto mayor y su evolución en el tiempo (2005-2013). Métodos. Estudio en base a fuentes secundarias: ENIN 2005 y ENAHO 2012-2013. El diagnóstico se realizó estimando el índice de masa corporal < de 23 déficit, 23 a 26,9 normal, 27 a 31,9 sobrepeso y ≥ de 32 kg/m2 obesidad. Se consideró alto riesgo cardiovascular a mujeres con circunferencia de cintura ≥ 88 cm y varones ≥ 102 cm. Resultados. En ENIN el déficit fue 30,4 %, sobrepeso 17,5 % y obesidad 8,7 %, mientras que en ENAHO 28,8 %, 18,9 % y 9,5 %, respectivamente. El déficit afectó ligeramente más a varones (33,1 % vs 29,1 %). Sus prevalencias aumentaban conforme se incrementaba la edad y nivel de altitud. El sobrepeso fue más frecuente en mujeres (21,4 % vs 20,2 %) lo mismo que la obesidad (13,5 % vs 13,3 %); en ambos el comportamiento con edad y niveles de altitud fueron similares ya que sus prevalencias disminuyeron. Las mujeres tuvieron mayor riesgo cardiovascular que varones y en ambos sus prevalencias disminuían conforme se incrementaba la edad y altitud. Conclusión. El mayor problema que presentaron los adultos mayores, en el período 2005-2013 fueron el déficit, siendo los varones, los mayores de 80 años y los que vivían por encima de 3000 msnm los más afectados. La obesidad abdominal estuvo más presente en la mujer, siendo las más afectadas el grupo de 60 a 69 años y las que vivían por debajo de 1000 msnm.


ABSTRACT Introduction. 13% of the general population is older than 60 years. Objective. To determine the nutritional status of the elderly and its evolution over time (2005-2013). Methods. Study based on secondary sources: ENIN 2005 and ENAHO 2012-2013. The diagnosis was made by estimating the body mass index < 23 deficit, 23 to 26.9 normal, 27 to 31.9 overweight and ≥ 32 kg/m2 obesity. Women with waist circumference ≥ 88 cm and men ≥ 102 cm were considered high cardiovascular risk. Results. In ENIN the deficit was 30.4 %, overweight 17.5 % and obesity 8.7 %, while in ENAHO 28.8 %, 18,9 % and 9.5%, respectively. The deficit affected more men (33.1 % vs 29.1 %). Their prevalence increased as age and altitude level increased. Overweight was more frequent in women (21.4 % vs 20.2 %) as well as obesity (13.5 % vs 13.3 %), in both the behavior with age and altitude levels were similar since their prevalence decreased. Women had a higher cardiovascular risk than men and in both their prevalence decreased as age and altitude increased. Conclusion. The biggest problem presented by the elderly, in the period 2005-2013, was the deficit, being the males, those over 80 years old and those who lived above 3000 meters above sea level the most affected. Abdominal obesity was more present in women, being the most affected the group of 60 to 69 years old and those who lived below 1000 meters above sea level.

6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 3-11, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360121

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Problemas nutricionais são comuns em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC) e estão associados a um prognóstico ruim. É relevante mencionar que algumas populações de pacientes, como os com Doença de Chagas, são normalmente excluídas da maioria das análises. Objetivo Buscamos analisar a ocorrência de desnutrição e caquexia em pacientes com Doença de Chagas durante episódios de IC descompensada (ICD) em comparação a outras etiologias, e investigar a influência desses achados em desfechos hospitalares. Método Realizamos um estudo de série de casos consecutivos com pacientes hospitalizados com ICD. Os pacientes foram submetidos à Avaliação Nutricional Subjetiva Global (ASG), além de medidas antropométricas e laboratoriais, e foram avaliados para a ocorrência de caquexia, baixa massa muscular e força. Estudamos a ocorrência de morte e transplante cardíaco de urgência durante a internação. Resultados Ao todo, 131 pacientes foram analisados e 42 (32,1%) tinham Doença de Chagas. Pacientes com Doença de Chagas apresentavam índice de massa corporal (IMC) menor (22,4 kg/m2 [19,9-25,3] vs. 23,6 kg/m2 [20,8-27,3], p=0,03), maior frequência de desnutrição (76,2% vs 55,1%, p=0,015) e mais ocorrências de morte ou transplante (83,3% vs. 41,6%, p<0,001). Observamos que, dentre os pacientes com etiologia da Doença de Chagas, a ocorrência de morte ou transplante cardíaco esteve associada com desnutrição (3 [42,9%] pacientes com alta hospitalar vs. 29 [82,9%] pacientes que morreram ou receberam transplante cardíaco, P=0,043). Conclusões Ao todo, nossos resultados indicam que pacientes com Doença de Chagas internados com ICD costumam apresentar problemas nutricionais, principalmente desnutrição. É importante mencionar que este achado esteve associado à ocorrência de morte e transplante cardíaco durante a internação.


Abstract Background Nutritional disorders are common among patients with heart failure (HF) and associated with poor prognosis. Importantly, some populations of patients, like the ones with Chagas disease, are frequently excluded from most analyses. Objective We sought to study the occurrence of undernutrition and cachexia in patients with Chagas disease during episodes of decompensated HF (DHF) as compared to other etiologies, and to investigate the influence of these findings on hospital outcomes. Methods We performed a consecutive case series study with patients hospitalized with DHF. Patients underwent the Subjective Global Assessment of nutritional status (SGA), besides anthropometric and laboratorial measures, and were evaluated for the occurrence of cachexia, low muscle mass and strength. We studied the occurrence of death or urgent heart transplantation during hospitalization. Results Altogether, 131 patients were analyzed and 42 (32.1%) had Chagas disease. Patients with Chagas disease had lower Body Mass Index (BMI) (22.4 kg/m2[19.9-25.3] vs. 23.6 kg/m2 [20.8-27.3], p=0.03), higher frequency of undernutrition (76.2% vs 55.1%, p=0.015) and higher occurrence of death or transplant (83.3% vs. 41.6%, p<0.001). We found that, in patients with Chagas etiology, the occurrence of death or cardiac transplantation were associated with undernutrition (3 [42.9%] patients with hospital discharge vs 29 [82.9%] patients with death or heart transplant, p=0.043). Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate that patients with Chagas disease hospitalized with DHF often present with nutritional disorders, especially undernutrition; importantly, this finding was associated with the occurrence of death and heart transplant during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/complications , Malnutrition/complications , Heart Failure/etiology , Cachexia/etiology , Hospitals
7.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(supl.1): e00149721, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374858

ABSTRACT

Nutritional status has evolved in a dual trend worldwide: underweight has become a minor or local issue while overweight or obesity has risen to play a major role in the global burden of disease. In 2014, Brazil was ranked as the third country with the highest absolute number of obese men. Our aim was to estimate trends of underweight and obesity among Brazilian adults using a comprehensive set of surveys from 1974 to 2019. The data used in the study originate from subjects aged ≥ 18 in six Brazilian national surveys, presented in chronological order: Brazilian National Survey on Household Expenses (ENDEF 1974-1975); Brazilian National Survey on Health and Nutrition (PNSN 1989); Brazilian Household Budget Survey (POF 2002-2003, 2008-2009); and Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS 2013 and 2019). All six surveys were designed to sample household complexes that were representative of the Brazilian population. Body mass index was calculated (kg/m2). The nutritional status of individuals was classified following the standards. We have modeled obesity trend according to income and education strata. The trajectories of underweight and obesity over time in Brazil draw the classical "X" of nutrition transition. From 1975 to 2019 underweight has decreased from 9.1% to 2.5% among men and 12.2% to 3.4% among women. On the other hand, obesity trajectories have scaled up from 3% to 22% among men and from 9% to 30% among women. The increase in obesity rate is directly and negatively proportional to income quintiles. Sociodemographic (income and education) improvement is associated with an increase in obesity. All public policies intending to stop the obesity spread in Brazil have been ineffective or too small to be effective.


O estado nutricional tem evoluído em duas direções no mundo: o baixo peso se tornou uma questão menor ou local, enquanto o sobrepeso ou obesidade passou a ter papel preponderante na carga global de doença. Em 2014, o Brasil ocupou terceiro lugar no mundo em número absoluto de homens obesos. O estudo teve como objetivo estimar as tendências nas taxas de baixo peso e obesidade entre adultos brasileiros, tendo como base um conjunto abrangente de inquéritos entre 1974 e 2019. Os dados utilizados no estudo se referem a indivíduos com 18 anos ou mais em seis pesquisas nacionais, apresentadas em ordem cronológica: Estudo Nacional de Despesa Familiar (ENDEF 1974-1975); Pesquisa Nacional sobre Saúde e Nutrição (PNSN 1989); Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF 2002-2003, 2008-2009) e Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS 2013 e 2019). Todos os 6 inquéritos foram desenhados para obter amostras de complexos de domicílios que fossem representativas da população brasileira. O ídice de massa corporal foi calculado (kg/m2). O estado nutricional dos indivíduos foi classificado de acordo com as normas da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Modelamos a tendência da obesidade de acordo com as faixas de renda e escolaridade. As trajetórias de baixo peso e obesidade no Brasil ao longo do tempo mostram a forma clássica em "X" da transição nutricional. Entre 1975 e 2019, a taxa de baixo peso diminuiu de 9,1% para 2,5% entre homens e de 12,2% para 3,4% entre mulheres. Inversamente, as trajetórias da obesidade aumentaram de 3% para 22% entre homens e de 9% para 30% entre mulheres. O incremento na obesidade está relacionado diretamente e de maneira negativamente proporcional aos quintis de renda. A melhoria sociodemográfica (de renda e escolaridade) está associada ao aumento da obesidade. Todas as políticas públicas para interromper a expansão da obesidade no Brasil têm sido ineficazes, ou pequenas demais para ser eficazes.


El estatus nutricional ha evolucionado en una doble tendencia alrededor del mundo: el bajo peso se ha convertido en un problema menor o local, mientras que el sobrepeso o la obesidad ha aumentado desempeñando un papel importante en la carga global de la enfermedad. En 2014, Brasil se situó como el tercer país con la mayor carga absoluta de hombres obesos. Nuestro objetivo fue estimar las tendencias de bajo peso y obesidad entre brasileños adultos, utilizando un conjunto completo de encuestas desde 1974 a 2019. Los datos usados en el estudio procedieron de individuos con ≥18 años en 6 encuestas nacionales brasileñas, presentadas en orden cronológico: Estudio Nacional sobre Gasto Familiar (ENDEF 1974-1975); Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (PNSN 1989); Encuestas sobre Presupuesto Familiar (POF 2002-2003, 2008-2009); y Encuesta Nacional de Salud (PNS 2013 y 2019). Las 6 encuestas se diseñaron para las muestras complejas de hogares que eran representativas de la población brasileña. Se calculó el indice de masa corporal (kg/m2). El estatus nutricional de los individuos se clasificó siguiendo los estándares de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Hemos modelado la tendencia a la obesidad según el nivel de ingresos y educación. Las trayectorias de bajo peso y obesidad a lo largo del tiempo en Brasil dibujaron la clásica "X" de transición nutricional. Desde 1975 a 2019, ha decrecido el bajo peso de 9,1% a 2,5% entre hombres y de 12,2% a 3,4% entre mujeres. Las trayectorias de obesidad, en cambio, escalan desde el 3% al 22% entre hombres, y desde el 9% al 30% entre mujeres. El incremento en la tasa de obesidad es directamente y negativamente proporcional a los quintiles de ingresos. La mejora sociodemográfica (ingresos y educación) está asociada con un incremento en la obesidad. Todas las políticas públicas puestas en práctica para intentar detener la propagación de la obesidad en Brasil han sido inefectivas o demasiado pequeñas para ser efectivas.

8.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 39: e0189, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365654

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do artigo é analisar o efeito da compra direta de alimentos da agricultura familiar para alimentação escolar sobre o déficit de estatura em crianças menores de cinco anos, entre 2013 e 2017, no Brasil. O método utilizado é o estudo ecológico e longitudinal, em que a coleta de dados ocorreu em diferentes bancos de dados. A análise foi realizada por meio do teste t para amostras independentes, a fim de comparar as médias entre as variáveis déficit de estatura e compras da agricultura familiar. Além disso, uma análise multivariável foi feita por meio da regressão linear múltipla. Verificou-se uma diferença de médias na prevalência do déficit de estatura significativa entre os municípios que compraram menos de 30% e aqueles que adquiriram 30% ou mais de alimentos da agricultura familiar para alimentação escolar, com 1,47 pontos de diferença. O modelo de regressão linear mostrou que a cada ponto percentual de aumento na compra de alimentos da agricultura familiar para a alimentação escolar pelo município, haverá, em média, uma diminuição 0,55 pontos na prevalência do déficit de estatura, independentemente das demais variáveis. Assim, conclui-se que a compra de alimentos da agricultura familiar para alimentação escolar no Brasil pode contribuir para a redução da prevalência do déficit de estatura em crianças menores de cinco anos.


The objective of this work is to analyze the effect of direct purchase of food from family farms for school meals on the deficit of stature in children under 5 years of age between 2013 and 2017 in Brazil. Method: Ecological and longitudinal study in which data collection occurred in different databases. The analysis was performed using the t-test for independent samples in order to compare the means between the variables stature deficit and purchases from family agriculture. In addition, a multivariable analysis was conducted through multiple linear regression. Results: There was a difference in means in the prevalence of significant stature deficit between the municipalities that bought < 30% and ≥30% of food from family farms for school feeding, with 1.47 points of difference. The linear regression model showed that for each percentage point of increase in the purchase of food from family farms for school feeding by the municipality, there will be on average a decrease of 0.55 points in the prevalence of stature deficit, independent of the other variables. Conclusion: the purchase of food from family agriculture for school feeding in Brazil may contribute to the reduction of the prevalence of stature deficit in children under five years old.


Objetivo: Analizar el efecto de la compra directa de alimentos de las granjas familiares para la alimentación escolar en el déficit de estatura de los niños menores de cinco años entre 2013 y 2017 en Brasil. Método: Estudio ecológico y longitudinal en el que se recogieron datos en diferentes bases de datos. El análisis se llevó a cabo mediante la prueba t para muestras independientes con el fin de comparar las medias entre las variables déficit de estatura y compras de la agricultura familiar. Además, se hizo un análisis multivariable a través de una regresión lineal múltiple. Resultados: Se produjo una diferencia de medias en la prevalencia del déficit de estatura significativo entre los municipios que compraron < 30% y ≥ 30% de los alimentos de las granjas familiares para la alimentación escolar, con 1,47 puntos de diferencia. El modelo de regresión lineal mostró que por cada punto porcentual de aumento en la compra de alimentos de las granjas familiares para la alimentación escolar por parte del municipio, habrá, en promedio, una disminución de 0,55 puntos en la prevalencia del déficit de estatura, independientemente de las demás variables. Conclusión: la compra de alimentos de las granjas familiares para la alimentación escolar en el Brasil puede contribuir a reducir la prevalencia del déficit de estatura en los niños menores de cinco años.


Subject(s)
Humans , School Feeding , Brazil , Child Nutrition Disorders , Agriculture , Food Supply , Body Height , Linear Models , Child Nutrition
9.
Salud colect ; 18: e3839, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365985

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se analizan los modos en que la desnutrición se relaciona con el acceso a tierras, las condiciones laborales, las relaciones étnicas y de género y la organización social y cultural del cuidado infantil en contexto rurales y periurbanos del departamento de Orán de la provincia de Salta, Argentina. La investigación fue realizada desde un enfoque etnográfico en el que se utilizaron técnicas cualitativas y cuantitativas con poblaciones ava-guaraní, kolla, wichí y criollas, pacientes del Programa de Atención Primaria de la Salud (PROAPS) de la provincia de Salta, entre 2010 y 2016. Si bien la desnutrición infantil emerge como "un problema indígena" desde la perspectiva de cierto personal de salud y de funcionarios públicos, se observaron casos de desnutrición en niñas y niños de poblaciones criollas mientras que no se encontraron diagnósticos positivos de desnutrición en niñas y niños que viven en comunidades con reconocimiento territorial. El acceso a tierras rurales, aún sin poseer título de tenencia, habilita la autoproducción de alimentos y permite acceder a condiciones habitacionales y laborales más estables. La vulneración de derechos territoriales de las poblaciones indígenas constituye un factor determinante para comprender la emergencia de déficits nutricionales en la población infantil.


ABSTRACT This article analyzes the ways in which malnutrition is related to land access, labor conditions, ethnic and gender relations, and the social and cultural organization of child care in rural and peri-urban contexts in Orán, Salta, Argentina. Research was conducted from an ethnographic approach in which qualitative and quantitative techniques were used with ava-guaraní, kolla, wichí and white populations who were patients of Salta's Primary Health Care Program (PROAPS) between 2010 and 2016. Although child malnutrition is cast as an "indigenous problem" by certain health personnel and public officials, cases of malnutrition were observed in white children, while there were no positive diagnoses of malnutrition among children living in communities with territorial recognition. Access to rural land, even without title deeds, enables food self-production and allows access to more stable housing and working conditions. The violation of indigenous populations' territorial rights are a determining factor in understanding nutritional deficits among children.

10.
Rev. cienc. salud ; 20(1): 1-14, ene.-abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367564

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la desnutrición crónica en menores de 5 años se define como el retraso en el crecimiento, resultado de recurrentes carencias nutricionales, asociadas con pobreza, de salud y nutrición materna. El objetivo fue identificar la prevalencia de desnutrición crónica y factores asociados en menores de 5 años de la comunidad indígena awá, atendidos en la ips Unidad del Pueblo Indígena Awá (unipa) de Barbacoas (Nariño, Colombia) durante 2019. Materiales y métodos: estudio de corte transversal con enfoque analítico. Se incluyeron 527 niños menores de 5 años de la comunidad awá acudientes al programa de crecimiento y desarrollo de la ipsunipa. Se evaluó como desenlace la desnutrición crónica y, como factores asociados, características sociodemográficas, nutricionales y otras del estado de salud. Se consideró un valor de p menor al 5 % cuando se utilizó chi cuadrado, test exacto de Fisher y U de Mann-Whitney para determinar asociación estadística; además, se ajustó la relación a través de un modelo de regresión logística múltiple. Resultados: el 17.6 % de los niños pre-sentó desnutrición crónica. Se encontró asociación estadística con ser hijo de madre adolescente (p = 0.006), esquema de vacunación incompleto (p = 0.012), la edad (p = 0.017) y el peso al nacer (p = 0.017). Conclusión: en menores de 5 años de la comunidad awála frecuencia de desnutrición crónica está por encima de la media para esta población en general en Colombia. Es importante priorizar la búsqueda activa de desnutrición crónica en niños cuyas madres son adolescentes, niños con bajo peso al nacer y vacunación incompleta


Introduction: Chronic malnutrition in children under 5 years old is defined as stunting due to recurrent nutritional deficiencies associated with poverty, maternal health, and nutrition. This study aimed to iden-tify the prevalence of chronic malnutrition and associated factors in children under 5 years old from the indigenous Awá community, at Barbacoas, Nariño in 2019. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, which included 527 children under 5 years old from the Awá community who attended a health institution for growth and development program. Chronic malnutrition was evaluated as an outcome, whereas sociodemographic, nutritional and other health characteristics as associated factors. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and Mann­Whitney's U test were used to determine statistical association. Additionally, the relationship was adjusted through a multiple logistic regression model. Results: Chronic malnutrition was found in 17.6% of children. The statistical association was found in children of the ado-lescent mother, incomplete vaccination schedule, and age and birth weight. Conclusion: In children under 5 years old in the Awá community, the frequency of chronic malnutrition is above the average for the general population in Colombia. Prioritizing the active search for chronic malnutrition in children whose mothers are adolescents and those with low birth weight and incomplete vaccination is important


Introdução: a desnutrição crônica em crianças menores de cinco anos é definida como retardo de crescimento como resultado de deficiências nutricionais recorrentes associadas à pobreza, saúde materna e nutrição. O objetivo é identificar a prevalência de desnutrição crônica e fatores associados em crianças menores de 5 anos da comunidade indígena Awá, atendidas na Unidade ips do Povo Indígena Awá (unipa) de Barbacoas, Nariño durante 2019. Materiais e métodos: estudo transversal de abordagem analítica. Foram incluídas 527 crianças menores de 5 anos da comunidade Awá que participaram do programa de crescimento e desen-volvimento da ipsunipa. A desnutrição crônica foi avaliada como desfecho e as características sociodemo-gráficas, nutricionais e outras características de saúde como fatores associados. Um valor de p inferior a 5% foi considerado quando o qui-quadrado, o teste exato de Fisher e o U de Mann Whitney foram usados para determinar a associação estatística, além disso, a relação foi ajustada por meio de um modelo de regressão logística múltipla. Resultados: 17,6% das crianças apresentavam desnutrição crônica. Associação estatística foi encontrada com os fatores ser filho de mãe adolescente (valor p: 0,006), esquema vacinal incompleto (valor p: 0,012), idade (valor p: 0,017) e peso ao nascer (valor p: 0,017). Conclusão: em crianças menores de 5 anos da comunidade Awá, a frequência de desnutrição crônica está acima da média geral para esta popu-lação na Colômbia. É importante priorizar a busca ativa da desnutrição crônica em crianças cujas mães são adolescentes, em crianças com baixo peso ao nascer e com esquema de vacinação incompleto


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child Nutrition Disorders , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia , Malnutrition , Growth and Development , Health of Indigenous Peoples , Maternal Health
11.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 352-358, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920884

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate whether Royal Free Hospital Nutritional Prioritizing Tool (RFH-NPT) is more suitable than Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) in nutritional risk screening for patients with liver cirrhosis, as well as the applicability of subjective global assessment (SGA) in the nutritional assessment of patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods A total of 113 patients with liver cirrhosis who were hospitalized in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from August 2020 to June 2021 were enrolled. RFH-NPT and NRS-2002 were used for nutritional risk screening, and SGA was used for nutritional assessment. The results of these tools were compared with the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria, and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for the three tools. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated for each screening tool, and the association between nutritional status and short-term prognosis was analyzed. The independent samples t -test or the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between two groups. The Spearman correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation of GLIM criteria with NRS2002, RFH-NPT and SGA. Results According to the GLIM criteria, 69.9% of the patients were diagnosed with malnutrition, and RFH-NPT and NRS2002 screened out that 72.6% and 51.3%, respectively, of the patients had nutritional risk, while SGA assessment showed that 57.5% of the patients had malnutrition. Compared with NRS2002, RFH-NPT had a higher degree of correlation with the GLIM criteria ( r =0.764, P < 0.001), higher sensitivity (94.9%) and NPV (87.1%), and a better predictive value (AUC=0.872, 95% confidence interval [ CI ]: 0.786-0.957). Under the GLIM criteria, SGA had good specificity (88.2%) in the diagnosis of malnutrition in patients with liver cirrhosis, with fair sensitivity (77.2%), good correlation ( r =0.607, P < 0.001), and good predictive value (AUC=0.827, 95% CI : 0.744-0.911). Based on the GLIM criteria, SGA assessment, and RFH-NPT assessment, the patients with nutritional risk or malnutrition tended to have a longer length of hospital stay ( Z= -3.301, -2.812, and -3.813, all P < 0.05) and a higher rehospitalization rate ( χ 2 =3.957, 6.922, and 6.766, all P < 0.05). Based on the GLIM criteria and NRS2002 assessment, the patients with nutritional risk or malnutrition had a significant increase in mortality rate within 3 months ( χ 2 =4.511 and 0.776, both P < 0.05). Conclusion Under the GLIM criteria, RFH-NPT is more suitable than NRS2002 for nutritional risk screening of patients with liver cirrhosis, and SGA also has good applicability in nutritional assessment of patients with liver cirrhosis. In addition, GLIM criteria, SGA, and RFH-NPT are associated with the clinical outcome of patients.

12.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 215-219, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913146

ABSTRACT

There is a high prevalence rate of malnutrition in patients with end-stage liver disease, which often promotes disease progression and has a negative impact on the prognosis of patients. This article briefly describes the etiology of malnutrition in end-stage liver disease and introduces the research advances in nutrition screening, evaluation, and treatment in end-stage liver disease in China and globally, hoping to provide inspiration for nutritional support in patients with end-stage liver disease in China.

13.
Niger. J. Dent. Res. (Online) ; 7(1): 29-34, 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1354716

ABSTRACT

Background: Cancrum oris is a rapid and devastating infectious disease of the orofacial region, which can be life threatening in its fulminant stage. Infection of bone (osteomyelitis) is a possible sequelae of Noma (cancrum oris) and is more likely due to late presentation especially in our environment. A literature search revealed scanty research describing osteomyelitis in Noma patients. Objective: To analyze the clinico­pathology of osteomyelitis in Noma patients diagnosed and treated at Noma Children Hospital, Sokoto.Methods: The design was a 2-year retrospective study of records of Thirty­two patients who had sequestrectomy secondary to osteomyelitis in Noma (Cancrum oris). Age, gender, jaws affected and side of involvement were analyzed Results: The age ranged from 2­11 years with mean ±standard deviation 5.47 ± 2.68 years was recorded. Osteomyelitis in Noma patients was found among 17 (53.10%) males compared to 15 (46.90%) females. In 20 (62. 50%) of the cases, anterior maxillary involvement was observed and the remaining 12 (37. 50%) was found at the mandibular posterior region and it is more common on the left side. Result of histopathology showed both acute and chronic inflammatory cells. Necrosis and bone hyperactivity was observed in most of the slides. Conclusion: Osteomyelitis is a common complication of Noma and its treatment is of paramount importance for adequate management of Noma patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Osteomyelitis , Diagnosis , Noma
14.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1371736

ABSTRACT

Investigar as complicações metabólicas relacionadas à administração da terapia nutricional parenteral (TNP) e sua relação com o desfecho clínico de pacientes hospitalizados. Métodos: Estudo longitudinal retrospectivo realizado com pacientes internados em hospital público referência no atendimento de urgências e emergências da cidade de Goiânia no período de setembro de 2020 a fevereiro de 2021. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de consulta aos prontuários eletrônicos. As informações foram coletadas após o primeiro dia de uso da NP até o desfecho clínico -alta, óbito ou descontinuidade da NP. Resultados: A amostra foi constituída por 28 pacientes em uso de nutrição parenteral no hospital durante a etapa de coleta dedados. Desses pacientes a maioria era do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 46,78 anos. As indicações mais frequentes para o uso da terapia nutricional parenteral foram: repouso,abdome agudo e pós-operatório. As complicações mais prevalentes foram a hipocalemia, hipomagnesemia, uremia e a hiponatremia e o desfecho clínico mais frequente foi o óbito. Encontrou-se relação entre desfecho clínico e presença de hipernatremia (p=0,010), ocorrendo a alta hospitalar exclusivamente naqueles pacientes que não apresentaram hipernatremia. E ainda houve relação marginal (p=0,053) entre desfecho clínico e local da internação, sendo que foi mais frequente o óbito naqueles admitidos na unidade de terapia intensiva. Conclusão: Não houve associação entre a TNP e as complicações metabólicas. Todavia, observou-se relação entre hipernatremia e mortalidade, sendo esta mais prevalente em pacientes internados nas unidades de terapia intensiva (UTIs). Nessa amostra, a complicação metabólica mais observada foi a hipocalemia


To investigate the metabolic complication related to administration of the Parenteral Nutrition Therapy (PNT) and their relation to the clinical outcome of hospitalized patients. Methods: retrospective longitudinal study carried with interned patients at a public hospital of standart in the urgency and emergency care from the Goiânia city during the period from september2020 to february 2021. The data capture was realized through consultation to the electronic record. The information was collected after the first day use of NP to clinical outcome -discharge, death or discontinuation of NP. Results: The sample was composed by 28 patients in use of parenteral nutrition at hospital during the data capture. The majority of these patients were male, with mean age of 46-78 anos. The indications more frequent to the use of parenteral nutrition therapy were: rest, acute abdomen and pos-operative. The complications more prevalent were hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, uremia and hyponatremia. And the clinical outcome more frequent was death. A relationship between clinical outcome and hypernatremia presence (p=0,010) was found, occurring the hospitalar discharge exclusively in those patients which did not submit to hypernatremia. And there was still a marginal relationship (p=0,053) between clinical outcome and hospitalization, which was more frequent the death in those admitted in intensive care units. Conclusion: There was no association between the PNT and the metabolic complications. However, there was an observed relationship between hypernatremia and mortality, while more prevalent in patients staying in the intensive care unit (ICU). In this sample, the metabolic complication most observed was hypokalemia


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Parenteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Nutrition Therapy , Inpatients , Postoperative Complications , Uremia , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Abdomen, Acute , Hypernatremia/mortality , Hypokalemia , Hyponatremia/mortality , Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases/mortality , Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology
15.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1379114

ABSTRACT

A terapia nutricional é uma das intervenções terapêuticas mais utilizadas em cuidados intensivos, quando aplicada de forma correta auxilia na diminuição de complicações metabólicas, no equilíbrio imunológico, além de amenizar a perda de massa corporal do paciente gravemente enfermo. Objetivo: avaliar a associação dos indicadores antropométricos e o consumo proteico com o desfecho clínico de pacientes críticos em uso de terapia nutricional enteral (TNE) exclusiva. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo de caráter observacional analítico, com a utilização de dados de pacientes adultos e idosos em uso exclusivo de TNE desenvolvido em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Realizado por meio da coleta de dados secundários registrados nos prontuários de pacientes ≥ 18 anos, que receberam terapia nutricional enteral exclusiva por pelo menos 72 horas. Utilizou-se os indicadores antropométricos índice de massa corporal (IMC) e circunferência do braço. Para a estimativa das necessidades proteicas, considerou-se a recomendação da American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. A adequação nutricional foi realizada por meio da coleta diária do volume da formula enteral prescrita e administrada. Nas análises utilizaram-se testes paramétricos e não paramétricos e foi considerado significante p < 0,05. Resultado: Participaram do estudo 52 pacientes que estiveram em uso de nutrição enteral exclusiva internados na UTI no hospital por pelo menos de 72 horas durante a etapa de coleta de dados. Desses pacientes a maioria era do sexo masculino (76,9%), com idade média de 45,7 anos (DP=15,0, mínimo 20 e máximo 71). O tempo de internação médio foi de 12 dias. Os diagnósticos de AIDS (síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida) (46,1%) e COVID-19 (13,4%) foram os mais prevalentes. Foram identificados que quase 60% da amostra não tinham comorbidades e o desfecho clínico mais frequente foi a alta hospitalar. Conclusão: Neste estudo não foi verificado associações entre os desfechos clínicos avaliados (alta ou óbito) com o aporte proteico ofertado e os indicadores antropométricos, assim também como não tiveram entre as variáveis demográficas e clínicas investigadas


Nutritional therapy is one of the most used therapeutic interventions in intensive care, when correctly applied, it helps to reduce metabolic complications, immune balance, in addition to mitigating the loss of body mass in seriously ill patients. Objective: to evaluate the association of anthropometric indicators and protein consumption with the clinical outcome of critically ill patients using exclusive enteral nutritional therapy (EN). Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, observational, analytical study, using data from adult and elderly patients exclusively using EN developed in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Performed by collecting secondary data recorded in the medical records of patients ≥ 18 years old, who received exclusive enteral nutritional therapy for at least 72 hours. Anthropometric indicators body mass index (BMI) and arm circumference were used. For the estimation of protein requirements, the recommendation of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition was considered. Nutritional adequacy was performed through the daily collection of the volume of the prescribed and administered enteral formula. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used in the analyses, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Result: The study included 52 patients who had been using exclusive enteral nutrition and were hospitalized in the ICU for at least 72 hours during the data collection stage. Of these patients, the majority were male (76.9%), with a mean age of 45.7 years (SD=15.0, minimum 20 and maximum 71). The mean hospital stay was 12 days. The diagnoses of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) (46.1%) and COVID-19 (13.4%) were the most prevalent. It was identified that almost 60% of the sample had no comorbidities and the most frequent clinical outcome was hospital discharge. Conclusion: In this study, there were no associations between the evaluated clinical outcomes (discharge or death) with the protein intake offered and the anthropometric indicators, as well as they did not have between the demographic and clinical variables investigated


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Enteral Nutrition , Critical Care , Nutrition Therapy , Protein Deficiency , Communicable Diseases
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e249971, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278485

ABSTRACT

Abstract Stunting is a significant public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. This study assessed the prevalence of stunting and associated risk factors of stunting among preschool and school-going children in flood-affected areas of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting 656 households through multi-stage sampling. Respondent's anthropometric measurements, socio-demographic information and sanitation facilities were explored. A logistic regression model was used to determine determinants of stunting, controlling for all possible confounders. The overall prevalence of stunting in children was 40.5%, among children 36.1% boys and 46.3% of girls were stunted. The prevalence of stunting in under-five children was 50.7%. Female children (OR=1.35, 95% CI:0.94-2.0), children aged 13-24 months (OR=6.5, 95% CI: 3.0-13.9), mothers aged 15-24 years (OR=4.4, 95% CI: 2.6-7.2), joint family (OR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.4-3.0) did not have access to improved drinking water (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.9-5.9), and the toilet facility (OR=2.8, 95% CI, 1.9-4.3), while the children from district Nowshera (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2) were significantly (P<0.05) associated in univariate analysis. The regression model revealed that child age, maternal age, family type, quality of water, and toilet facility, were the significant (P<0.05) factors contributing to child stunting in the flood-hit areas. Identification of key factors might be helpful for policymakers in designing comprehensive community-based programs for the reduction of stunting in flood-affected areas. In disasters such as flood, the detrimental consequences of the stunting problem could be even more on children. Evidence-based education and care must be provided to the families in the flood-affected regions to reduce the stunting problem. The determinants of stunting should be targeted by making comprehensive policies regarding proper nutrition, livelihood, clean water, and sanitation facilities in flood-hit regions.


Resumo A baixa estatura é um problema significativo de saúde pública em países de baixa e média renda. Este estudo avaliou a prevalência de nanismo e os fatores de risco associados de nanismo entre crianças em idade pré-escolar e em idade escolar em áreas afetadas por inundações do Paquistão. Foi realizado um estudo transversal visitando 656 domicílios por meio de amostragem em múltiplos estágios. As medidas antropométricas do entrevistado, informações sociodemográficas e instalações de saneamento foram exploradas. Um modelo de regressão logística foi usado para determinar os determinantes do nanismo, controlando todos os possíveis fatores de confusão. A prevalência geral de baixa estatura em crianças foi de 40,5%, entre as crianças 36,1% dos meninos e 46,3% das meninas com baixa estatura. A prevalência de baixa estatura em crianças menores de 5 anos foi de 50,7%. Crianças do sexo feminino (OR = 1,35, IC de 95%: 0,94-2,0), crianças de 13-24 meses (OR = 6,5, IC de 95%: 3,0-13,9), mães de 15-24 anos (OR = 4,4, IC de 95%: 2,6-7,2), família conjunta (OR = 2,1, IC 95%: 1,4-3,0) não tiveram acesso a água potável de qualidade (OR = 3,3, IC 95%: 1,9-5,9) e a banheiro (OR = 2,8, IC de 95%, 1,9-4,3), enquanto as crianças do distrito de Nowshera (OR = 1,7, IC de 95%: 0,9-3,2) foram significativamente (P < 0,05) associadas na análise univariada. O modelo de regressão revelou que a idade da criança, idade materna, tipo de família, qualidade da água e banheiro foram os fatores significativos (P < 0,05) que contribuíram para a baixa estatura infantil nas áreas afetadas pelas enchentes. A identificação de fatores-chave pode ser útil para os formuladores de políticas no planejamento de programas comunitários abrangentes para a redução da baixa estatura em áreas afetadas pelas enchentes. Em desastres como enchentes, as consequências prejudiciais do problema de baixa estatura podem ser ainda maiores para as crianças. Educação baseada em evidências e cuidados deve ser fornecida às famílias nas regiões afetadas pelas enchentes para reduzir o problema de nanismo. Os determinantes do retardo de crescimento devem ser almejados pela formulação de políticas abrangentes sobre nutrição adequada, meios de subsistência, água potável e instalações de saneamento nas regiões afetadas pelas enchentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Floods , Growth Disorders/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Schools , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
17.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(2): 116-128, 30 Diciembre 2021. ilus, tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368472

ABSTRACT

La aparición del coronavirus tipo 2 del Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2) y su afectación como nuevo Coronavirus de 2019 (Covid-19), ha sido sorprendente por su rápido contagio y progresión de la enfermedad. Todos los grupos etarios pueden ser afectados, pero la población vulnerable es aquella que tiene más de 50 años, inmunosupresión, malnutridos o enfermedades degenerativas no transmisibles como hipertensión, diabetes y enfermedades pulmonares. Aquellos pacientes con múltiples morbilidades se encuentran asociados a procesos de malnutrición y son ellos los que podrían llegar a desarrollar complicaciones por la enfermedad y necesitar de cuidados intensivos1. El correcto manejo del estado nutricional busca prevenir el riesgo de complicaciones relacionadas con el déficit calórico proteico y el aumento de la actividad catabólica; la bibliografía detalla cómo la malnutrición genera compromiso al disminuir la musculatura respiratoria, cardíaca, esquelética y coadyuvar a la falla orgánica. El reto para la nutrición en esta pandemia es poder identificar a la población en riesgo y crear un soporte nutricional adecuado para cada paciente2. Las guías de manejo proporcionan recomendaciones útiles y rápidas para el diagnóstico y tratamiento nutrioterapéutico especializado.


The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and its affectation as the new Coronavirus of 2019 (Covid- 19), has been surprising due to its rapid transmission and disease progression. All age groups can be affected, but the vulnerable population is those over 50 years of age, immunosuppression, malnourished or non-communicable degenerative diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and pulmonary diseases. Those patients with multiple morbidities are associated with malnutrition processes and they are the ones who could develop complications due to the disease and require intensive care1. The correct management of nutritional status seeks to prevent the risk of complications related to protein caloric deficit and increased catabolic activity; the literature details how malnutrition generates compromise by decreasing respiratory, cardiac and skeletal muscle and contributing to organ failure. The challenge for nutrition in this pandemic is to identify the population at risk and create adequate nutritional support for each patient2. Management guidelines provide useful and rapid recommendations for diagnosis and specialized nutriotherapeutic treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Nutrition for Vulnerable Groups , Enteral Nutrition , Coronavirus Infections , Nutritional Support , Malnutrition , Pandemics , Comorbidity , Nutritional Status , Morbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Diet Therapy , Gastrointestinal Absorption , COVID-19 , Hypertension
18.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(2): 15-25, dic. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358036

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la presencia simultánea del retraso del crecimiento y del exceso de peso en una persona representa una de las principales paradojas en la salud pública global y es de creciente preocupación en Bolivia, donde ambas condiciones en su conjunto no han sido abordadas y ocurren en un contexto de transición nutricional en el que se encuentra el país. OBJETIVO: describir la coexistencia de la doble carga de malnutrición a nivel individual en la población escolar (3-19 años) del municipio de La Paz. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio observacional de corte transversal analítico con datos antropométricos de 7.654 escolares pertenecientes al municipio de La Paz del año 2019. Se determinaron las prevalencias y los intervalos de confianza al 95% para emaciación, retraso en el crecimiento, sobrepeso, obesidad y sobrepeso + obesidad por sexo y grupo de edad. A nivel poblacional, la doble carga de malnutrición (DCM), se estimó en base a los umbrales de alta prevalencia sugeridos por organizaciones internacionales, a saber, prevalencias por encima del 20% y 10% para retraso en el crecimiento y sobrepeso, respectivamente. Para los análisis a nivel individual, la DCM se definió como la coexistencia de retraso en el crecimiento y sobrepeso + obesidad en los tres grupos de estudio y se comparó con su valor esperado, bajo el supuesto de distribuciones independientes de cada condición. RESULTADOS: a nivel poblacional, la prevalencia de emaciación para toda la muestra analizada fue de 3,7%, sin diferencias significativas por sexo. La prevalencia de retraso del crecimiento para el año 2019 no superó el 20% en todos los grupos de edad analizados. La prevalencia de sobrepeso fue mayor al 10% para el grupo de escolares y adolescentes. A nivel individual la doble carga de malnutrición se encontró en 2,8%, 1,9% y 2,9% en prescolares, escolares y adolescentes, respectivamente. Valores que se encontraron por debajo de lo esperado. CONCLUSIONES: las prevalencias de doble carga de malnutrición, retraso del crecimiento y sobrepeso + obesidad a nivel individual, fueron menores de lo esperado en los tres grupos de estudio, asumiendo distribuciones independientes de las dos condiciones. A pesar de ello, la coexistencia de la doble carga poblacional (municipio de La Paz) debe ser abordada en políticas y programas adecuados de salud pública(AU).


INTRODUCTION: the simultaneous presence of growth retardation and excess weight in a person represents one of the main paradoxes in global public health and is of growing concern in Bolivia, where both conditions as a whole have not been addressed and occur in a context of nutritional transition in which the country finds itself. OBJECTIVE: to describe the coexistence of the double burden of malnutrition at the individual level in the school population (3-19 years) of the municipality of La Paz. METHODS: an analytical cross-sectional observational study was carried out with anthropometric data from 7,654 schoolchildren belonging to the municipality of La Paz in 2019. The prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were determined for wasting, stunting, overweight, obesity and overweight+obesity, by sex and age group. At the population level, the double burden of malnutrition (DBM) was estimated based on thresholds of high prevalence suggested by international organizations, namely, prevalence above 20% and 10% for stunting and overweight, respectively. For individual level analyzes, DBm was defined as the coexistence of stunting and overweight + obesity in the three study groups and was compared with its expected value, under the assumption of independent distributions of each condition. RESULTS: at the population level, the prevalence of wasting for the entire sample analyzed was 3.7%, with no significant differences by sex. The prevalence of stunting for the year 2019 did not exceed 20% in all the age groups analyzed. The prevalence of overweight was higher than 10% for the group of schoolchildren and adolescents. At the individual level, the double burden of malnutrition was found in 2.8%, 1.9% and 2.9% in preschool, schoolchildren and adolescents, respectively. Values that turned out to be lower than expected. CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of double burden, growth retardation and overweight and obesity at the individual level, were lower than expected in the three study groups, assuming independent distributions of the two conditions. Despite this, the coexistence of the double burden in the municipality of La Paz must be addressed in appropriate public health policies and programs(AU).


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Public Health , Growth , Case-Control Studies , Minors , Malnutrition
19.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(3): 41-50, Dec. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352904

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El estado nutricional resulta del balance entre la ingesta y las necesidades energéticas de nutrientes del organismo. Objetivos: Determinar la frecuencia, características y determinantes que influyen en el estado nutricional en los niños menores de cinco años. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional, transversal, descriptivo con componente analítico. Se estudió a niños menores de 5 años durante agosto y noviembre de 2017. Se midieron variables sociodemográficas del niño y del jefe de familia, los factores que pueden influir en el estado nutricional y las características antropométricas del niño. Resultados: Fueron analizados 230 niños y 213 casas. Edad promedio de los niños 2,4±1,3 años (IC95%, 2,2-2,6); 58,7% fueron niños mayores de 2 años y 51,3% masculino. Los jefes de familias: 64,9% con nivel educativo secundario, 59,7% ama de casa, 46,7% de las familias perciben sueldo mínimo. Frecuencia de desnutrición global 4,2%, desnutrición aguda 2,2%, riesgo de desnutrición 10%. En mayores de dos años frecuencia de 26,7% de sobrepeso, 13,3% de obesidad. Los factores determinantes que influyen en la desnutrición de los niños fueron: hogares con jefes de familias con nivel académico bajo e ingresos menores al sueldo mínimo. Conclusión: La mayoría de las familias son de ingresos bajos y nivel de educación baja; frecuencia de desnutrición inferior a otros estudios, tendencia de exceso de peso, talla baja y los factores determinantes encontrados que influyen en el estado nutricional son los bajos ingresos económicos y el bajo nivel educativo de los jefes de familias.


Introduction: The nutritional state results from the balance between the intake and the energy needs of nutrients of the organism. Objectives: To determine the frequency, characteristics and determinants that influences the nutritional status in children under five years of age. Materials and methods: Observational, cross-sectional, descriptive study with analytical component. Children under 5 years of age were studied during August and November 2017. Sociodemographic variables of the child and the head of the family, the factors that may influence the nutritional status, and the anthropometric characteristics of the child were measured. Results: 230 children and 213 houses were analyzed. Average age of the children 2.4 ± 1.3 years (95% CI, 2.2-2.6); 58.7% were children older than 2 years and 51.3% were male. Heads of families: 64.9% with secondary education, 59.7% housewife, 46.7% of families receive minimum salary. Frequency of global malnutrition 4.2%, acute malnutrition 2.2%, risk of malnutrition 10%. In those over two years of age, the frequency is 26.7% overweight, 13.3% obese. The determining factors that influence the malnutrition of children were: households with heads of families with a low academic level and income below the minimum wage. Conclusion: Most of the families are of low income and low educational level; frequency of malnutrition lower than other studies, trend of excess weight, short stature and the determining factors found that influence nutritional status are low income and low educational level of heads of families.


Subject(s)
Obesity , Child, Preschool , Nutritional Status , Minors , Social Determinants of Health
20.
Estud. Interdiscip. Psicol ; 12(3): 03-21, set-dez.2021. Tab, Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358319

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar a relação entre sintomas de depressão, risco nutricional e capacidade funcional com características sociais, econômicas, demográficas e de saúde, em idosos longevos. Trata-se de uma pesquisa transversal, realizada em quatro municípios do estado de São Paulo. A relação entre as variáveis foi obtida por meio da técnica de Análise de Correspondência Múltipla. Foram avaliados 103 idosos, a maioria do sexo feminino, com idade entre 80 e 90 anos e com até quatro anos de estudo. Os resultados evidenciam a correspondência entre a presença de sintomas de depressão, risco nutricional, comprometimento funcional, baixa escolaridade e inadequada autoavaliação de saúde. Nota-se, portanto, a necessidade de uma abordagem interdisciplinar, e o desenvolvimento de políticas públicas direcionadas aos muito idosos, oferecendo atenção necessária para a redução do risco de depressão, de desnutrição e na melhoria da funcionalidade dos idosos longevos, que levem a um impacto positivo em sua qualidade de vida (AU).


This is study aimed to evaluate the relationship between depression symptoms, nutritional risk, and functional capacity, with social, economic, demographic and health characteristics in in long-lived elderly. It is a cross-sectional survey carried out in four municipalities in the state of São Paulo. The relationships among the studied variables were investigated through the technique of Multiple Correspondence Analysis. A total of 103 elderly were evaluated, most of whom were female, aged between 80 and 90 years and up to four years of schooling. The results evidence the correspondence between depression symptoms, nutritional risk, functional impairment, low schooling, and inadequate health self-assessment. Therefore, there is need a broad and interdisciplinary approach and the development of public policies directed at the very elderly are necessary, to reduce the risk of depression, malnutrition and improve the functioning of the long-lived elderly, that have a positive impact on their quality of life (AU).


Objetivo evaluar la relación entre síntomas de depresión, riesgo nutricional y capacidad funcional, con recursos sociales, económicos, demográficos y de salud, en ancianos de larga vida. Esta es un estudio transversal realizada en cuatro municipios del estado de São Paulo. Las relaciones entre las variables se investigaron utilizando la técnica de Análisis de Correspondencia Múltiple. 103 personas mayores fueron grabadas, la mayoría mujeres, con edades comprendidas entre 80 y 90 años y hasta cuatro años de estudio. Los resultados muestran una correspondencia entre la presencia de síntomas de depresión, riesgo nutricional, deterioro funcional, baja educación y salud inadecuada. Nota la necesidad de un enfoque interdisciplinario y el desarrollo de políticas públicas dirigidas a las personas mayores, ayuda a prestar atención para reducir los riesgos de depresión, desnutrición y mejorar la funcionalidad de las personas mayores de edad, lo que tiene un impacto positivo en su calidad de vida (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged, 80 and over , Risk , Risk Reduction Behavior , Malnutrition , Depression , Sociological Factors , Quality of Life , Self-Testing
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