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1.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(4): 673-683, 20220906. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396476

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las pruebas diagnósticas de tamizaje son aquellas pruebas que son capaces de identificar un factor de riesgo o mutaciones genéticas que predicen el inicio ulterior de la enfermedad, así como también las pruebas que ponen de manifiesto alteraciones estructurales de la enfermedad antes que la enfermedad progrese y se vuelva sintomática. Métodos. Se hizo una revisión de la literatura para establecer los fundamentos teóricos científicos que sustentan a las pruebas de diagnóstico de tamizaje y las condiciones y requisitos que se deben cumplir para introducirlas en el ámbito clínico o como programas de salud pública. Resultados. Se estableció la diferencia conceptual entre la detección precoz y el diagnóstico temprano y la diferencia entre tamizaje de prevalencia y tamizaje de incidencia. Se dieron a conocer las indicaciones y criterios científicos para la realización de las pruebas de tamizaje. Se puntualizó la importancia de la duración del tiempo de adelanto en la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas de detección precoz. Se argumentaron las razones por las cuales era necesario la realización de experimentos clínicos aleatorizados para evaluar la eficacia de las pruebas diagnósticas de detección precoz en la prevención secundaria de la enfermedad. Conclusiones. Las pruebas diagnósticas de tamizaje hacen posible la introducción de intervenciones en el ámbito de la prevención primaria, como también en el escenario de la prevención secundaria de las enfermedades.


Introduction. Screening diagnostic tests are those tests that help to identify a risk factor or genetic mutations that predict the subsequent onset of the disease, as well as tests that reveal structural alterations of the disease before the disease progresses and becomes symptomatic. Methods. A literature review was performed to establish the scientific theoretical fundamentals that support diagnostic screening tests and the conditions and requirements that must be met to introduce them in the clinical setting or as public health programs. Results. The conceptual difference between early detection and early diagnosis and the difference between prevalence screening and incidence screening was established. Indications and scientific criteria for conducting screening tests were presented. The importance of the duration of the lead time in the efficacy of early detection diagnostic tests was pointed out. The reasons why it was necessary to carry out a randomized clinical experiment to evaluate the efficacy of early detection diagnostic tests for early diagnosis in the secondary prevention of the disease were confronted. Conclusions. Screening diagnostic tests make it possible to introduce interventions in the field of primary prevention, as well as in the setting of secondary prevention of diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mass Screening , Predictive Value of Tests , Diagnostic Screening Programs , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Early Diagnosis
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 119(2): 328-341, ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383740

ABSTRACT

Resumo A fibrilação atrial (FA) é a arritmia cardíaca sustentada mais comum na população geral, tendo uma alta carga de morbimortalidade, e isso também é válido para pacientes com câncer. A associação entre FA e câncer vai ainda mais longe, com alguns estudos sugerindo que a FA pode ser um marcador de câncer oculto. Há, no entanto, uma notável escassez de dados sobre os desafios específicos do manejo da FA em pacientes com câncer. O reconhecimento e o manejo imediatos da FA nesta população especial podem diminuir a morbidade relacionada à arritmia e ter um importante benefício prognóstico. Esta revisão se concentrará nos desafios atuais de diagnóstico e manejo da FA em pacientes com câncer, com ênfase especial nas estratégias e dispositivos de rastreamento da FA e na terapia de anticoagulação com anticoagulantes orais não antagonistas da vitamina K (NOACs) para prevenção tromboembólica nesses pacientes. Alguns insights sobre as perspectivas futuras para a prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento da FA nesta população especial também serão abordados.


Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in the general population, carrying a high morbimortality burden, and this also holds true in cancer patients. The association between AF and cancer goes even further, with some studies suggesting that AF can be a marker of occult cancer. There is, however, a remarkable paucity of data concerning specific challenges of AF management in cancer patients. AF prompt recognition and management in this special population can lessen the arrhythmia-related morbidity and have an important prognostic benefit. This review will focus on current AF diagnosis and management challenges in cancer patients, with special emphasis on AF screening strategies and devices, and anticoagulation therapy with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anti-coagulants (NOACs) for thromboembolic prevention in these patients. Some insights concerning future perspectives for AF prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in this special population will also be addressed.

3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(6): 2291-2302, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374997

ABSTRACT

Resumo O estudo objetivou investigar conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas de profissionais da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF) sobre o controle do câncer do colo do útero (CCU) recomendadas pelo Ministério da Saúde (MS). Trata-se de estudo transversal, que utilizou questionário autoaplicável junto aos médicos e enfermeiros da ESF de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, em 2019. Para a análise, empregou-se os testes qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher, nível de significância 5%. Entre os 170 pesquisados, o que correspondeu a 93% dos profissionais da ESF no município, a prevalência de conhecimento adequado foi de 39,4% e teve associação com idade mais jovem e sexo feminino. A prevalência de atitude adequada foi de 59.5%, e de práticas adequadas 77,6%, ambos associados a maior tempo de graduação. A presença das diretrizes do MS nas unidades associou-se aos desfechos conhecimento e prática adequada, ratificando a importância de material de apoio para consulta dos profissionais. Apenas 28,2% dos profissionais relataram ter recebido capacitação nos últimos três anos e 50,3% realizaram ações educativas para as usuárias. Destaca-se necessidade de ações de educação permanente junto aos profissionais, visando uma atuação mais efetiva para o enfrentamento e erradicação do CCU.


Abstract The study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of professionals of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) on the control of uterine cervical cancer (CCU) recommended by the Ministry of Health (MS). This is a cross-sectional study, which used a self-administered questionnaire with the doctors and nurses of the FHS of Juiz de Fora, MG, in 2019. For analysis, the chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used, 5% level of significance. Among the 170 surveyed, which corresponded to 93% of FHS professionals in the city, the prevalence of adequate knowledge was 39.4% and had association with younger age and female gender. The prevalence of an adequate attitude was 59.5% and of appropriate practices 77.6%, both associated with a longer time since graduation. The presence of the Ministry of Health guidelines in the units was associated with the outcomes, knowledge and adequate practice, confirming the importance of support material for consultation by professionals. Only 28.2% of professionals reported having received training in the last 3 years and 50.3% carried out educational actions for users. The need for permanent education actions with professionals is highlighted, aiming at a more effective action to confront and eradicate CCU.

4.
Distúrb. comun ; 34(2): e53867, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396709

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As doenças pulmonares são frequentemente associadas com aumento da morbidade e mortalidade pelo comprometimento ventilatório e impacto negativo na proteção de via aérea inferior, além de favorecer uma dissincronia entre a deglutição e respiração comprometendo a função, prazer, qualidade de vida, podendo levar ao óbito. Objetivo: Identificar o risco de disfagia em pacientes com doenças pulmonares. Método: Estudo transversal, descritivo, realizado de março/2016 a julho/2019, em um Hospital Universitário. Foram incluídos pacientes com idade igual ou superior a 18 anos, de ambos os sexos, independente de fatores associados, com estado de alerta suficiente para responder o instrumento; e excluídos pacientes com dificuldades quanto à compreensão das sentenças e/ou instruções, com rastreios prévios, em acompanhamento fonoaudiológico, indisponibilidade para participar do estudo, ausência no leito ou instabilidade do quadro clínico. Foram coletados os dados sociodemográficos, as variáveis clínicas e aplicado o instrumento Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10). Para análise estatística foi considerado o nível de 5% de significância. Resultados: Participaram 99 pacientes com prevalência do sexo masculino (54,5%), idade acima de 60 anos (57,6%) e diagnóstico de tuberculose (16,1%). Houve risco de disfagia em 15 (15,2%) pacientes com prevalência de enfisema pulmonar (26,6%) e pneumonia (20%). Não foi observada associação entre risco de disfagia e sexo, idade, intubação orotraqueal, traqueostomia, via alternativa de alimentação, refluxo gastroesofágico, disfonia e doença de base pulmonar. Conclusão: Por meio de uma ferramenta rápida e simples de rastreamento foi observada a presença do risco de disfagia em 15,2% dos pacientes com doenças pulmonares.


Introduction: Lung diseases are often associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to ventilatory impairment and a negative impact on lower airway protection, in addition to favoring a desynchrony between swallowing and breathing, compromising function, pleasure, quality of life, and possibility of death. Objective: To identify the risk of dysphagia in patients with lung diseases. Method: Cross-sectional, descriptive study, carried out from March 2016 to July 2019, in a University Hospital. Patients aged 18 years or over, of both sexes, regardless of associated factors, with sufficient alertness to respond to the instrument were included, and patients with difficulties in understanding sentences and/or instructions, with previous screenings, undergoing speech therapy, unavailability to participate in the study, out of bed or with instability of the clinical condition were excluded. Sociodemographic data and clinical variables were collected, and the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) was applied. For statistical analysis, a 5% level of significance was considered. Results: 99 patients participated with a prevalence of males (54.5%), aged over 60 years (57.6%) and diagnosed with tuberculosis (16.1%). There was risk of dysphagia in 15 (15.2%) patients with a prevalence of pulmonary emphysema (26.6%) and pneumonia (20%). There was no association between risk of dysphagia and sex, age, orotracheal intubation, tracheostomy, alternative feeding route, gastroesophageal reflux, dysphonia and underlying lung disease. Conclusion: Through a quick and simple screening tool, the presence of risk of dysphagia was observed in 15.2% of patients with lung diseases.


Introducción: Las enfermedades pulmonares se asocian con un aumento de la morbimortalidad por deterioro ventilatorio y un impacto negativo en la protección de las vías respiratorias inferiores, además de favorecer una disincronía entre la deglución y la respiración, comprometiendo la función, el placer, la calidad de vida y pudiendo conducir a la muerte. Objetivo: Identificar el riesgo de disfagia en pacientes con enfermedades pulmonares. Método: Estudio transversal, descriptivo, realizado de marzo/2016 a julio/2019, en un Hospital Universitario. Se incluyeron pacientes con edad igual o superior a 18 años, de ambos sexos, independientemente de los factores asociados, con estado de alerta suficiente para responder al instrumento,y se excluyeron pacientes con dificultades en la comprensión de frases y/o instrucciones, con tamizaje previo, en tratamiento logopédico, indisponibilidad para participar en el estudio, ausencia en la cama o inestabilidad del cuadro clínico. Se recogieron datos sociodemográficos y variables clínicas y se aplicó el Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10). Para el análisis estadístico se consideró un nivel de significación del 5%. Resultados: Participaron 99 pacientes con predominio del sexo masculino (54,5%), mayores de 60 años (57,6%) y diagnosticados de tuberculosis (16,1%). Hubo riesgo de disfagia en 15 (15,2%) pacientes con predominio de enfisema pulmonar (26,6%) y neumonía (20%). No hubo asociación entre riesgo de disfagia y sexo, edad, intubación orotraqueal, traqueotomía, vía alternativa de alimentación, reflujo gastroesofágico, disfonía y enfermedad pulmonar subyacente. Conclusión: A través de una herramienta de tamizaje rápida y sencilla se observó la presencia de riesgo de disfagia en el 15,2% de los pacientes con enfermedades pulmonares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Lung Diseases/complications , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Diagnostic Self Evaluation
5.
Rev. APS ; 25(Supl 1): 135-146, 2022-05-06.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370872

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a síndrome da apneia-hipopneia obstrutiva do sono (SAHOS) é o distúrbio respiratório do sono mais comum, associado a condições facilmente identificáveis, como a hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Objetivo: determinar prevalência de rastreamento positivo para SAHOS e identificar fatores associados em hipertensos em serviço de Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS). Métodos: estudo transversal com 326 hipertensos adscritos a uma unidade de APS. Foram obtidas variáveis antropométricas, clínicas e sociodemográficas e utilizados os questionários Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-Speaking Adults, para identificar o letramento em saúde; a Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, para a adesão medicamentosa e o Snoring, Tiredness, Observed Apnea, High Blood Pressure, Bodymass index, Age, Neck Circumference, and Gender -STOP-Bang, para rastreamentoda SAHOS. Resultados: o sexo feminino foi majoritário (66,3%). A média temporal de tratamento para hipertensão arterial sistêmica alcançou 12,51 ± 9,83 anos. Constatou-se prevalência de 86,5% de rastreio positivo para SAHOS e o sexo masculino e a obesidade como fatores associados a essa condição (p<0,01). Conclusão: o rastreamento sistemático da SAHOS na APS deve ser incorporado à prática dos profissionais de saúde, assim como é feito para outras doenças crônicas não transmissíveis 1.


Introduction: Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) is the most common sleep breathing disorder, associated with easily identifiable conditions such as systemic arterial hypertension. Objective: To determine the prevalence of positive screening for Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) and to identify associated factors in the hypertensive population in the Primary Health Care (PHC) service. Method: This was a cross-sectional study with 326 hypertensive individuals assigned to a PHC unit in a medium-sized city in the state of Minas Gerais. Anthropometric, clinical, and sociodemographic variables were obtained. The Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-Speaking Adults questionnaire was used to identify literacy in health; the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale was used for medication adherence; and the Snoring, Tiredness, Observed Apnea, High Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, Age, Neck Circumference, and Gender -STOP-Bang questionnaire was used for the screening of OSAHS. Results: The majority was female (66.3%) and the treatment time average for high blood pressure was 12.51 ± 9.83 years. The study identified the prevalence of 86.5% of positive screening for OSAHS, and male sex and obesity as factors associated with this condition (p <0.01). Conclusion: The systematic screening of OSAHS in PHC services should be incorporated into the practice of health professionals, as itis done for other chronic non-communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Primary Health Care , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Mass Screening , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Hypertension
6.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 15(2): e10193, abr./jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371760

ABSTRACT

O câncer de mama (CM) é o tumor maligno que mais mata mulheres no mundo, sendo considerado um grave problema de saúde pública. Este artigo investiga as ações de enfermeiros atuantes na Atenção Primária à Saúde na prevenção do CM em Campina Grande-PB. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo-exploratório, de abordagem qualitativa, realizado com 10 enfermeiros que atuam em unidades básicas de saúde do referido município, por meio de entrevista semiestruturada. Os dados coletados foram analisados por meio da análise de conteúdo, com o auxílio do software Atlas.ti. Em seus resultados emergiram cinco categorias: Conhecimentos gerais sobre CM; Capacitação profissional e educação em saúde da população; Abordagem clínica do enfermeiro na prevenção do CM; Dificuldades na prevenção; Autoanálise da prática profissional. Entre estas, destacou-se a influência negativa da falta de capacitações para ajustamento das ações dos enfermeiros às diretrizes nacionais de prevenção do CM na Atenção Primária à Saúde.


Breast cancer is the malignant tumor that kills the most women worldwide, being considered a serious public health problem. This article investigates the actions of nurses working in Primary Health Care in the prevention of breast cancer in Campina Grande-PB. This is a descriptive-exploratory study, with a qualitative approach, carried out with 10 nurses who work in basic health units in that city, through semi-structured interviews. The collected data were analyzed through content analysis, with the help of the Atlas.ti software. Five categories emerged from their results: General knowledge about breast cancer; Professional training and health education for the population; Nurses' clinical approach to breast cancer prevention; Difficulties in prevention; Self-analysis of professional practice. Among these, the negative influence of the lack of training to adjust the nurses' actions to the national guidelines for the prevention of breast cancer in Primary Health Care was highlighted.

7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(2): 118-121, abril 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363788

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio observacional y prospectivo en el Hospital Garrahan, cuyos objetivos fueron conocer la portación asintomática del coronavirus de tipo 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2, por su sigla en inglés) en niños oncológicos y/o en sus cuidadores al hospitalizarse para realizar quimioterapia, y describir el impacto en la continuación del tratamiento en aquellos con prueba positiva para SARS-CoV-2 o con síntomas compatibles con la infección por el virus durante la internación. Se incluyeron los pacientes con enfermedad oncohematológica y sus cuidadores, a quienes se les realizó una prueba de detección de SARS-CoV-2 por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcripción inversa. Se analizaron 733 hospitalizaciones. La tasa de positividad para SARS-CoV-2 fue del 2,2 % (IC95%: 1,35-3,52). Todos los pacientes con prueba detectable completaron la quimioterapia. El 7,7 % de los pacientes presentó síntomas compatibles de caso sospechoso con prueba no detectable y el 77 % de ellos pudo continuar su tratamiento.


An observational, prospective study was carried out at Hospital Garrahan. Its objectives were to establishtherateofasymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children with cancer and/or their caregivers during hospitalization for chemotherapy, and describe the impact of ongoing treatment among those positive for SARS-CoV-2 or with symptoms compatible with infection during hospitalization. Patients with onco-hematological disease and their caregivers were included. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 was done. A total of 733 hospitalizations were analyzed. The SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate was 2.2% (95% confidence interval: 1.35-3.52). All patients with a detectable test result completed chemotherapy. Also, 7.7% of patients developed symptoms compatible with a suspected case although they had an undetectable test result, and 77% of them were able to continue treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , COVID-19 , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Early Detection of Cancer , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization
8.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(3): 264-271, Mar. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387880

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present update is a reassessment of the 2018 'Guidelines for HPV-DNA Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening in Brazil' (Zeferino et al.)9, according to the changes observed in new international guidelines and knowledge updates. The most relevant and recent guidelines were assessed. Questions regarding the clinical practice were formulated, and the answers considered the perspective of the public and private sectors of the Brazilian health system. The review addressed risk-based strategies regarding age to start and stop screening, the use of cytology and colposcopy to support management decisions, treatment, follow-up strategies, and screening in specific groups, including vaccinated women. The update aims to improve the prevention of cervical cancer and to reduce overtreatment and the misuse of HPV testing.


Resumo Esta atualização é uma reavaliação das "Recomendações para o uso de testes de DNAHPV no rastreamento do câncer do colo do útero no Brasil" (Zeferino et al., 2018),9 de acordo com as mudanças observadas nas novas recomendações internacionais, além das atualizações no conhecimento. As recomendações mais relevantes e recentes foram avaliadas. Questões referentes à prática clínica foram formuladas, e as respostas consideraram a perspectiva do sistema de saúde brasileiro, tanto público quanto privado. Esta revisão abrange estratégias baseadas em risco sobre idade para início e término de rastreamento, o uso da citologia e colposcopia para apoiar as condutas, tratamento, estratégias de seguimento, e rastreamento em grupos específicos, incluindo mulheres vacinadas. Esta atualização tem o objetivo de melhorar as estratégias de prevenção do câncer do colo de útero e reduzir o supertratamento e o uso incorreto dos testes de HPV.

9.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO0073, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384788

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To develop an abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging protocol (FAST) and to compare it with the complete protocol (FULL) to determine its diagnostic accuracy for detecting malignant or suspicious lesions (BI-RADS 4, 5 and 6) and the time required for image interpretation using BI-RADS categorization. Methods Retrospective study with 100 consecutive women who underwent breast magnetic resonance imaging between January and February 2014. All patients were submitted to a complete breast magnetic resonance imaging protocol, which was then compared with an abbreviated protocol (pre-contrast sequence, second post-contrast sequence and subtraction of pre- from post-contrast images). Results Of 100 patients, 4 were classified as BI-RADS 5 or 6 and 16 as BI-RADS 4. In these 20 patients, there was full agreement among readers regarding the final BI-RADS categorization in both (FAST and FULL) protocols. Conclusion The FAST protocol reduces interpretation time without compromising the accuracy of the method for detection of malignant or suspicious lesions.

10.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 75(3): e20210050, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1341097

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: to measure the frequency and compliance of breast cancer screening, according to the risk for this disease. Methods: a cross-sectional study with 950 female users of 38 public Primary Health Care services in São Paulo, between October and December 2013. According to UHS criteria, participants were grouped into high risk and standard risk, and frequency, association (p≤0.05), and screening compliance were measured. Results: 6.7% had high risk and 93.3% standard risk, respectively; in these groups, the frequency and compliance of clinical breast examination were 40.3% and 37.1%, and 43.5% and 43.0% (frequency p=0.631, compliance p=0.290). Mammograms were 67.7% and 35.5% for participants at high risk, and 57.4% and 25.4% for those at standard risk (frequency p=0.090, compliance p=0.000). Conclusions: in the groups, attendance and conformity of the clinical breast exam were similar; for mammography, it was higher in those at high risk, with assertiveness lower than the 70% set in UHS.


RESUMEN Objetivos: mensurar frecuencia y conformidad de rastreo del cáncer mamario, segundo riesgo para esa enfermedad. Métodos: estudio transversal con 950 usuarias de 38 servicios de Atención Primaria púbicos en São Paulo, entre octubre y diciembre de 2013. Segundo criterios del SUS, agruparon las participantes en riesgo elevado y riesgo-estándar, y mensurado frecuencia, relación (p≤0,05) y conformidad del rastreo. Resultados: 6,7% tenían riesgo elevado y 93,3% riesgo-estándar, respectivamente; en eses grupos, la frecuencia y conformidad del examen clínico mamario fueron de 40,3% y 37,1% y de 43,5% y 43,0% (frecuencia, p=0,631; conformidad, p=0,290). Realización de mamografía alcanzó porcentuales de 67,7% y 35,5% para participantes con riesgo elevado, y de 57,4% y 25,4% en con riesgo-estándar (frecuencia, p=0,090; conformidad, p=0,000). Conclusiones: En los grupos, la frecuencia y conformidad del examen clínico mamario fueron semejantes, para mamografía fue mayor en las con riesgo elevado, habiendo asertividad inferior a 70% pactados en el SUS.


RESUMO Objetivos: mensurar a frequência e conformidade de rastreio do câncer mamário segundo risco para esta doença. Métodos: estudo transversal em São Paulo, com 950 usuárias de 38 da atenção primária no SUS entre outubro a dezembro de 2013. Segundo critérios do SUS, as participantes foram agrupadas como risco elevado ou padrão e mensurou-se frequência, associação (p≤0,05) e conformidade do rastreio. Resultados: 6,7% tinha risco elevado e 93,3% risco padrão, respectivamente, nestes grupos a frequência e conformidade do exame clínico mamário foram de 40,3% e 37,1% e de 43,5% e 43,0% (frequência p=0,631, conformidade p=0,290). Realização de mamografia alcançou percentuais de 67,7 e 35,5 para as com risco elevado, e de 57,4 e 25,4 nas com risco padrão (frequência p=0,090, conformidade p=0,000). Conclusões: nos grupos, a frequência e conformidade do exame clínico mamário foram semelhantes, para mamografia foi maior nas com risco elevado, tendo assertividade inferior aos 70% pactuados no SUS.

11.
CoDAS ; 34(3): e20200380, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360363

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To verify the accuracy of smartphone apps to identify hearing loss. Research strategies A systematic review followed the PRISMA-DATA checklist. The search strategies were applied across four databases (Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) and grey literature (Google Scholar, OpenGrey, and ProQuest Dissertations and Thesis). Selection criteria The acronym PIRD was used in review. This included populations of any gender and all age groups. The Index test is the smartphone-based hearing screening test; the Reference test is the pure-tone audiometry, which is considered the gold reference for hearing diagnostics; the diagnosis was performed via validity data (sensitivity and specificity) to identify hearing loss and diagnostic studies. Data analysis Two reviewers selected the studies in a two-step process. The risk of bias was assessed according to the criteria of the QUADAS-2. Results Of 1395 articles, 104 articles were eligible for full-text reading and 17 were included. Only four met all criteria for methodological quality. All of the included studies were published in English between 2015 and 2020. The applications Digits-in noise Test (5 articles), uHear (4 articles), HearScreen (2 articles), hearTest (2 articles) and Hearing Test (2 articles) were the most studied. All this application showed sensitivity and specificity values between 75 and 100%. The other applications were EarScale, uHearing Test, Free field hearing (FFH) and Free Hearing Test. Conclusion uHear, Digit-in-Noise Test, HearTest and HearScreen have shown significant values of sensitivity and specificity and can be considered as the most accurate methods for screening of hearing impairment.


RESUMO Objetivo Verificar a acurácia dos aplicativos de smartphone para identificar a perda auditiva. Estratégias de pesquisa Uma revisão sistemática seguiu o checklist PRISMA-DATA. As estratégias de busca foram aplicadas nos bancos de dados Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus e Web of Science e na literatura cinzenta (Google Scholar, OpenGrey e ProQuest Dissertations and Thesis). Critérios de seleção O anacrônimo PIRD foi usado na revisão. Incluiu populações de qualquer gênero e todas as faixas etárias. O teste Index foi o de triagem auditiva baseado em smartphone; o teste de referência foi a audiometria tonal; o diagnóstico foi realizado por meio de dados de validade (sensibilidade e especificidade) para identificação da perda auditiva e estudos diagnósticos. Análise de dados Dois revisores selecionaram os estudos em um processo de duas etapas. O risco de viés foi avaliado de acordo com os critérios do QUADAS-2. Resultados De 1395 artigos, 104 artigos foram elegíveis para leitura de texto completo e 17 foram incluídos. Apenas quatro preencheram todos os critérios de qualidade metodológica. Todos os estudos incluídos foram publicados em inglês entre 2015 e 2020. Os aplicativos mais estudados foram: Digits-in-noise (5 artigos), uHear (4 artigos), HearScreen (2 artigos), hearTest (2 artigos) e Hearing Test (2 artigos). Todos apresentaram valores de sensibilidade e especificidade entre 75 e 100%. Os outros aplicativos foram EarScale, uHearing, Free Field Hearing e teste Free Hearing. Conclusão uHear, Digit-in-Noise Test, HearTest e HearScreen apresentaram valores significativos de sensibilidade e especificidade e podem ser considerados os métodos mais precisos para rastreamento de deficiência auditiva.

12.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(7): e00041722, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384280

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a realização de exames de rastreamento e diagnóstico para o câncer de colo do útero entre mulheres de 25 e 64 anos, bem como o atraso para o início do tratamento no Brasil e suas regiões geográficas no período de 2013 a 2020. As informações sobre os procedimentos e as estimativas populacionais foram obtidas nos sistemas de informações do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e da Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar (ANS). Foram calculados indicadores de cobertura do exame de Papanicolau, os percentuais de exames citopatológicos e histopatológicos alterados, e o percentual de mulheres com diagnóstico de câncer do colo do útero tratadas com mais de 60 dias. Houve grande variação na cobertura do exame de Papanicolau entre as regiões brasileiras com tendência de declínio a partir de 2013, agudizada de 2019 para 2020. O número registrado de exames citopatológicos alterados foi 40% inferior ao estimado e a diferença entre o número registrado de diagnósticos de câncer e o estimado menor que 50%. O percentual das mulheres com diagnóstico de câncer invasivo do colo do útero que iniciaram o tratamento após 60 dias variou entre 50% na Região Sul a 70% na Região Norte, com diminuição a partir de 2018. Em 2020, houve retração do número de exames de rastreamento e de seguimento com diminuição da proporção de mulheres com atraso para o início do tratamento nas regiões Norte, Sudeste e Sul. A queda na cobertura do rastreamento e o seguimento inadequado de mulheres com resultados alterados indicam a necessidade de aprimorar as estratégias de detecção precoce da doença e estabelecer mecanismos de avaliação e monitoramento constante das ações.


This study analyzes the performance of screening and diagnosis tests for cervical cancer among women aged 25 to 64 years, as well as the delay for the initiation of treatment within Brazil and in its geographic regions, from 2013 to 2020. Information on populational procedures and estimates was obtained from the information systems of the Brazilian Unified National Health System and the Brazilian National Supplementary Health Agency. We calculated the coverage indicators of the Pap smear, the percentages of altered cytopathological and histopathological tests, and the percentage of women diagnosed with cervical cancer with over 60 days of treatment. There was great variation in the coverage of the Pap smear test among the Brazilian regions with a downward trend from 2013, which was aggravated from 2019 to 2020. The number of altered cytopathological tests was 40% lower than estimated, and the difference between the recorded number of cancer diagnoses and the estimated number of patients was below 50%. The percentage of women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer, who started treatment after 60 days, ranged from 50% in the South to 70% in the North Region with a decrease from 2018. In 2020, there was a decrease in the number of screening and follow-up tests, reducing the proportion of women delayed in starting treatment in the North, Southeast, and South regions. The decline in screening coverage and inadequate follow-up of women with altered results indicate the need to improve early detection strategies for the disease and establish mechanisms for constant evaluation and monitoring of actions.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el desempeño de las pruebas de detección y diagnóstico de cáncer de cuello uterino entre mujeres de 25 a 64 años, así como el retraso en el inicio del tratamiento en Brasil y en sus regiones geográficas en el período entre el 2013 y el 2020. La información sobre los procedimientos y las estimaciones poblacionales se obtuvo de los sistemas de información del Sistema Único de Salud y de la Agencia Nacional de Salud Complementaria. Se calcularon indicadores de cobertura de la prueba de Papanicolaou, los porcentajes de exámenes citopatológicos e histopatológicos alterados y el porcentaje de mujeres con diagnóstico de cáncer de cuello uterino sometidas a tratamiento por más de 60 días. Hubo una gran variación en la cobertura de la prueba de Papanicolaou entre las regiones brasileñas, con tendencia a la disminución a partir del 2013, agudizada del 2019 al 2020. El número registrado de exámenes citopatológicos alterados fue un 40% inferior al estimado, y la diferencia entre el número registrado de diagnósticos de cáncer y el estimado fue menor al 50%. El porcentaje de mujeres diagnosticadas con cáncer de cuello uterino invasivo que comenzaron el tratamiento después de 60 días varió del 50% en la Región Sur al 70% en la Región Norte, con una disminución a partir del 2018. En el 2020, hubo una retracción en el número de exámenes de detección y seguimiento, con una disminución en la proporción de mujeres con retraso en el inicio del tratamiento en las regiones Norte, Sudeste y Sur. La reducción en la cobertura de la detección y el seguimiento inadecuado de las mujeres con resultados alterados indican la necesidad de mejorar las estrategias de detección temprana de la enfermedad y establecer mecanismos de evaluación y seguimiento constante de las acciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaginal Smears , Brazil/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Papanicolaou Test
13.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE01096, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1393725

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Analisar as práticas no controle do câncer de mama identificadas pelos gerentes da Atenção Primária à Saúde. Métodos Estudo descritivo, transversal, realizado com 24 gerentes de Unidades de Saúde na Atenção Primária, de diferentes configurações (tradicionais, Estratégia de Saúde da Família e Unidades Básicas de Saúde com equipes de Saúde da Família) e contemplando unidades de pequeno, médio e grande porte, localizadas em um município do interior paulista. Foi utilizado um instrumento para identificar ações de rastreamento e detecção de neoplasias mamárias, com 32 questões e subitens, segundo as ações determinadas pelo programa de controle de câncer de mama no Brasil. A análise foi baseada nos atributos de estrutura e processo do Modelo Donabediano. Resultados Com relação às ações de controle de neoplasias mamárias, todos os gerentes, 24 (100%), afirmaram estabelecer prioridade no encaminhamento de mulheres com mamografia e Exame Clínico das Mamas alterados, e solicitação de mamografia para mulheres do grupo de alto risco. Quanto aos entraves na execução dessas ações, a maioria,13 (54,2%), dos gerentes apontaram dificuldades enfrentadas pelos serviços com predomínio de falta de profissionais de saúde e demanda excessiva. Conclusão As Unidades de Saúde da Atenção Primária têm realizado ações para o controle do câncer de mama, mas existem condutas que não estão em conformidades com as propostas do Ministério da Saúde. Existe a necessidade de maior implantação de ações educativas, pois o enfoque é curativo. Também, são necessários maiores investimentos para incrementar as medidas preventivas e potencializar o acesso aos exames de rastreio.


Resumen Objetivo Analizar las prácticas del control del cáncer de mama identificadas por los gerentes de la Atención Primaria de Salud. Métodos Estudio descriptivo, transversal, realizado con 24 gerentes de Unidades de Salud en la Atención Primaria, de diferente configuración (tradicionales, Estrategia Salud de la Familia y Unidades Básicas de Salud con equipos de Salud de la Familia) y tamaño (unidades de pequeño, mediano y gran porte), localizadas en un municipio del interior del estado de São Paulo. Se utilizó un instrumento para identificar acciones de rastreo y detección de neoplasias mamarias, con 32 preguntas y subítems, según las acciones determinadas por el programa de control del cáncer de mama en Brasil. El análisis se basó en los atributos de estructura y proceso del modelo de Donabedian. Resultados Con relación a las acciones de control de neoplasias mamarias, todos los gerentes, 24 (100 %), afirmaron que establecen prioridad en la derivación de mujeres con mamografía y examen clínico de las mamas alterado, y la solicitud de mamografía para mujeres del grupo de alto riesgo. Respecto a los obstáculos para ejecutar estas acciones, la mayoría de los gerentes, 13 (54,2 %), señaló las dificultades enfrentadas por los servicios, con predominio de falta de profesionales de la salud y demanda excesiva. Conclusión Las Unidades de Salud de la Atención Primaria realizan acciones para el control del cáncer de mama, pero existen conductas que no están en conformidad con las propuestas del Ministerio de Salud. Existe una necesidad de mayor implementación de acciones educativas, ya que el enfoque es curativo. También son necesarias mayores inversiones para incrementar las medidas preventivas y potencializar el acceso a los estudios de rastreo.


Abstract Objective To analyze the breast cancer management practices identified by Primary Health Care managers. Methods This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study, carried out with 24 Health Units managers in Primary Care, of different configurations (traditional, Family Health Strategy and Basic Health Units with Family Health teams) and contemplating small, medium and large units, located in a city in the countryside of São Paulo. An instrument was used to identify screening and detection actions for breast cancer, with 32 questions and sub-items, according to the actions determined by the breast cancer management program in Brazil. The analysis was based on Donabedian Model's structure and process attributes. Results With regard to breast cancer management actions, all managers, 24 (100%), stated that they established priority in referring women with altered mammography and Clinical Breast Examination, and requesting mammography for women in the high-risk group. As for obstacles in the execution of these actions, most, 13 (54.2%), managers pointed out difficulties faced by the services, with a predominance of lack of health professionals and excessive demand. Conclusion The Primary Care Health Units have carried out actions to manage breast cancer, but there are behaviors that do not comply with the Ministry of Health's proposals. There is a need for greater implementation of educational actions, as the focus is curative. Also, greater investments are needed to increase preventive measures and enhance access to screening tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Primary Health Care , Breast Neoplasms , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Multicenter Study , Health Manager , Professional Training , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interviews as Topic
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(9): 1339-1346, sept. 2021. graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389591

ABSTRACT

Cervical Cancer (CaCu) has a heterogeneous epidemiological behavior throughout the planet, depending on regional socioeconomic development level. Some developed countries predict a potential eradication of this cancer in the next 100 years, while in Chile it still constitutes a pending challenge. Incidence rates show a slow but sustained downward prob, however, mortality has continued to fluctuate between 500-600 cases per year. A few years ago, vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV), the main causal agent for this tumor, was consolidated as a public policy, both in girls and in boys. However, the technological leap in the screening prob was pending, from cytology to molecular diagnosis of the agent (HPV). In this report, we update our most recent data (2018) regarding CaCu mortality, then review global guidelines and experiences in HPV screening. Finally, we offer an account of the strategies that our health system is promoting to address the screening of the disease and whose molecular approach generates the widest worldwide scientific consensus. We also recognize the main barriers and future challenges, which, if overcome, would allow us to be in line with the mandate of WHO to control this women's health problema.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Vaccination
15.
Medicina (Ribeirão Preto) ; 54(1)jul, 2021. tab.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353699

ABSTRACT

RESUMO : Objetivo: Investigou-se a cobertura de exame citopatológico de colo uterino e fatores associados em mulheres entre 25 e 64 anos em município do sul do Brasil. Métodos: Estudo transversal, de base populacional, realizado na cidade de Rio Grande, RS. O desfecho, cobertura de exame citopatológico de colo uterino, foi definido como reali-zação do exame nos últimos três anos para mulheres de 25 a 64 anos, de acordo com a recomendação do Instituto Nacional do Câncer. A coleta de dados ocorreu em 2016. As variáveis independentes incluídas foram: faixa etária, cor da pele, estado civil, escolaridade, nível econômico, histórico gestacional, tabagismo, obesidade, posse de pla-no de saúde, consulta ao médico no último ano, cadastrado do domicílio em Unidade Básica de Saúde da Família e se havia recebido visita de agente de saúde no último ano. Resultados: Participaram 521 mulheres, com média de idade de 44,3 anos. A cobertura foi de 78,1% (IC95% 73,5 a 82,7). Após ajustes, evidenciou-se como fatores as-sociados ao desfecho: ser casada/viúva/separada/divorciada, não ser fumante, ter plano de saúde, ter consultado um médico no último ano e possuir domicílio cadastrado na Unidade Básica de Saúde da Família. Conclusãov: A cobertura de exame citopatológico de colo uterino mostrou-se próxima à meta do Ministério da Saúde, abrangendo oito em cada dez mulheres. Mulheres solteiras, fumantes, sem plano de saúde, que não costumam ir ao médico e cujo domicílio não está cadastrado em UBSF constituíram os grupos de risco para não realizarem o exame. (AU)


ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the coverage of cervical cancer screening and its associated factors among women from southern Brazil aged 25 to 64 years. Methods: This was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted in the city of Rio Grande, RS. The outcome of interest consisted of a cytopathological examination of the uterine cer-vix in the previous three years in women aged 25 to 64 years, according to the criteria of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute. The data were collected in 2016, and the following independent variables were considered: age, skin color, marital status, schooling, socioeconomic status, gestational history, smoking habits, overweight, health insurance, having visited a physician or having been visited by a community health agent in the previous year, and household registered in a primary care facility (PCF) of the healthcare system. Results: This study included a total of 521 women, with a mean age of 44.3 years. The coverage of cervical cancer screening was 78.1% (95% CI: 73.5 to 82.7). The following characteristics were associated with the outcome: marital status, non-smoking habits, health insurance, having visited a physician in the previous year, and household registered in a PCF. Conclusion:The coverage of cervical cancer screening observed in our study (8 out of ten women) was close to the Brazilian Ministry of Health goals. Single women, smoking habits, no health insurance, having not visited a physician in the previous year, and not having their household registered in a PCF were considered risk factors. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care , Risk Groups , Mass Screening , Epidemiology , Women's Health , Secondary Prevention , Papanicolaou Test
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 558-565, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154500

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (PCa) are still increasing in developing countries. Limited access to the health system or more aggressive disease are potential reasons for this. Ethnic and social differences in developed countries seem to make inappropriate to extrapolate data from other centers. We aim to report the epidemiological profile of a PSA-screened population from a cancer center in Brazil. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively selected 9.692 men enrolled in a PCa prevention program, comprising total PSA level and digital rectal examination at the first appointment, associated with complementary tests when necessary. Men aged over 40 years-old were included after shared decision-making process. Prostate biopsy (TRUS) was performed when clinically suspected for PCa. After the diagnosis, patients underwent appropriate treatment. Results: TRUS was performed in 5.5% of men and PCa incidence was 2.6%. Overall ratio between number of patients who needed to be screened in order to diagnose one cancer was 38.9 patients, with 2.1 biopsies performed to diagnose a cancer. Positive predictive value (PPV) of TRUS biopsy in this strategy was 47.2%, varying from 38.5% (<50 years-old) to 60% (>80 years-old). We evidenced 70 patients (27.9%) classified as low risk tumors, 74 (29.5%) as intermediate risk, and 107 (42.6%) as high-risk disease. Conclusions: PSA-screening remains controversial in literature. In front of a huge miscegenated people and considering the big proportion of high-risk PCa, even in young men diagnosed with the disease, it is imperative to inform patients and health providers about these data particularities in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Biopsy , Brazil/epidemiology , Public Health , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Early Detection of Cancer , Middle Aged
17.
Rev. APS ; 22(4): 950-968, jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354811

ABSTRACT

A Síndrome da Apneia e Hipopneia Obstrutiva do Sono (SAHOS) é condição clínica importante com incidência crescente nos países desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento. É condição negligenciada, com prevalência entre 30 e 56%, responsável por 80% dos casos de hipertensão arterial resistente, causa de sonolência diurna, hiperutilização de serviços de saúde, incapacidade laboral, sintomas depressivos, acidentes de trânsito e de trabalho e fator de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Este artigo tem como objetivo atualizar informações e com isso alertar sobre a importância do rastreamento e manejo da SAHOS em população com hipertensão arterial sistêmica assistida na atenção primária à saúde.


Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) is an important clinical condition with increasing incidence in developed and developing countries. It is a neglected condition, with prevalence between 30 and 56%, responsible for 80% of cases of resistant hypertension, causes daytime sleepiness, hyper-utilization of health services, work incapacity, depressive symptoms, traffic and work accidents, and risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this article is to update information and thus alert about the importance of the screening and management of OSAHS in a population with high blood pressure assisted in Primary Health Care.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Mass Screening , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Hypertension
18.
Rev. APS ; 23(2): 410-426, 2021-06-23.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357768

ABSTRACT

Contexto: As informações autorreferidas são comumente utilizadas em pesquisas para estimar a cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou. Entretanto, não foram identificados estudos brasileiros que avaliem sua acurácia, o que pode comprometer os resultados encontrados. Objetivo: Avaliar a acurácia da informação autorreferida sobre a realização do último exame de Papanicolaou em mulheres assistidas pela Estratégia de Saúde da Família (ESF). Métodos: A informação autorreferida sobre a realização do exame foi obtida em estudo transversal com mulheres de 20 a 59 anos atendidas em unidades com ESF, mediante aplicação de questionário. A informação padrão-ouro foi obtida por meio da busca de registros médicos de exames de Papanicolaou. A acurácia entre o padrão-ouro e o autorrelato foi analisada por meio do cálculo do percentual de informação autorreferida adequada, da sensibilidade, da especificidade e dos valores preditivos positivos e negativos. Resultados: Foram incluídas na análise 572 mulheres. O percentual de informação autorreferida adequada foi de 92,3%, sensibilidade de 98,2% (IC95% 96,5­99,1), especificidade de 52,0% (IC95% 40,1­63,8) e valores preditivos positivos e negativos, respectivamente, de 93,3% (IC95% 90,8­95,2) e 80,8% (IC95% 66,3­90,3). Ressalta- se que não foi encontrada diferença nas medidas de acurácia em função das variáveis sociodemográficas. Conclusão: A partir dos dados apresentados, pode-se dizer que a informação autorreferida sobre realização do exame de Papanicolaou apresentou medidas de acurácia que garantem a credibilidade da informação e respaldam o uso do autorrelato na avaliação da cobertura do exame e programação do próximo exame de rastreio.


Context: Self-reported information is commonly used in surveys to estimate coverage of the Pap Test. However, it was not found in Brazil studies that evaluated the accuracy of self-report. Objective: To assess the accuracy of self-reported cervical cancer screening in women assisted in Primary Health Care. Methods: The self-reported information about the test was obtained in a cross-sectional study with women aged 20 to 59 years old who attended Primary Health Care units, using a questionnaire. The gold-standard information was obtained through the search in medical records of Pap smears. The validity of the self-report was analyzed by calculating the percentage of adequate self-reported information, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predict values. Results: A total of 572 women were included in the analysis. The percentage of adequate self-reported information was 92.3%, with sensitivity of 98.2% (95% CI 96.5 to 99.1), specificity of 52.0% (95% CI 40.1 to 63.8) and positive and negative predict values, respectively, of 93.3% (95% CI: 90.8-95.2) and 80.8% (95% CI: 66.3-90.3). No difference was found in validity measures between sociodemographics characteristics. Conclusion: The self- reported cervical cancer screening showed validity measures that guarantee the credibility of the information and supports the use of self-report in the evaluation of the exam coverage and in the scheduling of the next Pap test.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Mass Screening , Self Report , Papanicolaou Test
19.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(5): 520-534, May 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Growth in aging of the population has led to increasing numbers of elderly people presenting cognitive impairment and evolution to dementia. There is still no consensus within primary care on the best strategy for screening for cognitive impairment among elderly people. Standardization of a simple but reasonably accurate instrument for a brief cognitive test, in primary care environments, would enable healthcare professionals to identify individuals who require a more in-depth assessment of cognition. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the instruments used by healthcare professionals in studies conducted worldwide and ascertain the most suitable instruments for screening for cognitive impairment among individuals aged 60 years or over, in the Brazilian population. DESIGN AND SETTING: Scoping review developed at Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: A systematic search of the literature was conducted for primary studies using instruments to screen for cognitive impairment among individuals aged 60 years or over, in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central and LILACS databases. RESULTS: A total of 983 articles were identified by two independent reviewers, from which 49 were selected for full-text reading, based on the criteria defined for this review. From this, 16 articles adhering to the theme of screening for cognitive impairment among the elderly were selected for in-depth analysis. CONCLUSION: The Mini-Mental State Examination was the instrument most cited in these studies. The Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire and the Verbal Fluency Test (semantic category) present characteristics favoring further studies, for testing as screening instruments for cognitive impairment among elderly people in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Dementia , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Neuropsychological Tests
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(4)abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389499

ABSTRACT

Background: The early detection of retinopathy among diabetics is of utmost importance. Aim: To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of two diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening strategies currently used in the Chilean public health system. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional observational study of 371 diabetic patients aged 61 ± 14 years (61% women) who underwent DR screening at a public Hospital between July 1 and August 31, 2019. The mydriatic retinal photographs of all participants were classified using artificial intelligence software (DART) and trained medical technologists, independently. The precision of both strategies was compared with the reference standard, namely the evaluation of the fundus by an ophthalmologist with a slit lamp. Participants with severe non-proliferative DR or worse were considered as positive cases. The ophthalmologist was blind to the results of the screening tests. Results: Twenty four percent of participants had DR, including 34 (9.2%) who had sight threatening DR in at least one eye. The sensitivity and specificity of DART were 100% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 90-100%) and 55,4% (95% CI: 50-61%), respectively. Medical technologists had a sensitivity of 97,1% (95% CI: 85-100%) and a specificity of 91,7% (95% CI: 88-94%). The only case missed by medical technologists was a patient with unilateral panphotocoagulated DR. Conclusions: Both strategies had a similar sensitivity to detect cases of sight-threatening DR. However, the specificity of DART was significantly lower compared to medical technologists, which would greatly increase the burden on the health system, a very important aspect to consider in a screening strategy.

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