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1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(10): 3913-3922, out. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404135

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este ensaio explora a relação entre diversidade e saúde pública ao abordar tensões que envolvem classificações e reconhecimento no campo das políticas de HIV e Aids. Objetiva refletir sobre como se articulam categorias classificatórias e operativas no âmbito das respostas programáticas em relação à produção social de diferenças e desigualdades. Para tanto, parte do referencial teórico dos estudos sobre vulnerabilidade e reconhecimento e de metodologia que inclui revisão crítica da literatura sobre a categoria HSH e material etnográfico oriundo de pesquisas das autoras e de revisão de literatura, relativo ao movimento social, pesquisas e políticas com foco em lésbicas, gays, bissexuais, travestis e transexuais (LGBT). Recupera o processo de construção da categoria HSH no campo das políticas de prevenção de HIV e Aids em âmbito internacional, situando atores políticos e tensões. Problematiza essas tensões ao analisar processos de produção de sujeitos políticos e mudanças nas relações socioestatais que envolvem LGBT. Enfatiza a importância de considerar como diferenças e desigualdades emergem nos processos sociopolíticos e de destinar estudos para aprimorar políticas, assegurando um cuidado efetivamente mais respeitoso.


Abstract This essay explores the relationship between diversity and public health by addressing tensions related to classifications and recognition in the field of HIV and AIDS policy. The objective is to reflect on how classificatory and operative categories are articulated within the scope of programmatic responses towards the social production of differences and inequalities. To do so it draws from the theoretical framework of studies on vulnerability and recognition and from a methodology that includes a critical review of the literature on the category men who have sex with men (MSM) and ethnographic material, derived from the authors' research and a literature review related to social movements, and research and policies focused on lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transvestites and transsexuals (LGBT). It reviews how the MSM category was constructed in the field of HIV and AIDS prevention policies at an international level, situating political actors and tensions. It problematizes these tensions by analyzing processes of production of political subjects as well as changes in socio-state relations that involve LGBT. It emphasizes the importance of considering how differences and inequalities emerge in socio-political processes and of dedicating studies to improve policies, ensuring an effectively more respectful care.

2.
Liberabit ; 28(1): e512, Jan.-June 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405513

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: las infecciones de transmisión sexual son un problema de salud pública y los programas para reducir su contagio se abordan mayoritariamente por el enfoque de riesgos y no desde una intervención integral. Objetivo: evaluar la eficacia del programa de intervención biográfico profesional con técnicas cognitivas conductuales para disminuir las conductas sexuales de riesgo en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH). Método: se aplicó un diseño cuasi experimental con pretest y postest de dos bloques. El primer bloque se conformó por HSH con alguna infección de transmisión sexual (ITS), 9 en el grupo experimental y 8 en el de control; mientras que, en el segundo bloque, los HSH no presentaron ITS y hubo 11 en ambos grupos. Los participantes respondieron a una escala ad-hoc, cuya validez y confiabilidad fueron evaluadas previamente. Resultados: existen diferencias entre el pretest y postest del grupo experimental y de control, con un tamaño de efecto grande, a favor del grupo experimental. Conclusiones: el programa reduce las conductas sexuales de riesgo en HSH; sin embargo, en quienes padecen alguna ITS, las conductas disminuyeron, sin extinguirse.


Abstract Background: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a public health problem and the programs to reduce their transmission are mostly addressed from the risk approach and not from a comprehensive intervention. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a biographical-professional intervention program with cognitive behavioral techniques to reduce sexual risk behaviors in men who have sex with men (MSM). Method: A two-group pretest-posttest quasi- experimental design was used in the research. The first group consisted of MSM with an STD, nine of whom were in the experimental group and eight in the control group, whereas the second group consisted of MSM with no STD distributed into two groups of 11 men each. The participants answered the questions of an ad hoc scale, whose validity and reliability were previously evaluated. Results: Differences between the experimental and control groups' pretests and posttests were found, with the experimental group showing a large effect size. Conclusions: The program reduces sexual risk behaviors in MSM; however, in those who suffer from any STD, such behaviors decreased but did not disappear.

3.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 38(2): e38206, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1389692

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: por ser los varones gais y los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH) una población con mayor incidencia de virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), ONUSIDA recomienda el monitoreo periódico mediante encuestas que releven información para reportar indicadores de prevención. La implementación de estos estudios en nuestro medio es limitada debido a la complejidad y costos de las metodologías tradicionales. Objetivo: generar información actualizada sobre prevención del VIH, con énfasis en uso de condón y realización de pruebas de tamizaje en gais/HSH de 15 a 49 años en Uruguay, implementando una estrategia metodológica innovadora. Material y método: estudio de corte transversal y analítico, en base a una encuesta online disponible entre octubre y diciembre de 2019. Resultados: se incluyeron 693 varones, 67% de Montevideo y 67% con nivel educativo terciario. Un 17% fue forzado a mantener relaciones sexuales alguna vez, 20% sufrió maltrato por su orientación y 68,4% ocultaba su orientación sexoafectiva en algún grado. Un 57,2% usó condón en la última relación sexual anal casual, observándose un descenso respecto al año 2012 (67,6%), mientras que la tendencia en la cobertura de prueba de VIH (66%) fue creciente comparada con estudios previos. La proporción de positividad de VIH fue de 13,3%. El análisis multivariado mostró que la menor probabilidad de uso de condón se asocia a: pareja estable en el último año, autoidentificación gay, prueba de VIH en el último año y vacunación para virus papiloma humano. La mayor probabilidad de uso se asoció a: participación en actividades de información, relaciones sexuales con personas con ITS/VIH. La menor probabilidad de realización de prueba de VIH se asoció con pareja estable y la mayor con el conocimiento de lugares de acceso a prueba y conocimiento de la profilaxis posexposición. Entre quienes conocían la profilaxis preexposición (375), 46,1% estaba dispuesto a recibirla y 1,3% había accedido. Conclusiones: la persistencia de situaciones de discriminación y violencia hacia varones gais/HSH necesita acciones más efectivas de promoción de derechos. Es necesario integrar innovaciones biomédicas en prevención que se complementen y potencien para el control de la epidemia. El uso de una encuesta en línea fue eficiente en el reclutamiento, aunque con sesgos en la selección, lo que desafía a mejorar esta estrategia metodológica.


Summary: Introduction: as gay men and men who have sex with men (MSM) constitute a population with a greater incidence of HIV, UNAIDS recommends regular surveillance by means of surveys that provide information that allows reporting prevention indicators. The implementation of these studies is limited in our context given the high complexity and costs of traditional methodologies. Objectives: to generate updated information about HIV prevention, with an emphasis on condom use and to implement screening tests in gay/MSM population between 15 and 49 years old in Uruguay, using an innovative methodological strategy. Method: transversal, analytical study by means of a web-based survey available between October and December 2019. Results: 693 men were included in the study, 67% from Montevideo and 67% of which had university studies. 17% of them had been forced to have sex in the past, 20% had suffered abuse because of their sexual orientation and 68.4% concealed their sex-affective orientation to some extent. 57.2% used condoms in their last casual anal sexual relationship, what evidences a decrease with regard to 2012 (67.6%), whereas a growing tendency in the HIV test coverage (66%) was observed, when compared to previous studies. HIV positivity rate was 13.3%. The multivariate analysis revealed a lower probability of condom use was associated to: a stable partner in the last year, gay self-identification, HIV test in the last year and having the HPV vaccine. The greater likelihood of use was associated to: participating in informative activities, having sex with people with STD/HIV. The lowest probability of having an HIV test was associated to a stable partner and the highest was associated to knowing where they could get tested for HIV and also knowing about the post-exposure prophylaxis. When considering those who knew about the pre-exposure prophylaxis (375), 46.1% was willing to receive it and 1.3% had agreed to it. Conclusions: the continuation of discrimination and violence towards gay men and MSM needs more effective right promoting actions. We need to integrate into prevention biomedical innovations that complement and leverage one another. The web-based survey was effective in terms of recruiting, although there were bias in the selection, what results challenging to improve the methodological strategy.


Resumo: Introdução: como gays e homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSH) são uma população com maior incidência de HIV, o UNAIDS recomenda o monitoramento regular por meio de pesquisas que coletem informações para calcular indicadores de prevenção. A implementação desses estudos em nosso ambiente é limitada devido à complexidade e custo das metodologias tradicionais. Objetivo: gerar informações atualizadas sobre prevenção do HIV, com ênfase no uso de preservativos e testes de triagem em gays/HSH de 15 a 49 anos no Uruguai, implementando uma estratégia metodológica inovadora. Método: estudo transversal e analítico, baseado em questionário online disponível entre outubro e dezembro de 2019. Resultados: foram incluídos 693 homens, 67% de Montevidéu e 67% com nível superior. 17% foram obrigados a ter relações sexuais em algum momento, 20% sofreram maus-tratos devido à sua orientação e 68,4% ocultaram sua orientação sexual-afetiva em algum grau. 57,2% usaram preservativo na última relação anal casual, mostrando um decréscimo em relação a 2012 (67,6%), enquanto a tendência da cobertura do teste anti-HIV (66%) foi de aumento em relação a estudos anteriores. A taxa de positividade do HIV foi de 13,3%. A análise multivariada mostrou menor probabilidade de uso de preservativo associado a: parceiro estável no último ano, autoidentificação gay, teste de HIV no último ano e vacinação para papiloma vírus humano. A maior probabilidade de uso esteve associada a: participação em atividades informativas, relações sexuais com pessoas com IST/HIV. A menor probabilidade de realização do teste anti-HIV foi associada ao parceiro estável e a maior ao conhecimento dos locais de acesso ao teste e conhecimento da profilaxia pós-exposição. Entre os que conheciam a profilaxia pré-exposição (375), 46,1% estavam dispostos a recebê-la, 1,3% já haviam recebido. Conclusões: a persistência de situações de discriminação e violência contra gays/HSH requer ações mais efetivas de promoção de direitos. É necessário integrar inovações biomédicas na prevenção que se complementem e se fortaleçam para o controle da epidemia. A utilização de uma pesquisa online foi eficiente no recrutamento, embora com vieses de seleção, o que desafia a melhorar essa estratégia metodológica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Health Surveys , HIV , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data
4.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 831-835, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936804

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of repeated HIV antibody tests among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Wuhan City, so as to provide insights into the development of interventions against AIDS among MSM.@*Methods@#MSM with self-reported homosexual behaviors in a community studio in Wuhan City were recruited using a convenient sampling method from January to April 2019, and participants' demographic features, sexual behaviors, HIV antibody tests and recognition of HIV antibody tests were collected using questionnaires. Factors affecting repeated HIV antibody tests were identified using a multivariable logistic regression model.@*Results@#Totally 300 valid questionnaires were recovered, with a mean age of (31.06±10.24) years. Among all the participants, 196 participants had the first homosexual behaviors over 18 years of age (65.33%), 107 participants were insertive partners (35.67%), and 125 participants received sex-transmitted diseases (STDs) tests in the past six months (41.67%). The mean score for recognizing the risk of HIV infection was 12.41±3.09, for HIV antibody test self-efficiency was 17.07±2.12, and for perceived social supports was 17.42±2.41. A total of 287 respondents received HIV antibody tests (95.67%), including 192 participants receiving repeated HIV antibody tests (64.00%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that age of >18 years for the first homosexual sex behavior (OR=0.404, 95%CI: 0.223-0.734), receiving STDs tests in the past six months (OR=3.896, 95%CI: 2.145-7.076), sex role as receptive partners or both receptive and insertive partners (OR=0.502, 95%CI: 0.275-0.917), satisfying with HIV antibody test services (OR=2.955, 95%CI: 1.311-6.660), and high score for HIV antibody test self-efficiency (OR=1.149, 95%CI: 1.005-1.314) were factors affecting repeated HIV antibody tests among MSM.@*Conclusions@#The detection of repeated HIV antibody tests was 64.00% among MSM in Wuhan City in 2019, and age for the first homosexual behavior, STDs tests, sex role, evaluation of HIV antibody test services and self-efficiency of HIV antibody tests may be factors affecting repeated HIV antibody tests among MSM.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Men who have sex with men (MSM), as a marginal population, has been largely ignored by health service projects. We assessed the utilization of HIV testing and counselling services and its influencing factors based on Andersen's Behavioral Model, so as to provide a theoretical basis for future infectious disease prevention and control strategies and health services policy formulation for these population.@*METHOD@#This was a cross-sectional study. A sample survey was conducted in Western China, and an anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among MSM. Based on Andersen's Behavioral Model, the questionnaire divided the influencing factors into predisposing factor, enabling factor and need factor. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore the factors influencing the utilization of HIV testing and counselling.@*RESULTS@#There were 3184 valid questionnaires. In the survey of HIV health services, 82.85% MSM had HIV testing and 64.98% MSM had HIV counselling, respectively. Among the predisposing factor, age 25 years old and over was a facilitator of HIV testing and counselling, and ethnicity was a factor associated with HIV testing. Among the enabling factor, MSM living in urban were more likely to have access to testing and counselling services, and income was also linked to HIV testing. Among the need factor, a high level of HIV knowledge could promote testing and counselling, and a history of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) was a facilitator of testing.@*CONCLUSIONS@#HIV testing is widespread in Western China and higher than counselling service. MSM with high-risk characteristics should be identified as a priority in the future public health services.


Subject(s)
Adult , Counseling , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Testing , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Sexual and Gender Minorities
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920787

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate nPEP willingness and uptake among MSM in Shanghai. Methods MSM were recruited through a NGO-based HIV voluntary counseling testing clinic and several virtual communities using snowball sampling. Results A total of 606 MSM were successfully recruited in which 82.8% (502/606) had heard of nPEP and 81.2% (492/606) were willing to use nPEP. MSM who had been diagnosed with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) were more likely to hold willingness in using nPEP. High cost was the most common reason for being unwilling to use nPEP. 9.9% (60/606) had used nPEP in which 51.7% (31/60) had used twice or more, and 50%(30/60) had missed medication in the last nPEP. MSM who were heterosexual or with other sex orientations except for being bisexuality (OR=2.943, 95%CI: 1.057‒8.191), being receptor in anal intercourse (OR=3.361, 95%CI: 1.552‒7.282), having 2 or more sexual partners in the last 30 days (OR=2.242, 95%CI: 1.225‒4.105), having been diagnosed with STI (OR=2.317, 95%CI: 1.223‒4.389), and using drugs (OR=2.177,95%CI: 1.052‒4.503) were more likely to use nPEP. Conclusion MSM in Shanghai have a relatively high willingness to use and uptake of nPEP. Comprehensive strategies need to be developed on improving adherence and reducing HIV-risk behaviors.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939810

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The epidemic of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among men who have sex with men (MSM) is severe in China. And MSM has now become a key population for the infection and transmission of AIDS. At present, the bottleneck of AIDS prevention and control among MSM population is low rate of continuous condom use and high incidence of unsafe sexual behavior. Inductive summarization of the literature revealed that the most critical reason for low rate of continuous condom use among the MSM population was condom-related stigma. Although many studies mentioned condom-related stigma among MSM populations, there has been no any definition of MSM-related condom stigma and no measurement for it. Therefore, the paper aims to explore barriers to condom use among MSM, then construct the conceptual and operational definition of "MSM-related condom stigma" through Meta synthesis and concept synthesis, and provide a new perspective for AIDS prevention and control among MSM.@*METHODS@#Based on evidence-based method, "PICoS" framework and Meta-synthesis was used to include the literatures. Then, we used synthesized qualitative evidence from included studies to construct the concept and operational definition of MSM-related condom stigma by the means of thematic analysis and concept synthesis.@*RESULTS@#According to the results of the concept synthesis, MSM-related condom stigma refers to any taboos or misbeliefs about condom use or feeling ashamed or embarrassed to talk about using condoms which perceived by individuals at the individual, interpersonal, and social levels.It was demonstrated through 4 sub-themes at operational level: a symbol of distrust, a symbol of HIV/sexual transmitted infections (STIs) prevention, a symbol of an embarrassing topic, and a symbol of violating the traditional cognition of sexual intercourse. According to the Social-ecological Model (SEM), a symbol of distrust refers to that the MSM population believes that not using condoms represents mutual trust between sexual partners, while using condoms is difficult to express intimacy, trust and loyalty between sexual partners. A symbol of HIV/STIs prevention at the interpersonal level refers to that the MSM population believes that condom use is a "symbol" for the prevention or infection of AIDS; on the one hand, if someone proposes to use condoms, he may be considered infected with HIV or have unsafe sex experiences, thus, making it difficult to propose condom use; on the other hand, if they believe that sexual partners are "AIDS free" (often a wrong perception, such as sexual partners may have the risk of AIDS infection although they do not have AIDS), it is considered that condom use is completely unnecessary. The environmental level includes a symbol of an embarrassing topic and a symbol of violating the traditional cognition of sexual intercourse. A symbol of an embarrassing topic refers to the MSM population feels shame about topics related to sexual behavior and is embarrassed to carry/buy/propose condom use or be ashamed to engage in conversations about whether to use condoms during sexual behavior. And a symbol of violating the traditional cognition of sexual intercourse: The MSM population have limitations in their perception of "sex" or "sexual behavior" and believe that real sex (behavior) is unobstructed contact between the bodies and exchange between all body fluids.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The concept of MSM-related condom stigma is proposed for the first time, and its operational definition is given. The concept includes 3 levels and 4 dimensions. It is helpful to understand MSM people's attitude and cognition towards condoms, and adds indicators with cultural sensitivity and behavioral sensitivity to the behavioral intervention for AIDS in the future.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Coitus , Condoms , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Sexual Partners , Sexual and Gender Minorities
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927869

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the rate and correlates of receiving human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) serostatus disclosure from their most recent male sexual partners among men who have sex with men(MSM) aged 50 and above. Methods With a geosocial networking application,we recruited participants through online convenience sampling to collect the demographic variables,behavioral information,receiving HIV serostatus disclosure,etc.Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to interpret the associated factors of receiving HIV serostatus disclosure. Results Overall,38.4%(398/1037) of participants received HIV serostatus disclosure from their most recent male sexual partners.The multivariable analysis demonstrated that the following populations were less likely to receive HIV serostatus disclosure from their most recent male sexual partners:participants with junior high school degree or below(OR=0.660,95%CI=0.473-0.922, P=0.015) compared to those with senior high school degree or above;participants unemployed(OR=0.537,95%CI=0.322-0.896, P=0.017) and employed(OR=0.663,95%CI=0.466-0.944, P=0.022) compared to those retired;participants without knowledge about HIV or acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS) compared to those with knowledge about HIV/AIDS(OR=0.636,95%CI=0.466-0.868, P=0.004);participants having ≥2 male sexual partners in the last year(OR=0.433,95%CI=0.320-0.586, P<0.001) compared to those having none or one male sexual partner;participants never been tested for HIV(OR=0.544,95%CI=0.403-0.734, P<0.001) compared to those ever been tested for HIV;participants ever been diagnosed to have sexually transmitted infection(STI)(OR=0.472,95%CI=0.349-0.637, P<0.001) compared to those never diagnosed to have STI;and participants with higher level of HIV stigma(OR=0.742,95%CI=0.604-0.912, P=0.005). Conclusions Our findings indicated that the MSM aged 50 and above had low possibility of receiving HIV serostatus disclosure from the most recent male sexual partners.Education,employment status,number of sexual partners,HIV/AIDS-related knowledge,HIV testing behaviors,STI infection history,and HIV stigma contributed to this result.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Disclosure , Female , HIV , HIV Infections , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis
9.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(4): EN199121, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374818

ABSTRACT

Discrimination due to sexual orientation (DDSO) has an important association with health outcomes among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aimed to analyze factors associated with DDSO among MSM in 12 Brazilian cities. This is a cross-sectional study with 4,176 MSM participants recruited in 2016 which used a respondent-driven sampling method in 12 Brazilian cities. DDSO levels were previously identified by a latent class analysis based on 13 variables from the discrimination section. An ordinal logistic regression was used to assess associations with these DDSO levels, and weighted ordinal odds ratios (OR) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Gile's estimator. Most participants were young (< 25 years old) black or of mixed-race (pardo), single individuals who had a religious affiliation, primary or incomplete secondary education, and a high and average socioeconomic status. More than half (65%) reported DDSO in the 12 months prior to this study. We observed an independent association among the four latent DDSO classes and the following variables: age < 25 years old (OR = 1.66; 95%CI: 1.21-2.27), white skin color (OR = 1.43; 95%CI: 1.02-2.01), history of sexual (OR = 2.33; 95%CI: 1.58-3.43) and physical violence (OR = 3.08; 95%CI: 2.11-4.49), disclosure of their sexual orientation as MSM to their fathers (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.47-2.72), experienced suicidal ideation in the two weeks prior to this study (OR = 2.09; 95%CI: 1.46-2.98), and use of any illicit drugs in the last six months (OR = 1.61; 95%CI: 1.19-2.18). Our results indicate that contextual factors may contribute to high DDSO levels among MSM in Brazil. Public health policies toward human rights surveillance and protection among MSM must be urgently addressed.


A discriminação com base na orientação sexual mostra uma associação forte com desfechos de saúde entre homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSH). O estudo buscou analisar fatores associados com a discriminação por orientação sexual entre HSH em 12 cidades brasileiras. Um estudo transversal recrutou 4.176 HSH em 2016, usando o método respondent-driven sampling em 12 cidades brasileiras. Os níveis de discriminação por orientação sexual foram identificados previamente por análise de classes latentes, com base em 13 variáveis do capítulo sobre discriminação. Foi usada regressão logística ordinal para avaliar as associações com esses níveis de discriminação por orientação sexual, e o estimador de Gile foi utilizado para estimar as razões de chances ordinais ponderadas (OR) e os respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%). Os participantes eram majoritariamente jovens (< 25 anos), solteiros, com filiação religiosa, com escolaridade primária ou Ensino Médio incompleto, pretos ou pardos e com nível socioeconômico alto ou médio. Mais da metade relatava discriminação por orientação sexual nos últimos 12 meses (65%). Observamos uma associação independente entre as quatro classes latentes de discriminação por orientação sexual e as seguintes variáveis: idade < 25 anos (OR = 1,66; IC95%: 1,21-2,27), cor branca (OR = 1,43; IC95%: 1,02-2,01), história de violência sexual (OR = 2,33; IC95%: 1,58-3,43) e física (OR = 3,08; IC95%: 2,11-4,49), ter divulgado ao pai a orientação sexual enquanto HSH (OR = 2,00; IC95%: 1,47-2,72), relato de ideação suicida nas últimas duas semanas (OR = 2,09; IC95%: 1,46-2,98) e uso de qualquer droga ilícita nos últimos seis meses (OR = 1,61; IC95%: 1,19-2,18). Nossos resultados indicam que fatores contextuais podem contribuir para os altos níveis de discriminação contra HSH no Brasil. São urgentes políticas de saúde pública voltadas para a vigilância e proteção dos direitos humanos dos HSH.


La discriminación debida a la orientación sexual (DDSO, por sus siglas en inglés) tiene una asociación importante con los resultados de salud entre los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH). El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar factores asociados con DDSO entre HSH en 12 ciudades brasileñas. Un estudio trasversal con 4.176 participantes HSH reclutados en 2016, usando un método de muestreo basado en los encuestados de 12 ciudades brasileñas. Los niveles de DDSO se identificaron previamente mediante un análisis de clase latente, basado en 13 variables desde la sección de discriminación. Se utilizó una regresión logística ordinal para evaluar las asociaciones con estos niveles de DDSO y se estimaron las razones de posibilidades ponderadas ordinales (OR) y su respectivo intervalo de 95% de confianza (IC95%) usando el estimador de Gile. La mayoría de los participantes eran jóvenes (< 25 años de edad), solteros, tenían filiación religiosa, una escolaridad primaria o secundaria incompleta, eran negros o mestizos (pardos) y tenían un elevado promedio socioeconómico. Más de la mitad informaron DDSO en los 12 meses previos (65%). Observamos una asociación independiente entre las cuatro clases latentes de DDSO y las siguientes variables: edad < 25 años (OR = 1,66; IC95%: 1,21-2,27), color de piel blanca (OR = 1,43; IC95%: 1,02-2,01), historia de violencia sexual (OR = 2,33; IC95%: 1,58-3,43) y violencia física (OR = 3,08; IC95%: 2,11-4,49), revelaron al padre su orientación sexual como HSH (OR = 2,00; IC95%: 1,47-2,72), tuvieron ideas suicidas durante las dos semanas previas (OR = 2,09; IC95%: 1,46-2,98) y consumieron alguna droga ilícita en los últimos seis meses (OR = 1,61; IC95%: 1,19-2,18). Nuestros resultados indican que los factores contextuales podrían haber contribuido a los altos niveles de DDSO entre HSH en Brasil. Se deben dirigir urgentemente políticas públicas de salud orientadas a la vigilancia y protección de los derechos humanos entre HSH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Perception , Sexual Behavior , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cities , Homosexuality, Male
10.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(3)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1408874

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La cobertura con servicios de prevención basados en evidencia es un componente esencial de la respuesta frente al VIH. Objetivo: Evaluar la cobertura de los servicios de prevención del VIH para hombres que tienen relaciones sexuales con hombres en Cuba. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal descriptivo en ciudades más afectadas por la epidemia del VIH en Cuba. Se llevó a cabo en dos fases, una de recolección de datos de campo a través de una encuesta, y otra de análisis de datos proveniente del programa con el propósito de triangular la información. Los resultados fueron descritos mediante frecuencias y proporciones. Resultados: Se encuestaron 757 hombres que tienen relaciones sexuales con hombres; de ellos, 87,3 % no reactivos para el VIH, 9,1 % reactivos, y 3,5 % no tenía información. La totalidad de los encuestados informó haber participado en actividades de prevención del VIH, 77,4 % se había realizado una prueba de VIH en los 12 meses anteriores a la encuesta, y 66,5 % advirtió sentirse satisfecho con las actividades de prevención. En contraste, según los datos del programa 93,9 % de los hombres residentes en las ciudades seleccionadas fueron alcanzados por servicios de prevención y 53,8 % con pruebas del VIH. Conclusiones: La cobertura de los servicios de prevención del VIH fue elevada. A pesar de la alta cobertura observada, el análisis de datos colectados sugiere que la medida se basa en contactos y no personas alcanzadas, y el monitoreo definido de la cobertura se limita a intervenciones conductuales y productos básicos.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Coverage with evidence-based prevention services is an essential component of the response to HIV. Objective: Evaluate the coverage of HIV prevention services for men who have sex with men in Cuba. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the cities most severely affected by the HIV epidemic in Cuba. The study was structured into two stages: field data collection through a survey and analysis of data obtained from the program to triangulate the information. Results were expressed as frequencies and proportions. Results: A total 757 men who have sex with men were surveyed, of whom 87.3% were HIV non-reactive, 9.1% were reactive and 3.5% did not have the information. All the respondents reported having participated in HIV prevention activities, 77.4% had taken the HIV test in the 12 months preceding the survey, and 66.5% expressed their satisfaction with prevention activities. Conversely, according to the data obtained from the program, 93.9% of the men living in the cities selected had had access to prevention services and 53.8% to HIV tests. Conclusions: Coverage of HIV prevention services was high. Despite the high coverage observed, analysis of the data collected suggests that the measure is based on contacts, not in persons reached, and the coverage monitoring defined is limited to behavioral interventions and basic products.

11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(5): 655-666, oct. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388299

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Chile enfrenta una reemergencia de la epidemia del VIH concentrada en hombres gay y otros HSH. La profilaxis pre exposición (PrEP) es una intervención biomédica que ha resultado ser efectiva en la prevención del VIH en el grupo de HSH. OBJETIVO: Estimar niveles de aceptabilidad del uso de PrEP en hombres gay y otros HSH participantes en estudio LAMIS 2018 - Chile, identificando características y factores asociados a la aceptabilidad del uso de PrEP. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio basado en datos de LAMIS-2018 Chile, encuesta transversal por internet dirigida a hombres gay, bisexual, trans y otros HSH. La submuestra de este estudio consiste en 3.976 participantes que se auto-reportaron ser VIH negativos o desconocer su estado serológico, quienes respondieron preguntas sociodemográficas, de comportamiento, sobre su aceptabilidad a usar PrEP y otros aspectos relacionados. Se realizó análisis bivariados y regresión logística multivariable para identificar los factores asociados a la aceptabilidad a usar PrEP. RESULTADOS Y DISCUSIÓN: Se identificó que 55,7% de la muestra reportó una alta aceptabilidad a usar la PrEP. La regresión logística multivariable mostró que tener relaciones sexuales sin condón (ORa = 1,67, IC 95% 1,42-1,97) y haber intentado usar PrEP (ORa = 1,99, IC 95% 1,41-1, 62) se asociaron positivamente a la aceptabilidad a usar PrEP mientras que tener una relación con pareja estable, se asoció negativamente. Se identificó una aceptabilidad a usar la PrEP relativamente alta en los participantes. No obstante, se hace necesario considerar intervenciones relacionada a aumentar el conocimiento y promover la demanda de la PrEP. Además, el presente estudio muestra la necesidad de considerar la participación de las organizaciones de la sociedad civil en su implementación, fenómenos emergentes y la pertinencia territorial.


BACKGROUND: Chile is facing a re-emergence of the HIV epidemic, concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a biomedical intervention that effectively prevents HIV transmission among MSM. AIM: The study was designed to estimate acceptability of PrEP and identify factors associated with PrEP-related attitudes and behaviors among MSM using LAMIS 2018 - Chile study data. Methods: Data were taken from the LAMIS 2018 - Chile study, a cross-sectional study of gay, bisexual, transgender, and other MSM. Our subsample included 3976 participants with self-reported HIV-negative or unknown status who responded to sociodemographic questions and items related to PrEP. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify factors associated with acceptability of PrEP. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 55.7% of the sample reported high PrEP acceptability. Logistic regression indicated that engaging in sex without a condom (ORa = 1.67, IC 95% 1.42-1.97) and having previously used PrEP (ORa = 1.99, IC 95% 1.41-1.62) were associated with high acceptability to use PrEP, while having a stable partner was associated with low acceptability. The estimate of PrEP acceptability was relatively high among participants. However, interventions to increase awareness and promote demand for PrEP may be beneficial. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the need for non-governmental organizations to participate in such strategies and for measures that address regionally-relevant emerging phenomena.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Chile , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Homosexuality, Male
12.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 47(3)sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409230

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La respuesta programática diseñada para los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres en Cuba, es la estrategia de prevención combinada. Esta incluye la oferta de paquetes integrales con componentes estructurales, biomédicos y de comportamiento en el marco de sus contextos locales específicos. Objetivo: Mostrar los principales resultados de las acciones coordinadas de prevención del VIH para hombres que tienen sexo con hombres, llevadas a cabo en Cuba entre los años 2015 y 2017 con el apoyo del Fondo Mundial. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo desde enero de 2015 hasta diciembre de 2017. Los datos se obtuvieron por medio de la revisión de documentos programáticos y estratégicos del Programa Nacional y el Proyecto del Nuevo Modelo de Financiamiento, que incluyó los informes de monitoreo y evaluación del subbeneficiario nacional. Resultados: La cobertura educativa con paquetes de prevención incrementó en 54,8 % entre 2015 y 2017. El alcance con pruebas de VIH aumentó en 66,2 %; sin embargo, apenas el 31,8 % se realizó las pruebas en el último año. Conclusiones: En Cuba el acceso a la salud es gratuito y de alcance universal, lo que incluye las posibilidades de hacerse la prueba de VIH. No obstante, en el periodo sujeto a revisión persistieron brechas de cobertura que ameritan que se continúe investigando para orientar las acciones preventivas con el fin de encontrar una respuesta eficaz.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The programmatic response designed for men who have sex with men in Cuba is the combined prevention strategy. This includes offering comprehensive packages with structural, biomedical and behavioral components within the framework of their specific local contexts. Objective: To show the main results of the coordinated HIV prevention actions for men who have sex with men, carried out in Cuba from 2015 to 2017 with the support of the Global Fund. Methods: A descriptive observational study was carried out from January 2015 to December 2017. The data were obtained through the review of programmatic and strategic documents of the National Program and the New Financing Model Project, which included the monitoring reports and assessment of the national sub-recipient. Results: Educational coverage with prevention packages increased by 54.8% from 2015 to 2017. The outreach with HIV tests increased by 66.2%; however, only 31.8% had been tested last year. Conclusions: In Cuba, access to health is free and universal, which includes the possibilities of taking an HIV test. However, in the period under review, coverage gaps persisted that merit further investigation to guide preventive actions in order to find an effective response.

13.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(2): 3167-3178, mar.-abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251934

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Este trabajo describe las principales intervenciones de prevención de la infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, dirigidas a los hombres que tienen relaciones sexuales con hombres, los que constituyen un grupo de riesgo para adquirir la enfermedad. Para su elaboración, se seleccionó la literatura científica publicada en fuentes y documentos nacionales e internacionales considerada relevante para el tema. El análisis y las recomendaciones se centraron en el sector de la salud y en el grupo de hombres que tienen relaciones sexuales con otros hombres. Las estrategias de abordaje del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana en Cuba están consideradas entre los programas de prevención de alto impacto, elaboradas tanto por la sociedad civil, a través de las subvenciones del Fondo Mundial de Lucha contra el SIDA, la Tuberculosis y la Malaria, como por los técnicos del Programa Nacional de Prevención y Control de las ITS-VIH/sida. Incluyen paquetes de servicios personalizados, que contienen elementos estructurales, biomédicos y de comportamiento para grupos de población clave en los contextos sociales donde son más necesarias. Como es sabido, el riesgo para cada individuo depende de sus prácticas y no del grupo al que pertenezca. Estas ofrecen un fundamento común para el desarrollo y la promoción de programas de eficacia comprobada para la prevención, que permiten reorganizar los esfuerzos, tener mayor impacto y lograr reducir el número de nuevas infecciones en este grupo de población (AU).


ABSTRACT This paper describes the main interventions for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection, aimed at men who have sex with men, who constitute a risk group for acquiring the disease. For its preparation, the scientific literature published in national and international sources and documents considered relevant to the subject was selected. The analysis and recommendations focused on the health sector and the group of men who have sex with other men. The strategies to address the human immunodeficiency virus in Cuba are considered among the high-impact prevention programs, developed both by civil society, through grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and by the technicians of the National Program for the Prevention and Control of STI-HIV/AIDS. They include personalized service packages, containing structural, biomedical and behavioral elements for key population groups in the social contexts where they are most needed. As is known, the risk for each individual depends on their practices and not on the group to which they belong. These provide a common foundation for the development and promotion of proven prevention programs that allow reorganization of efforts, have greater impact, and reduce the number of new infections in this population group (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , HIV/pathogenicity , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Preventive Health Services , Communicable Disease Control , Public Health , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Cuba
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907125

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo understand the infection of AIDS, syphilis, and gonorrhea in men who have sex with men (MSM), and the factors influencing the acceptance of gonorrhea testing in Dehong Dai Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture (Dehong Prefecture), Yunnan Province. MethodsAcross-sectional survey was conducted to describe and analyze the acceptance of AIDS, syphilis, and gonorrhea testing among MSM tracked in Dehong Prefecture in 2018. ResultsA total of 385 MSM were included in the analysis, with a 100.0% HIV and syphilis testing rate. The HIV antibody positivity rate was 10.6% (41/385) and the positivity rate of syphilis antibody was 14.8%(57/385). Only 30.4% of the subjects were willing to test for gonorrhea, and 13.7%(16/117)of them were test positive. Further multifactorial analysis revealed that local MSM and syphilis co-infected individuals were more likely to be tested for gonorrhea (aOR=2.48, 95%CI=1.33-4.65, P=0.004; aOR=2.59, 95%CI=1.43-4.71, P=0.002). ConclusionThe positive rates of AIDS, syphilis and gonorrhea in MSM population in Dehong Prefecture are relatively high. Integrated interventions of STD/AIDS and gonorrhoea detection should be strengthened.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907102

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo understand the infection of AIDS, syphilis, and gonorrhea in men who have sex with men (MSM), and the factors influencing the acceptance of gonorrhea testing in Dehong Dai Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture (Dehong Prefecture), Yunnan Province. MethodsAcross-sectional survey was conducted to describe and analyze the acceptance of AIDS, syphilis, and gonorrhea testing among MSM tracked in Dehong Prefecture in 2018. ResultsA total of 385 MSM were included in the analysis, with a 100.0% HIV and syphilis testing rate. The HIV antibody positivity rate was 10.6% (41/385) and the positivity rate of syphilis antibody was 14.8%(57/385). Only 30.4% of the subjects were willing to test for gonorrhea, and 13.7%(16/117)of them were test positive. Further multifactorial analysis revealed that local MSM and syphilis co-infected individuals were more likely to be tested for gonorrhea (aOR=2.48, 95%CI=1.33-4.65, P=0.004; aOR=2.59, 95%CI=1.43-4.71, P=0.002). ConclusionThe positive rates of AIDS, syphilis and gonorrhea in MSM population in Dehong Prefecture are relatively high. Integrated interventions of STD/AIDS and gonorrhoea detection should be strengthened.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905808

ABSTRACT

Objective:To determine the association between recreational drug usage, high risk sexual behavior, and HIV infection among men who have sex with men(MSM) in Jinhua. Methods:A cross-sectional survey was conducted to recruit MSM for anonymous questionnaire survey and serological examination. We used EpiData3.1 for data entry and SPSS 19.0 for statistical analysis. Results:A total of 368 MSM were surveyed, in which the proportion of recreational drug usage was 13.3% ( 49 / 368 ), with the HIV infection of 10.3% (38/ 368 ) and syphilis infection of 8.9% (25/368). Risk factors associated with recreational drug usage were determined to be part-time job or being unemployed (OR=5.26; 95%CI: 2.10-13.18; P<0.001), average monthly income ≥CNY 5 000 (OR=6.45; 95%CI: 2.87-14.61; P<0.001), education level of high school or above (OR=1.56; 95%CI: 1.37-3.57; P=0.037), sexual orientation being homosexual(OR=3.52; 95%CI: 1.60-7.33; P=0.002), number of sexual partners >1 (OR=4.37; 95%CI: 1.76-10.82; P=0.001), engaged in group sex (OR=7.90; 95%CI: 2.11-29.55; P=0.002) and previously diagnosed sexually transmitted diseases (OR=4.76; 95%CI: 1.29-17.65;P=0.019). Conclusion:Prevalence of recreational drug usage among MSM in Jinhua is relatively low. MSM with part-time or unemployed status, monthly income ≥CNY 5 000, higher education level, homosexual orientation, multiple sexual partners, sexually transmitted diseases and group sex behavior are the risk factors associated with recreational drug usage in Jinhua city. Targeted countermeasures should be considered for intervention.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904492

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the status of synthetic drug use, high-risk sexual behavior and associated factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Shanghai. Methods:MSM subjects were recruited, by a team of non-governmental organizations (NGO), at MSM places and voluntary counseling and testing clinics from May to December 2018. The subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire survey on social-demographic, ways to make friends, synthetic drug use, high-risk sexual behavior, and HIV/STD testing history. They also received tests of HIV and syphilis. According to the use of synthetic drugs, they were divided into user group and non-user group. Results:A total of 209 subjects were recruited. Among them, 43.1% (90/209) used at least one synthetic drug. 81.3% (170/209) of MSM used internet dating software. The proportion of synthetic drug use was higher among the subjects in 30-34 age group, residence registered in other provinces, with university degree or above, occupation of cadres and staff members, monthly income of more than 10 000 yuan, making friends through gay bars, and acquaintance with male partners. The registered residence in other provinces (OR=3.006) and making friends through gay bars (OR=3.588) were independent factors. The top three synthetic drugs were Rush (90.0%, 81/90), Viagra (8.9%, 8/90) and “capsule 0” (7.8%, 7/90). The proportion of having sex after using synthetic drugs was 89.5% (17/19). The frequency of high-risk sexual behaviors such as oral sex, anal sex without condom and group sex was once a day per person on average. Conclusion:The use of synthetic drugs is prevalent among MSM, and the frequency of high-risk sexual behaviors after use is high. Warning education on the dangers of synthetic drug use and mobilization for HIV testing should be carried out with the help of new media technology. Special attention should be paid to MSM people in high-income occupations and gay bars.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887136

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the demographic characteristics and sexual behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Tianjin, and to compare these aspects between recreational drug users and non-users. Methods:This research was conducted by Tianjin Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. From July to September 2015, various methods such as simple random sampling and snowball sampling were used to recruit MSM. Information was collected through on-site questionnaire surveys, and laboratory tests were conducted to detect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status in the research subjects. Statistical description and frequency distribution tests on demographic information and behavioral variables were performed. Results:A total of 410 qualified participants, ranged from 17 to 70 years old, were included. A total of 297 (72.4%) MSM were unmarried, 194 (47.3%) had monthly income over 3 000 yuan, 182 (44.4%) MSM had high school education, and 366 (89.3%) were working full-time. Among all 410 participants, 208 MSM self-reported using recreational drugs. Among them, 140 MSM had used Rush Popper. Influencing factors of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among Rush Popper users include: more than 30 years old, average monthly income less than 5 000 yuan, and sex with temporary partners (all P<0.05). Conclusion:Among MSM in Tianjin, the use of recreational drugs is quite common, and Rush Popper is the most commonly used recreational drug. Therefore, it is necessary to establish and strengthen the relevant laws and regulations for the reduction of Rush Popper circulation among the MSM population.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886641

ABSTRACT

Objective:To determine the prevalence of facility-based HIV testing and its associated factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Shanghai. Methods:From June 2018 to December 2020, MSM were recruited by a community organization “Shanghai CSW&MSM Center (SCMC)”. A total of 3 251 MSM were included as follows: being 18 years old and above, being HIV-negative or with unknown HIV status, living in Shanghai, had homosexual behavior in the past year, and completed informed consent. Using a self-designed questionnaire, we performed an online survey powered by www.wjx.cn to collect information on demographics, sexual behavior, and facility-based HIV testing. A total of 3 240 valid questionnaires were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine the factors associated with facility-based HIV testing. Results:A total of 3 240 MSM participated in the study with mean age of (29.7±6.2) years .The prevalence of facility-based HIV testing was 63.2% (2 049/3 240), Multivariate logistic regression showed that the participants with a college degree or above were less likely to have facility-based HIV testing(OR=0.73,P=0.008), compared to those with lower educational background. The proportion of the MSM who sought sexual partners through the internet received facility-based testing was 68.7%. Compared to the participants with the sexual role being 0 (only be penetrated), those being 0.5 (both penetrated and be penetrated) and 1 (only penetrated) were both more likely to have the HIV testing (both P<0.05). Those who used condoms during the last homosexual behavior were more likely to be tested than those who did not (OR=1.39, P=0.001). Those who had been diagnosed with sexually transmitted diseases were more likely to be tested than those who did not (OR=2.05, P<0.001). The participants who had used HIV self-testing kits in the past were more likely to be tested than those who did not (OR=2.31, P<0.001). Conclusion:MSM in Shanghai have lower utilization of facility-based HIV testing, which may be improved by strengthening the advocacy of facility-based HIV testing services through the internet and peer education, and innovating service models.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942210

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To understand the differences between young male students who have sex with men (MSM) with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection in acquired immure deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge and behavior, and to provide a scientific reference to make targeted and effective measures in AIDS prevention.@*METHODS@#Using snow balling sampling combined with participants' referral, we conducted a questionnaire survey among 548 young MSM students (in whom there were both HIV-positive and HIV-negative) in Harbin, Tianjin, Xi'an, and Chongqing cities from April 2017 to March 2018. The chi-square test and binary Logistic regression were used to compare the differences in AIDS-related knowledge and behavior between males with and without HIV-infection.@*RESULTS@#A total of 583 questionnaires were obtained, of which 548 were valid, with an effective rate of 94.0%. Having a junior college education or below (P=0.002), a monthly consumption level of less than 2 000 RMB (P=0.021), and living off campus (P=0.004) were associated with being tested positive for HIV. In any period of schooling, receiving AIDS prevention education was a protective factor for HIV infection [Primary school OR=0.203 (0.073-0.561), junior high school OR=0.287 (0.142-0.581), senior high school OR=0.271 (0.142-0.518), and university OR=0.322 (0.168-0.616)]. There was no statistical difference between HIV positive and negative young MSM students in the cognition of "AIDS-related Knowledge for Public"(P=0.907) and "AIDS-related Knowledge for Youth"(P=0.782), with the awareness rate all about 90%. There was a statistical difference in the need for some specific knowledge (For "AIDS prevention and treatment policy", P=0.012, for "Ways to identify and prevent high-risk sexual behavior", P < 0.001). HIV-positive males had a younger age of first sexual activity (P=0.006), had more sexual partners in the early (P < 0.001) and had lower frequency of condom use (P < 0.001). However, there was no statistical difference in the later number of sexual partners (P=0.247) and the frequency of condom use (For regular sex partners, P=0.735, and for casual sex partners, P=0.765), which might be related to the change of sexual behavior characteristics caused by HIV infection (For regular sex partners, P < 0.001, and for casual sex partners, P=0.006).@*CONCLUSION@#There was no statistical difference between HIV positive and negative young MSM students in the cognition of "AIDS-related Knowledge for Public" and "AIDS-related Knowledge for Youth", which were both lower than 95% required by the state. However, the specificity in the knowledge needs was certainly shown. There was no significant difference in the recent sexual behavior between the two groups, but HIV positive students were more likely to have high-risk sexual behaviors in the early stage, so we should strengthen and move forward the sex education and AIDS prevention education with adjusted contents, and prevent high-risk sexual behaviors within young MSM students in the early stage.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , HIV , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Sexual Behavior , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
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