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1.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(5): 742-759, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394384

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The efficacy of alpha-blockers as medical expulsive therapy (MET) is well established. However, it is not known which of the three most commonly used alpha-blockers (tamsulosin, alfuzosin and silodosin) is the most efficacious. With this study we aimed to assess the efficacy of the three commonly used alpha-blockers as MET for distal ureter stones. Materials and Methods: For this review, we searched multiple databases such as PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Embase, OviD SP, CINAHL, and web of science to identify all the relevant randomized studies comparing the efficacy of tamsulosin, alfuzosin, and silodosin. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews for network meta-analysis (PRISMA-NMA) were followed while conducting this review and the study protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020175706). Results: In this review, 31 studies with 7077 patients were included. Compared to placebo all the treatment groups were more effective for both stone expulsion rate (SER) and stone expulsion time (SET). For both SER and SET, silodosin had the highest SUCRA (94.8 and 90.4) values followed by alfuzosin (58.8 and 64.9) and tamsulosin (46.2 and 44.5). The incidence of postural hypotension was similar with all the drugs, whereas, the incidence of retrograde ejaculation was significantly higher for silodosin. Overall confidence for each comparison group in this review ranged from "very low" to "moderate" according to the CINeMA approach. Conclusion: Among the three commonly used alpha-blockers silodosin is the most efficacious drug as MET for lower ureter stones followed by alfuzosin and tamsulosin.

2.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(5): 602-608, Set.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376684

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Vitamin E supplementation may protect against exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) through possible inhibition of free radical formation and cell membrane stabilization. However, there is no systematic review of this topic. This fact maintains academic stalemates that may have a resolution. Objective: This systematic review with meta-analysis aims to provide a comprehensive literature review on the hypothesis of the benefit of vitamin E supplementation on oxidative stress and muscle damage induced by aerobic exercise. Methods: A random-effects model was used, weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to estimate the overall effect. Results: The results revealed a significant effect of vitamin E supplementation on reducing creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In addition, a subgroup analysis resulted in a significant decrease in CK concentrations in trials with immediate and <24 hours post-exercise CK measurement; <1000 at daily vitamin E intake; ≤1 at weekly intake; 1 at six weeks and >6 weeks experimental duration, studies on aerobic exercise and training were part of the crossover study. Conclusion: Vitamin E can be seen as a priority agent for recovery from muscle damage. Evidence Level II; Therapeutic Studies - Investigating the results.


RESUMO Introdução: A suplementação de vitamina E pode ter um efeito protetor contra danos musculares induzidos pelo exercício (EIMD) através da possível inibição da formação radical livre e estabilização da membrana celular. Todavia, não há uma revisão sistemática sobre esse tema. Tal fato mantém empasses acadêmicos que podem ter uma resolução. Objetivo: Esta revisão sistemática com meta-análise objetiva fornecer uma análise bibliográfica abrangente na hipótese do benefício na suplementação de vitaminas E sobre o estresse oxidativo e os danos musculares induzidos pelo pelo exercício aeróbico. Métodos: Foi utilizado um modelo com efeitos aleatórios, diferença média ponderada (ADM) e intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC) foram aplicados para estimar o efeito geral. Resultados: Os resultados revelaram um efeito significativo da suplementação de vitamina E na redução da creatina-quinase (CK) e lactato-desidrogenase (LDH). Além disso, uma análise do subgrupo resultou em uma diminuição significativa das concentrações de CK em ensaios com medição imediata e <24 horas de CK após o exercício; <1000 no consumo diário de vitamina E; ≤1 no consumo semanal; 1 em 6 semanas e >6 semanas de duração experimental, estudos sobre exercício aeróbico e treinamento fizeram parte do estudo cruzado. Conclusão: A vitamina E pode ser vista como um agente prioritário de recuperação de danos musculares. Nível de evidência II; Estudos Terapêuticos - Investigação de Resultados.


RESUMEN Introducción: La suplementación con vitamina E puede tener un efecto protector contra el daño muscular inducido por el ejercicio (EIMD) a través de la posible inhibición de la formación de radicales libres y la estabilización de la membrana celular. Sin embargo, no existe ninguna revisión sistemática sobre este tema. Este hecho mantiene un impasse académico que puede tener resolución. Objetivo: Esta revisión sistemática con meta-análisis tiene como objetivo proporcionar una amplia revisión de la literatura sobre la hipótesis del beneficio de la suplementación con vitamina E sobre el estrés oxidativo y el daño muscular inducido por el ejercicio aeróbico. Métodos: Se utilizó un modelo de efectos aleatorios, se aplicó la diferencia de medias ponderada (DMP) y el intervalo de confianza (IC) del 95% para estimar el efecto global. Resultados: Los resultados revelaron un efecto significativo de la suplementación con vitamina E en la reducción de la creatina quinasa (CK) y la lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH). Además, un análisis de subgrupos dio como resultado una disminución significativa de las concentraciones de CK en los ensayos con medición de CK inmediata y <24 horas después del ejercicio; <1000 en la ingesta diaria de vitamina E; ≤1 en la ingesta semanal; 1 en 6 semanas y >6 semanas de duración experimental, los estudios sobre el ejercicio aeróbico y el entrenamiento formaron parte del estudio cruzado. Conclusión: La vitamina E puede resultar un agente prioritario para la recuperación del daño muscular. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - Investigación de resultados.

3.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(5): 595-601, Set.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376689

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate (HMB) is an amino acid leucine metabolite with several ergogenic benefits. It is known that it can benefit testosterone and cortisol concentration in athletes. However, no systematic review and meta-analysis has focused on the effects of HMB supplementation on testosterone and cortisol in trained athletes. Objectives: The meta-analysis evaluates the effect of HMB supplementation on testosterone and cortisol in trained athletes and verifies conflicting results between studies. Methods: A systemic review was performed in Scopus, Medline, and Google scholar databases of articles published until August 2021. The Cochrane Collaboration tool was used to assess the risk of bias and assess the quality of the studies. Random effects model, weighted mean difference (WMD), and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate the overall effect. Results: Although the meta-analysis showed that HMB consumption does not alter cortisol and testosterone concentration, subgroup analysis based on exercise type exhibited a significant decrease in cortisol concentration in resistance training exercises (P<0.05) and a significant increase in testosterone concentration in combined aerobic and anaerobic sports (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results indicate that HMB supplementation in athletes can reduce cortisol concentration in endurance exercise and increase testosterone concentration in combined aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Evidence Level II; Therapeutic Studies - Investigating the results.


RESUMO Introdução: o β-hidroxi β-metilbutirato (HMB) é um metabólito de aminoácido leucina e tem vários benefícios ergogênicos. Sabe-se que ela pode beneficiar a concentração de testosterona e cortisol em atletas. Porém, nenhuma revisão sistemática e meta-análise focou-se nos efeitos que a suplementação de HMB provoca sobre testosterona e cortisol em atletas treinados. Objetivos: A meta-análise tem como objetivo avaliar o efeito de suplementação de HMB na testosterona e cortisol em atletas treinados, além de verificar resultados contraditórios entre estudos. Métodos: Foi feita uma revisão sistêmica nas bases Scopus, Medline e Google scholar dos artigos publicados até agosto de 2021. A ferramenta de colaboração Cochrane foi utilizada para avaliar o risco de viés e também para avaliar a qualidade dos estudos. Modelo de efeitos aleatórios, diferença média ponderada (ADM) e intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC) foram utilizados para estimar o efeito geral. Resultados: Embora a meta-análise tenha evidenciado que o consumo de HMB não altere a concentração de cortisol e testosterona, a análise do subgrupo com base no tipo de exercício exibiu uma diminuição significativa na concentração do cortisol nos exercícios de treinamento de resistência (P<0,05) e um aumento significativo na concentração de testosterona em esportes combinados aeróbicos e anaeróbicos (P<0,05). Conclusão: Os resultados indicam que a suplementação de HMB em atletas pode reduzir a concentração de cortisol em exercícios de resistência e aumentar a concentração de testosterona em exercícios aeróbicos e anaeróbicos combinados. Nível de evidência II; Estudos Terapêuticos - Investigação de Resultados.


RESUMEN Introducción: El β-hidroxi-β-metilbutirato (HMB) es un metabolito del aminoácido leucina y tiene varios beneficios ergogénicos. Está comprobado que puede beneficiar la concentración de testosterona y cortisol en los deportistas. Sin embargo, ninguna revisión sistemática y meta-análisis se ha centrado en los efectos que la suplementación con HMB provoca en la testosterona y el cortisol en atletas entrenados. Objetivos: El meta-análisis tiene como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la suplementación con HMB sobre la testosterona y el cortisol en atletas entrenados, y verificar los resultados contradictorios entre los estudios. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistémica en las bases de datos Scopus, Medline y Google scholar de los artículos publicados hasta agosto de 2021. Se utilizó la herramienta de colaboración Cochrane para evaluar el riesgo de sesgo y también para evaluar la calidad de los estudios. Se utilizó un modelo de efectos aleatorios, una diferencia de medias ponderada (DMP) y un intervalo de confianza (IC) del 95% para estimar el efecto global. Resultados: Aunque el meta-análisis mostró que el consumo de HMB no altera la concentración de cortisol y testosterona, el análisis de subgrupos basado en el tipo de ejercicio mostró una disminución significativa de la concentración de cortisol en los ejercicios de entrenamiento de resistencia (P<0,05) y un aumento significativo de la concentración de testosterona en los deportes aeróbicos y anaeróbicos combinados (P<0,05). Conclusión: Los resultados indican que la suplementación con HMB en los atletas puede reducir la concentración de cortisol en el ejercicio de resistencia y aumentar la concentración de testosterona en el ejercicio aeróbico y anaeróbico combinado. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - Investigación de resultados.

4.
Medwave ; 22(9): e2622, 30-10-2022.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399513

ABSTRACT

El crecimiento exponencial de evidencia disponible actualmente ha hecho necesario recopilar, filtrar, valorar críticamente y sintetizar la información biomédica para mantenerse actualizado. En este sentido, las revisiones sistemáticas constituyen una herramienta útil y pueden ser fuentes confiables para asistir a la toma de decisiones basadas en evidencia. Definimos como revisiones sistemáticas a aquellas investigaciones secundarias o síntesis de evidencia focalizadas en una pregunta específica que, a partir de una metodología estructurada, permiten identificar, seleccionar, valorar críticamente y resumir los hallazgos de estudios relevantes. Las revisiones sistemáticas presentan varias ventajas potenciales, tales como la minimización de sesgos o la obtención de resultados de mayor precisión. La confiabilidad de la evidencia presentada en las revisiones sistemáticas está determinada, entre otros factores, por su calidad metodológica, pero también por la calidad de los estudios incluidos. Para realizar una revisión sistemática, se debe seguir una serie de pasos que incluyen la formulación de una pregunta de investigación a partir del formato PICO; una búsqueda bibliográfica exhaustiva; la selección de los estudios relevantes; la valoración crítica de los datos obtenidos a partir de los estudios incluidos; la síntesis de resultados, a menudo mediante métodos estadísticos (metanálisis); y finalmente una estimación de la certeza de evidencia para cada desenlace. En esta nota metodológica definiremos los conceptos básicos sobre revisiones sistemáticas, sus métodos y sus limitaciones.


The exponential growth of currently available evidence has made it necessary to collect, filter, critically appraise, and synthesize biomedical information to keep up to date. In this sense, systematic reviews are a helpful tool and can be reliable sources to assist in evidence-based decision-making. Systematic reviews are defined as secondary research or syntheses of evidence focused on a specific question that -- based on a structured methodology -- make it possible to identify, select, critically appraise, and summarize findings from relevant studies. Systematic reviews have several potential advantages, such as minimizing biases or obtaining more accurate results. The reliability of the evidence presented in systematic reviews is determined, amongst other factors, by the quality of their methodology and the included studies. To conduct a systematic review, a series of steps must be followed: the formulation of a research question using the participants, interventions, comparisons, outcomes (PICO) format; an exhaustive literature search; the selection of relevant studies; the critical appraisal of the data obtained from the included studies; the synthesis of results, often using statistical methods (meta-analysis); and finally, estimating the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. In this methodological note, we will define the basic concepts of systematic reviews, their methods, and their limitations.

5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 119(2): 212-222, ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383749

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A amiloidose é definida como um distúrbio caracterizado pela deposição de material proteico amiloide extracelular nos tecidos. Objetivos O N-terminal pró-peptídeo natriurético tipo-B (NT-proBNP) é usado para prever a amiloidose cardíaca (AC), mas seu efeito diagnóstico no comprometimento por AC ainda não é claro, especialmente em termos de especificidade e sensibilidade. Métodos Foi feita uma busca de literatura nos bancos de dados Pubmed, Embase e a biblioteca Cochrane, e o QUADAS 2 foi utilizado para avaliação da qualidade. O comando Midas no Stata 12.0 foi usado para analisar os indicadores dos sujeitos. O teste Q de Cochran e o I2 foram usados como testes de heterogeneidade, e a heterogeneidade significativa foi definida como p <0,05 e/ou I2 >50%. A análise de correlação de Spearman foi usada para avaliar o efeito de limiar, e o viés da publicação foi avaliado pelo teste de assimetria. A significância estatística foi definida em p <0,05. Resultados Como resultados, 10 conjuntos de dados de 7 estudos foram incluídos para análise, apresentando alta qualidade metodológica e pequenos vieses de confusão. A sensibilidade e a especificidade do NT-proBNP no diagnóstico do comprometimento cardíaco para pacientes com amiloidose foram 0,93 e 0,84, respectivamente. As curvas ROC também sugeriram uma validade diagnóstica alta do NT-proBNP com AUC de 0,95. Um nomograma de Fagan demonstrou que as probabilidades de NT-proBNP positivo e negativo no avanço do comprometimento por AC eram de 90% e 8%, respectivamente. O gráfico de funil de Deek não sugeriu viés significativo de publicação entre os estudos incluídos, e os resultados foram estáveis e confiáveis. Conclusões O NT-proBNP desempenha um papel positivo no diagnóstico precoce do comprometimento por AC, com alta sensibilidade e especificidade.


Abstract Background Amyloidosis is defined as a disorder characterized by the deposition of extracellular protein material of amyloid in tissues. Objectives N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is used to predict the cardiac amyloidosis (CA), but its diagnostic effect on CA involvement remains unclear, especially in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Methods A search for literature was conducted in the Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases, and QUADAS 2 was used for quality assessment. Midas command in Stata 12.0 was used to analyze the subject indicators. Cochran's Q and I2were to test for heterogeneity, and the significant heterogeneity was set at p < 0.05 and/or I2> 50%. Spearman correlation analysis was used to evaluate the threshold effect, and the publication bias was assessed using the asymmetry test. The statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results As results, 10 sets of data from 7 studies were included for analysis, showing high methodological quality and minimal confounding bias. The sensitivity and specificity of NT-proBNP in the diagnosis of cardiac involvement for patients with amyloidosis were 0.93 and 0.84, respectively. ROC curves also suggested a high diagnostic validity of NT-proBNP with an AUC of 0.95. A Fagan's nomogram plot showed probabilities for NT-proBNP positive and negative in developing CA involvement were 90% and 8%, respectively. The Deek's funnel plot suggested no significant publication bias across included studies, and the results were stable and reliable. Conclusions NT-proBNP plays the positive role in the early diagnosis of CA involvement with high sensitivity and specificity.

7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(4): 637-648, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385134

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background The purpose is to compare the efficacy and safety of mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) versus standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard-PCNL) in patients with renal stones >2cm. Materials and Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library databases to identify relevant studies before March 8, 2021. Stone-free rate (SFR), operation time, fever rate, hemoglobin drop, blood transfusion rate, and hospitalization time were used as outcomes to compare mini-PCNL and standard-PCNL. The meta-analysis was performed using the Review Manager version 5.4. Results Seven randomized controlled trials were included in our meta-analysis, involving 1407 mini-PCNL cases and 1436 standard-PCNL cases. Our results reveal that, for renal stones >2cm, mini-PCNL has a similar SFR (risk ratio (RR)=1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98 to 1.04, p=0.57) and fever rate (RR=1.22, 95% CI: 0.97-1.51, p=0.08). Standard-PCNL was associated with a significantly shorter operating time (weighted mean difference (WMD)=8.23, 95% CI: 3.44 to 13.01, p <0.01) and a longer hospitalization time (WMD=-20.05, 95% CI: -29.28 to -10.81, p <0.01) than mini-PCNL. Subgroup analysis showed hemoglobin drop and blood transfusion for 30F standard-PCNL were more common than mini-PCNL (WMD=-0.95, 95% CI: -1.40 to -0.50, p <0.01; RR=0.20, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.58, p <0.01). Conclusion In the treatment of >2cm renal stones, mini-PCNL should be considered an effective and reliable alternative to standard-PCNL (30F). It achieves a comparable SFR to standard-PCNL, but with less blood loss, lower transfusion rate, and shorter hospitalization. However, the mini-PCNL does not show a significant advantage over the 24F standard-PCNL. On the contrary, this procedure takes a longer operation time. Trial registration This meta-analysis was reported consistent with the PRISMA statement and was registered on PROSPERO, with registration number 2021CRD42021234893.

8.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(4): 554-565, Jul.-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394719

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Pulmonary artery denervation (PADN) can reduce the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, reduce pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), and improve the quality of life in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). We conducted a systematic meta-analysis of the effectiveness of PADN in the treatment of PH patients. Methods: This is a comprehensive literature search including all public clinical trials investigating the effects of PADN on PH. Outcomes were mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), cardiac output (CO), right ventricular (RV) Tei index, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), and New York Heart Association (NYHA) cardiac function grading. Results: A total of eight clinical studies with 213 PH patients who underwent PADN were included. Meta-analysis showed that after PADN, mPAP (mean difference [MD] -12.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] -17.74 to -7.27, P<0.00001) (mmHg) and PVR (MD -5.17, 95% CI -7.70 to -2.65, P<0.0001) (Wood unit) decreased significantly, CO (MD 0.59, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.86, P<0.0001) (L/min) and 6MWD (MD 107.75, 95% CI 65.64 to 149.86, P<0.00001) (meter) increased significantly, and RV Tei index (MD -0.05, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.17, P=0.63) did not change significantly. Also after PADN, the proportion of NYHA cardiac function grading (risk ratio 0.23, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.37, P<0.00001) III and IV decreased significantly. Conclusion: This meta-analysis supports PADN as a potential new treatment for PH. Further high-quality randomized controlled studies are needed.

9.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(4): 329-337, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386104

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The objective of this meta-analysis was to study the diagnostic value of lung ultrasound (LUS) for transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). Methods: Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched, and the last search date was October 31, 2020. Studies on the diagnostic accuracy of pulmonary ultrasound for transient tachypnea were included. The quality assessment of the included study was assessed using the Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. A meta-analysis was performed using Meta-Disc 1.4. A random-effects model was used and subgroup analysis was carried out to identify possible sources of heterogeneity. Results: A total of 378 articles were retrieved and nine studies with 3239 patients were included in the present meta-analysis. The overall quality of the included studies was moderate to high. The result of threshold analysis shows that there was no threshold effect. However, there was a significant heterogeneity caused by non-threshold effects in the included studies. A random-effects model was used. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, PLR and NLR were 0.55 (95% CI: 0.51-0.58), 0.98 (95% CI: 0.98-0.99), 58.30 (95% CI: 14.05-241.88) and 0.28 (95% CI: 0.18-0.43). The pooled DOR and AUC were 689.12 (95% CI: 68.71 to 6911.79) and 0.994. The results of subgroup analysis showed that the LUS diagnostic criteria and gold standard might be responsible for heterogeneity. Choosing "DLP combined with B line" as the diagnostic standard of LUS and choosing CXR as the gold standard could significantly improve the diagnostic performance of LUS. Conclusion: LUS is a promising method to diagnose TTN. Only DLP is not enough to diagnose TTN, while DLP combined with B-line has good diagnostic performance.

10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(3): 456-467, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385115

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Flexible ureteroscopy is a well-established method for treatment of urinary stones but flexible ureteroscopes are expensive and fragile devices with a very limited lifetime. Since 2006 with the advent of digital flexible ureteroscopes a great evolution has occurred. The first single-use flexible ureteroscope was launched in 2011 and new models are coming to the market. The aim of this article is to review the characteristics of these devices, compare their results with the reusable devices and evaluate the cost-benefits of adopting single-use flexible ureteroscopes in developing countries. Materials and Methods: an extensive review of articles listed at PubMed and published between 2000 and 2021 was performed. Results: Single-use flexible ureteroscopes have a shaft with 65 to 68cm length and weight between 119 and 277g. Their deflection goes up to 300 degrees. Their stone-free rates vary between 60 and 95% which is comparable to reusable scopes and operative times ranges from 54 to 86 minutes which are lower when compared to reusable flexible scopes. Their costs vary between 800 and 3180 US dollars. Conclusion: single-use flexible ureteroscopes are lighter and have superior quality of image when compared to fiberoptic ones. There are no definite data showing a higher stone-free rate or less complications with the use of single-use flexible ureteroscopes. Each institution must perform a cost-benefit analysis before making the decision of adopting or not such devices depending on the local circumstances.

11.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(3): 230-240, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386090

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The objective of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum Cystatin C in acute kidney injury (AKI) in neonates Sources: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and WanFang Database were searched to retrieve the literature related to the diagnostic value of Cystatin C for neonatal AKI from inception to May 10, 2021. Subsequently, the quality of included studies was determined using the QUADAS-2 tool. Stata 15.0 statistical software was used to calculate the combined sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). Additionally, meta-regression analysis and subgroup analysis contributed to explore the sources of heterogeneity Summary of the findings: Twelve articles were included. The pooled sensitivity was 0.84 (95%CI: 0.74-0.91), the pooled specificity was 0.81 (95%CI: 0.75-0.86), the pooled PLR was 4.39 (95%CI: 3.23-5.97), the pooled NLR was 0.19 (95%CI: 0.11-0.34), and the DOR was 22.58 (95%CI: 10.44-48.83). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.88 (95%CI: 0.85-0.90). No significant publication bias was identified (p > 0.05).

12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(3): 407-419, June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393857

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Epigenetic modifications might be associated with serum triglycerides (TG) levels. This study aims to systematically review the studies on the relationship between the methylation of specific cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and serum TG levels. This systematic review and meta-analysis study was conducted according to the PRISMA 2020 (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. A systematic literature search was conducted in Medline database (PubMed), Scopus, and Cochrane library up to end of 2020. All observational studies (cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort) were included. Studies that assessed the effect of DNA methylation of different CpG sites of ABCG1, CPT1A, and SREBF1 genes on serum TG levels were selected. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) checklist was used to assess the quality of included articles. Among 2790 articles, ten studies were included in the quantitative analysis and fourteen studies were included in the systematic review. DNA methylation of ABCG1 gene had significant positive association with TG levels (β = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.05, P heterogeneity < 0.001). There was significant inverse association between DNA methylation of CPT1A gene and serum TG levels (β = −0.03, 95% CI = −0.03, −0.02, P heterogeneity < 0.001). DNA methylation of SREBF1 gene was positively and significantly associated with serum TG levels (β = 0.03; 95% CI = 0.02-0.04, P heterogeneity < 0.001). DNA methylation of ABCG1 and SREBF1 genes has positive association with serum TG level, whereas this association is opposite for CPT1A gene. The role of epigenetic factors should be considered in some populations with high prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia.

13.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 463-473, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377389

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: For critically ill patients, physicians tend to administer sufficient or even excessive oxygen to maintain oxygen saturation at a high level. However, the credibility of the evidence for this practice is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of different oxygen therapy strategies on the outcomes of mechanically ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis conducted at Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital, Affiliated to Nanchang University, Nanchang, China. METHODS: We systematically searched electronic databases such as PubMed and Embase for relevant articles and performed meta-analyses on the effects of different oxygen therapy strategies on the outcomes of mechanically ventilated ICU patients. RESULTS: A total of 1802 patients from five studies were included. There were equal numbers of patients in the conservative and liberal groups (n = 910 in each group). There was no significant difference between the conservative and liberal groups with regard to 28-day mortality (risk ratio, RR = 0.88; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.59-1.32; P = 0.55; I2 = 63%). Ninety-day mortality, infection rates, ICU length of stay, mechanical ventilation-free days up to day 28 and vasopressor-free days up to day 28 were comparable between the two strategies. CONCLUSIONS: It is not necessary to use liberal oxygen therapy strategies to pursue a higher level of peripheral oxygen saturation for mechanically ventilated ICU patients. Conservative oxygen therapy was not associated with any statistically significant reduction in mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygen , Respiration, Artificial , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Prognosis , Critical Illness/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay
14.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(3): 377-392, junio 14, 2022. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378692

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Debido a que el cáncer de seno es una enfermedad asociada a una significativa tasa de morbilidad y mortalidad cuando se diagnostica en el período sintomático, se han hecho enormes esfuerzos orientados hacia la prevención primaria de esta enfermedad. Métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda de todos los experimentos clínicos aleatorizados que evaluaran la eficacia de la terapia endocrina para la reducción del riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de seno. La calidad metodológica de los estudios seleccionados fue valorada utilizando la herramienta de la Colaboración Cochrane para medir el riesgo de sesgo en ensayos aleatorizados. Se evaluó la heterogeneidad de los estudios primarios elegibles utilizando los estadísticos T², I², H². El sesgo de publicación fue evaluado mediante el test de Harbord y mediante la gráfica de funnel plot. La medida de efecto utilizada en este metaanálisis fue el riesgo relativo (RR) con el cálculo de los intervalos de confianza (IC) del 95%. Resultados. Encontramos doce experimentos clínicos aleatorizados que reclutaron a 68.180 mujeres, las cuales fueron asignadas al azar para recibir algún tipo terapia endocrina para reducir el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de seno o placebo. La terapia endocrina en conjunto redujo el riesgo proporcional de cáncer de seno (invasivo más in situ) en un 42 %, resultado estadísticamente significativo RR 0,58 (IC95% 0,50 ­ 0,69). Conclusiones. La terapia endocrina es el manejo estándar de prevención en mujeres sanas con riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de seno no hereditario.


Introduction. Because breast cancer is a disease associated with a significant morbidity and mortality rate when diagnosed in the symptomatic period, enormous efforts have been made towards the primary prevention of this disease. Methods. A search was conducted for all randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of endocrine therapy in reducing the risk of developing breast cancer. The methodological quality of the selected studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool to assess risk of bias in randomized trials. Heterogeneity of eligible primary studies was assessed using the T², I², H² statistics. Publication bias was evaluated using the Harbord test and the funnel plot. The effect measure used in this meta-analysis was the relative risk (RR) with the calculation of the 95% confidence intervals (CI).Results. We found twelve randomized clinical trials that recruited 68,180 women who were randomly assigned to receive some type of endocrine therapy to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer or placebo. Endocrine therapy as a whole reduced the proportional risk of breast cancer (invasive plus in situ) by 42%, a statistically significant result RR 0.58 (95% CI 0.50 - 0.69). Conclusions. Endocrine therapy is the standard preventive management in healthy women at risk of developing non-hereditary breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Prevention , Breast Neoplasms , Meta-Analysis , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators , Aromatase Inhibitors
15.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 44(3): 349-361, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374594

ABSTRACT

Objective: The present meta-analysis was conducted to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the bipolarity index (BI) and Rapid Mode Screener (RMS) as compared with the Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS), the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32), and the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) in people with bipolar disorder (BD). Methods: We systematically searched five databases using standard search terms, and relevant articles published between May 1990 and November 30, 2021 were collected and reviewed. Results: Ninety-three original studies were included (n=62,291). At the recommended cutoffs for the BI, HCL-32, BSDS, MDQ, and RMS, the pooled sensitivities were 0.82, 0.75, 0.71, 0.71, and 0.78, respectively, while the corresponding pooled specificities were 0.73, 0.63, 0.73, 0.77, and 0.72, respectively. However, there was evidence that the accuracy of the BI was superior to that of the other tests, with a relative diagnostic odds ratio (RDOR) of 1.22 (0.98-1.52, p < 0.0001). The RMS was significantly more accurate than the other tests, with an RDOR (95%CI) of 0.79 (0.67-0.92, p < 0.0001) for the detection of BD type I (BD-I). However, there was evidence that the accuracy of the MDQ was superior to that of the other tests, with an RDOR of 1.93 (0.89-2.79, p = 0.0019), for the detection of BD type II (BD-II). Conclusion: The psychometric properties of two new instruments, the BI and RMS, in people with BD were consistent with considerably higher diagnostic accuracy than the HCL-32, BSDS, and MDQ. However, a positive screening should be confirmed by a clinical diagnostic evaluation for BD.

16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(2): 152-156, Apr. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374278

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Dietary cholesterol is absorbed in proportion to the amount ingested, blocking its hepatic synthesis, increasing its biliary excretion, only slightly increasing production of bile acids while potentially raising the serum concentration of the atherogenic low-density lipoprotein. Humans lie midway between rats and rabbits that respond to dietary cholesterol, respectively, with high and low capacity to produce bile acids, and low or high capacity to raise blood cholesterol. There are regular studies exonerating as well as blaming dietary cholesterol as a cardiovascular risk factor, particularly in genetic hypercholesterolemic individuals. We then resorted at reviewing all meta-analyses on the subject but failed to reach at a clear conclusion useful in medical practice. Nevertheless, ingestion of the same amount of cholesterol results in wide variation in the amounts absorbed and in plasma lipoprotein profiles depending on poorly understood genetic factors. Several genetic conditions are capable of interfering with the absorption and synthesis of cholesterol. Hyperabsorption of dietary cholesterol elicits the accumulation of cholesterol in the liver and in plasma. In this regard, most cases of familial hypercholesterolemia that have a case of intestinal hyperabsorption of cholesterol also demonstrate the same defect. A practical useful suggestion is to measure for a few weeks the total serum cholesterol and its fractions at least three times before and during the intake of eggs that the candidate wishes to maintain in his usual dietary practice as an efficient procedure to identify those who respond with undesirable increases in serum cholesterol.

17.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(2): 126-135, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375775

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate current practices of tracheostomy in children regarding the ideal timing of tracheostomy placement, complications, indications, mortality, and success in decannulation. Source of data: The authors searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and complemented by manual search. The guidelines of PRISMA and MOOSE were applied. The quality of the included studies was evaluated with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Information extracted included patients' characteristics, outcomes, time to tracheostomy, and associated complications. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were computed using theMantel-Haenszel method. Synthesis of data: Sixty-six articles were included in the qualitative analysis, and 8 were included in the meta-analysis about timing for tracheostomy placement. The risk ratio for "death in hospital outcome" did not show any benefit from performing a tracheostomy before or after 14 days of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.49). The early tracheostomy before 14 days had a great impact on the days of mechanical ventilation (-26 days in mean difference, p < 0.00001). The authors also found a great reduction in hospital length of stay (-31.4 days, p < 0.008). For the days in PICU, the mean reduction was of 14.7 days (p < 0.007). Conclusions: The meta-analysis suggests that tracheostomy performed in the first 14 days of ventilation can reduce the time spent on the ventilator, and the length of stay in the hospital, with no effect on mortality. The decision to perform a tracheostomy early or late may be more dependent on the baseline disease than on the time spent on ventilation.

18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(3): 395-399, Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376125

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy of imipenem combined with glutamine in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis with abdominal infection in mainland China using meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched China National Knowledge Network, Wanfang Medical Network, Chinese Science Citation Database, PubMed, and Embase Databases for publications of imipenem combined with glutamine in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis abdominal infection. The search time limit was from the establishment of the database to April 10, 2021. Stata software version 12.0 was used for statistical analysis; the combined effect size odds ratio and standardized mean difference values were calculated for the count data and measurement data, respectively; and the heterogeneity test was performed in this study. RESULTS: A total of five randomized controlled trials were included. A total of 499 cases were included, with 251 in the observation group and 248 in the control group. Meta-analysis results showed that the efficacy of imipenem combined with glutamine in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis with abdominal infection was significantly better than that of imipenem alone (odds ratio=0.78, 95%CI 0.71-0.86, p=0.040). CONCLUSION: Imipenem combined with glutamine can significantly improve the efficacy in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis with abdominal cavity infection.

19.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(1): 88-98, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365530

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is an important aetiology of aortic stenosis and the use of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has not been fully explored in this cohort. This systematic review and meta-analysis compared the outcomes of TAVI in stenotic BAV against tricuspid aortic valve (TAV). Methods: An electronic literature search was performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus to identify all studies comparing TAVI in stenotic BAV versus TAV. Only studies comparing TAVI in BAV versus TAV were included, without any limit on the study date. Primary endpoints were 30-day and 1-year mortality, while secondary endpoints were postoperative rates of stroke, acute kidney injury (AKI), and permanent pacemaker (PPM) requirement. A trial sequential analysis (TSA) was performed for all endpoints to understand their significance. Results: Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria (917 BAV and 3079 TAV patients). The BAV cohort was younger (76.8±7.43 years vs. 78.5±7.12 years, P=0.02), had a higher trans-aortic valve gradient (P=0.02), and larger ascending aortic diameters (P<0.0001). No significant difference was shown for primary (30-day mortality [P=0.45] and 1-year mortality [P=0.41]) and secondary endpoints (postoperative stroke [P=0.49], AKI [P=0.14], and PPM requirement [P=0.86]). The BAV group had a higher rate of significant postoperative aortic regurgitation (P=0.002). TSA showed that there was sufficient evidence to conclude the lack of difference in PPM requirements, and 30-day and 1-year mortality between the two cohorts. Conclusion: TAVI gives satisfactory outcomes for treating stenotic BAV and should be considered clinically.

20.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 68-76, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364297

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The lowest dosage of empagliflozin (10 mg) showed similar benefits on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, body weight, blood pressure, and total and cardiovascular mortality in comparison with the highest available dose (25 mg) in the EMPAREG trial. These findings have not been clearly demonstrated for canagliflozin and dapagliflozin. The objective was to compare the effect of different doses of SGLT2 inhibitors commercially available in Brazil on HbA1c and body weight of patients with type 2 diabetes. MEDLINE, Cochrane and Embase databases were searched from inception until 11th October 2021 for randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes patients, lasting at least 12 weeks. HbA1c and body weight variations were described using standard mean difference. We performed direct and indirect meta-analysis, as well as a meta-regression with medication doses as covariates. Eighteen studies were included, comprising 16,095 patients. In the direct meta-analysis, SGLT2 inhibitors reduced HbA1c by 0.62% (95% CI −0.66 to −0.59) and body weight by 0.60 kg (95% CI −0.64 to −0.55). In the indirect meta-analysis, canagliflozin 300 mg ranked the highest regarding reductions in HbA1c and body weight. The remaining medications and dosages were clinically similar, despite some statistically significant differences among them. Canagliflozin 300 mg seems to be more potent in reducing HbA1c and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes. The remaining SGLT2 inhibitors at different doses lead to similar effects for both outcomes. Whether these glycemic and weight effects are reflected in lower mortality and cardiovascular events is still uncertain and may be a topic for further studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Blood , Body Weight , Brazil , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Canagliflozin/therapeutic use
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