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1.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 68-76, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364297

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The lowest dosage of empagliflozin (10 mg) showed similar benefits on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, body weight, blood pressure, and total and cardiovascular mortality in comparison with the highest available dose (25 mg) in the EMPAREG trial. These findings have not been clearly demonstrated for canagliflozin and dapagliflozin. The objective was to compare the effect of different doses of SGLT2 inhibitors commercially available in Brazil on HbA1c and body weight of patients with type 2 diabetes. MEDLINE, Cochrane and Embase databases were searched from inception until 11th October 2021 for randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes patients, lasting at least 12 weeks. HbA1c and body weight variations were described using standard mean difference. We performed direct and indirect meta-analysis, as well as a meta-regression with medication doses as covariates. Eighteen studies were included, comprising 16,095 patients. In the direct meta-analysis, SGLT2 inhibitors reduced HbA1c by 0.62% (95% CI −0.66 to −0.59) and body weight by 0.60 kg (95% CI −0.64 to −0.55). In the indirect meta-analysis, canagliflozin 300 mg ranked the highest regarding reductions in HbA1c and body weight. The remaining medications and dosages were clinically similar, despite some statistically significant differences among them. Canagliflozin 300 mg seems to be more potent in reducing HbA1c and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes. The remaining SGLT2 inhibitors at different doses lead to similar effects for both outcomes. Whether these glycemic and weight effects are reflected in lower mortality and cardiovascular events is still uncertain and may be a topic for further studies.

2.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 95-106, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356307

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular impairment, increasing the rates of atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic events. Additionally, adverse kidney events are directly linked with T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. In this context, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have demonstrated both cardioprotective and renoprotective effects in patients with or without T2DM. Therefore, the present meta-analysis aims to evaluate cardiovascular outcomes involving SGLT2i as monotherapy or other add-on antidiabetic agents (ADA) in patients with or without T2DM. Objetive: The present meta-analysis aims to evaluate cardiovascular outcomes involving SGLT2i as monotherapy or add-on other ADA in patients with or without T2DM. Methods: The entrance criteria to SGLT2i studies were: describing any data regarding cardiovascular effects; enrolling more than 1,000 participants; being approved by either the FDA or the EU, and having available access to the supplementary data. The trial had to exhibit at least one of the following results: major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure, cardiovascular death, hospitalization for heart failure, renal or cardiovascular adverse events, or non-cardiovascular death. The significance level of 0.05 was adopted in the statistical analysis. Results: Nine trials with a total of 76,285 participants were included in the meta-analysis. SGLT2i reduced MACE (RR 0.75, 95% CI [0.55-1.01]), cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure (RR 0.72, 95% CI [0.55-0.93]), cardiovascular death (RR 0.66, 95% CI [0.48-0.91]), hospitalization for heart failure (RR 0.58, 95% CI [0.46-0.73]), renal or cardiovascular adverse events (RR 0.55, 95% CI [0.39-0.78]), and non-cardiovascular death (RR 0.88, 95% CI [0.60-1.00]). Conclusions: Conjunction overall data suggests that these drugs can minimize the risk of cardiovascular events, thus decreasing mortality in patients, regardless of the presence of T2DM.

3.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(1): 88-98, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365530

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is an important aetiology of aortic stenosis and the use of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has not been fully explored in this cohort. This systematic review and meta-analysis compared the outcomes of TAVI in stenotic BAV against tricuspid aortic valve (TAV). Methods: An electronic literature search was performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus to identify all studies comparing TAVI in stenotic BAV versus TAV. Only studies comparing TAVI in BAV versus TAV were included, without any limit on the study date. Primary endpoints were 30-day and 1-year mortality, while secondary endpoints were postoperative rates of stroke, acute kidney injury (AKI), and permanent pacemaker (PPM) requirement. A trial sequential analysis (TSA) was performed for all endpoints to understand their significance. Results: Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria (917 BAV and 3079 TAV patients). The BAV cohort was younger (76.8±7.43 years vs. 78.5±7.12 years, P=0.02), had a higher trans-aortic valve gradient (P=0.02), and larger ascending aortic diameters (P<0.0001). No significant difference was shown for primary (30-day mortality [P=0.45] and 1-year mortality [P=0.41]) and secondary endpoints (postoperative stroke [P=0.49], AKI [P=0.14], and PPM requirement [P=0.86]). The BAV group had a higher rate of significant postoperative aortic regurgitation (P=0.002). TSA showed that there was sufficient evidence to conclude the lack of difference in PPM requirements, and 30-day and 1-year mortality between the two cohorts. Conclusion: TAVI gives satisfactory outcomes for treating stenotic BAV and should be considered clinically.

4.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 43: 1-15, 20220101.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361855

ABSTRACT

Background/Aim: High-grade gliomas are aggressive brain neoplasms usually refractory to treatment. Recently new treatment approaches have emerged, including immunotherapies. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of immunotherapies in adult patients with high-grade gliomas. Methods: Searches were performed in three databases for relevant studies published until December 2020. Title and abstract screening, full-text review, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were performed independently by two reviewers. Risk of bias assessment was performed according to the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (RoB 2). Meta-analyses were performed with Review Manager software (version 5.4.1), using risk ratio and 95% confidence intervals as measure of effect, the Mantel-Haenszel method, and random effects models. The quality of evidence assessment was conducted according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Results: Nineteen studies were included in the systematic review, of which 15 reported comparable data for meta-analyses. The outcomes assessed in the meta-analyses were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), with subgroups at 6, 12, and more than 12 months. No statistical differences were observed between immunotherapy and conventional treatment, except for the OS subgroup over 12 months. The certainty on the evidence was moderate. Conclusion: There was no evidence of an additional benefit of immunotherapy compared to standard treatment in the synthesis of results from clinical trials. Further high-quality clinical trials are needed to improve the quality of evidence concerning immunotherapies for the treatment of high-grade gliomas.

5.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 43: 1-13, 20220101.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348157

ABSTRACT

One of the most common thyroid dysfunctions is Hashimoto's disease (HD), characterized by the production of specific antibodies against thyroid gland antigens (Anti-Tg and Anti-TPO). Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D supplementation, associated with levothyroxine, may contribute to the control of this autoimmune disease. However, secondary studies on this topic, such as systematic reviews and meta-analyses, are still scarce. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin D in patients with HD through a systematic review with meta-analysis. Randomized clinical trials were selected on the Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Studies comparing groups of HD patients supplemented with vitamin D and non-supplemented HD patients were included. The following outcomes were considered: TSH, T3, T4, Anti-Tg, Anti-TPO, and adverse drug reactions. The risk of bias was performed according to the Cochrane recommendations (RoB v. 2.0), and the quality of evidence was evaluated by the GRADE system. A total of 766 studies were identified in the databases, of which 7 met the eligibility criteria. None of the studies indicated the occurrence of adverse reactions with vitamin D supplementation in any administered dosage. Supplemented patients had a significant reduction in serum TSH levels compared to the control group (mean difference = -0.180 (95% CI [-0.316 to -0.045]), p = 0.009), suggesting that thyroid function was more controlled in the intervention group. However, for the other outcomes, no statistically significant differences were observed between the groups. Additionally, most of included articles (n=5/7) had some concerns or high risk of bias, and the quality of evidence revealed a moderate confidence for almost all outcomes; so the results must be interpreted with caution. Thus, more consistent, and robust clinical trials need to be carried out to confirm the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in patients with HD.

6.
Coluna/Columna ; 21(1): e250913, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364774

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Vertebral fracture is the main complication of osteoporosis and is common among the elderly. Conservative treatment is the first choice for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF) but for persistent painful cases, percutaneous vertebral cement augmentation techniques, such as vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, are indicated. We performed a systematic review to compare clinical and radiological outcomes of both methods. Methods: A systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA and Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The PICO search strategy consisted of the following terms: Population- Patients with OVCFs; Intervention- Kyphoplasty; Control- Vertebroplasty; Outcomes- Pain, Cement Leakage, Vertebral Body Height, Adjacent level fractures, Oswestry (ODI) and SF36. Results: Seven articles were included in the qualitative analysis, selecting only randomized controlled trials. Four hundred and fifty patients were treated with vertebroplasty (VP) and 469 with kyphoplasty (KP). The leakage rate of the VP group was 63% versus 14% for the KP group. However, these results were without statistical significance. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), ODI and SF-36 outcomes were evaluated based on the 6-month and 1-year follow-up results, and we were unable to find any significant differences between treatments. For restoration of vertebral height, the values of the KP group were, on average, 0.71 cm higher than those of the VP group, with 95% CI. Conclusion: Based on this systematic review, kyphoplasty is superior to vertebroplasty for achieving gains in vertebral body height. As regards cement leakage and other clinical outcomes, neither method showed statistically significant superiority. Level of Evidence I; Systematic review.


RESUMO Introdução: A fratura vertebral é a principal complicação da osteoporose e ocorre com frequência em idosos. O tratamento conservador é a primeira escolha para fraturas compressivas vertebrais por osteoporose (FCVO), mas para casos dolorosos persistentes, as técnicas de cimentação vertebral, como vertebroplastia e cifoplastia, são indicadas. Realizamos uma revisão sistemática para comparar os resultados clínicos e radiológicos de ambos os métodos. Métodos: Uma revisão sistemática foi realizada de acordo com o PRISMA e o Manual Cochrane de Revisões Sistemáticas. A estratégia de busca PICO foi: População - Pacientes com FCVOs; Intervenção - Cifoplastia; Controle - Vertebroplastia; Resultados - Dor, Extravazamento de Cimento, Altura do Corpo Vertebral, Fraturas em Nível Adjacente, Oswestry (ODI) e SF36. Resultados: Sete artigos foram incluídos na análise qualitativa, somente ensaios clínicos randomizados. Quatrocentos e cinquenta pacientes foram tratados com vertebroplastia (VP) e 469 com cifoplastia (CP). A taxa de extravazamento de cimento do grupo VP foi de 63% contra 14% do CP, no entanto, não atingiu significância estatística. Os desfechos da Escala Visual Analógica (EVA), ODI e SF-36 foram avaliados considerando os resultados de seis meses e um ano de seguimento e não pudemos apontar diferenças entre os tratamentos. Por fim, a CP apresenta valores médios 0,71 cm maiores do que a VP para a restauração da altura do corpo vertebral, com IC de 95%. Conclusão: Nesta revisão sistemática a cifoplastia foi superior à vertebroplastia para ganho de altura do corpo vertebral. Não houve superioridade estatisticamente significativa entre os dois métodos para extravazamento de cimento e outros resultados clínicos. Nível de Evidência I; Revisão sistemática


RESUMEN Introducción: La fractura vertebral es la principal complicación de la osteoporosis y ocurre con frecuencia en los ancianos. El tratamiento conservador es la primera opción para las fracturas vertebrales por compresión debidas a la osteoporosis (FCVO), pero para los casos de dolor persistente están indicadas las técnicas de cementación vertebral, como la vertebroplastia y la cifoplastia. Se realizó una revisión sistemática para comparar los resultados clínicos y radiológicos de ambos métodos. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática de acuerdo con la declaración PRISMA y el Manual Cochrane de Revisiones Sistemáticas. La estrategia de búsqueda PICO fue: Población: Pacientes con FCVO; Intervención: Cifoplastia; Control- Vertebroplastia; Resultados: Dolor, Extravasación del cemento, Altura del Cuerpo Vertebral, Fracturas de Nivel Adyacente, Oswestry (ODI) y SF36. Resultados: Se incluyeron siete artículos en el análisis cualitativo, sólo ensayos clínicos aleatorios. Cuatrocientos cincuenta pacientes fueron tratados con vertebroplastia (VP) y 469 con cifoplastia (CP). La tasa de extravasación de cemento en el grupo VP fue del 63% frente al 14% en el CP, sin embargo, no alcanzó significancia estadística. Los resultados de la Escala Visual Analógica (EVA), ODI y SF-36 se evaluaron teniendo en cuenta los resultados de 6 meses y 1 año de seguimiento y no pudimos señalar diferencias entre los tratamientos.. Finalmente, el CP presenta valores promedios 0,71 cm superiores al VP para restaurar la altura del cuerpo vertebral, con un IC del 95%. Conclusión: En esta revisión sistemática, la cifoplastia fue superior a la vertebroplastia para el aumento de altura del cuerpo vertebral. No hubo una superioridad estadísticamente significativa entre los dos métodos para la extravasación del cemento y otros resultados clínicos. Nivel de Evidencia I; Revisión sistemática.

7.
Adv Rheumatol ; 62: 5, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360068

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The objective was to evaluate whether initiation of urate-lowering treatment (ULT) during an acute gout flare prolonged the current episode. Methods: A comprehensive search of MEDLINE and Web of Science databases was conducted from their inception to 15 March 2021. Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 381 patients met the inclusion criteria. Standardized mean difference (SMD), odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for estimating the clinical efficacy of ULT in acute gout. Results: There was no statistical difference in days to resolution (intent-to-treat analysis) (SMD, 0.68; 95% CI — 0.42 to 1.78; I2, 49%; p = 0.22), the pain visual analogue score (VAS) by day 10 (SMD, — 0.07; 95% CI — 0.30 to 0.16; I2, 0%; p = 0.53), C-reactive protein (CRP) from day 7 to 10 (SMD, — 1.14; 95% CI — 5.63 to 3.36; I2, 55%; p = 0.62), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) from day 7 to 10 (SMD, — 2.51; 95% CI — 5.46 to 0.45; I2, 0%; p = 0.10) and the recurrence of gout flares within 28-30 days (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.29 to 2.09; I2, 0%; p = 0.62). Conclusion: Initiation of ULT during an acute gout flare did not prolong the duration of the flare. However, larger sample size studies are needed to confirm this finding. Trial registration number PROSPERO (CRD42021234581).

8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 55: e11711, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360236

ABSTRACT

We aimed to study the mechanism behind worse coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) outcomes in men and whether the differences between sexes regarding mortality as well as disease severity are influenced by sex hormones. To do so, we used age as a covariate in the meta-regression and subgroup analyses. This was a systematic search and meta-analysis of observational cohorts reporting COVID-19 outcomes. The PubMed (Medline) and Cochrane Library databases were searched. The primary outcome was COVID-19-associated mortality and the secondary outcome was COVID-19 severity. The study was registered at PROSPERO: 42020182924. For mortality, men had a relative risk of 1.36 (95%CI: 1.17 to 1.59; I2 63%, P for heterogeneity <0.01) compared to women. Age was not a significant covariate in meta-analysis heterogeneity (P=0.393) or subgroup analysis. For disease severity, being male was associated with a relative risk of 1.29 (95%CI: 1.19 to 1.40; I2 48%, P for heterogeneity <0.01) compared to the relative risk of women. Again, age did not influence the outcomes of the meta-regression (P=0.914) or subgroup analysis. Men had a higher risk of COVID-19 mortality and severity regardless of age, decreasing the odds of hormonal influences in the described outcomes.

9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 30: e20210410, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365015

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This study aimed to review evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to describe: 1) the active ingredients and desensitizing toothpaste brands; 2) the evaluation of these active ingredients over time, and 3) the fluoride and abrasive content in the formulations designed to treat dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Methodology: In total, 138 RCTs and their tested toothpastes were included. Searches were updated up to August 19, 2021. Formulations, reported brands, active ingredients over time, and type of fluoride (ionizable or ionic fluoride) and abrasive (calcium or silica-based) were analyzed (PROSPERO #CRD42018086815). Results: Our trials assessed 368 toothpaste formulations, including 34 placebo (9%), 98 control toothpastes with fluoride (27%), and 236 (64%) with active ingredients to treat DH. We tested the following active ingredients: potassium compounds (n=68, 19%), calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSP) (n=37, 10%), strontium compounds (n=28, 8%), arginine (n=29, 8%), stannous fluoride (SnF2) (n=21, 6%), hydroxyapatite (n=9, 2%), potassium combined with another active ingredient (n=19, 5%), inorganic salt compounds (n=11, 3%), citrate (n=5, 1%), formaldehyde (n=3, 1%), herbal (n=4, 1%), copolymer (n=1, 0.5%), and trichlorophosphate (TCP) (n=1, 0.5%). The number of toothpaste formulations increased since 1968, with the greatest increment after 2010. Most toothpastes described their type of fluoride as sodium monofluorphosphate (MFP) (n=105, 29%) and NaF (n=82, 22%), with silica-based (n=84, 23%) and calcium-based (n=64, 17%) abrasives. Conclusion: Patients and dentists enjoy an increasing number of brands and active ingredients to decide what desensitizing toothpaste to use. The most common types of fluoride are MFP and NaF.

10.
J. bras. pneumol ; 48(1): e20210337, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365042

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: VEGF-D is a potential biomarker for lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM); however, its diagnostic performance has yet to be systematically studied. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library to identify primary studies on VEGF-D in relation to the diagnosis of LAM. The quality of the studies was evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2). Summary estimates of diagnostic accuracy were pooled using a bivariate random effects model. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to explore possible heterogeneity. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was applied to rate the quality of evidence and indicate the strength of recommendations. Results: Ten studies involving 945 patients were of high risk in quality, as assessed using the QUADAS-2. The pooled diagnostic parameters were indicated as follows: sensitivity = 0.82 (95% CI, 0.71-0.90); specificity = 0.98 (95% CI, 0.94-0.99); and diagnostic OR = 197 (95% CI, 66-587). The AUC of summary ROC analysis was 0.98. The subgroup and sensitivity analyses revealed that the overall performance was not substantially affected by the composition of the control group, prespecified cutoff value, the country of origin, or different cutoff values (p > 0.05 for all). A strong recommendation for serum VEGF-D determination to aid in the diagnosis of LAM was made according to the GRADE. Conclusions: VEGF-D seems to have great potential implications for the diagnosis of LAM in clinical practice due to its excellent specificity and suboptimal sensitivity.


RESUMO Objetivo: O VEGF-D é um potencial biomarcador para linfangioleiomiomatose (LAM); entretanto, seu desempenho diagnóstico ainda não foi sistematicamente estudado. Métodos: Foram realizadas buscas nos bancos de dados PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science e Cochrane Library para identificar estudos primários sobre o VEGF-D com relação ao diagnóstico de LAM. A qualidade dos estudos foi avaliada por meio da ferramenta Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2). As estimativas sumárias de acurácia diagnóstica foram combinadas utilizando um modelo bivariado de efeitos aleatórios. Análises de subgrupo e de sensibilidade foram realizadas para explorar possíveis heterogeneidades. O sistema Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) foi aplicado para avaliar a qualidade das evidências e indicar a força das recomendações. Resultados: Dez estudos envolvendo 945 pacientes eram de alto risco em qualidade, segundo a ferramenta QUADAS-2. Os parâmetros diagnósticos combinados foram indicados da seguinte forma: sensibilidade = 0,82 (IC95%: 0,71-0,90); especificidade = 0,98 (IC95%: 0,94-0,99); e OR diagnóstica = 197 (IC95%: 66-587). A ASC da análise summary ROC foi de 0,98. As análises de subgrupo e de sensibilidade revelaram que o desempenho global não foi substancialmente afetado pela composição do grupo controle, valor de corte pré-especificado, país de origem ou diferentes valores de corte (p > 0,05 para todos). Uma forte recomendação para a dosagem de VEGF-D sérico para auxiliar no diagnóstico de LAM foi feita de acordo com o sistema GRADE. Conclusões: O VEGF-D parece ter grandes implicações potenciais para o diagnóstico de LAM na prática clínica em virtude da excelente especificidade e sensibilidade subótima.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphangioleiomyomatosis/diagnosis , Biomarkers , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D
11.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 97-103, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913159

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the value of transient elastography (TE) in the staging of hepatic fibrosis in patients with autoimmune liver disease (ALD). Methods PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang Data, and VIP databases were searched for English and Chinese articles on TE in the staging of hepatic fibrosis in ALD published from January 2000 to January 2021. Two reviewers independently performed data extraction for the articles included, and QUADAS2 was used for quality assessment. The bivariate mixed effects model in Stata 15.0 software was used to perform the Meta-analysis. Results A total of 11 articles were included, with 1041 patients in total. In the diagnosis of significant hepatic fibrosis (F≥2), TE had a pooled sensitivity of 0.81 (95% CI : 0.75-0.86), a specificity of 0.87(95% CI 0.79-0.92), and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.91(95% CI 0.88-0.93); in the diagnosis of advanced hepatic fibrosis (F≥3), TE had a pooled sensitivity of 0.81(95% CI 0.74-0.87), a sensitivity of 0.90(95% CI 0.85-0.93), and an AUC of 0.92(95% CI 0.90-0.94); in the diagnosis of early-stage liver cirrhosis (F4), TE had a pooled sensitivity of 0.87(95% CI 0.74-0.93), a specificity of 0.93(95% CI 0.87-0.97), and an AUC of 0.96(95% CI 0.94-0.97). Conclusion TE has a good diagnostic value in evaluating significant liver fibrosis, advanced liver fibrosis, and early-stage liver cirrhosis in patients with ALD, especially with a relatively high diagnostic accuracy for early-stage liver cirrhosis.

12.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 135-140, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913127

ABSTRACT

Objective To systematically review the efficacy of different artificial liver support systems in the treatment of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) using a network Meta-analysis. Methods PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane library, Clinical Trial, CNKI, SinoMed, and Wanfang Data were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on different artificial liver support systems in the treatment of ACLF. Literature screening, data extraction, and method ological quality assessment were performed according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, and Stata15.1 software and R4.1.0 software were used to perform a network Meta-analysis. Results A total of 14 RCTs were included, with 1141 patients in total. The network meta-analysis showed different intervention methods had no significant difference in reducing mortality rate based on cross comparison (all P > 0.05). The probability ranking diagram showed that plasma exchange (PE) showed the best effect in reducing 30-day mortality rate, followed by extracorporeal liver assist device (ELAD), fractionated plasma separation and adsorption with Prometheus system, molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS), Biologic-DT liver dialysis device, and PE+MARS. PE showed the best effect in reducing 90-day mortality rate, followed by Prometheus, ELAD, and MARS. Biologic-DT showed the best effect in improving hepatic encephalopathy, followed by MARS, PE+MARS, and ELAD. Patients undergoing ELAD had the lowest risk of bleeding, and compared with standard medical treatment, Biologic-DT might increase the risk of bleeding [risk ratio=1.9×10 8 , 95% confidence interval: (4.6-6.2)×10 27 ]. Conclusion PE might be the best option for reducing 30- and 90-day mortality rates in ACLF patients. Biologic-DT has a better effect in improving hepatic encephalopathy, but it may increase the risk of bleeding.

13.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 209-216, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913113

ABSTRACT

OBJECT IVE To evaluate the efficacy ,safety and cost-effectiveness of Qili qiangxin capsule in the treatment of chronic heart failure ,and provide reference for drug selection and evaluation in relevant institutions. METHODS Meta-analysis was performed to investigate clinical efficacy and safety of Qili qiangxin capsule combined with routine treatment (combined treatment group)versus routine treatment (routine treatment group )in the treatment of chronic heart failure. From the perspective of Chinese health care system ,a decision tree model was constructed. The time horizon of the model was 1 year. The effective rate obtained by meta-analysis was taken as the effect parameter ,and the total cost was calculated by drug cost and hospitalization cost ,to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of combined treatment versus routine treatment in the treatment of chronic heart failure. Subgroup analysis was carried out according to the course of treatment and literature quality ,and one-way sensitivity analysis and probability sensitivity analysis were adopted to check the robustness of basic analysis results. RESULTS Total of 72 literatures involving 9 575 patients were included in meta-analysis. Results of meta-analysis showed that effective rate ,left ventricular ejection fraction , N-terminal fragment of the prohomone brain-type natriuretic peptide and 6 minute walking distance in combined treatment group were all better than those of routine treatment group , while its safety was similar to routine therapy. The results of cost-effectiveness analysis showed that the cost of combined therapy was 1 867 yuan higher than that of routine therapy ,patients could get 0.016 QALYs more ,and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER)was 117 861 yuan/QALY. If only high-quality literature were included for meta-analysis and the effectiveness parameters were obtained ,the ICERs of the combined therapy versus routine therapy were 102 162 yuan/QALY(based on all high-quality literature )and 72 354 yuan/QALY(based on high-quality literature with treatment course of 24 weeks). The results of the probability sensitivity analysis showed that taking twice China ’s per capita gross domestic product in 2020 as the willingness to pay threshold ,the probability of cost-effectiveness for Qili qiangxin capsule combined with routine therapy was 67.1% . CONCLUSIONS Compared with routine therapy ,Qili qiangxin capsule combined with routine therapy has better clinical efficacy ,equivalent safety and cost-effective.

14.
International Eye Science ; (12): 265-269, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913035

ABSTRACT

@#AIM: To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of gatifloxacin eye drops and levofloxacin eye drops in the treatment of acute bacterial conjunctivitis using Meta-analysis.<p>METHODS: According to the Cochrane systematic evaluation method, “gatifloxacin” “levofloxacin” and “acute bacterial conjunctivitis” were used as keywords for literature search in Embase, Cochrane library, Pubmed, Medline, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP and CBMdisc from the establishment of the database to March 1, 2021. Randomized controlled trials(RCTs)gatifloxacin eye drops and levofloxacin eye drops in the treatment of acute bacterial conjunctivitis were included. Cochrane bias risk assessment tool was used to evaluate the quality of the included studies. RevMan5.3 software was used for combined analysis. Egger's test in Stata12 was used to assess publication bias, and the level of evidence was evaluated according to the GRADE system.<p>RESULTS: A total of 10 RCTs were included in this study with 1 149 patients. The control group was treated with levofloxacin and the experimental group was treated with gatifloxacin. The results of Meta-analysis showed that the clinical effective rate of acute bacterial conjunctivitis in gatifloxacin group was higher than that in levofloxacin group(<i>OR</i>=3.75, 95%<i>CI</i>: 2.52-5.58, <i>P</i><0.00001). Egger's test suggested there was publication bias among studies. And GRADE rating results indicated, the level of evidence was VERY LOW. The incidence of adverse drug reactions in the gatifloxacin group was lower than that in levofloxacin group(<i>OR</i>=0.37, 95%<i>CI</i>: 0.19-0.71, <i>P</i>=0.003). No publication bias was observed in Egger's test and GRADE showed the level of evidence was LOW.<p>CONCLUSION: Gatifloxacin eye drops is more effective than levofloxacin eye drops in the treatment of acute bacterial conjunctivitis, and has lower adverse effect rates. And due to the low levels of evidence included, more multicenter, randomized double-blind clinical trials are needed to improve the strength of evidence for the clinical efficacy of gatifloxacin eye drops in the treatment of acute bacterial conjunctivitis.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907145

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@#Objective    To compare the effectiveness and safety of electromagnetic navigation-guided localization and CT-guided percutaneous localization for pulmonary nodules. Methods    The literature published from the inception to January 2021 about the comparison between electromagnetic navigation-guided localization and CT-guided percutaneous localization for pulmonary nodules in the PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMbase, Chinese Wanfang database and CNKI database was searched. RevMan (version 5.4) software was used for meta-analysis. Nonrandomized controlled trials were evaluated using methodological index for nonrandomized studies (MINORS). Results    A total of six retrospective studies (567 patients) were included in this meta-analysis. MINORS scores of all studies were all 17 points and above. There were 317 patients in the CT-guided percutaneous localization group and 250 patients in the electromagnetic navigation-guided localization group. The complication rate of the CT-guided percutaneous localization group was significantly higher than that in the electromagnetic navigation-guided localization group (OR=11.08, 95%CI 3.35 to 36.65, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the success rate of localization (OR=0.48, 95%CI 0.16 to 1.48, P=0.20), localization time (MD=0.30, 95%CI –6.16 to 6.77, P=0.93) or nodule diameter (MD=–0.07, 95%CI –0.19 to 0.06, P=0.29) between the two groups. Conclusion    Electromagnetic navigation can be used  as an effective preoperative positioning method for pulmonary nodules, which has the advantage of lower complication rate compared with the traditional CT positioning method.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907066

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Objective @#To investigate the incidence of new HIV infection and its influencing factors among men who have sex with men ( MSM ) in China, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the AIDS control strategy.@*Methods @#Cohort studies pertaining to new HIV infections among Chinese MSM populations were retrieved in Chinese and English electronic databases, including CNKI, Wanfang Data, VIP, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Library, and the retrieval time was set to build the database until May 2021. A meta-analysis was performed to investigate the incidence of new HIV infection and its influencing factors among Chinese MSM populations. The publication bias was assessed using funnel plot and Egger's test, and the stability of outcome parameters was evaluated using sensitivity analysis.@*Results @#A total of 850 publications were retrieved, and 43 eligible literatures ( 44 studies ) were included in the final analysis. The pooled incidence of new HIV infection was 4.93 ( 95%CI: 4.15 to 5.72) per 100 person-years among Chinese MSM populations. Egger's test showed a publication bias ( t=2.411, P=0.021). Subgroup analysis revealed high incidence of new HIV infection in east ( 5.21 per 100 person-years ), north ( 5.30 per 100 person-years ) and southwest (4.84 per 100 person-years) China, and the lowest incidence in northwest China ( 2.87 per 100 person-years ), and showed higher incidence in first-tier cities ( 5.12 per 100 person-years ) than in nonfirst-tier cities ( 3.89 per 100 person-years ). Syphilis infection ( HR=3.41 ), unprotected anal sex ( HR=2.52 ), multiple sexual partners ( HR=3.51 ), seeking sex partners in bars, public baths and parks ( HR=3.44 ), age of > 25 years ( HR=0.44 ), Han Ethnicity ( HR=0.35 ), awareness of AIDS-related knowledge ( HR=0.20 ) and provision of HIV preventive services ( HR=0.18 ) were associated with new HIV infection in Chinese MSM populations. In addition, publication bias was found in studies reporting syphilis infection ( t=4.841, P<0.001 ), unprotected anal sex ( t=4.114, P=0.006 ) and ethnicity ( t=-5.018, P=0.038 ). @*Conclusions @#The incidence of new HIV infection is high among Chinese MSM populations. Interventions targeting the factors affecting new HIV infections are required to reduce in the incidence of new HIV infections among Chinese MSM populations.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907003

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Objective@#To clarify the prognostic value of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients.@*Methods@#literature on the correlation between NLR and the prognosis and clinicopathological features of OSCC was searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane and Embase. The outcome indicators, including overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), tumor size, cervical lymph node metastasis, tumor stage, extracapsular lymph node invasion and peripheral nerve invasion, were analyzed by RevMan5.3 software@*Results @# In total, 6 180 patients were included in 23 studies. The analysis showed that NLR was significantly negatively correlated with OS [HR=1.62, 95%CI(1.38, 1.91), P < 0.001], DFS [HR=1.48, 95%CI(1.24, 1.77), P < 0.001] and DSS [HR=1.87, 95%CI(1.60, 2.20), P < 0.001]. In addition, higher NLR values were positively correlated with tumor size [OR=2.68, 95%CI (1.84, 3.90), P < 0.001], cervical lymph node metastasis [OR=1.59, 95%CI (1.35, 1.88), P < 0.001], tumor stage [OR=2.85, 95%CI (2.35, 3.47), P < 0.001], extralymphatic invasion [OR=1.72, 95%CI (1.23, 2.40), P=0.001], and peripheral nerve invasion [OR=1.70, 95%CI (1.29, 2.24), P < 0.001]. However, there was no significant correlation with age [OR=0.96, 95%CI (0.71, 1.29), P=0.77], sex [OR=1.08, 95%CI (0.88, 1.33), P=0.55], or degree of differentiation [OR=1.15, 95%CI (0.92, 1.43), P=0.22]@*Conclusion @#Elevated NLR was significantly associated with the prognosis and clinicopathological features of OSCC and might be an independent prognostic factor.

18.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 372-377, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923108

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Objective@#To evaluate the effectiveness of aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and aerobic combined resistance exercise on body composition among overweight and obese children and adolescents, to provide more comprehensive and effective evidences for overweight/obesity intervention research and practice in children and adolescents.@*Methods@#Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding exercises on body composition among children and adolescents with overweight and obesity published before December 31th, 2020 were searched in databases of CNKI, Wanfang, PubMed, Web of Science. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. Stata 15.1 and RevMan 5.0 were used for statistical analysis.@*Results@#A total of 38 RCTs were included. The effectiveness of exercise on BMI reduction among overweight/obese children and adolescents were in the following rankings: combined exercise [ MD =-1.25(-1.76--0.74), P <0.05], aerobic exercise [ MD =-0.87(-1.23--0.52), P <0.05], resistance exercise [ MD =-0.58(-1.06--0.10), P <0.05]. The effectiveness of exercise on body fat percentage reduction among overweight/obese children and adolescents were in the following rankings: combined exercise [ MD =-4.02(-5.60--2.44), P <0.05], resistance exercise [ MD =-2.89(-4.62--1.16), P <0.05], aerobic exercise [ MD =-1.88(-3.14--0.62), P <0.05].@*Conclusion@#Aerobic training combined with resistance training is the most effective exercise to improve body composition for children and adolescents with overweight and obesity. When formulating exercise prescription,atrobic combined with resistance exercise can be used as the first choice for overweight and obese children and adolescents.

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Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 594-600, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922960

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Objective To investigate the risk factors for bile leakage after hepatectomy without biliary reconstruction. Methods CNKI, Wanfang Data, VIP, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library were searched for English and Chinese study reports on the risk factors for bile leakage after hepatectomy without biliary reconstruction published up to April 2021. The method of Cochrane systematic review was used for literature screening and data extraction, and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used for quality assessment. RevMan 5.4 software was used to perform a meta-analysis of the extracted data. Results A total of 16 articles (13 in English and 3 in Chinese) were included in this study, with a total of 16036 cases. The meta-analysis showed that sex (odds ratio [ OR ]=1.27, 95% CI : 1.09-1.48, P =0.003), diabetes ( OR =1.23, 95% CI : 1.07-1.41, P =0.003), past history of liver surgery ( OR =2.50, 95% CI : 1.74-3.59, P < 0.001), anatomic hepatectomy ( OR =1.58, 95% CI : 1.09-2.30, P =0.02), segment I hepatectomy ( OR =2.56, 95% CI : 1.50-4.40, P < 0.001), central hepatectomy (S4, S5, S8) ( OR =3.51, 95% CI : 2.80-4.40, P < 0.001), left third hepatectomy ( OR =3.53, 95% CI : 2.32-5.36, P < 0.001), and intraoperative blood transfusion ( OR =2.64, 95% CI : 1.93-3.60, P < 0.001) were the risk factors for bile leakage after hepatectomy. Liver cirrhosis, preoperative liver function grade, preoperative chemotherapy, and left/right hemihepatectomy were not the risk factors for bile leakage. Conclusion There are complex influencing factors for bile leakage after hepatectomy, and in addition to the patient's own factors such as sex, diabetes, and past history of liver surgery, intraoperative factors, such as surgical procedures, extent of hepatectomy, and intraoperative blood transfusion, are also risk factors for bile leakage after hepatectomy. The surgeon should conduct adequate preoperative assessment and perform careful operation during surgery to reduce the incidence rate of postoperative bile leakage.

20.
International Eye Science ; (12): 616-622, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922863

ABSTRACT

@#AIM: To systematically evaluate the changes of hemodynamics, astigmatism and cytokines between travoprost and timolol in the treatment of primary open angle glaucoma(POAG)in Chinese adults.METHODS:Randomized controlled trials(RCTs)and cohort studies comparing the related efficacy of travoprost and timolol for POAG were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database(CBM), VIP database and Wanfang database. The search time was from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2020. The literatures were screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After quality evaluation by Cochrane tools for RCTs and NOS scores for cohort studies, Review Manager 5.4 software was used for Meta-analyses to generate weighed-mean-difference(<i>WMD</i>)as effect size contrasting the efficacy of travoprost and timolol for the peak systolic velocity(PSV), the end diastolic velocity(EDV)and the resistance index(RI)of the central retinal artery(CRA)and the posterior ciliary artery(PCA), astigmatism, the plasma endothelin-1(ET-1), the serum matrix metalloproteinase(MMP), the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2(TIMP-2)of the aqueous humor and the serum TIMP-2. RESULTS:Totally 8 RCTs and 4 retrospective cohort studies were included with 1 192 patients.Meta-analysis showed that:compared with timolol group, the travoprost group had greater effect on increasing the PSV(<i>WMD</i>=2.40, 95%<i>CI</i>: 2.12-2.68, <i>P</i><0.00001; <i>WMD</i>=3.76, 95%<i>CI</i>: 3.30-4.22, <i>P</i><0.00001)and the EDV(<i>WMD</i>=0.81, 95%<i>CI</i>: 0.70-0.91, <i>P</i><0.00001; <i>WMD</i>=0.90, 95%<i>CI</i>: 0.72-1.09, <i>P</i><0.00001)of the CRA and the PCA as well as on decreasing the RI(<i>WMD</i>=-0.07, 95%<i>CI</i>: -0.10 to -0.04, <i>P</i><0.00001; <i>WMD</i>=-0.07, 95%<i>CI</i>: -0.08 to -0.05, <i>P</i><0.00001)of the CRA and the PCA; Travoprost was more effective in decreasing astigmatism(<i>WMD</i>=-1.34, 95%<i>CI</i>: -1.62 to -1.06, <i>P</i><0.00001); Compared with timolol, travoprost could significantly decrease the plasma ET-1(<i>WMD</i>=-5.14, 95%<i>CI</i>: -7.08 to -3.20, <i>P</i><0.00001)and the serum MMP(<i>WMD</i>=-12.48, 95%<i>CI</i>: -24.27 to -0.69, <i>P</i>=0.04), while no statistically significant differences were found in the TIMP-2 of the aqueous humor(<i>WMD</i>=-1.40, 95%<i>CI</i>: -5.51-2.71, <i>P</i>=0.51)and the serum TIMP-2(<i>WMD</i>=1.69, 95%<i>CI</i>: -30.03-33.41, <i>P</i>=0.92).CONCLUSION:Compared with timolol, travoprost was more effective in improving hemodynamic indexes and decreasing astigmatism in the treatment of POAG.

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