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1.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(1): 20-28, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365538

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: There are many reasons to believe that the nitric oxide/guanosine 3'5' - cyclic monophosphate (or NO/cGMP) pathway on vasoplegic states is underestimated. To study indigo carmine (IC) as an alternative to methylene blue was the investigation rationale. Methods: The IC (3mg/kg intravenous infusion) study protocol included five experimental groups; 1) Control group — saline was injected at 0 and 10 minutes; 2) IC group — IC was injected at 0 and saline at 10 minutes; 3) compound 48/80 (C48/80) group — C48/80 was injected at 0 minute and saline at 10 minutes; 4) C48/80 + IC group — C48/80 was injected at 0 minute and IC at 10 minutes; and 5) IC + C48/80 group — IC was injected at 0 minute and C48/80 at 10 minutes. The studies were carried out by registering and measuring hemodynamic and blood gasometric parameters, including continuous cardiac output. Results: 1) The effects of the drugs (IC and C48/80) were more evident in the first 20 minutes of recording; 2) hypotensive responses were more pronounced in the C48/80 groups; 3) IC isolated or applied before C48/80 caused transient pulmonary hypertension; and 4) after the first 20 minutes, the pressure responses showed stability with apparent hypotension more pronounced in the C48/80 groups. Clinical observations showed significant hemodynamic instability and catastrophic anaphylactic reactions (agitation, pulmonary hypertension, severe bronchospasm, urticaria, high-intensity cyanosis, violent gastric hypersecretion, and ascites). Conclusion: A global results analysis showed differences between groups only in the first 20 minutes of the experiments.

2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e07038, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360627

ABSTRACT

We report two outbreaks of nitrate and nitrite poisoning in Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. The first, due to Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass), and the second, due to P. purpureum and Brachiaria spp. (brachiaria grass), both occurred during a prolonged drought. In the first outbreak, the irrigation of the pastures with wastewater and sewage contributed to nitrate accumulation. The second outbreak occurred in pastures cultivated in the border of a dam, that had been submerged for long time accumulating large amounts of organic matter in the soil. Other probably risk factors for nitrate accumulation included the use of chemical fertilizers and herbicides and burning of the vegetation. In the first outbreak, four calves out of a total of 42 cattle died, and in the second outbreak 49 out of 243 cattle, including adults, yearlings, and a 2-day-old calf died. The clinical signs included dyspnea, cyanosis, ataxia, and falls, leading to death. The presence of nitrates was detected in both outbreaks using the diphenylamine test. Quantitative tests were performed in the second outbreak using a portable nitrate meter, and high nitrate concentrations were found. The characteristic macroscopic findings and absence of microscopic lesions and response to treatment with methylene blue were key to the diagnosis of poisoning by nitrates and nitrites. We conclude that poisoning by nitrates and nitrites in ruminants in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil is frequent due to the cultivation of grasses in the border of dams that had been covered by water for long periods or in areas irrigated by wastewater and/or sewage. In addition, the use of a portable measuring device is an effective alternative for the quantification of nitrates in pastures.(AU)


Relatamos dois surtos de intoxicação por nitrato e nitrito na Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil. O primeiro por Pennisetum purpureum (capim-elefante), e o segundo por P. purpureum e Brachiaria spp. (capim braquiária); ambos ocorreram durante uma estiagem prolongada. No primeiro surto, a irrigação das pastagens com água poluída e esgoto contribuiu para o acúmulo de nitrato. O segundo surto ocorreu em pastagens cultivadas na borda de uma barragem, que há muito tempo ficavam submersas, acumulando grande quantidade de matéria orgânica no solo. Outros prováveis fatores de risco para o acúmulo de nitrato incluíram o uso de fertilizantes químicos e herbicidas e a queima da vegetação. No primeiro surto, quatro bezerros de um total de 42 bovinos morreram, e no segundo surto 49 de 243 bovinos, incluindo adultos, jovens de um ano e um bezerro de 2 dias de idade morreram. Os sinais clínicos incluíram dispneia, cianose, ataxia e quedas, levando à morte. A presença de nitratos foi detectada em ambos os surtos pelo teste de difenilamina. Testes quantitativos foram realizados no segundo surto usando um medidor portátil de nitrato, e altas concentrações de nitrato foram encontradas. Os achados macroscópicos característicos e a ausência de lesões microscópicas e a resposta ao tratamento com azul de metileno foram fundamentais para o diagnóstico de intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos. Concluímos que a intoxicação por nitratos e nitritos em ruminantes na região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil é frequente devido ao cultivo de gramíneas nas bordas de barragens que estiveram cobertas por água por longos períodos ou em áreas irrigadas por água poluída e/ou esgoto. Além disso, o uso de medidor portátil é uma alternativa eficaz para a quantificação de nitratos em pastagens.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Plant Poisoning/etiology , Plant Poisoning/epidemiology , Brachiaria/poisoning , Pennisetum/poisoning , Nitrates/poisoning , Nitrites/poisoning , Water Pollution, Chemical/adverse effects , Pasture , Agricultural Irrigation
3.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(4): 611-619, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291154

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La cirugía para extirpación de metástasis en un cuello previamente intervenido afronta un reto para lograr una resección exitosa. El presente estudio pretende demostrar la utilidad de la técnica de inyección de azul de metileno, guiada por ecografía, para la localización intraoperatoria de lesiones recurrentes en cáncer de tiroides, para facilitar su resección. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo, en pacientes reintervenidos por recurrencia de carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides, durante un periodo de dos años y medio. Se utilizó la inyección intratumoral de azul de metileno guiada por ecografía para su identificación intraoperatoria de recurrencia. Se hizo análisis de variables demográficas y clínicas. Resultados. Este estudio incluyó 10 procedimientos en 9 pacientes, 77,8 % mujeres, con una media de edad de 54 años. Todos tenían un nivel de tiroglobulina detectable y elevado antes de la intervención; posteriormente, el 89 %presentó un descenso y el 33 % una adecuada respuesta bioquímica. La técnica agregó 10 minutos al tiempo quirúrgico. En el 100 % se identificaron de manera intraoperatoria los ganglios marcados; el promedio de ganglios resecados fue de 12, de los cuales, 6 fueron positivos, todos con carcinoma papilar de tiroides. Esta técnica se consideró de gran utilidad y de bajo costo en todos los casos. Discusión. Esta técnica se muestra como una estrategia efectiva para la identificación intraoperatoria de las recurrencias corregionales en carcinoma de tiroides, permitiendo una disección ganglionar exitosa, disminuyendo complicaciones, tiempo quirúrgico y, especialmente, costos frente a otras intervenciones


Introduction. The approach of a previously operated neck for metastasis resection faces a challenge to achieve a successful resection. The present study aims to demonstrate the usefulness of the ultrasound-guided injection of methylene blue technique for the intraoperative localization of recurrent lesions in thyroid cancer to facilitate their resection. Methods. An observational, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in patients reoperated for recurrences of differentiated thyroid carcinoma over a period of two and a half years, using ultrasound-guided intratumoral injection of methylene blue for its intraoperative identification. An analysis of demographic and clinical variables was carried out and its advantages over other methods were identified. Results. This study included 10 procedures in nine patients, 77.8% women and 22.2% men, with a mean age of 54 years. All had a detectable and elevated thyroglobulin level before the intervention, 89% had a decrease in its level and 33% had an adequate biochemical response. The technique added 10 minutes to the surgical time. All marked lymph nodes were identified intraoperatively. The average number of lymph nodes resected was 12, of which six were positive, all with papillary thyroid carcinoma. It was considered of great utility and low cost in all cases. Discussion. This technique shows to be an effective strategy for the intraoperative identification of locoregional recurrences in thyroid carcinoma, allowing a successful lymph node dissection, reducing complications, surgical time and especially costs compared to other interventions


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Reoperation , Ultrasonography , Lymph Node Excision , Methylene Blue
4.
Rev. invest. clín ; 73(3): 190-198, May.-Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280456

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: There is no pharmacological intervention on the treatment of hypoxemia and respiratory distress in COVID-19 patients. Objective: The objective of the study was to study the effect of the reduced form of methylene blue (MB) on the improvement of oxygen saturation (SpO2) and respiratory rate (RR). Methods: In an academic medical center, 80 hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 were randomly assigned to receive either oral MB along with standard of care (SOC) (MB group, n = 40) or SOC only (SOC group, n=40). The primary outcomes were SpO2 and RR on the 3rd and 5th days. The secondary outcomes were hospital stay and mortality within 28 days. Results: In the MB group, a significant improvement in SpO2 and RR was observed on the 3rd day (for both, p < 0.0001) and also the 5th day (for both, p < 0.0001). In the SOC group, there was no significant improvement in SpO2 (p = 0.24) and RR (p = 0.20) on the 3rd day, although there was a significant improvement of SpO2 (p = 0.002) and RR (p = 0.01) on the 5th day. In the MB group in comparison to the SOC group, the rate ratio of increased SpO2 was 13.5 and 2.1 times on the 3rd and 5th days, respectively. In the MB group compared with the SOC group, the rate ratio of RR improvement was 10.1 and 3.7 times on the 3rd and 5th days, respectively. The hospital stay was significantly shortened in the MB group (p = 0.004), and the mortality was 12.5% and 22.5% in the MB and SOC groups, respectively. Conclusions: The addition of MB to the treatment protocols significantly improved SpO2 and respiratory distress in COVID-19 patients, which resulted in decreased hospital stay and mortality. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04370288

5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(3): 406-411, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288253

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vasoplegic syndrome (VS) comprises a constellation of concurrent signs and symptoms: hypotension, high cardiac index, low systemic vascular resistance, low filling pressures, the tendency to occur diffuse bleeding, and sustained hypotension. All of these parameters may persist even despite the use of high doses of vasoconstrictor amines. VS arises from vasoplegic endothelial dysfunction with excessive release of nitric oxide by polymorphonuclear leukocytes mediated by the nitric oxide synthase's inducible form and is associated with systemic inflammatory reaction and high morbimortality. The achievements regarding the treatment of VS with methylene blue (MB) are a valuable Brazilian contribution to cardiac surgery. The present text review was designed to deliver the accumulated knowledge in the past ten years of employing MB to treat VS after cardiac surgery. Considering that we have already published two papers describing acquired experiences and concepts after 15 and 20 years, now, as we achieve the 30-year mark, we compose a trilogy.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 3244-3261, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922791

ABSTRACT

Major challenges for cancer treatment are how to effectively eliminate primary tumor and sufficiently induce immunogenic cell death (ICD) to provoke a robust immune response for metastasis control. Here, a self-assembled cascade bioreactor was developed to improve cancer treatment with enhanced tumor penetration and synergistic therapy of starvation, chemodynamic (CDT) and photothermal therapy. Ultrasmall FeS-GOx nanodots were synthesized with glucose oxidase (GOx) as template and induced by paclitaxel (PTX) to form self-assembling FeS-GOx@PTX (FGP)

7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1163-1169, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886985

ABSTRACT

To investigate the influence factors and effects of metal or dissolving microneedles on the formation and healing of skin microchannels, the pencil-shaped or conical stainless steel microneedles with different lengths, tip to tip space and base area, and the pencil-shaped dissolving microneedles with different tip to tip space were used. The microneedles were applied to the skin of epilatory mice and rats, and the effects of various microneedle parameters, application parameters, and animals on the microchannels were explored by the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and methylene blue staining. Visually observe the skin local irritation caused by the microneedles. The animal experiments were approved by the Animal Experiments Welfare and Ethical Committee of Zhejiang University of Technology. The application time of the microneedle should be maintained at 30 s or more. When the insertion forces were 2, 4, 8 N, and the TEWL initial values of the formed microchannels were 12.9, 33.0, 40.4 g·m-2·h-1, respectively. When the length of metal microneedle were 400, 600, 800 μm, and the TEWL initial values of the formed microchannels were 37.1, 40.4, 49.5 g·m-2·h-1, respectively. When the tip to tip space of metal microneedle were 400, 600, 800 μm, and the TEWL initial values of the formed microchannels were 33.2, 40.4, 55.8 g·m-2·h-1, respectively. When the base area of metal microneedle were 0.16, 0.35, 0.62 cm2, and the TEWL initial values of the formed microchannels were 35.1, 40.4, 67.1 g·m-2·h-1, respectively. The effects of conical and pencil-shaped microneedles are similar. When the tip to tip space of pencil shaped dissolving microneedle were 400, 600, 800 μm, and the TEWL initial values of the formed microchannels were 49.8, 60.5, 70.5 g·m-2·h-1, respectively. The TEWL baseline values of animal skins of different genders and series are different, but the tendency of microchannels formation and closure is similar. Visual inspection revealed that the slight erythema caused by the microneedles subsided within 24 h. Microneedles of different parameters have different effects on microchannels. The microchannels closed within 24 or 48 h, and the skin local irritation caused by microneedle was mild.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 55-70, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881124

ABSTRACT

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells with functions similar to those of normal stem cells. Although few in number, they are capable of self-renewal, unlimited proliferation, and multi-directional differentiation potential. In addition, CSCs have the ability to escape immune surveillance. Thus, they play an important role in the occurrence and development of tumors, and they are closely related to tumor invasion, metastasis, drug resistance, and recurrence after treatment. Therefore, specific targeting of CSCs may improve the efficiency of cancer therapy. A series of corresponding promising therapeutic strategies based on CSC targeting, such as the targeting of CSC niche, CSC signaling pathways, and CSC mitochondria, are currently under development. Given the rapid progression in this field and nanotechnology, drug delivery systems (DDSs) for CSC targeting are increasingly being developed. In this review, we summarize the advances in CSC-targeted DDSs. Furthermore, we highlight the latest developmental trends through the main line of CSC occurrence and development process; some considerations about the rationale, advantages, and limitations of different DDSs for CSC-targeted therapies were discussed.

9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21210030, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339317

ABSTRACT

Abstract Nowadays, a prompt and reliable diagnosis is one of the most critical measures for leprosy control. The current diagnostic is based on clinical exams by a health care professional, and it may not recognize early signs of the disease. Therefore, other leprosy diagnosis methods are needed that are sensitive, disease-specific, and easy to deliver to the end-user. This study describes the construction of an electrochemical DNA biosensor to detect PCR products of Mycobacterium leprae using methylene blue as an indicator of the hybridization. The capture probe was immobilized on the graphite electrode modified with poly(4-aminophenol). The electrode surface was morphologically characterized by atomic force microscopy. Linear voltammetry was used to monitor the concentration of methylene blue on the DNA biosensor, which indicated a limit detection of 1 x 10-10 mol/L. The biosensor showed selective when placed to hybridize with a non-complementary sequence. This study suggests that the electrochemical DNA biosensor developed is promising for detecting DNA of Mycobacterium leprae.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Aminophenols , Methylene Blue , Mycobacterium leprae
10.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(3): e1612, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355511

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Although considered a safe procedure, sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has a non-negligible risk of major postoperative complications related to it, with special attention to gastric leaks. Aim: Evaluate the clinical value of the methylene blue test (MBT) in predicting the occurrence of post-SG leaks. Methods: Retrospective study that included 1136 patients who underwent SG with intraoperative MBT between 2012 and 2016. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predicted value (NPV) were calculated to determine the clinical correlation between the MBT and the occurrence of postoperative leaks. Staple line oversewing was performed in all patients who presented positive MBT. Results: Laparoscopic SG was performed in 97.0% of cases; open in 2.3%, and robotic in 0.7%. MBT was positive in 19 cases (1.67%). One positive MBT occurred during an open SG and the other 18 at laparoscopy. Moreover, there were nine cases (0.8%) of postoperative leaks, among which, only two presented positive MBT. MBT diagnostic value was evaluated through the calculation of sensitivity (22.0%), specificity (98.0%), PPV (11.0%) and NPV (99.0%). There were no cases of allergic reaction or any other side effect with the use of the methylene blue solution. Conclusion: MBT showed high specificity and negative predictive value, thus presenting an important value to rule out the occurrence of postoperative leaks.


RESUMO Racional: Embora considerada procedimento seguro, a gastrectomia vertical (GV) apresenta risco não desprezível de complicações pós-operatórias importantes relacionadas a ela, com atenção especial para fístulas gástricas Objetivo: Avaliar a aplicabilidade clínica do teste do azul de metileno (TAM) na predição da ocorrência de fístulas após a GV. Método: Estudo retrospectivo que incluiu 1136 pacientes operados entre 2012 e 2016 com aplicação do TAM intraoperatório. Sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo (VPP) e valor preditivo negativo (VPN) foram calculados na tentativa de determinar a correlação clínica entre os resultados do TAM e a ocorrência de fístulas pós-operatórias. Sobressutura da linha de grampos foi realizada em todos os pacientes que apresentaram TAM positivo. Resultados: GV laparoscópica foi realizada em 97,0% dos casos; por laparotomia em 2,3% e roboticamente em 0,7%. TAM foi positivo em 19 casos (1,67%). Um dos casos positivos ocorreu na laparotomia e os outros 18 na laparoscopia. Ainda, houve nove casos (0,8%) de fístulas pós-operatórias, dentre os quais, apenas dois apresentaram TAM positivo. O valor diagnóstico do TAM foi avaliado através dos cálculos de sensibilidade (22,0%), especificidade (98,0%), VPP (11,0%) e VPN (99,0%). Não houve casos de reação alérgica ou qualquer outro efeito colateral advindo do uso da solução de azul de metileno. Conclusão: TAM mostrou alta especificidade e VPN, apresentando importância em descartar a ocorrência de fístulas pós-operatórias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Laparoscopy , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Gastrectomy , Methylene Blue
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200266, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285556

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS This scoping review summarizes the findings of clinical trials using methylene blue (MB) for the treatment of various health conditions. This research method allowed mapping main findings, clarifying research topics, and identifying gaps in the literature.


Abstract studies evaluating effective drugs for health conditions are of crucial importance for public health. Methylene blue (MB) is an accessible synthetic drug that presents low toxicity and has been used in several health areas due to its effectiveness. Objective: this scoping review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of relevant research regarding the use of MB for the treatment of health conditions. Methods: a five-stage framework Arksey and O'maley scoping review was conducted. The literature was searched in Cochrane Library database using Mesh term "methylene blue". Data were collected by two independent reviewers and submitted to descriptive synthesis. Results: The search resulted in 429 records, from which 16 were included after exclusion criteria were applied. The therapeutic use of MB was identified for acute conditions (malaria and septic shock), chronic conditions (discogenic back pain, bipolar disorder, refractory neuropathic pain, and post-traumatic stress disorder), and postoperative care (vasoplegic syndrome, and pain after haemorrhoidectomy, lumbar discectomy, and traumatic thoracolumbar fixation). Conclusion: there is much evidence emerging from clinical trials about the therapeutic use of MB for acute, chronic, and postoperative conditions; however, many gaps were identified, which open further avenues for future research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Chronic Disease/drug therapy , Acute Pain/drug therapy
12.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210241

ABSTRACT

Background:Acquired Methemoglobinemia(MetHb)is a rare, but potentially serious and unfamiliarity with this complication may delay diagnosis and appropriate therapy. Presentation:A case ofmethemoglobinemiaoccurring in male teenage demonstrator as a complication of re-current exposure to ortho-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile (CS) in public protests , the patient became cyanotic with a decrease in his level of consciousness, by the effect of hydrogen cyanide as by-product of (CS), resulting in a toxicmethemoglobinemia level in his blood.Methemoglobin is incapable of carrying oxygen and is formed when the ferrous iron in the heme molecule is oxidized to the ferric state. The diagnosis should be entertained when cyanosis, unresponsive to 100% oxygen therapy, appears suddenly, especially when exposure to an oxidant agent is established. Treatment:The patient received a 1 mg/kg dose of methylene blue intravenously. A cooximetry done 1 hour later showed a methemoglobin level of 43%. A second 1 mg/kg dose of methylene blue was given and another hour later the methemoglobin level had dropped to 13%. The patient also showed clinical improvement with resolution of the cyanosis and return of his mental status to baseline. Conclusion:Methylene blue is the specific antidote, but should be reserved for more severe cases or if co-morbid conditions make mild hypoxia un advisable

13.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214790

ABSTRACT

Many advancements have been done in the field of dentistry for resin composites applications. However, polymerization shrinkage stays a problem. Marginal gap and microleakage in between tooth cavity wall and restorative material is caused by forces of contraction, masticatory forces, polymerization shrinkage, poor adhesion, temperature variables, and inadequate moisture control. An impaired marginal seal resulting due to microleakage provides entry of oral fluids, ions, bacteria which causes recurrent caries, discoloration and hastening of marginal breakdown of restoration, hypersensitivity, pathology of pulp that would decrease the life of restoration. The purpose of restoring cavities by using nanohybrid and micro filled composite was to assess if it would eliminate or decrease microleakage in this in vitro study. We wanted to assess the effectiveness of nanohybrid and micro filled composites with regard to microleakage in class I cavity restoration.METHODSStandardized class I cavities were prepared over thirty teeth. The teeth samples were randomly distributed in to two groups based on composite used for restoration. Group A (n=15): Restored with nanohybrid composite followed by light curing. Group B (n =15): Restored with micro filled composite followed by light curing. The samples were stored in a 1% chloramine beta-hemihydrate solution for a day and then thermocycling procedure was performed. The samples were soaked in 2 % methylene blue for a day and sectioning of samples was done through the center of restoration using a diamond disk and analysed for methylene blue dye penetration with a stereomicroscope in 12X magnification. Scoring was done based on the criteria of a 0-4 scale.RESULTSChi square test was used for performing statistical analysis. No significant difference in the microleakage score between nanohybrid and micro filled composite was seen (p = 0.338).CONCLUSIONSIn this study both groups showed microleakage. However, nanohybrid composite resin showed better marginal adaptation of restoration as compared to micro filled composite resin.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212866

ABSTRACT

Background: Axillary lymph node sampling is considered as one of the most pivotal investigations in determining the lymph node status in management of carcinoma breast. The present study attempts to assess sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of axillary four node sampling (FNS) in management of carcinoma of breast, and its efficacy in downstaged patients.Methods: A total of 35 patients, node negative operable cases of carcinoma breast and locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients downstaged after 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, were enrolled. Lymph node mapping was done by injecting 3 - 5 ml of methylene blue dye, just before surgery. Level 1 lymph nodes stained by methylene blue were sampled and axillary dissection was carried out, level 3 lymph nodes were identified and sampled, rest of the axillary dissection specimen was sent as a separate sample for histopathological examination , node positivity was compared in level 1 and level 3 , and conclusions were drawn.Results: The sensitivity, specificity for FNS in node negative operable cases were found to be 83.33% and 91.3% respectively.  The negative and positive predictive value were found to be 95.40% and 71.42% respectively. Specificity of FNS in LABC downstaged patients was found to be 40%.Conclusions: Targeted four node sampling using methylene blue dye can be considered as an alternative method for sentinel lymph node. Further study should be conducted to establish it as a reliable method for axillary lymph node staging.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782347

ABSTRACT

@#Objective    To investigate the preoperative localization of pulmonary glabrous nodules. Methods    A total of 192 patients admitted to General Hospital of  Northern Theater Command from April 2012 to September 2019 were selected for the study. There were 95 males and 97 females at an age of 56.47±11.79 years. All patients completed preoperative examination, and were divided into a positioning group (n=97) and a non-positioning group (n=95) according to whether the preoperative positioning was performed. And the surgical indicators between the two groups were compared. According to the substance of ground-glass opacity, they were divided into a pure ground-glass nodules group (n=23) and a mixed ground-glass nodules group (n=74) in the positioning group and a pure ground-glass nodules group (n=14) and a mixed ground-glass nodules group (n=81) in the non-positioning group . According to the size and distance of the nodules from the pleura and whether the nodules could be detected, the corresponding linear function was obtained. Results    The operative time of methylene blue localization group was shorter than that of the no localization group. In the scatter plot, the corresponding diameter and depth of the nodules and the corresponding coordinate points which can be explored were described. And linear regression was performed on all the coordinate points to obtain the linear function: depth=0.648×diameter–1.446 (mm). It can be used as an indication for the preoperative localization of pure ground-glass nodules in Da Vinci robotic surgery. Linear function: depth=0.559 5×diameter+0.56 (mm). It can be used as an indication of preoperative localization of mixed ground-glass nodules in Da Vinci robotic surgery. Conclusion    This equation can be used as a preoperative indication for clinical peripheral pulmonary ground-glass nodules.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828866

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the value and clinical effect of different preoperative localization techniques for solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) before single-port thoracoscopic surgery.From January 2018 to June 2019, 54 patients diagnosed with solitary pulmonary nodules received single-port thoracoscopic surgery in Thoracic Department of General Hospital of Southern Theater Command of PLA. Based on the location methods of the nodules, the patients were divided into group A (34 cases) with preoperative CT-guided Hook-wire (a common positioning needle usually using in mammary gland) positioning and group B (20 cases) with preoperative CT-guided methylene blue location.The success rate of localization in group A was 94.18% (32/34), significantly higher than that in group B [85% (17/20), < 0.05). No intraoperative conversion to thoracotomy occurred in group A, while the conversion rate was 10% (2/20) in group B ( < 0.05). The average positioning cost was significantly higher in group A than in group B (1715±109 1021±86 RMB yuan, < 0.05), but the total hospitalization cost was similar between the two groups (50 114±3788 47871±5902 RMB yuan, >0.05). The length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in group A than in group B (6.71±1.23 8.19±2.61 days, < 0.05).Compared with the traditional methylene blue localization method, Hook-wire localization positioning can significantly increase the success rate of localization, and can be used as the standard preoperative localization method in patients undergoing single-port thoracoscopic pulmonary nodule resection, especially in those with deep nodule location from the visceral pleura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Preoperative Care , Solitary Pulmonary Nodule , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1382-1396, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828801

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia, a salient feature of most solid tumors, confers invasiveness and resistance to the tumor cells. Oxygen-consumption photodynamic therapy (PDT) suffers from the undesirable impediment of local hypoxia in tumors. Moreover, PDT could further worsen hypoxia. Therefore, developing effective strategies for manipulating hypoxia and improving the effectiveness of PDT has been a focus on antitumor treatment. In this review, the mechanism and relationship of tumor hypoxia and PDT are discussed. Moreover, we highlight recent trends in the field of nanomedicines to modulate hypoxia for enhancing PDT, such as oxygen supply systems, down-regulation of oxygen consumption and hypoxia utilization. Finally, the opportunities and challenges are put forward to facilitate the development and clinical transformation of PDT.

18.
J. Bras. Patol. Med. Lab. (Online) ; 56: e1912020, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134604

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Automated hematology analyzers are able to produce low platelet counts with great precision and accuracy. However, these analyzers may produce erroneous counts due to the presence of interferences. Therefore, additional methodologies are required to confirm platelet counts, such as blood smear and a direct count, using the Neubauer chamber. Objective: To validate the reliability estimate produced by the G&S method. Material and method: One hundred and fifty platelet counts were analyzed in the hematology and emergency laboratories of the Hospital Nacional Docente Madre-Niño San Bartolomé, in Lima, Peru, by four methodologies: one optical platelet count (PLTO), one indirect blood smear count (Indirect), and two direct counts (Direct and G&S). Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare the groups. Results: A significant difference was observed in the distribution of the four methodologies and, after applying the post-hoc analysis, a similarity between the PLTO and G&S methods was found. Also, the Direct, G&S and Indirect methods showed a positive correlation with the PLTO method. The Bland-Altman test demonstrated that the G&S method presented a high agreement with the PLTO method. Conclusion: The G&S method is inexpensive, easy to perform, and has demonstrated statistical reliability concerning the automated methodology, and is useful for confirming low platelet counts after a suspected error by the automated equipment or when this device is not available for use.


RESUMEN Introducción: Los analizadores automáticos hematológicos son capaces de realizar bajos recuentos de plaquetas con precisión y exactitud. Sin embargo, eses analizadores pueden producir recuentos erróneos debido a la presencia de interferencias. Así, métodos adicionales son necesarios para confirmar los recuentos de plaquetas, como el frotis de sangre y un recuento directo en cámara de Neubauer. Objetivo: Validar la confiabilidad de la estimación del método G&S. Material y método: Se analizaron ciento cincuenta recuentos de plaquetas en los laboratorios de hematología y emergencias del Hospital Nacional Docente Madre-Niño San Bartolomé, en Lima, Perú, por cuatro métodos: un recuento óptico de plaquetas (PLTO), un recuento indirecto por frotis de sangre (Indirecto) y dos recuentos directos (Directo y G&S). Se utilizaron estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales para comparar los grupos. Resultados: Se observó diferencia significativa en la distribución de los cuatro métodos y, luego de la aplicación del análisis post-hoc, se encontró similitud entre los métodos PLTO y G&S. Además, los métodos Directo, G&S e Indirecto mostraron correlación positiva con el método PLTO. La prueba de Bland-Altman demostró que el método G&S presentó alta concordancia con el método PLTO. Conclusión: El método G&S es económico, fácil de llevar a cabo y demostró confiabilidad estadística en relación con el método automatizado, siendo útil para confirmar bajos recuentos de plaquetas después de una sospecha de error por el equipo automático o cuando el laboratorio no cuente con éste.


RESUMO Introdução: Os analisadores automatizados hematológicos são capazes de realizar baixas contagens de plaquetas com precisão e exatidão. No entanto, esses analisadores podem produzir contagens erradas devido à presença de interferências. Dessa forma, métodos adicionais são necessários para confirmar as contagens de plaquetas, como esfregaço de sangue e uma contagem direta, utilizando a câmara de Neubauer. Objetivo: Validar a confiabilidade gerada pela estimativa do método G&S. Material e método: Cento e cinquenta contagens de plaquetas foram analisadas nos laboratórios de hematologia e emergência do Hospital Nacional Docente Madre-Niño San Bartolomé em Lima, Peru, por quatro metodologias: uma contagem óptica de plaquetas (PLTO), uma contagem indireta por esfregaço de sangue (Indireto) e duas contagens diretas (Direto e G&S). Estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais foram utilizadas para comparar os grupos. Resultados: Observou-se diferença significativa na distribuição das quatro metodologias e, após a aplicação da análise post-hoc, obteve-se semelhança entre os métodos PLTO e G&S. Além disso, os métodos Direto, G&S e Indireto mostraram correlação positiva com o método PLTO. O teste de Bland-Altman demonstrou que o método G&S apresentou alta concordância com o método PLTO. Conclusão: O método G&S é barato, fácil de executar e demonstrou confiabilidade estatística em relação à metodologia automatizada, sendo útil para confirmar baixas contagens de plaquetas após uma suspeita de erro pelo equipamento automatizado ou quando não se tem esse aparelho disponível para uso.

19.
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 33: e003304, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090387

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Considering its potential as an alternative therapy to combat multiresistant bacteria, photodynamic therapy has been improved and better studied in recent years, and determining its optimized application patterns is important. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the action of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy mediated by methylene blue in the absence of preincubation of infectious agents in the photosensitizer. Method: Standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used, which was or was not submitted to two methylene blue concentrations (0.1 μg/mL and 500 mg/mL) applied alone or in combination with a variety of red laser emission parameters (660 nm); in both cases, the streak was performed immediately after mixing between the photosensitizer and the solution containing the bacteria. Results: In the dishes with only methylene blue application neither antibacterial was produced, nor inhibition at the application points of the photodynamic therapy in the case of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, in the cultures of Staphylococcus aureus in which laser emission was associated with the concentration of 500 mg/mL of the photosensitizer, inhibition was present at the laser application points. Conclusion: The time of exposure to the photosensitizer prior to the application of phototherapy seems to be an essential factor for the optimized action of photodynamic therapy, especially in the case of Gram-negative bacteria.


Resumo Introdução: Considerando seu potencial como forma de combate alternativo a bactérias multirresistentes, a terapia fotodinâmica vem sendo aperfeiçoada e mais bem estudada nos últimos anos, sendo importante determinar seus padrões otimizados de aplicação. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ação da terapia fotodinâmica antimicrobiana mediada pelo azul de metileno na ausência de pré-incubação dos agentes infecciosos no fotossenbilizante. Método: Foram usadas cepas padrão de Staphylococcus aureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as quais foram submetidas ou não à 2 concentrações de azul de metileno (0,1 µg/mL and 500 mg/mL) aplicadas isoladamente ou em associação com variados parâmetros de emissão de laser vermelho (660 nm); em ambos os casos, a semeadura foi realizada imediatamente após a mistura entre o fotossensibilizante e a solução contendo as bactérias. Resultados: Nas placas em que houve somente aplicação de azul de metileno não houve qualquer efeito antibacteriano, assim como não houve inibição nos pontos de aplicação da terapia fotodinâmica no caso da bactéria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No entanto, nas culturas de Staphylococcus aureus em que houve a emissão laser associada à concentração de 500 mg/ml do fotossensibilizante, houve presença de inibição nos pontos de aplicação do laser. Conclusão: Conclui-se que há indícios de que o tempo de exposição ao fotossensibilizante prévio à aplicação da fototerapia é um fator essencial para a otimização da terapia fotodinâmica, especialmente no caso de bactérias Gram-negativas.


Resumen Introducción: Considerando su potencial como forma de combate alternativo a bacterias multirresistentes, la terapia fotodinámica se ha perfeccionada y mejor estudiada en los últimos años, siendo importante determinar sus patrones optimizados de aplicación. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la acción de la terapia fotodinámica antimicrobiana mediada por el azul de metileno en la ausencia de preincubación de los agentes infecciosos en el fotosenbilizante. Método: Se utilizaron cepas estándares de Staphylococcus aureus y Pseudomonas aeruginosa, las cuales fueron sometidas o no a las 2 concentraciones de azul de metileno (0,1 μg/mL y 500 mg/mL) aplicadas aisladamente o en asociación con variados parámetros de emisión de láser rojo (660 nm); en ambos casos, la siembra fue realizada inmediatamente después de la mezcla entre el fotosensibilizante y la solución conteniendo las bacterias. Resultados: En las placas con aplicación solamente de azul de metileno no hubo ningún efecto antibacteriano, así como no hubo inhibición en los puntos de aplicación de la terapia fotodinámica en el caso de la bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sin embargo, en los cultivos de Staphylococcus aureus en los que se produjo la emisión láser asociada a la concentración de 500 mg/mL del fotosensibilizante, hubo presencia de inhibición en los puntos de aplicación del láser. Conclusión: Se concluye que hay indicios de que el tiempo de exposición al fotosensibilizante previo a la aplicación de la fototerapia es un factor esencial para la optimización de la terapia fotodinámica, especialmente en el caso de bacterias Gram-negativas.


Subject(s)
Photochemotherapy , Bacteria , Methylene Blue
20.
Odontol. vital ; (31): 37-44, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1091426

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Comparar in vitro la microfiltración apical en premolares unirradiculares obturados con cemento a base de resina epóxica y cemento biocerámico. Método: 40 piezas dentales unirradiculares fueron seleccionadas y divididas en dos grupos para ser obturadas esperando el tiempo de fraguado de acuerdo con las instrucciones del fabricante. El grupo A se obturó con cemento biocerámico Endosequence y, el grupo B, con cemento a base de resina epóxica AH-Plus: posteriormente los dos grupos fueron sellados con barniz de uñas hasta 3mm de la parte apical, luego se colocaron las muestras en la incubadora a 37ºC. Ambos fueron sometidos a 750 ciclos de termociclado, para reproducir el ambiente parecido a la cavidad oral. Para análisis de microfiltración se utilizó el método de difusión del colorante, se sumergieron en azul de metileno al 2 % por 6 días, posteriormente los especímenes fueron sometidos en una bomba de vacío. Los dientes fueron cortados longitudinalmente para ser evaluadas mediante el estereomicroscopio. El análisis estadístico fue hecho mediante T-Student y Chi-Cuadrado. Resultados: El grupo A corresponde a Endosequence obtuvo una medida de 0,55mm y el grupo B corresponde a AH-Plus 1,20mm con un estimado de significancia de p=0,013. Conclusión: El análisis de ambos cementos de obturación demostró que Endosequence posee menor microfiltración apical que AH-Plus.


Abstract Aim: To compare in vitro by the stereomiscroscope the lesser apical microfiltration in uniradicular premolars, between the cement based on Epoxy Resin and Bioceramic cement. Method: The study was performed on 40 uniradicular dental pieces divided into two groups, the samples were prepared using the protaper system and the obturation was performed using the lateral condensation technique, the first group was sealed withEndosequence bioceramic cement and the second group with Cement based on AH-Plus epoxy resin, then sealed with nail varnish up to 3mm from the apical part, then the samples were placed in the incubator at 37ºC, waiting for the set time corresponding to each group according to the manufacturer's instructions . The two groups of the present study were submitted to 750 cycles of thermocycling, to provide an environment similar to the oral cavity, then longitudinal cuts were made to the samples. The microfiltration was evaluated using the dye diffusion method, immersed in 2% methylene blue for 6 days, then the specimens were subjected to a vacuum pump. The teeth were cut longitudinally to be evaluated by the stereomicroscope. The statistical analysis was through T-Student and Chi-Square. Results: Group A corresponds to Endosequence obtained a mean of 0,55mm and Group B corresponds to AH-Plus 1,20mm with an estimated significance of p = 0,013. Conclusion: Both obturation cements have significant differences, therefore Endosequence has less apical microfiltration than AHPlus.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Obturation , Bicuspid/pathology , Microstraining/analysis , Ceramics/therapeutic use , Thermal Gradient , Epoxy Resins/therapeutic use , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Dental Occlusion
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