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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249159, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339415

ABSTRACT

Abstract There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Resumo Há uma escassez de pesquisas realizadas sobre a prevalência microbiana em faisões. A microbiota de aves em cativeiro tem significado zoonótico e deve ser caracterizada. O presente estudo está, portanto, planejado para avaliar a microbiota do conteúdo oral, fecal e intestinal de espécies aviárias em cativeiro. Será útil na caracterização de micróbios nocivos. Diferentes amostras retiradas da boca, intestino e fezes de faisões de pescoço redondo (Phasianus colchicus), faisões verdes (Phasianus versicolor), faisões dourados (Chrysolophus pictus) e faisão prateado (Lophura nycthemera). As amostras foram coletadas, diluídas e inoculadas em diferentes placas de ágar (MacConkey, ágar SS, MSA e ágar nutriente) para o cultivo de espécies bacterianas. Colônias de E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Brachyspira spp. e Campylobacter spp foram observados com base na morfologia da colônia. A unidade formadora de colônia mostrou E. coli como bactéria frequentemente encontrada no conteúdo fecal, oral e intestinal de todos os faisões acima. A diferença de significância geral foi encontrada entre as espécies bacterianas de faisões dourados, faisões verdes, faisões de pescoço anelado e faisões prateados. Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira.


Subject(s)
Animals , Galliformes , Escherichia coli , Feces
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242818, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285628

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados ​​como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) e Lactobacillus Gasseri (MT152635D), foram tratadas com dieta modificada / CD) em comparação com as linhagens Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629), que foram isoladas de camundongos recebendo CD / HFD. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que a constituição de GM e dieta desempenham papel significativo na inflamação levando ao início ou/e possivelmente à progressão de T2D.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rabbits , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Bacteroides , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Prevotella , Bacteroidetes , Ruminococcus , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dysbiosis , Inflammation , Mice, Inbred C57BL
3.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 92(3): 371-376, jul.-sep. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393833

ABSTRACT

Resumen Considerando la alta incidencia de las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) en México y el mundo, la presente revisión proporciona un panorama general sobre la relación entre el desarrollo de periodontitis y la patogenia de estas enfermedades, describiendo aspectos sobre la alteración de la microbiota oral y los mecanismos asociados con el establecimiento de la respuesta inmunitaria local y sistémica en los pacientes con ECV. Además, proporciona las bases para considerar el análisis de la microbiota de la cavidad oral como un blanco terapéutico potencialmente útil en la regulación de la respuesta inmunitaria, lo que permitiría conseguir mejores pronósticos en pacientes con ECV.


Abstract Considering the high incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide, the present review provides a general panorama of the relation between the pathogenesis of these diseases and the development of periodontitis. Specific associations are described between an altered oral microbiota (and associated mechanisms) and the local and systemic immune response in patients with CVD. Additionally, the basis is established for considering an imbalance in the microbiota of the oral cavity as a potentially useful therapeutic target for the regulation of the immune response, which could possibly allow for better therapeutic outcomes in the case of patients with CVD.

4.
Rev. méd. Paraná ; 80(1): 1-6, jan. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381067

ABSTRACT

A obesidade tem causa multifatorial que atinge atualmente mais da metade da população brasileira. Mais recentemente, a microbiota intestinal foi considerada um fator que contribui para essa condição. Os objetivos deste estudo foram revisar a influência da microbiota intestinal na obesidade e no processo inflamatório, e analisar os efeitos da utilização dos pré e probióticos. Foi realizada revisão sistemática sobre o assunto. Dos mais de 27.000 artigos, apenas 16 respeitaram os critérios de inclusão. Em conclusão, o desequilíbrio da microbiota aparece como fator favorável ao desenvolvimento da obesidade e do quadro inflamatório decorrente dela. Tanto o uso de prebióticos quanto probióticos são recursos válidos no tratamento da obesidade, porém os primeiros parecem proporcionar melhor qualidade de vida.


Obesity has a multifactorial etiological condition that involves more than half of the Brazilian population. More recently, the intestinal microbiota was considered a factor that contributes to this condition. The aims of this study were to review the intestinal microbiota influence in the obesity and in the inflammatory response, and to analyze the effects of using prebiotic and probiotic medications. A systematic review was firstly done. More than 27,000 articles were found, but only 16 contained the proper criteria. In conclusion, the microbiota imbalance seems to increase the obesity development and its inflammatory aspects. Both the use of pre and probiotics are good options in the obesity treatment, though the first ones seem to enhance bettere quality of life.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Transit , Probiotics , Prebiotics , Microbiota , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Obesity , Inflammation
5.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1383551

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones intrahospitalarias (IIH) son causa de elevada morbimortalidad y representan un problema sanitario importante. El personal de salud es reservorio y potencial transmisor de los agentes etiológicos de las mismas. S. aureus es uno de los microorganismos implicados, por lo tanto es importante conocer la frecuencia de portación en el personal de salud y establecer el perfil de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana para contribuir con la elaboración de medidas de prevención incluyendo actividades educativas. Objetivo: Conocer la frecuencia de portación de S. aureus, distribución y antibiotipos de las cepas presentes en el personal sanitario del Hospital Pediátrico de Referencia (HPR). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo durante el periodo julio-setiembre del año 2018. Se incluyeron muestras de hisopados nasales de trabajadores de la salud de distintas áreas de internación que consintieron participar en el estudio. Se excluyeron aquellos que recibieron antibióticos dentro de los 3 meses previos al estudio. Las muestras fueron sembradas en agar sangre ovina al 5% (ASO) y se incubaron a 35-37ºC en aerobiosis por 24-48 horas. La identificación de las colonias sospechosas de Staphylococcus aureus por métodos convencionales y MALDI-TOF. El patrón de resistencia antimicrobiana de S. aureus se detectó por disco-difusión. En los cultivos resistentes a meticilina (SAMR) se determinó la presencia del gen mecA y se realizó la tipificación del SCCmec por pruebas de reacción en cadena de polimerasa. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 225 hisopados a partir de 225 trabajadores, presentaron desarrollo 212. En 49 se recuperaron cultivos de S. aureus. Correspondieron a SAMR 11 de las 49 cepas, todas portaban el gen mecA. Hubo predominio en el personal de enfermería (7/11), en los servicios de hemato-oncología (3/11) y cuidados intensivos neonatales (4/11). Asociaron resistencia a macrólidos y clindamicina 8 de 11 aislamientos SAMR, a gentamicina 2 y a mupirocina uno. El SCCmec más frecuentemente identificado fue el tipo IV (7/11). Conclusiones: Los resultados muestran la presencia de cepas SAMR entre el personal de salud del CHPR y aportan información complementaria para efectuar prevención y control de las IIH, actuando sobre todo en el personal de salud encargado de la atención de pacientes susceptibles.


Hospital-acquired infections (IIH) are a cause of high morbidity and mortality and represent a major health problem. Health personnel are reservoirs and potential transmitters of their etiological agents. S. aureus is one of the microorganisms involved, therefore it is important to know the frequency of carriage in health personnel and establish the antimicrobial susceptibility profile to contribute to the development of prevention measures, including educational activities. Objective: To know the frequency of carriage of S. aureus, distribution and antibiotypes of the strains present in the health personnel of the Reference Pediatric Hospital (HPR). Materials and methods: A descriptive study was carried out during the period July-September 2018. Nasal swab samples from health workers from different hospitalization areas who agreed to participate in the study were included. Those who received antibiotics within 3 months prior to the study were excluded. The samples were seeded in 5% sheep blood agar (ASO) and incubated at 35-37ºC in aerobiosis for 24-48 hours. Identification of suspicious Staphylococcus aureus colonies by conventional methods and MALDI-TOF. The antimicrobial resistance pattern of S. aureus was detected by disc diffusion. In methicillin-resistant cultures (MRSA), the presence of the mecA gene was determined and SCCmec was typified by polymerase chain reaction tests. Results: 225 swabs were obtained from 225 workers, 212 showed development. S. aureus cultures were recovered from 49. 11 of the 49 strains corresponded to MRSA, all of them carried the mecA gene. There was a predominance in the nursing staff (7/11), in the hematology-oncology services (3/11) and neonatal intensive care (4/11). They associated resistance to macrolides and clindamycin in 8 of 11 MRSA isolates, 2 to gentamicin, and 1 to mupirocin. The most frequently identified SCCmec was type IV (7/11). Conclusions: The results show the presence of MRSA strains among the health personnel of the CHPR and provide complementary information to carry out prevention and control of IIH, acting especially on the health personnel in charge of the care of susceptible patients.


As infecções hospitalares (HII) são causa de alta morbidade e mortalidade e representam um importante problema de saúde. Os profissionais de saúde são reservatórios e potenciais transmissores de seus agentes etiológicos. O S. aureus é um dos micro-organismos envolvidos, por isso é importante conhecer a frequência de portadores em profissionais de saúde e estabelecer o perfil de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana para contribuir no desenvolvimento de medidas de prevenção incluindo atividades educativas. Objetivo: Conhecer a frequência de portadores de S. aureus, distribuição e antibiótipos das cepas presentes no pessoal de saúde do Hospital Pediátrico de Referência (HPR). Materiais e métodos: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo durante o período de julho a setembro de 2018. Foram incluídas amostras de swab nasal de profissionais de saúde de diferentes áreas de internação que concordaram em participar do estudo. Aqueles que receberam antibióticos nos 3 meses anteriores ao estudo foram excluídos. As amostras foram semeadas em 5% de ágar sangue de carneiro (ASO) e incubadas a 35-37ºC em aerobiose por 24-48 horas. Identificação de colônias suspeitas de Staphylococcus aureus por métodos convencionais e MALDI-TOF. O padrão de resistência antimicrobiana de S. aureus foi detectado por difusão em disco. Em culturas resistentes à meticilina (MRSA), a presença do gene mecA foi determinada e SCCmec foi tipificado por testes de reação em cadeia da polimerase. Resultados: 225 swabs foram obtidos de 225 trabalhadores, 212 apresentaram desenvolvimento. Culturas de S. aureus foram recuperadas de 49. 11 das 49 cepas correspondiam a MRSA, todas carregavam o gene mecA. Houve predominância na equipe de enfermagem (7/11), nos serviços de hematologia-oncologia (3/11) e de terapia intensiva neonatal (4/11). Eles associaram resistência a macrolídeos e clindamicina em 8 de 11 isolados de MRSA, 2 à gentamicina e 1 à mupirocina. O SCCmec mais frequentemente identificado foi o tipo IV (7/11). Conclusões: Os resultados mostram a presença de cepas de MRSA entre os profissionais de saúde do CHPR e fornecem informações complementares para realizar a prevenção e controle da HII, atuando principalmente sobre os profissionais de saúde responsáveis ​​pelo atendimento de pacientes suscetíveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Carrier State/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Housekeeping, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Uruguay/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Nasal Cavity/microbiology
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(3): 200-208, junio 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1368232

ABSTRACT

En las últimas décadas, se ha observado una mayor prevalencia, persistencia y gravedad de la alergia a la proteína de leche de vaca (APLV). Se han postulado diversas hipótesis respecto a posibles mecanismos responsables, con énfasis en el papel de la microbiota en la inducción y el mantenimiento de la tolerancia inmunitaria, así como la importancia del establecimiento temprano de una microbiota saludable a través de la promoción de la lactancia materna, el parto por vía vaginal, el uso racional de antibióticos e inhibidores de la bomba de protones, junto con la introducción temprana y variada de alimentos. La utilización de probióticos y la inmunoterapia específica para alérgenos (ITA) emergen como las estrategias terapéuticas con más evidencia a favor para la adquisición de tolerancia. El objetivo de esta revisión ha sido describir la información actual respecto a los mecanismos inmunitarios involucrados en la APLV, el papel de la microbiota y las perspectivas futuras en el tratamiento.


In recent decades, a higher prevalence, persistence, and severity of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) have been observed. Different hypotheses have been proposed in relation to potential responsible mechanisms, with emphasis on the role of the microbiota in the induction and maintenance of immune tolerance as well as the importance of establishing a healthy microbiota in an early manner through the promotion of breastfeeding, vaginal delivery, rational use of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors, along with an early introduction of varied foods. The use of probiotics and allergenspecific immunotherapy (AIT) come up as the treatment strategies with the greatest evidence in favor of tolerance acquisition. The objective of this review was to describe the information currently available about the immune mechanisms involved in CMPA, the role of microbiota, and future treatment perspectives.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Infant , Milk Hypersensitivity , Probiotics , Breast Feeding , Cattle , Knowledge , Immune Tolerance
7.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 28(1): 138-143, ene.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389150

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La presencia de bacterias en semen (bacteriospermia) es una condición patológica asociada con infertilidad y con prevalencia de hasta el 35%. Objetivo: Reportar el caso de un paciente con oligoastenozoospermia manejado en la consulta de infertilidad. Caso: Paciente masculino de 33 años de edad con historia de dificultad para la concepción, antecedente de orquiectomía por torsión testicular a los 16 años, infección por Chlamydia trachomatis a los 20 años. Examen físico normal, ecografía doppler testicular con varicocele izquierdo leve. Espermograma con oligoastenozoospermia y espermocultivo en agar sangre positivo para Streptococcus spp y agar chocolate para Streptococcus spp. Se inició manejo con ampicilina Sulbactam durante 14 días y control a los 3 meses con nuevo espermograma con mejoría marcada de la concentración y la movilidad progresiva espermática. Resultado: La pareja logro un embarazo exitoso con bebe vivo en casa. Conclusión: La colonización bacteriana del semen contribuye a alteraciones de la calidad seminal, por lo tanto, determinar la presencia de bacterias en las parejas infértiles podría ser de utilidad para el mejoramiento de los parámetros seminales y lograr un embarazo exitoso.


Abstract The presence of bacteria in semen -bacteriospermia- is a pathological condition associated with infertility, which presents a prevalence of up to 35%. We describe the successful management during infertility consultation of a patient suffering from oligoasthenozoospermia. A 33-year-old male patient with a history of difficulty conceiving, a history of orchiectomy due to testicular torsion at 16 years of age, and Chlamydia trachomatis infection at 20 years of age. The physical examination showed normal results, and testicular Doppler ultrasonography presented mild left varicocele. The semen analysis reported oligoasthenozoospermia, positive semen culture on blood agar for Streptococcus spp, and positive chocolate agar for Streptococcus spp. The treatment started with ampicillin-sulbactam administration for 14 days and a check-up after three months with a new semen analysis which showed an improved concentration and progressive sperm motility. Finally, the couple achieved a successful pregnancy. Bacterial colonization of semen contributes to seminal quality alterations; therefore, determining bacteria's presence in infertile couples could help improve seminal parameters and achieve a successful pregnancy.

8.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(2): 100-108, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1381416

ABSTRACT

Las investigaciones realizadas durante el último siglo relacionadas con la descripción de la Microbiota Intestinal (MI) sugieren una relación concreta entre su composición y la salud del huésped. Su desregulación denominada disbiosis intestinal ha sido asociada a distintos tipos de enfermedades gastrointestinales, metabólicas, oncológicas e incluso psiquiátricas. Destacan numerosos reportes que han informado la condición de disbiosis en la obesidad, tanto en modelos animales como humanos de distintos grupos etarios y regiones del mundo. A su vez, la composición del microbioma también ha logrado asociarse a las diferentes comorbilidades de la obesidad, postulando que la MI posee influencia en la disfunción del tejido adiposo (TA), entendiendo que corresponde al principal modulador de la patogénesis de la obesidad. Sin embargo, aún no es posible establecer una explicación mecanicista plausible. Actualmente, la utilización de tecnologías multiómicas, junto con la evaluación de variables fisiológicas, nos podrían proporcionar una mejor comprensión a la incógnita planteada. Frente a esto, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo revisar los últimos avances en la comprensión de la influencia de la microbiota intestinal en el TA y su contribución a los mecanismos relacionados con la patogénesis de la obesidad. Entre los principales mecanismos identificados, la evidencia reporta nexos fisiológicos entre la composición de la MI y la modulación de inflamación, permeabilidad intestinal y adipogénesis. Las vías implicadas derivan de la influencia de la disbiosis intestinal en el accionar de ácidos grasos de cadena corta, claudinas, macrófagos, oligosacáridos, entre otros. Los mecanismos implicados, principalmente estudiados en modelos animales, deberían ser considerados para su evaluación en próximos estudios longitudinales y experimentales en humanos con el fin de obtener una mayor comprensión sobre la implicancia de cada mecanismo en la patogenia global de la obesidad(AU)


The investigations carried out during the last century related to the description of the Gut Microbiota (GM) suggest a concrete relationship between its composition and the health of the host. Its deregulation called intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with different types of gastrointestinal, metabolic, oncological and even psychiatric diseases. Numerous reports that have described the condition of dysbiosis in obesity stand out, both in animal and human models of different age groups and regions of the world. In turn, the composition of the microbiome has also been associated with the different comorbidities of obesity, postulating that MI has an influence on adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction, understanding that it corresponds to the main modulator of the pathogenesis of obesity. However, it is not yet possible to establish a plausible mechanistic explanation. Currently, the use of multi-omics technologies, together with the evaluation of physiological variables, could provide us with a better understanding of the question raised. In view of this, this review aims to review the latest advances in understanding the influence of the intestinal microbiota on AT and its contribution to the mechanisms related to the pathogenesis of obesity. Among the main mechanisms identified, the evidence reports physiological links between the composition of GM and the modulation of inflammation, intestinal permeability and adipogenesis. The pathways involved derive from the influence of intestinal dysbiosis on the action of short-chain fatty acids, claudins, macrophages, oligosaccharides, among others. The mechanisms involved, mainly studied in animal models, should be considered for evaluation in future longitudinal and experimental studies in humans in order to obtain a better understanding of the implication of each mechanism in the global pathogenesis of obesity(AU)


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Obesity/pathology , Energy Metabolism , Adipogenesis , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases
9.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 49(2)abr. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388596

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La obesidad es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. Existen evidencias sobre la interacción entre la microbiota intestinal, la regulación metabólica y la obesidad. El problema mundial de la obesidad impulsa el estudio de nuevas propuestas preventivas y/o terapéuticas. El trasplante de microbiota fecal (TMF) se proyecta como un posible tratamiento para la obesidad y sus comorbilidades asociadas. El objetivo de este estudio es sintetizar la documentación actual que existe sobre el efecto en parámetros metabólicos y clínicos que produce el TMF en humanos con obesidad, así como evidenciar la metodología empleada en el TMF. En los resultados primarios se señaló la existencia de cambios significativos en la composición de la microbiota intestinal (MI) y mejoría en marcadores metabólicos como disminución de la resistencia a la insulina (RI) y de la hemoglobina glicada (HbA1c), así como aumento de colesterol de alta densidad (HDL). Además, en marcadores clínicos como la disminución del índice de masa corporal y de la circunferencia de cintura. En los resultados secundarios se sustentó la necesidad de estandarizar el diseño experimental del TMF, iniciando con establecer la correcta selección de donantes hasta determinar el seguimiento del TMF a largo plazo. En conclusión, a pesar de que hay un número limitado de estudios y una falta de estandarización de las metodologías para llevar a cabo TMF, se han podido evidenciar algunas asociaciones metabólicas positivas, por lo que el TMF sigue siendo una opción potencialmente prometedora para el tratamiento coadyuvante de la obesidad.


ABSTRACT Obesity is a worldwide health problem. There is evidence of the interaction between the gut microbiota metabolic regulation, and obesity. The global problem of obesity has prompted the study of new preventive and/or therapeutic proposals. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) is projected as a possible treatment for obesity and its associated comorbidities. The objective of this study is to synthesize the current documentation that exists on the effect in metabolic and clinical parameters produced by FMT in humans with obesity, as well as to make evident the methodology used in FMT. Primary results indicated the existence of significant changes in the composition of gut microbiota and improvement in some metabolic markers such as a decrease in insulin resistance (IR) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), as well as an increase in high-density cholesterol (HDL). Further changed were noted in clinical markers such as the decrease in body mass index and waist circumference. Secondary results supported the need to standardize the experimental design of FMT, starting with establishing the correct selection of donors to determine the long-term follow-up of FMT. In conclusion, even though there is a limited number of studies and a lack of standardization on the methodology to carry out FMT, some positive metabolic associations have been shown, which is why FMT remains a potentially promising option for treatment adjuvant of obesity.

10.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1398154

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Microbiota Intestinal (MI) del recién nacido pretérmino (RNP) es modificada por factores como la hospitalización, los antibióticos, la nutrición post natal, entre otros. El estudio: Investigación observacional ­ longitudinal con objetivo de analizar los cambios en la MI promovidos por el tipo de lactancia recibida en neonatos <37 semanas de edad gestacional. Se analizaron muestras de 23 neonatos hospitalizados en las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCIN) y Neonatología. Hallazgos: No se encontró diferencia significativa en el desarrollo de la MI respecto al tipo de alimentación, sin embargo se observó una tendencia diferente entre los neonatos alimentados con Leche Humana (LH) que aumentaron la cantidad de Lactococcus y Clostridium mientras disminuyeron Lactobacillus, opuesto al grupo alimentado con Lactancia Mixta (LM) que aumentó la abundancia de Lactobacillus y disminuyó Lactococcus y Clostridium; Conclusión: Se concluye que los miembros específicos de la MI del RNP depende de la interacción dinámica entre el huésped y el tipo de selección dietética.


Background:The Intestinal Microbiota (IM) of the preterm newborn (RNP) is modified by factors such as hospitalization, antibiotics,postnatal nutrition,among others.The study:Observational-longitudinalresearchwiththeobjectiveof analyzing the changes in MI promoted by the type of breastfeeding received in neonates <37 weeks of gestational age. Samples of 23 neonates hospitalized in the Intensive Care Units (NICU) and Neonatology were analyzed. No significant difference Findings: was found in the development of IM with respect to the type of feeding, however a different trend was observed among the neonates fed with Human Milk (HL) that increased the amount of Lactococcusand Clostridiumwhile they decreased Lactobacillus, opposite to the group fed with Mixed Lactation (BF) that increased the abundance of Lactobacillus and decreased Lactococcusand Clostridium;Itisconcludedthatthespecific Conclusion:members of the MI of the RNPdepend on the dynamic interaction between the host and the type of dietary selection.

11.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(3): 311-318, Mar. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387886

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present article presents a literature review concerning the microbiota of breast milk and the influence of epigenetics in the susceptibility to COVID-19. Methods A literature review. Results Breastfeeding transfers microbiota, nutrients, diverse white blood cells, prebiotics, hormones, and antibodies to the baby, which provide short- and longterm immunological protection against several infectious, gastrointestinal, and respiratory illnesses. The little evidence available shows that breast milk very rarely carries the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and even in those cases, it has been discarded as the source of contagion. Conclusion The reviewed studies show evidence of a beneficial effect of breastfeeding and highlights its importance on the current pandemic due to the immune reinforcement that it provides. Breastfed individuals showed better clinical response due to the influence on the microbiota and to the nutritional and immune contribution provided by breast milk, compared with those who were not breastfed.


Resumo Objetivo O presente artigo apresenta uma revisão de literatura sobre amicrobiota do leite materno e a influência da epigenética na suscetibilidade à COVID-19. Métodos Revisão de literatura. Resultados A amamentação transfere microbiota, nutrientes, diversos glóbulos brancos, prebióticos, hormônios e anticorpos para o bebê, os quais proporcionam proteção imunológica de curto e longo prazo contra diversas doenças infecciosas, gastrointestinais e respiratórias. As poucas evidências disponíveis mostram que o leite materno transportamuito raramente o vírus SARS-CoV-2, emesmo nestes casos, ele foi descartado como fonte de contágio. Conclusão Os estudos revisados mostram evidências de um efeito benéfico da amamentação e destacam sua importância na atual pandemia devido ao reforço imunológico que ela proporciona. Os indivíduos amamentados mostraram melhor resposta clínica devido à influência sobre a microbiota, e à contribuição nutricional e imunológica proporcionada pelo leite materno, em comparação com aqueles que não o foram.

12.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 59(1): 123-128, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374445

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Supplementation with probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics has shown positive effects on clinical markers and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Objective To evaluate the effect of supplementation with probiotic, prebiotic or symbiotic on intestinal microbiota in NAFLD patients. Methods Two investigators conducted independently search for articles in the Medline databases, via PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, Lilacs, Central Cochrane Library, Clinical Trials.gov and on the Ovid platform for the gray literature search. Results A total of 3,423 papers were identified by searching the electronic databases; 1,560 of them were duplicate and they were excluded; 1,825 articles were excluded after reading the title and abstract. A total of 39 articles were select to reading, however only four articles met the eligibility criteria to include in this systematic review. Three of the included studies that used prebiotic or symbiotic supplementation showed that after the intervention there were changes in the intestinal microbiota pattern. Only in one study such changes were not observed. A high risk of bias was observed in most assessments. Conclusion Although there is a possible change in the gut microbiota of individuals with NAFLD after supplementation with symbiotics or prebiotics, a clinical indication as part of NAFLD treatment is not yet possible.


RESUMO Contexto A suplementação com probióticos, prebióticos e simbióticos mostrou efeitos positivos sobre marcadores clínicos e fatores de risco para doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA). Objetivo Avaliar o efeito da suplementação com probióticos, prebióticos ou simbióticos na microbiota intestinal em pacientes com DHGNA. Métodos Dois pesquisadores realizaram buscas independentes de artigos nas bases de dados Medline, via PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, Lilacs, Biblioteca Central Cochrane, Clinical Trials.gov e na plataforma Ovid para busca de literatura cinza. Os títulos e resumos foram lidos para excluir artigos irrelevantes. Em seguida, os artigos selecionados foram lidos na íntegra e avaliados de acordo com os critérios de elegibilidade. O risco de viés foi avaliado de acordo com a Cochrane. Resultados Um total de 3.423 artigos foram identificado por meio de busca nas bases de dados eletrônicas; 1.560 deles eram duplicados e foram excluídos; 1.825 artigos foram excluídos após a leitura do título e do resumo. Um total de 39 artigos foram selecionado para leitura, porém apenas quatro artigos atenderam aos critérios de elegibilidade para inclusão nesta revisão sistemática. Três dos estudos incluídos que utilizaram suplementação de prebióticos ou simbióticos mostraram que após a intervenção ocorreram mudanças no padrão da microbiota intestinal. Apenas em um estudo tais mudanças não foram observadas. Um elevado risco de viés foi observado na maioria das avaliações. Conclusão Embora haja uma possível alteração na microbiota intestinal de indivíduos com DHGNA após a suplementação com simbióticos ou prebióticos, uma indicação clínica como parte do tratamento da DHGNA ainda não é possível.

13.
Vigil. sanit. debate ; 10(1): 44-54, fev. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362152

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O transplante de córneas é o principal tratamento para pessoas que apresentam distúrbios de curvatura ou transparência da córnea. No Brasil, não há protocolo unificado para meios de preservação, tempo de armazenamento e antibióticos utilizados. A preocupação é a de que patógenos possam ser transferidos aos receptores de transplantes. Objetivo: Realizar o levantamento da microbiota ocular de doadores de córneas a fim de verificar uma possível correlação com infecções em receptores e, dessa forma, auxiliar na melhoria de metodologias e protocolos de armazenamento de córneas. Método: Foi conduzido a partir de revisão da literatura, nas bases de dados PubMed, SciELO e nos portais: periódicos da CAPES, Anvisa, Ministério da Saúde e ABTO, entre 2018 e 2020. Resultados: Estudos baseados em cultivo de microrganismos trazem Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCN) de 30% a 100% das amostras isoladas de conjuntivas. Em menor quantidade estão Streptococcus, Corynebacterium e Propionibacterium. Bactérias Gramnegativas aparecem em número inferior, representadas pelos gêneros Haemophilus, Neisseria, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Proteus e Acinetobacter. Já as técnicas independentes de cultivo trazem Pseudomonas como a principal colonizadora da conjuntiva. Também apresentam uma diversidade maior de colonizadores, mostrando um potencial campo de estudos, no qual a superfície ocular pode ter uma diversidade muito maior de espécies e potenciais agentes patogênicos. Os principais meios de preservação utilizados no Brasil levam os antimicrobianos gentamicina e estreptomicina em sua composição, porém estudos têm mostrado que as bactérias presentes nos meios de preservação são resistentes a esses antibióticos. Conclusões: Os dados apontam para a necessidade de reavaliação da eficiência desses meios de preservação na descontaminação das córneas para transplante.


Introduction: Corneal transplantation it is the main treatment for people who have corneal curvature or transparency disorders. In Brazil, there is no unifed protocol on the means of preservation, storage time and antibiotics used. The concern is that pathogens are transferred to transplant recipients, causing eye infections after transplantation. Objective: Examine ocular microbiota of corneal donors, to verify a possible correlation with infections in recipients and thus assist in improving corneal storage methodologies and protocols. Method: Literature review conducted in PubMed, SciELO and the following websites: CAPES Journals, Anvisa, Brazilian Ministry of Health and ABTO, between 2018 and 2020. Results: Studies based on microorganism's cultivation show coagulase negative Staphylococcus in 30% to 100% of samples isolated from conjunctiva. In lesser quantities are Streptococcus, Corynebacterium and Propionibacterium. Gram-negative bacteria appear in much lower numbers, represented by the genera Haemophilus, Neisseria, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Proteus and Acinetobacter. On the other hand, results based on independent cultivation techniques bring Pseudomonas as the main colonizer of the conjunctiva. Also, they have a much greater diversity of colonizers, showing a potential feld of study. The ocular surface may have a much greater diversity of species and potential pathogens than was expected. The main means of preservation used in Brazil contain the antimicrobials gentamicin and streptomycin in their composition; however, several studies have shown that bacteria present in the means of preservation are resistant to these antibiotics. Conclusions: These data point to the need for a reassessment of the efciency of these means of preservation in decontaminating corneas for transplantation.

14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): e1-e7, feb 2022.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353517

ABSTRACT

El parto prematuro, las cesáreas, los antibióticos y la lactancia materna limitada contribuyen al aumento de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. El objetivo fue realizar una revisión descriptiva del uso de probióticos en pediatría, con foco en la cepa Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Ciertos probióticos han demostrado ser eficaces en la diarrea aguda y en la diarrea asociada a antibióticos. L. rhamnosus GG y Saccharomyces boulardii pueden acortar la duración y los síntomas. L. reuteri DSM 17938 y L. rhamnosus GG fueron efectivos para el abordaje del cólico del lactante. El uso de esta cepa en fórmulas infantiles para alergia a las proteínas de leche de vaca promovería la adquisición más temprana de tolerancia. En la prevención de dermatitis atópica, la administración de L. rhamnosus GG durante el embarazo redujo su manifestación en el bebé. El empleo de probióticos como coadyuvantes es una posibilidad para considerar en la práctica pediátrica actual.


Preterm birth, C-sections, antibiotics, and limited breastfeeding contribute to the increase in noncommunicable diseases. Our objective was to perform a descriptive review of probiotic use in pediatrics, focused on Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Certain probiotics have demonstrated to be effective in acute diarrhea and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. L. rhamnosus GG and Saccharomyces boulardii may shorten their duration and symptoms. L. reuteri DSM 17938 and L. rhamnosus GG were effective to manage infant colic. The use of this strain in infant formulas for cow's milk protein allergy may promote an earlier tolerance acquisition. In relation to the prevention of atopic dermatitis, the administration of L. rhamnosus GG during pregnancy reduced its development in the infant. The use of probiotics as adjuvants is a possibility to consider in current pediatric practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pediatrics , Milk Hypersensitivity , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Premature Birth , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Cattle , Epidemiology, Descriptive
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): 59-66, feb 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353500

ABSTRACT

La lactosa es el principal carbohidrato de la leche materna. Es un disacárido conformado por glucosa y galactosa. Su producción en la glándula mamaria es independiente de la dieta materna. Además de proveer energía, es la única fuente de galactosa de la dieta, necesaria para la síntesis de macromoléculas como oligosacáridos, glicoproteínas y glicolípidos. Favorece la absorción y retención de calcio, magnesio y cinc. Su digestión por la enzima lactasa y posterior absorción tienen lugar en intestino delgado. El déficit de lactasa, que puede ser primario congénito (muy infrecuente), primario tardío o secundario por lesión intestinal, puede generar intolerancia con síntomas como dolor, distensión abdominal, flatulencia y diarrea. En el colon, bifidobacterias y lactobacilos pueden hidrolizarla. El manejo nutricional de la intolerancia deberá hacerse siempre preservando la lactancia materna. La reducción o suspensión de la lactosa deberá ser transitoria y se reemplazarán alimentos suspendidos por otros con adecuados aportes calóricos, proteicos y de minerales y vitaminas.


Lactose is the main carbohydrate present in humanmilk. It is a disaccharide made up of glucoseand galactose. It is produced in the mammaryglands, regardless of maternal diet. In addition toproviding energy, it is the only source of dietarygalactose, necessary for macromolecule synthesis,including oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, andglycolipids. It favors calcium, magnesium, andzinc absorption and retention. Its digestion bylactase and subsequent absorption occurs inthe small intestine. Lactase deficiency may beclassified into congenital primary (very rare),late-onset primary or secondary due to an injuryof the intestine; it may cause intolerance withpain, abdominal distension, abdominal gas, anddiarrhea. In the colon, it may be hydrolyzed bybifidobacteria and lactobacilli. The nutritionalmanagement of intolerance should alwayspreserve breastfeeding. Lactose reduction orelimination should be transient, and eliminatedfood should be replaced with other similar incalorie, protein, mineral, and vitamin content.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lactose Intolerance/diagnosis , Lactase/metabolism , Diet , Lactose/metabolism , Milk, Human/metabolism
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935751

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of lead exposure on the neurobehavior and gut microbiota community structure in mice. Methods: In August 2019, 64 C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (0 ppm) , low lead exposure group (20 mg/l) , medium lead exposure group (100 mg/l) and high lead exposure group (500 mg/l) . During the experiment, they were free to eat and drink. The drinking water of the lead exposure group was mixed with lead acetate, and sodium acetate was added in the control group. After 10 weeks of exposure, the Morris water maze was used to test the learning and memory ability of each group of mice, and then they were sacrificed for sampling. ICP-MS was used to detect lead content in whole blood and brain tissue. ELISA was used to determine the level of IL-1β in mouse serum. 16S rRNA sequencing was used to detect the structural diversity of the intestinal flora in feces, and then the correlation between the flora and behavior indicators was analyzed. Results: In the Morris water maze experiment, compared with the control group, there was no significant difference in the body weight and swimming speed of the mice in the lead exposure groups. The escape latency of the mice in the 100 mg/l and 500 mg/l dose groups was prolonged, and the number of platform crossings decreased (P<0.05) ; meanwhile, the staying time of the mice in the 500 mg/l Pb-treated group in the target quadrant was lower than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) . Compared with the control group, the blood lead content of the mice in each lead exposure group was significantly increased, and the brain lead content of mice in the 500 mg/l dose group was significantly elevated (P<0.05) . The serum IL-1β levels of mice in each lead exposure group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05) . At the phylum level, the relative abundance of the Proteobacteria phylum in all of Pb-treated groups was significantly increased (P<0.05) ; at the genus level, Allobaculum, Desulfovibrio, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, Turicibacter and Ureaplasma were significantly increased (P<0.05) . Among them. The relative abundance of Desuffaoibrio, Turici bacter, and Ureaplasma was negatively correlated with the residence time of mice in the quadrant of the platform (r=-0.32, -0.29, -0.44, P<0.05) . Conclusion: Lead exposure induced learning and memory impairments in mice, which may be related to the disturbance of the gut microbiota.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Lead/toxicity , Maze Learning , Memory Disorders , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
17.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 469-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934767

ABSTRACT

Multiple short-term and long-term complications might occur after liver transplantation. In the early stage after liver transplantation, the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is likely to cause different types of infection, one of which is intestinal flora imbalance. In the recent decade, a series of studies have demonstrated that intestinal flora plays an important role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Intestinal flora may interact with other organs via multiple patterns. Among which, gut-liver axis is one of the most critical channels for regulating microenvironment of the host. Changes in the quantity and composition of intestinal flora could lead to intestinal flora imbalance. In both local and systemic systems, extensive interaction exists between intestinal flora and immune system. In this article, the risk factors of intestinal flora imbalance after liver transplantation, influence of intestinal flora imbalance on liver transplant recipients and relevant treatment strategies were reviewed.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934057

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the correlation between gut microbiota and serum diamine oxidase (DAO) level and to analyze the differences in gut microbiota between high DAO (DAO-H) and normal DAO populations.Methods:This study recruited 62 adult volunteers (31 in DAO-H group and 31 in normal control group) taking health examination in the Strategic Support Forces Special Medical Center in 2021. Their stool samples were collected to analyze the composition of gut microbiota in the two populations by full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing.Results:No significant difference in the alpha diversity of gut microbiota was found between the DAO-H group and the normal control group, but the structure and function of gut microbiota varied. In the DAO-H group, commensal bacteria decreased, such as Phocaeicola and Bacteroidetes, while potential pathogenic bacteria increased, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae. There were changes in the metabolism of gut microbiota in the DAO-H group, including inhibited sphingolipid metabolism and enhanced biosynthesis of vancomycin group antibiotics, one carbon pool by folate pathway, terpenoid backbone biosynthesis, cell cycle-Caulobacter, protein export, base excision repair and nitrogen metabolism.Conclusions:Compared with the people with normal DAO, the population with high DAO had unique characteristics in gut microbiota composition and metabolism.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934042

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the differences in gut microbiota between patients with hyperuricemia (HUA) and healthy population for better understanding the correlation between gut microflora and high uric acid.Methods:This study recruited 63 adult volunteers, including 25 HUA patients (HUA group) and 38 healthy people (control group), who underwent physical examination in the PLA Strategic Support Force Characteristic Medical Center in 2021. Their fecal samples were collected and analyzed by 16S rRNA high-throughput full-length gene sequencing to analyze the composition of gut microbiota.Results:The overall composition of gut microbiota was different between HUA group and control group. The α diversity index decreased significantly in HUA group and β diversity analysis showed that there were significant differences between the two groups. HUA group showed increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes. LEfSe analysis indicated a unique microbiota structure in HUA group, characterized by significantly decreased short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria represented by Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and significantly increased Streptococcus salivarius, Bacteroides fragilis, Fusobacterium hwasookii, Flavonifractor plautii, Mycobacterium mucogenicum B and Blautia sp003287895. In addition, functional prediction through PICRUSt2 showed that the metabolism related to gut microbiota SCFA pathway in HUA group was decreased, which was consistent to the unique microbiota structure. Conclusions:Compared with healthy population, patients with hyperuricemia had different composition of gut microbiota and metabolic feature.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934021

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of compound fermented milk on intestinal microbiota, short chain fatty acid (SCFA), intestinal motility and mucosal barrier in mice with constipation.Methods:Twenty-seven C57BL/6JNifdc mice were randomly divided into three groups: control group, model group and intervention group. The model group and the intervention group were given loperamide intragastrically for two weeks. Starting from the second week, the intervention group was treated with compound fermented milk for 7 d. The control group was given normal saline. Food intake, water intake, weight change, fecal moisture content, time of first-time black stool and small intestine propulsion rate were detected. Expression of serotonin C receptor (5-HTR2C), zona occludins-1 (ZO-1) and mucin-2 (MUC-2) at mRNA level in colon was analyzed. Western blot was used to measure the expression of Raf/ERK/MAPK-related proteins. SCFA level in intestinal tract was detected by gas chromatography. Intestinal microbiota diversity was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing.Results:Compared with the control group, the first black stool excretion time was significantly prolonged in the model group ( P<0.01). Moreover, fecal moisture content, small intestine propulsion rate and the expression of 5-HTR2C and ZO-1 at mRNA level in colon were significantly decreased ( P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the first black stool excretion time was significantly shortened ( P<0.05); fecal moisture content, small intestine propelling rate ( P<0.05), the expression of colon 5-HTR2C and ZO-1 at mRNA level ( P<0.05), phosphorylation of Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway in the colon, intestinal SCFA-producing bacteria and intestinal SCFA content were increased in the intervention group. Conclusions:Compound fermented milk had a therapeutic effect on constipation in a mouse model by increasing the abundance of SCFA-producing bacteria and SCFA content, enhancing the phosphorylation of the Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway to up-regulate the expression of 5-HTR2C at mRNA level in the colon, and increasing the expression of ZO-1 at mRNA level in the colon. Intestinal peristalsis and intestinal mucosal barrier function were enhanced, thus improving the symptom of constipation.

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