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1.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 44(4): 370-377, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394066

ABSTRACT

Objective: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers add accuracy to the diagnostic workup of cognitive impairment by illustrating Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. However, there are no universally accepted cutoff values for the interpretation of AD biomarkers. The aim of this study is to determine the viability of a decision-tree method to analyse CSF biomarkers of AD as a support for clinical diagnosis. Methods: A decision-tree method (automated classification analysis) was applied to concentrations of AD biomarkers in CSF as a support for clinical diagnosis in older adults with or without cognitive impairment in a Brazilian cohort. In brief, 272 older adults (68 with AD, 122 with mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and 82 healthy controls) were assessed for CSF concentrations of Aβ1-42, total-tau, and phosphorylated-tau using multiplexed Luminex assays; biomarker values were used to generate decision-tree algorithms (classification and regression tree) in the R statistical software environment. Results: The best decision tree model had an accuracy of 74.65% to differentiate the three groups. Cluster analysis supported the combination of CSF biomarkers to differentiate AD and MCI vs. controls, suggesting the best cutoff values for each clinical condition. Conclusion: Automated analyses of AD biomarkers provide valuable information to support the clinical diagnosis of MCI and AD in research settings.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 511-531, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929312

ABSTRACT

Aging is by far the most prominent risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and both aging and AD are associated with apparent metabolic alterations. As developing effective therapeutic interventions to treat AD is clearly in urgent need, the impact of modulating whole-body and intracellular metabolism in preclinical models and in human patients, on disease pathogenesis, have been explored. There is also an increasing awareness of differential risk and potential targeting strategies related to biological sex, microbiome, and circadian regulation. As a major part of intracellular metabolism, mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial quality-control mechanisms, and mitochondria-linked inflammatory responses have been considered for AD therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes and highlights these efforts.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 483-495, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929310

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prominent form of dementia in the elderly, has no cure. Strategies focused on the reduction of amyloid beta or hyperphosphorylated Tau protein have largely failed in clinical trials. Novel therapeutic targets and strategies are urgently needed. Emerging data suggest that in response to environmental stress, mitochondria initiate an integrated stress response (ISR) shown to be beneficial for healthy aging and neuroprotection. Here, we review data that implicate mitochondrial electron transport complexes involved in oxidative phosphorylation as a hub for small molecule-targeted therapeutics that could induce beneficial mitochondrial ISR. Specifically, partial inhibition of mitochondrial complex I has been exploited as a novel strategy for multiple human conditions, including AD, with several small molecules being tested in clinical trials. We discuss current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this counterintuitive approach. Since this strategy has also been shown to enhance health and life span, the development of safe and efficacious complex I inhibitors could promote healthy aging, delaying the onset of age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923537

ABSTRACT

@#Objective To explore the effect of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) on cognitive function for old patients with mild cognitive impairment.Methods A total of 40 old inpatients with mild cognitive impairment in 2018 and 2019 were randomly divided into control group (n = 20) and treatment group (n = 20). Both groups accepted routine medication (without cognitive drugs), and the treatment group accepted CES in addition, for eight weeks. They were assessed with modified Barthel Index (MBI) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) by two researchers single-blind before treatment, and four and eight weeks after treatment. The control group accepted free CES after trial.Results For MoCA score, the main effect was significant in time (F = 5.603, P = 0.007), not significant in group (F = 2.160, P = 0.150), and the effect of interaction was significant (F = 9.160, P < 0.001), which was more in the treatment group than in the control group. For MBI score, the main effects were not significant both in time (F = 0.322, P = 0.726) and in group (F = 0.009, P = 0.925), nor the effect of interaction (F = 0.322, P = 0.726). No adverse reactions occurred during CES intervention.Conclusion CES may be effective on mild cognitive impairment in old patients.

5.
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 35: e35121, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384943

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: With aging, it is common for some changes to occur in different areas of cognition, such as memory, executive function, language and psychomotor speed. However, regular physical activity has been described as an excellent way to alleviate the degeneration caused by aging within the various physical, psychological and social domains. Objective: To evaluate the effects of resistance training in elderly women with mild cognitive impairment. Methods: Experimental study with 31 sedentary elderly women divided into control (CG; n=15) and resistance training (RTG; n=16) groups who underwent assessment of anthropometric measures, body composition, maximum strength, heart rate and blood pressure and questionnaire application (Mini-Mental State Examination). Results: Cognitive ability increased in RTG (post 26.00 ± 2.13 vs. CG 22.24 ± 3.82 vs. pre 24.06 ± 2.38 RTG). In RTG, there was a reduction in systolic blood pressure (post 107.50 ± 11.97 vs. CG 126.00 ± 9.72 vs. pre 124.13 ± 12.55 mmHg RTG), diastolic blood pressure (post 68.50 ± 8.15 vs. CG 81.73 ± 4.59 vs. pre 74.69 ± 6.87 mmHg RTG) and double product (post 7746 ± 1244 vs. CG 9336 ± 1595 vs. pre 9286 ± 1309 mmHg x bpm RTG), but not in heart rate (post 72.00 ± 7.40 vs. CG 74.00 ± 10.50 vs. pre 74.94 ± 8.42 bpm RTG). Regarding muscle strength, an increase was evident in all exercises. Conclusion: The present study showed that resistance training in elderly women increased muscle strength and reduced hemodynamic variables. But the most important finding was that there was an increase in cognitive capacity.


Resumo Introdução: Com o envelhecimento, é comum ocorrerem alterações em diferentes áreas da cognição, como a memória, função executiva, linguagem, desenvolvimento psicomotor e função visoespacial. A atividade física regular, contudo, tem sido descrita como um excelente meio de atenuar as degenerações provocadas pelo envelhecimento dentro dos domínios físico, psicológico e social. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos do treinamento resistido em idosas com comprometimento cognitivo leve. Métodos: Estudo experimental com 31 idosas sedentárias, divididas em grupo controle (GC; n = 15) e grupo treinamento resistido (GTR; n = 16), submetidas a avaliações antropométricas, composição corporal, força máxima, frequência cardíaca (FC), pressão arterial (PA) e aplicação de questionário (Mini Exame do Estado Mental). Resultados: Observou-se aumento da capacidade cognitiva no GTR (pós 26,00 ± 2,13 vs. GC 22,24 ± 3,82 vs. pré 24,06 ± 2,38 GTR) e redução na PA sistólica (pós 107,50 ± 11,97 vs. GC 126,00 ± 9,72 vs. pré 124,13 ± 12,55 mmHg GTR), PA diastólica (pós 68,50 ± 8,15 vs. GC 81,73 ± 4,59 vs. pré 74,69 ± 6,87 mmHg GTR) e duplo produto no GTR (pós 7746 ± 1244 vs. GC 9336 ± 1595 vs. pré 9286 ± 1309 mmHg x bpm GTR). Não houve redução na FC no GTR (pós 72,00 ± 7,40 vs. GC 74,00 ± 10,50 vs. pré 74,94 ± 8,42 bpm GTR). Em relação à força muscular, observou-se aumento em todos os exercícios. Conclusão: O presente estudo mostrou que o treinamento resistido aumentou a força muscular e que houve redução de variáveis hemodinâmicas; entretanto, o achado mais importante desse estudo foi o aumento na capacidade cognitiva das idosas.

6.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(5): 510-513, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345479

ABSTRACT

Objective: People with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia have impaired sleep. However, the characteristics of sleep in the early stages of AD are not well known, and studies with the aid of biomarkers are lacking. We assessed the subjective sleep characteristics of non-demented older adults and compared their amyloid profiles. Methods: We enrolled 30 participants aged ≥ 60 years, with no dementia or major clinical and psychiatric diseases. They underwent [11C]PiB-PET-CT, neuropsychological evaluations, and completed two standardized sleep assessments (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory and Epworth Sleep Scale). Results: Comparative analysis of subjective sleep parameters across the two groups showed longer times in bed (p = 0.024) and reduced sleep efficiency (p = 0.05) in individuals with positive amyloid. No differences in other subjective sleep parameters were observed. We also found that people with multiple-domain mild cognitive impairment (MCI) had shorter self-reported total sleep times (p = 0.034) and worse overall sleep quality (p = 0.027) compared to those with single-domain MCI. Conclusions: Older adults testing positive for amyloid had a longer time in bed and lower sleep efficiency, regardless of cognitive status. In parallel, individuals with multiple-domain MCI reported shorter sleep duration and lower overall sleep quality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Sleep , Thiazoles , Case-Control Studies , Positron-Emission Tomography , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Aniline Compounds
7.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(2): 173-185, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286204

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. Diagnosis of cognitive impairment is usually difficult in low-educated individuals. The Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB) was designed as a screening tool for the evaluation of cognitive impairment in low-educated individuals, but it may also be used for evaluating individuals with high educational level. Objectives: To perform a narrative review analyzing the origin of the BCSB, to report all studies that have used the Figure Memory Test (FMT) of the BCSB, and to demonstrate that it is a useful battery for regions where populations have heterogeneous educational background. Methods: We performed a search in PubMed, SciELO, and LILACS using the terms "Brief Cognitive Screening Battery" and "Brief Cognitive Battery". Results: We obtained 49 papers from PubMed, 32 from SciELO, and 28 from LILACS. After the exclusion of duplicate papers, 54 publications were obtained; five more studies were included from previous knowledge of the authors. Twenty-four papers were related to the impact of education on performance, diagnostic accuracy, cutoff scores and normative studies. The delayed recall of the FMT showed the best accuracy for the diagnosis of dementia with a cutoff score of ≤5 in different education levels. In 35 papers, the FMT of the BCSB was used in clinical studies with different settings, from outpatient memory clinics to epidemiological studies and evaluation of Amazon river basin dwelling individuals, and it was always considered to be easy to apply. Conclusions: The FMT of the BCSB is an easy and short tool for the diagnosis of dementia in populations with heterogeneous educational background.


RESUMO. O diagnóstico de comprometimento cognitivo costuma ser difícil em indivíduos de baixa escolaridade. A Bateria Breve de Rastreio Cognitivo (BBRC) foi elaborada como uma ferramenta de triagem para avaliação do comprometimento cognitivo em indivíduos de baixa escolaridade, mas também pode ser utilizada para avaliar indivíduos com alto nível educacional. Objetivos: Realizar uma revisão narrativa da origem da BBRC, relatar todos os estudos que utilizaram o Teste de Memória de Figuras (TMF) da BBRC e demonstrar que essa é uma bateria útil para regiões cuja população possui formação educacional heterogênea. Métodos: Foi realizada uma busca no PubMed, SciELO e LILACS utilizando os termos "Brief Cognitive Screening Battery" e "Brief Cognitive Battery". Resultados: Um total de 49 artigos no PubMed, 32 na SciELO e 28 na LILACS foram obtidos. Após a exclusão de artigos duplicados, totalizaram-se 54 publicações; mais cinco estudos foram incluídos com base no conhecimento prévio dos autores. Vinte e quatro artigos foram relacionados ao impacto da educação no desempenho, à precisão, pontuações de corte e estudos normativos. A recordação diferida do TMF mostrou a melhor precisão para o diagnóstico de demência com uma pontuação de corte de ≤5 em diferentes níveis educacionais. Em 37 artigos, o TMF da BBRC foi utilizado em estudos clínicos em diferentes ambientes, de ambulatórios de clínicas especializadas a estudos epidemiológicos e na avaliação de indivíduos residentes nas margens de rios da bacia amazônica, e sempre foi considerado de fácil aplicação. Conclusões: O TMF da BBRC é uma ferramenta simples e rápida para o diagnóstico de demência em população com heterogeneidade educacional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dementia , Education , Alzheimer Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction
8.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(2): 200-209, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286200

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. Judgment is the ability to make sound decisions after consideration of relevant information, possible solutions, likely outcomes, and contextual factors. Loss of judgment is common in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. The Test of Practical Judgment (TOP-J) evaluates practical judgment in adults and the elderly, with 15- and 9-item versions that require individuals to listen to scenarios about everyday problems and report their solutions. Objective: Adaptation of TOP-J for a Brazilian sample, preparation of a reduced version and verification of the accuracy of both. Methods: Eighty-five older adults, including 26 with MCI, 20 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 15 with frontotemporal dementia behavioral variant (FTDbv) and 24 controls, underwent neuropsychological assessment including the Brazilian adaptation of the TOP-J (TOP-J-Br). Results: On both TOP-J-Br versions, controls outperformed MCI, AD and FTDbv patients (p<0.001) and MCI outperformed AD and FTDbv (p<0.001). For the TOP-J/15-Br, the best cutoff for distinguishing controls and patients had a sensitivity of 91.7%, specificity of 59.0% and area under the curve of 0.8. For the TOP-J/9-Br, the best cutoff for distinguishing controls and patients had a sensitivity of 79.9%, specificity of 72.1% and area under the curve of 0.82. Conclusion: The TOP-J/15-Br, and particularly the TOP-J/9-Br, showed robust psychometric properties and the potential for clinical utility in Brazilian older adults at various stages of neurodegenerative cognitive decline.


RESUMO. Julgamento é a capacidade de tomar decisões acertadas, após considerar informações relevantes disponíveis, soluções possíveis, resultados prováveis ​​e fatores contextuais. A perda de julgamento é comum em pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo leve (CCL) e demência. O Teste de Julgamento Prático (TOP-J) avalia o julgamento prático em adultos e idosos, em versões de 15 e 9 itens, que exigem que os indivíduos ouçam cenários sobre problemas cotidianos e relatem suas soluções. Objetivo: Adaptação do TOP-J para amostra brasileira, elaboração de uma versão reduzida e verificação da acurácia de ambas. Métodos: Oitenta e cinco idosos, incluindo 26 com CCL, 20 com doença de Alzheimer (DA), 15 com variante comportamental de demência frontotemporal (DFTvc) e 24 controles, foram submetidos à avaliação neuropsicológica, incluindo a adaptação brasileira do TOP-J (TOP-J-Br). Resultados: Nas duas versões do TOP-J-Br, os controles superaram os CCL, DA e DFTvc (p<0,001) e o grupo CCL superou os grupos DA e DFTvc (p<0,001). Para o grupo TOP-J/15-Br, o melhor ponto de corte para diferenciação entre controles e pacientes apresentou sensibilidade de 91,7, especificidade de 59,0 e área sob a curva de 0,8. Para o TOP-J/9-Br, o melhor ponto de corte para diferenciação entre controles e pacientes teve sensibilidade de 79,9, especificidade de 72,1 e área sob a curva de 0,82. Conclusão: O TOP-J/15-Br, e particularmente o TOP-J/9-Br, mostraram propriedades psicométricas robustas e o potencial de utilidade clínica em idosos brasileiros em vários estágios de declínio cognitivo neurodegenerativo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Judgment , Frontotemporal Dementia , Alzheimer Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neuropsychological Tests
9.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(2): 155-163, Apr.-June 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286197

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a widely studied concept that has changed over time. Epidemiology, diagnosis, costs, prognostics, screening procedures, and categorization have been extensively discussed. However, unified guidelines are still not available, especially considering differences between low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and high-income countries (HIC). Objectives: To contextualize and identify the main areas under investigation regarding MCI diagnosis and to investigate how much of the current knowledge is compatible with the diagnosis in an LMIC. Methods: This brief review followed the framework outlined for a scoping review and goes through the history of MCI and its diagnosis, the differences and relevance of LMIC research regarding the concept, and the current criteria for diagnosis. Results: Results show that the unique characteristics of LMIC influence the development of cognitive decline and how suitable procedures suggested by HIC can be used by LMIC to identify pathological aging processes in their early stages. Conclusion: Neuropsychological assessment of activities of daily living performance, considering the difference between omission and commission errors, is a more accessible course of action as a screening procedure for cognitive decline in LMIC.


RESUMO. O comprometimento cognitivo leve (CCL) é um conceito amplamente estudado que mudou ao longo do tempo. Epidemiologia, diagnóstico, custos, prognósticos, procedimentos de triagem e categorização já foram amplamente debatidos. No entanto, diretrizes unificadas ainda não estão disponíveis, especialmente considerando as diferenças entre países de baixa e média renda (PBMR) e países de alta renda (PAR). Objetivos: Contextualizar e identificar as principais áreas de pesquisa em relação ao diagnóstico do CCL e investigar quanto do atual conhecimento é compatível com o diagnóstico em PBMR. Métodos: Esta revisão se guiou a estrutura delineada para uma scoping review, percorrendo a história do CCL, o diagnóstico, as diferenças e a relevância da pesquisa de PBMR para o conceito e os critérios atuais para diagnóstico. Resultados: Os resultados mostram que as características únicas dos PMBR influenciam o declínio cognitivo e como os procedimentos sugeridos por PAR podem ser usados por PBMR para identificar processos de envelhecimento patológico em seus estágios iniciais. Conclusão: A avaliação neuropsicológica de atividades de desempenho de vida diária, considerando a diferença entre erros de omissão e comissão, é um curso de ação mais acessível como um procedimento de triagem para declínio cognitivo em PMBR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cognitive Dysfunction , Activities of Daily Living , Aging
10.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(2): 192-199, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286187

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. The preclinical stages of dementia include subtle neurocognitive changes that are not easily detected in standard clinical evaluations. Neuropsychological evaluation is important for the classification and prediction of deterioration in all the phases of dementia. Objective: Compare the neuropsychological performance in healthy older adults with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using principal components analysis. Methods: We evaluated 94 older adults with a clinical protocol which included general measures of mental, emotional and functional state. The neuropsychological protocol included tasks of memory, executive function, attention, verbal fluency and visuoconstructional abilities. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce variables´ dimensionality on neuropsychological evaluation. Results: 33(35%) participants had a normal cognitive function, 35(37%) had subjective cognitive decline and 26(28%) had a mild cognitive impairment. The PCA showed seven factors: processing speed, memory, visuoconstruction, verbal fluency and executive components of cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control and working memory. ANOVA had shown significant differences between the groups in the memory (F=4.383, p=0.016, η2p=0.087) and visuoconstructional components (F=5.395, p=0.006, η2p=0.105). Post hoc analysis revealed lower memory scores in MCI than SCD participants and in visuospatial abilities between MCI and SCD and MCI and Normal participants. Conclusions: We observed differentiated cognitive profiles among the participants in memory and visuoconstruction components. The use of PCA in the neuropsychological evaluation could help to make a differentiation of cognitive abilities in preclinical stages of dementia.


RESUMO. Os estágios pré-clínicos da demência incluem mudanças neurocognitivas sutis que não são facilmente detectadas nas avaliações clínicas padrão. A avaliação neuropsicológica é importante para a classificação e predição da deterioração em todas as fases da demência. Objetivo: Comparar o desempenho neuropsicológico em idosos saudáveis com declínio cognitivo subjetivo (DCS) e com comprometimento cognitivo leve (CCL) por meio da análise de componentes principais. Métodos: Avaliaram-se 94 idosos com um protocolo clínico que incluía medidas gerais do estado mental, emocional e funcional. O protocolo neuropsicológico incluiu tarefas de memória, função executiva, atenção, fluência verbal e habilidades visuoconstrutivas. Utilizou-se a análise de componentes principais (PCA, na sigla em inglês) para reduzir a dimensionalidade das variáveis na avaliação neuropsicológica. Resultados: Um total de 33 (35%) participantes apresentavam função cognitiva normal, 35 (37%) declínio cognitivo subjetivo e 26 (28%) comprometimento cognitivo leve. A PCA apresentou sete fatores: velocidade de processamento, memória, visuoconstrução, fluência verbal e componentes executivos de flexibilidade cognitiva, controle inibitório e memória de trabalho. ANOVA mostrou diferenças significativas entre os grupos na memória (F=4,383, p=0,016, η2p=0,087) e componentes visuoconstrutivos (F=5,395, p=0,006, η2p=0,105). A análise post hoc revelou escores de memória mais baixos no CCL do que os participantes com DCS e nas habilidades visuoespaciais entre CCL e DCS e CCL e participantes normais. Conclusões: Observaram-se perfis cognitivos diferenciados entre os participantes nos componentes de memória e visuoconstrução. O uso da PCA na avaliação neuropsicológica poderia auxiliar na diferenciação das habilidades cognitivas em estágios pré-clínicos da demência.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Neuropsychology
11.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 15(1): 98-104, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286180

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and the INECO Frontal Screening (IFS) are two instruments frequently used to explore cognitive deficits in different diseases. However, studies reporting their use in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are limited. Objective: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of FAB and IFS in mild cognitive impairment (multiple-domain amnestic MCI subtype — md-aMCI). Methods: IFS and FAB were administered to 30 md-aMCI patients and 59 healthy participants. Sensitivity and specificity were investigated using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of IFS for MCI patients was .82 (sensitivity=0.96; specificity=0.76), whereas the AUC of FAB was 0.74 (sensitivity=0.73; specificity=0.70). Conclusions: In comparison to FAB, IFS showed higher sensitivity and specificity for the detection of executive dysfunctions in md-aMCI subtype. The use of IFS in everyday clinical practice would allow detecting the frontal dysfunctions in MCI patients with greater precision, enabling the early intervention and impeding the transition to more severe cognitive alterations.


RESUMO. A Bateria de Avaliação Frontal (FAB) e o teste de rastreio frontal do INECO (IFS) são dois instrumentos frequentemente utilizados para explorar déficits cognitivos em diferentes doenças. No entanto os estudos que relatam seu uso em pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo leve (MCI) são limitados. Objetivo: Comparar a sensibilidade e especificidade da FAB e IFS em comprometimento cognitivo leve (subtipo amnéstico de múltiplos domínios [md-aMCI]). Métodos: O IFS e FAB foram administrados a 30 pacientes md-aMCI e 59 participantes saudáveis. A sensibilidade e a especificidade foram exploradas usando a análise ROC. Resultados: A área sob a curva ROC (AUC) do IFS para pacientes com MCI foi de 0,82 (sensibilidade=0,96; especificidade=0,76), enquanto a AUC de FAB foi de 0,74 (sensibilidade=0,73; especificidade=0,70). Conclusões: Em comparação com o FAB, o IFS apresentou maior sensibilidade e especificidade para detecção de disfunções executivas no subtipo md-aMCI. O uso do INECO Frontal Screening (IFS) na prática clínica cotidiana, permitiria detectar com maior precisão as disfunções frontais em pacientes com deficiência cognitiva leve, possibilitando a intervenção precoce, impedindo a transição para alterações cognitivas mais graves.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cognitive Dysfunction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Mental Status and Dementia Tests
12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 373-393, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881142

ABSTRACT

The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), previously known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is predominately localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane in steroidogenic cells. Brain TSPO expression is relatively low under physiological conditions, but is upregulated in response to glial cell activation. As the primary index of neuroinflammation, TSPO is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of numerous neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), major depressive disorder (MDD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). In this context, numerous TSPO-targeted positron emission tomography (PET) tracers have been developed. Among them, several radioligands have advanced to clinical research studies. In this review, we will overview the recent development of TSPO PET tracers, focusing on the radioligand design, radioisotope labeling, pharmacokinetics, and PET imaging evaluation. Additionally, we will consider current limitations, as well as translational potential for future application of TSPO radiopharmaceuticals. This review aims to not only present the challenges in current TSPO PET imaging, but to also provide a new perspective on TSPO targeted PET tracer discovery efforts. Addressing these challenges will facilitate the translation of TSPO in clinical studies of neuroinflammation associated with central nervous system diseases.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905309

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect of cognitive-motor dual task training on vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) in old patients. Methods:From March to September, 2019, 76 old patients with VaMCI in three general hospitals were divided into control group (n = 38) and intervention group (n = 38). All the patients accepted health education, while the intervention group accepted cognitive-motor dual task training in addition, for three months. They were assessed with Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Beijing Version (MoCA-BJ) and Trail Making Test (TMT-A) before and after intervention, and the one-year incidence of fall before and after intervention was investigated in the intervention group. Results:Two cases in the control group and three cases in the intervention group dropped down. The total score and dimension scores of MoCA-BJ were more significantly in the intervention group than in the control group after intervention (|Z| > 2.002, P < 0.05), except the dimension of naming, while the time for TMT-A was significantly less (Z = -5.949, P < 0.001). The one-year incidence of fall decreased significantly during the year after intervention (χ2 = 10.080, P < 0.01). Conclusion:Cognitive-motor dual task training can improve the cognitive function of older VaMCI patients, especially for attention and executive function, and reduce the risk of fall.

14.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 640-648, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911771

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the impact of altering brain gray matter volume (GMV) on cognition and gait disorder in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).Methods:Thirty-six patients with aMCI, who admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from July 2018 to August 2020, were collected, and 33 normal controls (NC) matched with age, sex and education level were included in the same period. The neuropsychological assessment was done in all the subjects using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MoCA), Cambridge Cognitive Examination-Chinese version (CAMCOG-C), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Activities of Daily Living scale (ADL). The timed up and go test (TUG), dual task of timed up and go test (D-TUG) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) were used in the subjects for assessment. The parameters such as stride length, gait speed, gait frequency were collected by intelligent device for energy expenditure and activity. All the subjects received 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging scan to obtain high-resolution T 1 structural images. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare the difference of GMV between aMCI patients and NC. Partial correlation analysis was performed among altering GMV in the regions of interest (ROI), cognitive score and gait parameters, respectively. Linear regression analysis was used between whole brain GMV and gait parameters. Results:The scores of MMSE, MoCA, CAMCOG-C and the subitems of CAMCOG-C in aMCI group were significantly lower than those in NC group ( P<0.05). In aMCI patients, both the test time of TUG and D-TUG increased, gait speed slowed down, stride length shortened, and stride frequency and BBS score decreased ( P<0.05).VBM analysis showed that the whole brain GMV in aMCI patients was obviously lower than that of NC. In the aMCI group, GMV in ROI1 (right hippocampus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right amygdala and right fusiform gyrus), ROI2 (right middle temporal gyrus), ROI3 (right angular gyrus), ROI4 (right occipital lobe), ROI5 (bilateral orbital frontal lobe), ROI6 (left middle frontal gyrus and rectus gyrus), ROI7 (left fusiform gyrus and left parahippocampal gyrus) was significantly decreased compared with the NC group [Gaussian random field (GRF) correction, two-tailed test, voxel level P<0.001, cluster level P<0.05). In the aMCI group, GMV in ROI1 was positively correlated with orientation ( r=0.437, P=0.012), memory ( r=0.360, P=0.043), execution ( r=0.414, P=0.019), and negatively correlated with ADL score ( r=-0.529, P=0.002). GMV in ROI2 was negatively correlated with ADL score ( r=-0.400, P=0.023). GMV in ROI4 and in ROI5 was positively correlated with the calculation ( r=0.370, P=0.037) and execution ( r=0.360, P=0.043), respectively. GMV in ROI6 was positively correlated with MMSE score ( r=0.357, P=0.045), CAMCOG-C total score ( r=0.503, P=0.003) and calculation ( r=0.395, P=0.025), and negatively correlated with ADL score ( r=-0.387, P=0.028). GMV in ROI5 was positively correlated with gait speed ( r=0.391, P=0.027). In the aMCI group, CAMCOG-C total score was negatively correlated with D-TUG results ( r=-0.387, P=0.035), executive function was negatively correlated with TUG results ( r=-0.450, P=0.013) and D-TUG results ( r=-0.553, P=0.002), and positively correlated with gait speed ( r=0.379, P=0.039). Attention was positively correlated with gait speed ( r=0.590, P=0.001), and computing was positively correlated with gait speed ( r=0.371, P=0.044). The linear regression of whole brain GMV and gait parameters showed negative correlation between the GMV of left occipital lobe and TUG results in the aMCI group. The GMV of bilateral prefrontal cortex, right occipital lobe and surrounding cortex was positively correlated with gait speed (GRF correction, two-tailed test, voxel level P<0.001, cluster level P<0.05). Conclusions:Patients with aMCI presented with gray matter atrophy, cognition impairment, and gait disorders. The cognition impairment was closely related to the atrophy of medial temporal lobe. Gait disorders were not only associated with cognition impairment but also with gray matter volume in the prefrontal lobe, occipital lobe and its surrounding cortex, and anterior central gyrus.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923812

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of dance intervention on the cognitive function and balance function in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment and its possible mechanism through systematic review of related literatures. Methods The literatures of randomized controlled trials on the impact of dance intervention on the cognitive function and balance function of the elderly with mild cognitive impairment were searched in the Cochrane library, PubMed, CBM, Web of Science, EMBASE, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang data and other databases, from establishment to June 7th, 2021. Two researchers screened the literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data, and evaluated the quality. Results The scores of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were better in the dance intervention experimental group than in the control group, as well as the scores of Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), Trail Making Test (TMT)-B and Verbal Fluency Test. However, no significant difference was found in the response time in TMT-A between two groups. Dance intervention could improve the scores of Berg Balance Scale. Conclusion Dance intervention can improve overall cognitive function, memory function, executive function and balance function of the elderly with mild cognitive impairment.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923796

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of dance intervention on the cognitive function and balance function in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment and its possible mechanism through systematic review of related literatures. Methods The literatures of randomized controlled trials on the impact of dance intervention on the cognitive function and balance function of the elderly with mild cognitive impairment were searched in the Cochrane library, PubMed, CBM, Web of Science, EMBASE, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang data and other databases, from establishment to June 7th, 2021. Two researchers screened the literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data, and evaluated the quality. Results The scores of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were better in the dance intervention experimental group than in the control group, as well as the scores of Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), Trail Making Test (TMT)-B and Verbal Fluency Test. However, no significant difference was found in the response time in TMT-A between two groups. Dance intervention could improve the scores of Berg Balance Scale. Conclusion Dance intervention can improve overall cognitive function, memory function, executive function and balance function of the elderly with mild cognitive impairment.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879263

ABSTRACT

With the wide application of deep learning technology in disease diagnosis, especially the outstanding performance of convolutional neural network (CNN) in computer vision and image processing, more and more studies have proposed to use this algorithm to achieve the classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal cognition (CN). This article systematically reviews the application progress of several classic convolutional neural network models in brain image analysis and diagnosis at different stages of Alzheimer's disease, and discusses the existing problems and gives the possible development directions in order to provide some references.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neural Networks, Computer
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909523

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the performance characteristics of the digital clock-drawing test(dCDT) for amnestic mild cognitive impairment(aMCI), and its diagnostic value for aMCI patients compared with the traditional clock-drawing test (tCDT).Methods:Total 81 middle-aged and elderly outpatients in Affiliated Hospital to Shanxi Medical University from November 2020 to May 2021 were selected, including 42 cognitively normal people (control group) and 39 aMCI patients (aMCI group). The dCDT developed by our team was used to collect drawing process parameters (such as stroke length, time and speed). The Cognitive Domain Indexs of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were calculated using the CDIS scoring method, and the correlation between dCDT parameters and MoCA indexs were analyzed.Logistic regression analysis was used to construct the predictive model, and the sensitivity and specificity of different methods for the diagnosis of aMCI patients were compared by the area under the ROC curve.Results:(1) The total time(51.25(38.80, 63.75)s vs 42.42(33.64, 51.91)s) and time in air(36.34(26.81, 47.25)s vs 28.47(22.37, 33.98)s) of the aMCI group were significantly higher than those of the control group, and the minute hand/hour hand ratio(1.23±0.35 vs 1.39±0.34), strokes per minute((31.31±10.44) vs (41.05±9.48))and tCDT score(3.0(3.0, 4.0), 4.0(3.0, 4.0))were significantly lower than those of the control group, and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). Other dCDT parameters were not statistically significant between the two groups ( Z=-1.835--0.440, P>0.05). (2) Correlation analysis showed that the total time was negatively correlated with MoCA MIS( r=-0.224, P=0.049), LIS( r=-0.237, P=0.037)and AIS( r=-0.236, P=0.038); time in air was negatively correlated with MoCA MIS( r=-0.268, P=0.018), LIS( r=-0.271, P=0.016), AIS( r=-0.259, P=0.022)and OISA( r=-0.267, P=0.018); the minute hand/hour hand ratio was positively correlated with MoCA EIS( r=0.259, P=0.022)and VIS( r=0.309, P=0.006); the strokes per minute was positively correlated with MoCA MIS( r=0.376, P=0.001), EIS( r=0.290, P=0.010), VIS( r=0.294, P=0.009), AIS( r=0.238, P=0.036)and OISA( r=0.301, P=0.007). (3)dCDT model composed of the pre-second hand latency, the ratio of minute hand/hour hand, and the strokes per minute can correctly classify 77.8% of aMCI, with a sensitivity of 74.36% and a specificity of 80.95%.Its diagnostic power for aMCI was significantly higher than the tCDT scoring( Z=2.335, P=0.02). Conclusion:The cognitive impairment in aMCI can be detected by dCDT, and different dCDT parameters can reflect the impairment of different cognitive domains.Compared with tCDT scoring, dCDT can improve the diagnostic efficacy of aMCI patients.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909503

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the major diseases that harmful to healthy elderly, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the early clinical stage of AD. There is a lag in the clinical diagnosis of both diseases. An objective and reliable auxiliary diagnostic method is urgently needed to provide early diagnosis and differential indicators for AD and MCI, to predict the probability of individuals suffering from AD and MCI transforming into AD, and to reduce the overall incidence of AD and reduce the huge medical and economic burden for the country and society. Event-related potential is widely used in AD and MCI, and the resolution at the millisecond level can truly reflect the time course of cognitive processing and the degree of impairment of cognitive function in patients. In this study, we investigated the differences in the amplitude and latency of ERP components in healthy elderly, MCI and AD patients, and the correlation between ERP components and cognitive impairment. Early N170 and P200 showed high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating MCI from healthy elderly or MCI from AD. The late perception-related ERPs also showed high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating healthy elderly from MCI/AD. The differences in ERPs between MCI and AD may be related to the etiology, the degree of disease progression and the site of brain damage. The specific brain mechanism still need to be further explored and will be the focus of future research. With the progress of the research, the relationship between the specific ERP manifestations and the mechanism of brain injury as well as the impairment of cognitive function will be more clear. It is believed that the application of ERP in clinical will bring more benefits to AD and its early clinical MCI.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909490

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of the adaptive computerized cognitive training(ACCT) on patients with mild cognitive impairment(MCI).Methods:A total of 114 patients with mild cognitive impairment (53 cases in the treatment group and 61 cases in the observation group) were selected.In the treatment group, routine treatment combined with ACCT were given for 24 weeks, then routine treatment only for 24 weeks, 48 weeks altogether. In the observation group, routine treatment was given for 48 weeks.At week 0, 24, 48, both groups were assessed by scales including: mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Montreal cognitive assessment(MoCA), numerical memory span test, activities of daily living, Hamilton depression scale(HAMD)and Hamilton anxiety scale(HAMA). SAS 9.4 was used for statistical analysis.The data were analyzed by χ 2 test, rank sum test and multi-level model analysis. Results:Interactions between group and time on MMSE( treatment group: 0 week 22.0 (21.0, 23.0), 24 weeks 24.0 (24.0, 25.0), 48 weeks 25.0 (24.0, 26.0); observation group: 0 week 23.0 (21.0, 24.0), 24 weeks 23.0 (21.0, 24.0), 48 weeks 23.0 (21.0, 24.0)), MoCA( treatment group: 0 week 18.0 (17.0, 20.0), 24 weeks 22.0 (20.0, 23.0), 48 weeks 22.0 (20.0, 24.0); observation group: 0 week 19.0 (17.0, 20.0), 24 weeks 19.0 (18.0, 20.0), 48 weeks 19.0 (18.0, 20.0)), IADL( treatment group: 0 week 11.0 (10.0, 13.0), 24 weeks 12.0 (10.0, 12.0), 48 weeks 12.0 (10.0, 12.0); observation group: 0 week 12.0 (11.0, 13.0), 24 weeks 11.0 (10.0, 12.0), 48 weeks 11.0 (10.0, 12.0)), DST-forwards and HAMD scores were significant(all P<0.05), and DST-backwards had significant group main effect ( P<0.05). Further simple effect analysis showed that the influence of group and time on MMSE, MoCA and DST-forwards were statistically significant (all P<0.05), and the influence of time on IADL and HAMD were statistically significant (both P<0.05). Further comparison of the difference between the two groups at each time point: D-value of MMSE, MoCA, DST-forwards, and DST-backwards score in the treatment group were higher than those in the observation group, while D-value of HAMD score was lower than that in the observation group, and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). Conclusion:ACCT may have long term effect on improving the cognitive function and depression of MCI patients.

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