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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 119(2): 294-304, ago. 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383745

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A (-)-carvona é um monoterpeno encontrado em óleos essenciais com atividade antioxidante e anti-inflamátoria. Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a propriedade antiarrítmica da (-)-carvona no coração de rato e seus efeitos sobre a sinalização de Ca+2 intracelular. Métodos: Os efeitos da (-)-carvona foram avaliados sobre a contratilidade atrial (0,01 - 4 mM) e ventricular (0,5 mM), e no eletrocardiograma (0,5mM). A fração de encurtamento, a corrente de cálcio do tipo L (ICa,L) e a sinalização de Ca+2 foram medidas no cardiomiócito isolado (0,5 mM). O efeito antiarrítmico foi avaliado no modelo de arritmia induzida por sobrecarga de cálcio (0,5 mM) (n = 5). Um p < 0,05 foi adotado como nível de significância estatística. Resultados: No átrio, a (-)-carvona causou inotropismo negativo de maneira concentração-dependente (EC50 0,44 ± 0,11 mM) e diminuiu o inotropismo positivo induzido pelo CaCl2 (0,1 - 8,0 mM) e BAY K8644 (5 - 500 nM), um agonista de canal de cálcio do tipo L. Em coração isolado, a (-)-carvona (0,5mM) reduziu a contratilidade ventricular em 73% e a frequência cardíaca (em 46%), aumentou o Pri (30,7%, tempo desde o início da onda P até a onda R) e o QTc (9,2%, uma medida de despolarização e repolarização dos ventrículos), sem mudar a duração do complexo QRS. A (-)-carvona diminuiu a fração de encurtamento (61%), a (ICa,L) (79%) e o transiente intracelular de Ca+2 (38%). Além disso, a (-)-carvona apresentou ação antiarrítmica, identificada pela redução do escore de arritmia (85%) e ocorrência de fibrilação ventricular. Conclusão: A (-)-carvona reduz a entrada de Ca+2 através de canais de Ca+2 do tipo L e, assim, diminui a contratilidade cardíaca e o Ca+2 intracelular e apresenta promissora atividade antiarrítmica no coração de ratos.


Abstract Background: (-)-Carvone is a monoterpene found in essential oils with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Objective: The aim of this paper was to analyze the antiarrhythmic property of (-)-carvone in the rat heart and its effects on the intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Methods: The effects of (-)-carvone were evaluated on the ventricular (0.5 mM) and atrial contractility (0.01 - 4 mM) and on electrocardiogram (0.5 mM). Fractional shortening, L-type calcium current (ICa,L) and Ca2+ signaling were measured in the isolated cardiomyocyte (0.5 mM). Antiarrhythmic effect was evaluated in arrhythmia model induced by calcium overload (0.5 mM) (n = 5). P < 0.05 was used as the significance level. Results: In the atrium, (-)-carvone evoked negative inotropism that was concentration-dependent (EC50 0.44 ± 0.11 mM) and decreased the positive inotropism evoked by CaCl2 (0.1 to 8.0 mM) or BAY K8644 (5 to 500 nM), an agonist of L-type Ca2+ channel. In isolated heart, (-)-carvone (0.5 mM) promoted reduction of ventricular contractility (73%) and heart rate (46%), increased PRi (30.7%, time from the onset of the P wave until the R wave) and QTc (9.2%, a measure of the depolarization and repolarization of the ventricles) without changing the QRS complex duration. (-)-Carvone decreased the fractional shortening (61%), ICa,L (79%) and Ca2+ intracellular transient (38%). Furthermore, (-)-carvone showed antiarrhythmic action, verified by decrease of the arrhythmia score (85%) and occurrence of ventricular fibrillation. Conclusion: (-)-Carvone decreases Ca2+ entry through L-type Ca2+ channels, reducing the cardiac contractility and intracellular Ca2+, and, therefore, presenting promising antiarrhythmic activity in the rat hearts.

2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 207-214, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395229

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the main constituent, the predominant class and biological activity of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Pimenta dioica and the pattern of the major constituent against larvae in the third stage of Aedes aegypti. For this reason, we extracted the oil by hydrodistillation, identified its components by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and calculated the lethal concentration (LC50) of the larvicidal activity using the Reed-Muench method. The results show that the oil consists mainly of eugenol, in which the phenylpropanoid class predominated and the lethal concentration, LC50, was 38.86 µg mL-1at a confidence level of 2.25 µg mL-1, while the eugenol standard presented LC5079.75 µg mL-1at a confidence level of 2.10 µg mL-1. Given the facts, we conclude that the oil is more active than the standard and that it has the potential to replace chemical larvicides.


En este estudio, investigamos el constituyente principal, la clase predominante y la actividad biológica del aceite esencial extraído de las hojas de Pimenta dioica y el patrón del constituyente principal contra las larvas en la tercera etapa de Aedes aegypti. Por este motivo, extrajimos el aceite por hidrodestilación, identificamos sus componentes mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC/MS) y calculamos la concentración letal (CL50) de la actividad larvicida mediante el método Reed-Muench. Los resultados muestran que el aceite está constituido principalmente por eugenol, en el que predominó la clase fenilpropanoide y la concentración letal, CL50, fue de 38,86 µg.mL-1 a un nivel de confianza de 2,25 µg.mL-1, mientras que el estándar de eugenol presentó CL50 79,75 µg.mL -1 a un nivel de confianza de 2,10 µg.mL-1. Dados los hechos, concluimos que el aceite es más activo que el estándar y que tiene el potencial de reemplazar los larvicidas químicos.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Aedes/drug effects , Pimenta/chemistry , Larvicides , Biological Assay , Biological Products , Eugenol/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves , Monoterpenes/analysis , Larva , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928007

ABSTRACT

Monoterpenes are widely used in cosmetics, food, medicine, agriculture and other fields. With the development of synthetic biology, it is considered as a potential way to create microbial cell factories to produce monoterpenes. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce monoterpenes has been a research hotspot in synthetic biology. In S. cerevisiae, the production of geranyl pyrophosphate(GPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate(FPP) is catalyzed by a bifunctional enzyme farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase(encoded by ERG20 gene) which is inclined to synthesize FPP essential for yeast growth. Therefore, reasonable control of FPP synthesis is the basis for efficient monoterpene synthesis in yeast cell factories. In order to achieve dynamic control from GPP to FPP biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae, we obtained a novel chassis strain HP001-pERG1-ERG20 by replacing the ERG20 promoter of the chassis strain HP001 with the promoter of cyclosqualene cyclase(ERG1) gene. Further, we reconstructed the metabolic pathway by using GPP and neryl diphosphate(NPP), cis-GPP as substrates in HP001-pERG1-ERG20. The yield of GPP-derived linalool increased by 42.5% to 7.6 mg·L~(-1), and that of NPP-derived nerol increased by 1 436.4% to 8.3 mg·L~(-1). This study provides a basis for the production of monoterpenes by microbial fermentation.


Subject(s)
Fermentation , Geranyltranstransferase/genetics , Monoterpenes/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/metabolism
4.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284447

ABSTRACT

This paper described the chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the leaves and stem of Amomum rubidumLamxay & N. S. Lý, collected from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, Lam Dong, Vietnam. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodisitllation method while antimicrobial activity was evaluetd by microdilution broth susceptibility assay. The main constituents of the leaf essential oil were identified as 1,8-cineole (37.7%), δ-3-carene (19.5%) and limonene (16.3%) while δ-3-carene (21.9%), limonene (17.8%) and ß-phellandrene (14.6%) dominated in the stem essentialoil. The leaf and stem essential oils displayed stronger inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC of 25 µg/mLand 50 µg/mL respectively. The stem essential oil was active against Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) while both essential oils inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). This is the first report on chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of A. rubidum.


Este artículo describe la composición química y la actividad antimicrobiana de aceites esenciales de las hojas y el tallo de Amomum rubidum Lamxay & N. S. Lý recolectados del Parque Nacional Bidoup Nui Ba, Lam Dong, Vietnam. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron mediante el método de hidrodisitilación, mientras que la actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó mediante un ensayo de susceptibilidad de caldo de microdilución. Los principales componentes del aceite esencial de la hoja se identificaron como 1,8-cineol (37,7%), δ-3-careno (19,5%) y limoneno (16,3%), mientras que δ-3-careno (21,9%), limoneno (17,8 %) y ß-felandreno (14,6%) dominaron en el aceite esencial del tallo. Los aceites esenciales de hoja y tallo mostraron una inhibición más fuerte de Pseudomonas aeruginosa con un MIC de 25 µg/mL y 50 µg/mL, respectivamente. El aceite esencial del tallo fue activo contra Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) mientras que ambos aceites esenciales inhibieron el crecimiento de Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). Este es el primer informe sobre los componentes químicos y la actividad antimicrobiana de los aceites esenciales de A. rubidum.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Amomum/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Distillation , Chromatography, Gas , Plant Stems , Plant Leaves , Monoterpenes/analysis , Fusarium/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
5.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(6)dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388448

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La extracción asistida por microondas (MAE por sus siglas en inglés) es una técnica eco amigable relativamente nueva que ha recibido una atención creciente debido a su menor tiempo de extracción y consumo de energía, mayor rendimiento de compuestos de interés y menor consumo de disolvente; a diferencia de técnicas convencionales de extracción, que implican elevados gastos de energía y tiempo. Así mismo, subproductos de industrias como cáscaras de cítricos, son desechados en grandes cantidades, no aprovechándose las propiedades funcionales sus compuestos. En esta investigación se realizó la extracción de aceite esencial a partir de cáscara de naranja, por microondas libre de solventes (SFME por sus siglas en inglés), a diferentes condiciones de potencia (400, 800 W, y sus combinaciones). El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de las diferentes condiciones de proceso sobre el rendimiento del aceite esencial extraído, sobre su composición química y actividad antimicrobiana. Los más altos rendimientos de extracción correspondieron a los aceites extraídos a 400 W y a 800/400 W, siendo este último el que conllevó un menor gasto de energía y emisión de CO2. En general, todos los aceites extraídos presentaron los mismos compuestos mayoritarios (limoneno, β- mirceno, linalool y α- pineno), mientras que el aceite sometido a 400 W, presentó cantidades menores de 0,23% de 5 compuestos minoritarios adicionales. Sobre la actividad antimicrobiana, se detectó mayor actividad contra Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19115) respecto a Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) en todos los tratamientos.


ABSTRACT Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) is a relatively new ecofriendly technique that has received increasing attention due to its reduced extraction time and energy consumption, higher yield and lower solvent consumption; unlike conventional extraction techniques, which involve higher energy costs and greater time. Likewise, industry by-products such as citrus peels are disposed of in large quantities, thus functional properties of their compounds are left unused. In the present investigation, solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) was used to obtain orange peel essential oil at different power conditions (400, 800 W, and their combinations). The aim was to evaluate the effect of the process on the yield, composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil obtained. The highest extraction yields were obtained using powers of 400 and 800/400 W, corresponding the minor energy and CO2 emission generated to the latter. In general, all oils had the same major components (limonene, β- myrcene, linalool and α- pinene), with the oil obtained at 400 W having, in addition, five minor compounds, in amounts less than 0.23%. Regarding antimicrobial activity, in general, greater activity against L. monocytogenes (ATCC 19115) was detected in comparison with E. coli (ATCC 8739) in all treatments.

6.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 258-264, set 24, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358136

ABSTRACT

Introduction: bacterial infections are a public health problem. Besides, the emergence of strains resistant to antimicrobials has contributed to the search for new alternatives, such for the terpenes with antimicrobial potential. Objectives: the objective of this study was to determine the possible interaction of isolated monoterpenes (-)-Carveol, Geraniol, Citronellol, α-terpineol, R-(-) Carvone, (-)-Menthol, Linalool, D-Dihydrocarvone, and (-)-Terpine-4-ol with conventional antimicrobials (Chloramphenicol, Minocycline, Amoxicillin and Ciprofloxacin) when they are evaluated on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Methodology: the minimum inhibitory concentrations of these test drugs were determined using the microdilution method. The Checkerboard method was used to assess the interactions, by determining the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC index). Results: aamong the monoterpenes, only Carveol, Citronellol, and Geraniol presented antimicrobial activity (MIC < 1024 µg/mL). They presented synergistic effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-9027 (FIC index ≤ 0.5) when in combination with Minocycline. Conclusion: this study contributes to the development of new approaches to control bacterial resistance and to the possibility of discovering new drugs.


Introdução: as infecções bacterianas são um problema de saúde pública. Além disso, o surgimento de cepas resistentes aos antimicrobianos tem contribuído para a busca de novas alternativas, como a pesquisa de terpenos com potencial antimicrobiano. Objetivos: o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a possível interação de monoterpenos isolados (-) - Carveol, Geraniol, Citronelol, α-terpineol, R - (-) Carvona, (-)-Mentol, Linalol, D-Diidrocarvona e (-)-Terpina-4-ol com antimicrobianos convencionais (cloranfenicol, minociclina, amoxicilina e ciprofloxacina) quando avaliados em Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli e Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Metodologia: as concentrações inibitórias mínimas destas drogas foram determinadas usando o método de microdiluição. O método checkerboard foi utilizado para avaliar as interações, determinando o índice de concentração inibitória fracionária (índice FIC). Resultados: entre os monoterpenos, apenas Carveol, Citronelol e Geraniol apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana (CIM < 1024 µg/mL). Eles apresentaram efeitos sinérgicos contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-9027 (índice FIC ≤ 0,5) quando em combinação com Minociclina. Conclusão: este estudo contribui para o desenvolvimento de novas abordagens para o controle da resistência bacteriana e para a possibilidade de descoberta de novas drogas.


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Bacillus subtilis , Complementary Therapies , Monoterpenes , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Anti-Infective Agents
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 341-352, 01-03-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146253

ABSTRACT

Essential oils have emerged as an alternative to synthetic insecticides in the control of stored grain pests. The toxicity and repellency of the essential oils of four basil cultivars and three basil hybrids and the monoterpenes linalool, citral, and (E)-methyl cinnamate were evaluated in the stored grain pests Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophillus zeamais. The essential oils of the cultivar Genovese and the hybrid 'Genovese' x 'Maria Bonita' were more toxic to C. maculatus. Conversely, the essential oils of the cultivar Sweet Dani and the hybrid 'Cinnamom' x 'Maria Bonita' were more toxic to S. zeamais. Among the monoterpenes, (E)-methyl cinnamate was the most toxic to both pests, taking 0.14 and 0.34 µ L.mL-1 to kill 50% of the C. maculatus and S. zeamais populations, respectively. All essential oils from cultivars, hybrids, and monoterpenes were repellent to S. zeamais, except for (E)-methyl cinnamate. For C. maculatus, this effect was lower, being citral the most repellent compound. Results demonstrate the insecticidal potential of the essential oil of O. basilicum and its monoterpenes in the control of stored grain pests.


Os óleos essenciais surgem como alternativa aos inseticidas sintéticos no controle das pragas de grãos armazenados. A toxicidade e a repelência dos óleos essenciais de quatro cultivares e três híbridos de manjericão e dos monoterpenos linalol, citral e (E)-cinamato de metila foram avaliadas nas pragas de grãos armazenados Callosobruchus maculatus e Sitophillus zeamais. Os óleos essenciais da cultivar Genovese e do híbrido 'Genovese' x 'Maria Bonita' foram mais tóxicos para C. maculatus. Já para S. zeamais, os óleos essenciais das cultivar Sweet Dani e do híbrido 'Cinnamom' x 'Maria Bonita' apresentaram maior toxicidade. Dentre os monoterpenos, o (E)-cinamato de metila foi o mais tóxico para ambas as pragas. Foram necessários 0,14 e 0,34 µ L.mL-1 para matar 50% da população de C. maculatus e S. zeamais. Todos os óleos essenciais das cultivares, dos híbridos e dos monoterpenos foram repelentes a S. zeamais, com exceção do (E)-cinamato de metila. Já para C. maculatus, este efeito foi reduzido, sendo o citral o composto mais repelente. Nos resultados demonstram o potencial inseticida dos óleos essenciais de O. basilicum e seus monoterpenos para o controle de pragas de grãos armazenados.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Ocimum basilicum , Lamiaceae , Insecticides
8.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-203722

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Liver cancer is ranked as the second most common cause of death globally as a result of its poorprognosis. It can be treated with sorafenib, but its use is limited due to its toxicity and adverse reactions. Lowerdoses of sorafenib with other complementary agents are recommended to minimize toxicity. Cardamom seeds areone of the most common ingredients of Indian and Chinese traditional medicine, and different studies havesuggested that cardamom extract can display anti-cancer activities. Aim: this study aims to investigate theefficiency of Elettaria Cardamom Extract (ECE) on enhancement of Sorafenib-induced apoptosis in HepG2.Methods: Human liver cancer cell line (HepG2) were exposed to increasing concentrations of individual andcombined treatments of Sorafenib and ECE for 24 h. The viability of cells was examined using MTT Assay.Clonogenicity and cell migration assays were carried out. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation andmitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) level were determined by DCFH-DA and JC-1 dye, respectively.Agarose gel electrophoresis and comet examinations were carried out to estimate the DNA damage. Results:Combined treatment of ECE with sorafenib suppressed the proliferation, colony formation and cell migration ofHepG2 cells more than the sorafenib did alone. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), after 24h ofincubation were 15 µM of sorafenib and 9 and 7.3 µM of sorafenib enhanced by 5 and 10 µg / 100 µl of ECErespectively. HepG2 treated cells displayed biochemical features of apoptotic cell death. The combined treatmentincreased the ROS production, reduced the level of MMP, increased Comet tail length and induced DNAfragmentation more than sorafenib did alone. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that ECE enhanced thesorafenib effect in HepG2 cells and suggest that the ECE may be a promising agent for reducing sorafenib sideeffects in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846503

ABSTRACT

Paeoniae Radix Alba (PRA) is a clinically commonly used drug for tonifying blood and regulating meridians, which was listed as one of the highest grade herb in Shengnong's Classic of Materia Medica. The main chemical constituents of PRA are monoterpenes, triterpenes and flavonoids, and its processing methods are cleansing, cutting, adding auxiliary materials, etc. At present, the mainstream processing methods are stir-frying or stir-frying with wine. Modern studies have shown that PRA has the effects of protecting cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant. In this paper, we consulted with the ancient Chinese materia medica and ancient Chinese medical book, analyzed the local traditional Chinese medicine slices processing norms and modern pharmacopoeia. Meanwhile, we reviewed the history of PRA in function and processing, and discussed the modern processing technology, chemical composition and pharmacological research in some extent. We hope it can be helpful for some related research of PRA.

10.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e094, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132678

ABSTRACT

Abstract We aimed to evaluate the orofacial antinociceptive effect of geraniol in mice and its molecular anchorage mechanism. Seven mice per group (probabilistic sample) were treated with geraniol (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.), morphine (6 mg/kg, i.p.) and vehicle (saline + Tween 80 at 0.2%, i.p.) 30 minutes prior to the beginning of the experiment. Injecting glutamate (25 μM), capsaicin (2.5 μg) and formalin (2%) into the right upper lip (perinasal) of the mouse induced nociception. Behavioral analysis of the animals considered the friction time (in seconds) of the mentioned region using hind or front paws by a researcher blinded to the treatment groups. The statistical analysis was performed blindly, considering α = 5%. The results showed that in the glutamate and capsaicin tests, concentrations of 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg presented antinociceptive activity (p < 0.005, power> 80%). In the formalin test, geraniol was able to reduce nociception at a concentration of 50 mg/kg (p < 0.005, power> 80%). In the molecular anchorage study, high values of binding between the evaluated substance and receptors of glutamate were observed (metabotropic glutamate receptor, -87.8501 Kcal/mol; N-methyl-D-aspartate, -86.4451 Kcal/mol; α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid, -85.6755 Kcal/mol). Geraniol presented orofacial antinociceptive activity, probably by interacting with glutamate-related receptors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Facial Pain , Terpenes , Pain Measurement , Acyclic Monoterpenes , Analgesics
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(5): 925-932, Nov. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055040

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: D-limonene (DL) is a monoterpene and is the major component in the essential oil of citrus fruit. It presents antihyperglycemic and vasodilatation activities. Objectives: This study evaluated the cardiovascular effects and potential antiarrhythmic of DL in rats. Methods: Hemodynamic and electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters were measured in male Wistar rats, which under anesthesia had been cannulated in the abdominal aorta and lower vena cava and had electrodes subcutaneously implanted. In the in vitro approach, the heart was removed and perfused using the Langendorff technique. The significance level adopted was 5% (p < 0.05). Results: DL, in doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg (i.v), produced intense and persistent bradycardia associated with hypotension. Bradycardia with prolonged QTc was observed in the ECG in vivo recording. In the in vivo model of arrhythmia induced by Bay K8644, DL (10 mg/kg) decreased the arrhythmia score from 15.33 ± 3.52 to 4.0 ± 2.64 u.a (p < 0.05, n = 4). In isolated perfused hearts, DL (10-3 M) promoted significant reductions in heart rate (from 228.6 ± 8.5 ms to 196.0 ± 9.3 bpm; p < 0.05) and left ventricular development pressure (from 25.2 ± 3.4 to 5.9 ± 1.8 mmHg; n = 5, p < 0.05). Conclusions: DL produces bradycardia and antiarrhythmic activity in rat heart.


Resumo Fundamento: O D-limoneno (DL) é um monoterpeno e o principal componente do óleo essencial de frutas cítricas. Ele apresenta atividades anti-hiperglicêmicas e vasodilatadoras. Objetivos: Este estudo avaliou os efeitos cardiovasculares e antiarrítmicos potenciais do DL em ratos. Métodos: Os parâmetros hemodinâmicos e eletrocardiográficos (ECG) foram mensurados em ratos Wistar machos que, sob anestesia, tiveram a aorta abdominal e a veia cava inferior canuladas e receberam eletrodos implantados subcutaneamente. Na abordagem in vitro, o coração foi removido e perfundido utilizando a técnica de Langendorff. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5% (p < 0,05). Resultados: DL, nas doses de 10, 20 e 40 mg/kg (i.v), produziu bradicardia intensa e persistente associada à hipotensão. A bradicardia com QTc prolongado foi observada no registro in vivo do ECG. No modelo in vivo de arritmia induzida por Bay K8644, DL (10 mg / kg) houve diminuição do escore da arritmia de 15,33 ± 3,52 para 4,0 ± 2,64 u.a (p < 0,05, n = 4). Em corações perfundidos isolados, o DL (10-3 M) promoveu reduções significativas na frequência cardíaca (de 228,6 ± 8,5 ms para 196,0 ± 9,3 bpm; p < 0,05) e na pressão desenvolvida do ventrículo esquerdo (de 25,2 ± 3,4 para 5,9 ± 1,8 mmHg; n = 5, p < 0,05). Conclusões: O DL produz bradicardia e atividade antiarrítmica no coração de ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Bradycardia/drug therapy , Limonene/therapeutic use , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Bradycardia/diagnosis , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Pressure/drug effects , Models, Animal , Electrocardiography , Isolated Heart Preparation , Limonene/pharmacology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Hypotension , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/pharmacology
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 566-576, nov. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102643

ABSTRACT

This paper reports for the first time volatile compounds, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from the leaves of Waltheria indica L. (Stericullaceae) growing in Nigeria. The essential oil was hydro-distilled and characterized by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on carrageenan induced rat paw edema while the anti-nociceptive test was based on hot plate model. The hydro-distillation afforded 0.41% (dry weight basis) of light green oil. Forty compounds representing 99.8% were identified in the oil. The main constituents of the oil were limonene (34.7%), sabinene (21.2%) and citronellal (9.7%). The anti-nociceptive property of the essential oils statically inhibited edema development (p<0.001) at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg independent of time of exposure. However, the 100 mg/kg Waltheria indica essential oils (WIEO) displayed a relatively low inhibition (p<0.01-p>0.5) which declines as exposure time increases. The anti-inflammatory activities shows a steady rate and non-dose dependent activity (p<0.001) up to the 3rd h of inflammation study. Conversely, a sharp reduction at the rate of p<0.5, 0.1 and 0.01 for the 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg WIEO doses respectively. Overall, the results presented sustain and establish the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties and justifies the need for further evaluation and development of the essential oils from this plant.


Este artículo informa por primera vez de compuestos volátiles, actividades anti-nociceptivas y antiinflamatorias de aceites esenciales de las hojas de Waltheria indica L. (Stericullaceae) que crecen en Nigeria. El aceite esencial fue hidro-destilado y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases-detección de ionización de llama (GC-FID) y cromatografía de gases junto con análisis de espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). La actividad antiinflamatoria se evaluó en el edema de pata de rata inducido por carragenano, mientras que la prueba antinociceptiva se basó en el modelo de placa caliente. La destilación hidráulica proporcionó 0,41% (en peso seco) de aceite verde claro. Cuarenta compuestos que representan el 99.8% fueron identificados en el aceite. Los principales componentes del aceite fueron el limoneno (34,7%), el sabineno (21,2%) y el citronelal (9,7%). La propiedad anti-nociceptiva de los aceites esenciales inhibió estáticamente el desarrollo del edema (p<0.001) a una dosis de 200 y 400 mg/kg independientemente del tiempo de exposición. Sin embargo, los aceites esenciales de Waltheria indica de 100 mg/kg (WIEO) mostraron una inhibición relativamente baja (p<0.01-p>0.5) que disminuye a medida que aumenta el tiempo de exposición. Las actividades antiinflamatorias muestran una tasa constante y una actividad no dependiente de la dosis (p<0.001) hasta la tercera hora del estudio de inflamación. Por el contrario, una fuerte reducción a una tasa de p<0.5, 0.1 y 0.01 para las dosis de 100, 200 y 400 mg/kg de WIEO respectivamente. En general, los resultados presentados sostienen y establecen las propiedades anti-nociceptivas y antiinflamatorias y justifican la necesidad de una mayor evaluación y desarrollo de los aceites esenciales de esta planta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Malvaceae/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Temperature , Carrageenan/toxicity , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Rats, Wistar , Monoterpenes/analysis , Flame Ionization , Analgesics/pharmacology , Inflammation/chemically induced
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773665

ABSTRACT

Pistacia lentiscus,which belongs to foreign medicine resources,is widely distributed in the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern area. The essential oils are a mixture of several volatile compounds mainly monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes obtained from different parts of P. lentiscus by hydrodistillation. The variability of chemical composition,biological activities and content of essential oil is strongly affected by extraction technology,environmental and sex factors. It is indicated that essential oils of P. lentiscus have kinds of biological activities such as antibacterial,anticancer,anti-atherogenesis,antioxidant,anti-inflammatory and insecticidal activities.Many scholars hold the opinion that combination of different components with synergistic and/or additive actions should account for their biological activities. Due to its diverse efficacy and special taste,the essential oil of P. lentiscus has been extensively used in medicine,food and cosmetics industries. A mini review of chemical constituents and biological activities of essential oil of P. lentiscus in the past20 years is made here to provide valuable reference for the construction of " the Belt and Road".


Subject(s)
Monoterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Oils, Volatile , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Pistacia , Chemistry , Plant Oils , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(5): 1200-1209, sept./oct. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-967307

ABSTRACT

The present study evaluated the antifungal activity of the essential oils of chemotypes of Myrcia lundiana and their major compounds on the fungi Fusarium pallidoroseum, Fusarium solani, and Colletotrichum musae. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GCMS/FID. For the evaluation of the antifungal activity, the essential oils and the major compounds were tested at the concentration of 0.1 mL/L until the fungicidal effect was detected. The major compounds detected in the essential oil were 1,8-cineole, isopulegol, and citral. The chemotypes (MLU-005 and MLU-019) provided 100% mycelial growth inhibition for the fungus F. pallidoroseum from the concentration of 1.1 mL/L (minimum inhibition concentration - MIC). For chemotype (MLU-022), the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) was 0.3 mL/L. For F. solani, the essential oils of the chemotypes (MLU-005 and MLU-019) presented MIC at concentrations of 7.0 and 5.0 mL/L, respectively. The essential oil of the chemotype (MLU-022) presented MFC of 0.6 mL/L. Different MIC was observed for the three studied chemotypes for the fungus C. musae, ranging between 0.4 mL/L, for the chemotype (MLU-005); 0.5 mL/L, for the chemotype (MLU-022); and 0.7 mL/L, for the chemotype (MLU-019). The best MFC was observed for the chemotype (MLU-005) (0.5 mL/L). The major compounds tested separately presented better MIC values when compared with their chemotypes, except for the compound 1,8-cineole, which presented lower mycelial growth inhibition for the three fungi tested, suggesting that the chemical profile or the presence of some other compound of the essential oil may inhibit the growth of the three fungi studied. The compound isopulegol provided lower MFC for the fungus C. musae (0.4517 mL/L) when compared with the fungi F. pallidoroseum and F. solani, (MFC of 0.4927 mL/L). The compound citral provided a lower MFC on the fungus C. musae (0.1668 mL/L) in relation to the other fungi tested. The essential oils of the chemotypes of M. lundiana and their major compounds showed potential to control the studied phytopathogens and can be an alternative for agriculture for presenting an inhibitory and fungicidal effect against these organisms at lower concentrations.


O presente trabalho avaliou a atividade antifúngica de óleos essenciais de quimiotipos de Myrcia lundiana dos seus compostos majoritários sobre os fungos Fusarium pallidoroseum, Fusarium solani e Colletotrichum musae. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados por CGEM/DIC. Para avaliação da atividade antifúngica, foram testados os óleos essenciais e os compostos majoritários na concentração de 0,1 mL/L até encontrar o efeito fungicida. Os principais compostos presentes no óleo essencial foram 1,8-cineol, isopulegol e citral. Os quimiotipos (MLU-005 e MLU-019) proporcionaram 100% de inibição do crescimento micelial para o fungo F. pallidoroseum a partir da concentração de 1,1 mL/L (Concentração Inibitória Mínima ­ CIM). Para o quimiotipo (MLU-022), a melhor concentração fungicida mínima (CFM) foi de 0,3 mL/L. Para F. solani, os óleos essenciais dos quimiotipos (MLU-005 e MLU-019) apresentaram CIM nas concentrações de 7,0 e 5,0 mL/L, respectivamente. O óleo essencial do quimiotipo (MLU-022) apresentou CFM de 0,6 mL/L. Observou-se CIM diferenciado para os três quimiotipos estudados para o fungo C. musae, variando entre 0,4 mL/L, para o quimiotipo (MLU-005); 0,5 mL/L, para o quimiotipo (MLU-022); e 0,7 mL/L, para o quimiotipo (MLU-019). O quimiotipo MLU-005 apresentou o melhor CFM, 0,5 mL/L. Os compostos majoritários testados separadamente apresentaram melhores valores de CIM frente aos seus quimiotipos, exceto o composto 1,8-cineol, que apresentou menor inibição do crescimento micelial para os três fungos testados, sugerindo que o perfil químico ou a presença de algum outro composto no óleo essencial pode estar atuando na inibição do crescimento dos três fungos estudados. O composto isopulegol proporcionou menor CFM para o fungo C. musae (0,4517 mL/L) em relação aos fungos F. pallidoroseum e F. solani, para os quais apresentou CFM de 0,4927 mL/L. O composto citral proporcionou um menor CFM sobre o fungo C. musae (0,1668 mL/L), em relação aos demais fungos testados. Os óleos essenciais de quimiotipos de M. lundiana e seus compostos majoritários apresentaram potencial para o controle dos fitopatógenos estudados, podendo ser considerados como uma alternativa para a agricultura, uma vez que em concentrações mais baixas apresentaram efeito inibitório e fungicida frente a estes organismos.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Colletotrichum , Myrtaceae , Monoterpenes , Fungi , Fusarium
16.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 27(6): 679-690, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-898730

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The profile of volatile organic compounds, the glandular and non-glandular trichomes of Plectranthus ornatus, obtained by in vitro cultivation, was evaluated in plants grown in Murashide and Skoog medium supplemented with benylaminopurine at 4.5, 9.0, and 18.0 µM + naphthaleneacetic acid at 5.37 µM, kinetin at 4.7, 9.3 and 18.5 µM + naphthaleneacetic acid (5.37 µM) or Murashide and Skoog 0 medium (as a control). Scanning Electron Microscopy was performed on samples of the third leaf node of the 90 days old plants obtained from treatment with 4.5 or 9.0 µM benylaminopurine, and 4.7 or 9.3 µM kinetin. Headspace Solid Phase Micro-Extraction of the 30, 60 and 90 days old in vitro plants permitted to determinate by GC/MS the composition comprised of 62 compounds. The data were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis and, the major constituents of these oils after treatment and aging were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Morphoanatomical analysis of trichomes, by Scanning Electron Microscopy, enabled the identification of non-glandular trichomes and four types of glandular trichomes, which comprised capitate and peltate glandular trichomes that were distributed on both sides of the leaf. We observed that the regulators influenced qualitative and quantitative profiles of the volatile organic compounds and the number and distribution of hairs on the leaf surface.

17.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(1): 26-33, ene. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907562

ABSTRACT

This paper reports the chemical constituents of essential oils from the various parts of Alpinia macroura K. Schum (Zingiberaceae) from Vietnam. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by means of gas chromatography coupled to Flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main constituents of the oils were beta-pinene (8.8 percent-16.4 percent), 1,8-cineole (5.5 percent-17.7 percent), upsilon-terpinene (5.9 percent-16.9 percent), alpha-pinene (4.5 percent-8.4 percent) and beta-caryophyllene (1.4 percent-18.6 percent). Sabinene (9.0 percent) was identified only in the fruit. Overall, nineteen of the identified compounds are coming to all the essential oils. The chemical constituents of essential oils from the leaf, stem, root, fruit and flower of A. macroura are being reported for the first time and were found to be different from those of other Alpinia oils.


En este trabajo se presentan los componentes químicos de los aceites esenciales de las distintas partes de Alpinia macroura K. Schum (Zingiberaceae) de Vietnam. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación y se analizaron por medio de cromatografía de gases acoplada a detector de ionización de llama (GC-FID) y cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC/MS). Los principales constituyentes de los aceites fueron beta-pineno (8,8 por ciento -16,4 por ciento), 1,8-cineol (5,5 por ciento -17,7 por ciento), ípsilon-terpineno (5,9 por ciento -16,9 por ciento), alfa-pineno (4,5 por ciento -8,4 por ciento) y beta-cariofileno (1,4 por ciento -18,6 por ciento). Sabineno (9,0 por ciento) fue identificado solamente en la fruta. En general, diecinueve de los compuestos identificados están llegando a todos los aceites esenciales. Los componentes químicos de los aceites esenciales de la hoja, tallo, raíz, frutas y flores de A. macroura están siendo reportados por primera vez y se encontró que eran diferentes de las de otros aceites de Alpinia.


Subject(s)
Alpinia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Distillation , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-180449

ABSTRACT

Recently, studying essential oils and secondary metabolites of plants and microalgae have received much attention. The biosynthesis of the secondary metabolites is strongly influenced by different environmental factors. Monoterpenes as a main fraction of essential oils of fruits and vegetables have many clinical applications. They could inhibit the carcinogenesis processes and therefore might be effective in treatment of cancers. Dunaliella salina, a photosynthetic green microalga is known as a rich source for β-carotene production. In this study, the effects of some monoterpenes including menthone and piperitone was investigated on yield of production of β-carotene were studied. Menthone and piperitone as parameters of stress can make tensions to the medium of D. salina increasing its β-carotene and chlorophyll a content in every single cell but on the other hand these two monoterpenes cause a decrease in the concentration of β-carotene and chlorophyll a.

19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(2): 172-176, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782106

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine whether an herbal extract containing monoterpene exhibited activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical infection samples. METHODS: The essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague ex Turrill (Apiaceae) fruit was extracted by hydrodistillation. Fruit residues were treated with hydrochloric acid and re-hydrodistilled to obtain volatile compounds. Compounds in the distilled oil were identified using gas-chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). The antibiotic susceptibility of all bacterial isolates was analyzed using both the disc diffusion method and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The sensitivity of antibiotic-resistant isolates to essential oil was also determined by using the disc diffusion method and MIC determination. RESULTS: Of 26 clinical isolates, 92% were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Aromatic monoterpenes (thymol, paracymene, and gamma-terpinene) were the major (90%) components of the oil. Growth of S. aureus strains was successfully inhibited by the oil, with an inhibitory zone diameter (IZD) between 30-60mm and MIC <0.02μL/mL. The oil had no antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa; rather, it prevented pigment production in these isolates. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi, which contains monoterpene, has good antibacterial potency. Monoterpenes could thus be incorporated into antimicrobial ointment formulas in order to treat highly drug-resistant S. aureus infections. Our findings also underscore the utility of research on natural products in order to combat bacterial multidrug resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Apiaceae/chemistry , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Apiaceae/classification , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Monoterpenes/isolation & purification , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-500369

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the medicinal uses of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. (R. epapposum) growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia, through the chemical diversity of essential oils extracted from its flowers, leaves and stems. Methods: Aerial parts of R. epapposum were collected in April 2014. Air dried flowers, leaves, and stems were separately subjected to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 4 h to extract the essential oils. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oils was carried out using an Agilent 6890 gas chromatograph equipped with an Agilent 5973 mass spectrometric detector. Results: A total of 51 compounds representing 76.35%–94.86%of flowers, leaves and stems oils composition were identified. The chemical profiles of the studied fractions revealed the dominance of monoterpenes, regardless of qualitative and quantitative dif-ferences observed. Limonene, linalool, 4-terpineol and a-cadinol represented the major constituents of flowers oil. Leaves oil was dominated by limonene, sabinene, a-pinene and β-myrcene whereas linalool, ionole, a-cadinol, β-eudesmol, 4-terpineol, and a-terpineol were the major constituents of stems oil. Conclusions: Essential oils from flowers, leaves and stems of R. epapposum growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia are considered as a rich source of monoterpenes which have biological activities.

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