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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249125, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339338

ABSTRACT

Abstract COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.


Resumo Covid-19 é relatada como uma doença extremamente contagiosa com sintomas comuns de febre, tosse seca, dor de garganta e cansaço. A literatura publicada sobre incidência e prevalência de Covid-19 com base no gênero é escassa no Paquistão. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar a distribuição, o período de incubação e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 entre a população masculina e feminina do distrito de Attock. Os dados foram coletados entre 1 de abril de 2020 e 7 de dezembro de 2020 da população do distrito de Attock, Paquistão. Um total de 22.962 indivíduos foi selecionado, e 843 foram considerados positivos para RT-qPCR para SARS-CoV-2. Os casos positivos confirmados foram monitorados cuidadosamente. Entre os casos positivos, a incidência de Covid-19 foi de 61,7% no sexo masculino e 38,2% no feminino. O período médio de recuperação dos homens foi de 18,89 ± 7,75 dias e das mulheres 19 ± 8,40 dias do SARS-CoV-2. A mortalidade geral foi de 8,06%. A taxa de mortalidade de pacientes do sexo masculino foi significativamente maior (P < 0,05) em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade foi maior (P < 0,05) em pacientes do sexo masculino com 40-60 anos de idade em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino da mesma faixa etária. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade aumentou significativamente (P < 0,05) com o aumento da idade, independentemente do sexo. Em conclusão, a incidência e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 são maiores no sexo masculino em comparação com a população feminina. E também, independentemente do sexo, a taxa de mortalidade foi significativamente menor entre os pacientes com idade < 40 anos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19 , Pakistan/epidemiology , Incidence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Infectio ; 26(2): 156-160, Jan.-June 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356262

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La mortalidad por SARS-COV-2 ha disminuido en diferentes países, pero no se ha evaluado si es igual en Colombia, o si se relaciona con las carac terísticas de los pacientes y tratamientos utilizados. Objetivo: Comparar la mortalidad por SARS-COV-2, en dos periodos de tiempo controlando por factores de riesgo asociados con mortalidad. Metodología: Estudio observacional, basado en una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes con SARS-COV-2 atendidos en el Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Bogotá (Colombia), desde el 19 de marzo al 12 de noviembre, 2020. Se comparó la tasa de mortalidad intrahospitalaria de los pacientes egresados antes y después del 21 de agosto de 2020 (primer pico de mortalidad en Colombia) y se analizó el impacto del momento de atención controlando por comorbilidades, severidad al ingreso y tratamiento recibido, usando un modelo de regresión logística. Resultados: 1399 pacientes (944 antes y 455 después del primer pico de mortalidad) fueron analizados. La tasa de mortalidad intrahospitalaria global fue similar en ambos periodos (17.6% vs 16.3%, p=0.539). En el análisis multivariado se encontró que la atención en el segundo periodo de tiempo se asoció a menor mortalidad (OR 0.66 IC95% 0.47; 0.93, p=0.018), a diferencia del aumento de la misma asociado a la edad (OR 1.06 IC95% 1.05; 1.07, p<0.001), sexo masculino (OR 1.84 IC95% 1.33; 2.54 p<0.001), cirrosis (OR 1.89 IC95% 1.24; 2.88, p=0.003), enfermedad renal (OR 1.36 IC95% 1.00; 1.83, p=0.043) y el uso de dexametasona (OR 1.53 IC95% 1.03; 2.28, p=0.031). Conclusiones: La tasa de mortalidad intrahospitalaria se redujo después del 21 de agosto durante la primera ola de la pandemia en Bogotá, posiblemente asociado a la mejoría en la capacidad de respuesta del sistema de salud en ese momento, o a un menor inoculo viral de los pacientes infectados. Estos hallazgos pueden cambiar con la saturación del sistema de salud.


Abstract Introduction: Mortality secondary to SARS-COV 2 has decreases around the world, however this has not been evaluated in Colombia neither has the correlation between patient characteristics or treatments. Objective: To compare the mortality due to SARS-COV-2, in two periods of time, controlling risk factors associated with mortality. Methodology: Observational retrospective cohort study of patients with SARS- COV-2 treated at the San Ignacio University Hospital in Bogotá (Colombia), from March 19 to November 12, 2020. The in-hospital mortality rate of patients discharged before and after August 21, 2020 (surge mortality in Colombia) was com pared. The impact of the moment of attention was analyzed controlled by comorbidities, severity at admission and treatment received using a bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model. Results: 1399 patients (944 before and 455 after August 21) were analyzed. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was similar at both times (17.6%vs16.3percentage, p=0.539). In the multivariate analysis, it was found that the moment of attention was associated with lower mortality (OR 0.66 95% CI0.47;0.93,p=0.018), in contrast to its increase associated with age (OR 1.06 95% CI 1.05;1.07,p=<0.001), male sex (OR 1.84 95%CI 1.33;2.54,p=<0.001), cirrhosis (OR1.89 95%CI 1.24;2.88, p=0.003), kidney disease (OR 1.36 95% CI1.00;1.83,p=0.043) and the use of dexamethasone (OR1.53 95%CI 1.03;2.28,p=0.031). Conclusions: The in-hospital mortality rate fell after August 21 during the first wave of the pandemic in Bogotá-Colombia, possibly associated with an improvement in response capacity, or a lower viral inoculum of infected patients. These findings may change with the saturation of the health system

3.
Pediatr Panamá ; 51(1): 6-13, May2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368292

ABSTRACT

Introducción: A pesar del progreso en la medicina intensiva y de la amplia gama de antibióticos disponibles, la mortalidad por la meningitis bacteriana aguda (MBA) se ha mantenido estable durante las últimas décadas. Objetivo: Determinar factores de riesgo para mortalidad por MBA. Pacientes y Método: Estudio transversal retrospectivo analítico realizado en el Hospital Universitario de Pediatría "Dr. Agustín Zubillaga" (Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela), entre 2017 y 2020. Regresión de Cox. Resultados: Un total de 69 niños con MBA fueron incluidos en el análisis. La mortalidad fue del 15,9%. Los factores asociados a mortalidad fueron: Edad menor de 1 año, sepsis, secreción inapropiada de hormona antidiurética (SIHAD), acidosis metabólica persistente e infección por Neisseria meningitidis. Mediante un modelo de regresión de Cox se identificó como predictores independientes de mortalidad en niños con MBA: Sepsis (HR=8,457; IC95%: 1,495 ­ 47,841; p = 0,016), SIHAD (HR=10,093; IC95%: 1,721 ­ 59,206; p = 0,010) e infección por Neisseria meningitidis (HR=8,758; IC95%: 1,982 ­ 38,697; p = 0,004). Conclusión: La sepsis, el síndrome de SIHAD y la infección por Neisseria meningitidis fueron identificados como variables independientes asociadas a mortalidad en niños con MBA.


Introduction: Despite progress in intensive medicine and the wide range of available antibiotics, the mortality of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) has remained stable during the last decades. Objective: To determine risk factors for mortality in children with ABM. Patients and Method: An analytical retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the Hospital Universitario de Pediatría "Dr. Agustín Zubillaga" (Barquisimeto, Lara Estate, Venezuela), between 2017 and 2020. Cox regression. Results: A total of 69 children with ABM were included in the analysis. The mortality rate was 15,9%. The factors associated with mortality were: children younger than 1 year, sepsis, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and Neisseria meningitidis infection. Through Cox regression model was identified as predictors for mortality in children with ABM: Sepsis (HR=8,457; CI95%: 1,495 ­ 47,841; p = 0,016), SIADH (HR=10,093; CI95%: 1,721 ­ 59,206; p = 0,010) and Neisseria meningitidis infection (HR=8,758; CI95%: 1,982 ­ 38,697; p = 0,004). Conclusions: Sepsis, SIADH and Neisseria meningitidis infection were identified as independent variables related with mortality in children with ABM.

4.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(287): 7618-7627, abr.2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372576

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: identificar a causa de morte infantil hospitalar, correlacionando-a com as causas evitaveís de mortalidade e associando-a com a prevalência do município. Métodos: a pesquisa foi realizada utilizando como base de informações as certidões de óbitos e prontuários arquivados no Hospital Regional do Mato Grosso do Sul, dos quais foram selecionados os óbitos do período de 2012 a 2017 de crianças menores de 5 anos e foram analisados as variáveis sociodemográficas e causas das mortes. Resultados: ocorreram 364 mortes infantis no período, sendo que 75% dos óbitos registrados são classificados como causas evitáveis de óbitos infantis. Conclusão: são necessárias ações para a qualificação de recursos humanos e estruturas de saúde no âmbito hospitalar com enfoque nas causas evitáveis, sendo mandatório a atualização dos indicadores de mortalidade infantil, visto que representam a efetividade dos serviços de saúde e fazem parte da vigilância epidemiologia no âmbito da saúde coletiva.(AU)


Objectives: to identify the cause of infant death in hospital, correlating it with preventable causes of mortality and associating it with the prevalence in the municipality. Methods: the research was conducted using death certificates and medical records filed at the Regional Hospital of Mato Grosso do Sul as a basis of information, from which deaths from 2012 to 2017 of children under 5 years were selected and the variables were analyzed sociodemographic factors and causes of death. Results: there were 364 infant deaths in the period, and 75% of registered deaths are classified as preventable causes of infant deaths. Conclusion: actions are needed for the qualification of human resources and health structures in the hospital environment with a focus on preventable causes, and it is mandatory to update the infant mortality indicators, as they represent the effectiveness of health services and are part of the epidemiology surveillance in the scope of collective health.(AU)


Objetivos: identificar la causa de muerte infantil en el hospital, correlacionarla con las causas prevenibles de mortalidad y asociarla con la prevalencia en el municipio. Métodos: la investigación se realizó utilizando como base de información los certificados de defunción y las historias clínicas archivadas en el Hospital Regional de Mato Grosso do Sul, a partir de la cual se seleccionaron las defunciones de 2012 a 2017 de niños menores de 5 años y se analizaron las variables factores sociodemográficos y causas de muerte. Resultados: hubo 364 defunciones infantiles en el período y el 75% de las defunciones registradas se clasifican como causas evitables de defunción infantil. Conclusión: se requieren acciones para la calificación de los recursos humanos y las estructuras de salud en el ámbito hospitalario con foco en las causas prevenibles, y es obligatorio actualizar los indicadores de mortalidad infantil, ya que representan la efectividad de los servicios de salud y son parte de la epidemiología vigilancia en el ámbito de la salud colectiva(AU)


Subject(s)
Infant Mortality , Public Health , Epidemiological Monitoring
5.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 57-64, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362673

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se analisar o perfil epidemiológico e as causas da mortalidade neonatal e infantil, em uma Regional de Saúde, de janeiro/2018 a agosto/2020. Trata-se de pesquisa exploratória, descritiva, transversal, retrospectivo, com abordagem quantitativa. A coleta de dados ocorreu em agosto de 2020, por meio de questionário elaborado pelas pesquisadoras, com base nas declarações de óbito disponibilizadas no Sistema de Informações de Mortalidade. O instrumento abordou as variáveis, sexo, raça, cor, idade da criança, idade materna, escolaridade materna, via de parto, idade gestacional, peso ao nascer, causa do óbito. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva e distribuição de frequência, por meio do Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), versão 25.0. Constatou-se o predomínio de óbitos no sexo masculino (56,5%), de raça branca (87,8%), com equivalência entre extremo baixo peso e adequado (31,3%), com a principal causa de óbito por septicemia (13,9%). Quanto aos dados maternos, prevaleceram idade entre 21 e 30 anos de idade (45,2%) com gestação única (85,21%) e parto cesariano (65,2 %). Desses, 47,87% ocorreram no ano de 2018. Analisar os aspectos da mortalidade neonatal e infantil possibilita o planejamento e a readequação de ações no atendimento à saúde da criança, durante o período mais vulnerável e mais crítico dela, contribuindo, assim, para redução do número de óbitos.


This study analyzed the epidemiological profile and the causes of neonatal and infant mortality in a Health Regional Area between January 2018 and August 2020. This is an exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective study with a quantitative approach. Data collection took place during August 2020 through a questionnaire prepared by the researchers, based on the death certificates available in the Mortality Information System. The instrument included the variables of sex, race, color, child's age, mother's age, maternal education, childbirth mode, gestational age, birth weight, cause of death. The data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis and frequency distribution using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0. There was a predominance of deaths among boys (56.5%), Caucasian (87.8%), with equivalence between extreme low and adequate weight (31.3%), with the main cause of death being septicemia (13.9%). As for maternal data, age between 21 to 30 years old (45.2%) prevailed, and 85.21% had a single pregnancy, with C-section childbirth (65.2%). From these, 47.87% occurred in 2018. It can be concluded that analyzing the aspects of neonatal and child mortality enables the planning and adjustment of actions in child health care during its most vulnerable and most critical period, thus contributing to reducing the number of deaths.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Regional Health Planning , Infant Mortality , Early Neonatal Mortality , Birth Weight , Cause of Death , Death , Delivery of Health Care , Neonatal Sepsis/mortality , Health Services Research
6.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 230-242, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364972

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in Brazil. Objective To provide population-based data on prevalence and factors associated with CVD risk factors. Methods Individuals aged ≥20 years from two editions of the cross-sectional Health Survey of São Paulo focusing on Nutrition (ISA-Nutrition), performed in Sao Paulo city in 2008 (n=590) and 2015 (n=610), were evaluated for: obesity, central obesity, waist/height ratio, high blood pressure (HBP), dyslipidemia, diabetes, and number of CVD risk factors ≥3. Prevalence was estimated according to complex survey procedures. Factors associated with cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using logistic regression, with statistical significance of p<0.05. Results Obesity and older age were associated with higher odds of all cardiovascular risk factors investigated, except for dyslipidemia. HBP was positively associated with being Black/Brown and negatively associated with being physicaly active in leisure time. Women were more likely to have increased adiposity indicators and three or more cardiovascular risk factors than men. Those with higher education had lower chances of having diabetes, HBP and dyslipidemia, and those with higher income had higher chances of having three or more risk factors. Former smokers had higher odds of diabetes, obesity, and high waist/height ratio, and smokers had higher odds of high non-HDL cholesterol levels. From 2008 to 2015, there was an increase (p<0.001) in the prevalence of diabetes (6.9% to 17.3%), HBP (31.9% to 41.8%), dyslipidemia (51.3% to 67.6%), and number of CVD risk factors ≥3 (18.9% to 34.1%). Conclusion This study shows increasing prevalence of CVD risk factors in adult population in Sao Paulo and may support the definition of target groups and priority actions on CVD prevention and treatment.

8.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(2): e26632, mar. 2022. graf, maps
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1367891

ABSTRACT

Introdução:As taxas de morbimortalidade materna, no Brasil, são evidenciadas pelo processo de trabalho intervencionista e por desigualdades socioculturais entre as regiões do país.Objetivo:Avaliar a adesão das regiões do Brasil à Rede Cegonha associada à mortalidade materna e aos indicadores de aleitamento materno exclusivo e cobertura da Atenção Básica.Metodologia:Trata-se de um estudo ecológico, do tipo transversal, onde foram analisados o comportamento da adesão à Rede cegonha, entre os anos de 2012 e 2017, associado a indicadores de saúde materna. Resultados:Percebeu-se que a adesão à Rede Cegonha coincidiu com o aumento da cobertura da atenção básica nas regiões do Brasil. Houve associação da adesão ao programa com a diminuição da mortalidade materna com o passar dos anos, com destaque para as regiões Sul e Sudeste do país. Ainda, a distribuição de coeficiente de aleitamento materno exclusivo revelou-se em crescimento em todas as regiões, com dados discrepantes na região sul. Conclusões:Observam-se os impactos da Rede Cegonha no Brasil dentro do recorte temporal estabelecido, expressos pela diminuição dos índices de mortalidade e melhoria dos indicadores de saúde, apesar das limitações institucionais e culturais encontradas (AU).


Introduction: Maternal morbidity and mortality rates in Brazil are evidenced by the interventionist work process and by sociocultural inequalities between the regions of the country. Objective:To evaluate the adhesion of regions of Brazil to rede cegonha associated with maternal mortality and indicators of exclusive breastfeeding and coverage of Primary Care. Methodology: This is an ecological, cross-sectional study, which analyzed the behavior of adhesion to the Stork Network between 2012 and 2017, associated with maternal health indicators. Results: It was noticed that the adhesion to Stork Network coincided with the increase in the coverage of Primary Care in the regions of Brazil. There was an association between adherence to the program and a decrease in maternal mortality over the years, especially in the South and Southeast regions of the country. Furthermore, the distribution of the coefficient of exclusive breastfeeding was growing in all regions, with discrepant data in the southern region. Conclusions: The impacts of Rede Cegonha in Brazil are observed within the established time frame, expressed by the decrease in mortality rates and improvement in health indicators, despite the institutional and cultural limitations found (AU).


Introducción: Las tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad materna en Brasil se evidencian por el proceso de trabajo intervencionista y por las desigualdades socioculturales entre las regiones del país. Objetivo: Evaluar la adhesión de las regiones de Brasil a la Rede Cegonha asociada a la mortalidad materna e indicadores de lactancia materna exclusiva y cobertura de Atención Primaria.Metodología: Se trata de un estudio ecológico, transversal, que analizó el comportamiento de incorporación a la Red Cigüeña entre 2012 y 2017, asociado a indicadores de salud materna.Resultados: Se notó que la adhesión a Rede Cegonha coincidió con el aumento de la cobertura de atención primaria en las regiones de Brasil. Hubo una asociación entre la adherencia al programa y una disminución de la mortalidad materna a lo largo de los años, especialmente en las regiones Sur y Sudeste del país. Además, la distribución del coeficiente de lactancia materna exclusiva estaba creciendo en todas las regiones, con datos discrepantes en la región sur.Conclusiones: Los impactos de la Rede Cegonha en Brasil se observan dentro del marco temporal establecido, expresados por la disminución de las tasas de mortalidad y la mejora de los indicadores de salud, a pesar de las limitaciones institucionales y culturales encontradas (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Brazil/epidemiology , Breast Feeding , Maternal Mortality , Maternal-Child Health Services , Maternal Health , Primary Health Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Health Status Indicators , Ecological Studies
9.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(2): e25243, mar. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1368175

ABSTRACT

Introdução:As doenças do aparelho respiratório se configuram como o segundo principal motivo de internações hospitalares no Brasil entre 2013 e 2017. Objetivo:Analisar a morbimortalidade de doenças do aparelho respiratório da população brasileira, segundo faixa etária,no período compreendido entre os anos de 2015 a 2019. Metodologia:Trata-se de um estudo do tipo ecológico, retrospectivo, realizado sobre o território brasileiro. Os dados foram coletados a partir do Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, nas seções de Morbidade Hospitalar, de Mortalidade e População Residente. Foram analisados os dados entre 2015 a 2019 e de todas as faixas etárias. Resultados:Ao investigar a mortalidade por doenças do sistema respiratório entre os anos de 2015 e 2019, as cinco causas mais frequentes foram: influenza e pneumonia; doenças crônicas das vias aéreas inferiores; outras doenças do aparelho respiratório; outras doenças respiratórias que afetam principalmente interstício; doenças pulmonares devidas a agentes externos, nessa ordem. Enquanto as cinco causas de morbidades mais frequentes foram: pneumonia; outras doenças do aparelho respiratório; bronquite, enfisema e outras doenças pulmonares obstrutivas crônicas; asma; bronquite aguda e bronquiolite aguda. Conclusões:Verificou-se que a pneumonia, influenza, doenças respiratórias do trato inferior e outras doenças crônicas respiratórias foram as mais prevalentes entre a população respectivamente. Dentre o público mais acometido, foi possível constatar que o público infantil e a população idosa foram os mais atingidos tanto na mortalidade quanto na morbidade (AU).


Introduction:Introduction: Respiratory diseases are the second main reason for hospital admissions in Brazil between 2013 and 2017. Objective:To analyze the morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases of the Brazilian population, according to age group, in the period from 2015 to 2019. Methodology:This is an ecological, retrospective study conducted on the Brazilian territory. Data were collected from the Informatics Department of the Unified Health System, in the Sections of Hospital Morbidity, Mortality and Resident Population. Data were analyzed between 2015 and 2019 and all age groups. Results:When investigating mortality from respiratory system diseases between 2015 and 2019, the five most frequent causes were: influenza and pneumonia; chronic diseases of the lower airways; other diseases of the respiratory system; other respiratory diseases that mainly affect interstitium; diseases due to external agents, in that order. Conclusions:It was found that pneumonia, influenza, respiratory diseases of the lower tract and other chronic respiratory diseases were the most prevalent among the population, respectively. Among the most affected public, it was possible to observe that the child's public and the elderly population were the most affected in both mortality and morbidity (AU).


Introducción: Las enfermedades respiratorias son la segunda razón principal de los ingresos hospitalarios en Brasil entre 2013 y 2017. Objetivo: Analizar la morbilidad y mortalidad de las enfermedades respiratorias de la población brasileña, según el grupo de edad, en el período comprendido entre 2015 y 2019.Metodología: Se trata de un estudio ecológico y retrospectivo realizado en territorio brasileño. Los datos fueron recogidos del Departamento de Informática del Sistema Unificado de Salud, en las Secciones de Morbilidad Hospitalaria, Mortalidad y Población Residente. Los datos se analizaron entre 2015 y 2019 y todos los grupos de edad. Resultados: Al investigar la mortalidad por enfermedades del sistema respiratorio entre 2015 y 2019, las cinco causas más frecuentes fueron: gripe y neumonía; enfermedades crónicas de las vías respiratorias inferiores; otras enfermedades del sistema respiratorio; otras enfermedades respiratorias que afectan principalmente al intersticio; enfermedades debidas a agentes externos, en ese orden.Mientras que las cinco causas más frecuentes de morbilidad fueron: neumonía; otras enfermedades del sistema respiratorio; bronquitis, enfisema y otras enfermedades pulmonares obstructivas crónicas; asma; bronquiolitis aguda y bronquiolitis aguda. While the five most frequent causes of morbidities were: pneumonia; other diseases of the respiratory system; bronchitis, emphysema and other chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases; asthma; acute bronchitis and acute bronchiolitis. Conclusiones: Se encontróque la neumonía, la influenza, las enfermedades respiratorias de las vías inferiores y otras enfermedades respiratorias crónicas eran las más prevalentes entre la población, respectivamente. Entre el público más afectado, se pudo observar que el público del niño y la población de edad avanzada eran los más afectados tanto en la mortalidad como en la morbilidad (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Respiratory System/anatomy & histology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Ecological Studies , Age Groups
10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(3): 1157-1170, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364677

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to analyze the role of period, geographic and socio demographic factors in cancer-related mortality by prostate, breast, cervix, colon, lung and esophagus cancer in Brazilians capitals (2000-2015). Ecological study using data of Brazilian Mortality Information. Multilevel Poisson models were used to estimate the adjusted risk of cancer mortality. Mortality rate levels were higher in males for colon, lung and esophageal cancers. Mortality rates were highest in the older. Our results showed an increased risk of colon cancer mortality in both sexes from 2000 to 2015, which was also evidenced for breast and lung cancers in women. In both genders, the highest mortality risk for lung and esophageal cancers was observed in Southern capitals. Midwestern, Southern and Southeastern capitals showed the highest mortality risk for colon cancer both for males and females. Colon cancer mortality rate increased for both genders, while breast and lung cancers mortality increased only for women. The North region showed the lowest mortality rate for breast, cervical, colon and esophageal cancers. The Midwest and Northeast regions showed the highest mortality rates for prostate cancer.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar o papel de fatores temporais, geográficos e sociodemográficos na mortalidade por câncer de próstata, mama, colo do útero, cólon, pulmão e esôfago nas capitais brasileiras (2000-2015). Estudo ecológico utilizando informações brasileiras de mortalidade. Modelos de Poisson multinível foram usados ​​para estimar o risco ajustado de mortalidade por câncer. Os níveis de mortalidade foram maiores em homens para câncer de cólon, pulmão e esôfago. As taxas de mortalidade foram mais altas nos idosos. Nossos resultados mostraram risco aumentado de mortalidade por câncer de cólon em ambos os sexos de 2000 a 2015, o que também foi evidenciado para câncer de mama e de pulmão em mulheres. Em ambos os sexos, o maior risco de mortalidade para câncer de pulmão e esôfago foi observado nas capitais do Sul. As capitais do Centro-Oeste, Sul e Sudeste apresentaram o maior risco de mortalidade por câncer de cólon tanto para homens quanto para mulheres. A taxa de mortalidade por câncer de cólon aumentou para ambos os sexos, enquanto a mortalidade por câncer de mama e de pulmão aumentou apenas para as mulheres. A região Norte apresentou a menor taxa de mortalidade por câncer de mama, colo do útero, cólon e esôfago. As regiões Centro-Oeste e Nordeste apresentaram as maiores taxas de mortalidade por câncer de próstata.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostate , Cervix Uteri , Colon , Esophagus , Multilevel Analysis , Lung
11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(3): 895-908, mar. 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364692

ABSTRACT

Resumo A investigação analisou a tendência da mortalidade por HIV/Aids segundo características sociodemográficas nos estados brasileiros entre 2000 e 2018. Estudo ecológico de série temporal das taxas padronizadas de mortalidade por Aids geral, por sexo, faixa etária, estado civil e raça/cor. Foi utilizado o modelo linear generalizado de Prais-Winsten. Os resultados do estudo evidenciaram que os estados com as maiores taxas foram Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo e Santa Catarina. A tendência foi crescente nas regiões Norte e Nordeste. Os homens tiveram taxas mais elevadas quando comparados às mulheres e à população geral. Quanto às faixas etárias, as mais avançadas mostraram tendência a crescimento. A análise de acordo com o estado civil evidenciou taxas mais elevadas entre os não casados e tendência a crescimento concentrada nesta população. De acordo com raça/cor, identificou-se que os negros apresentaram maiores taxas, exceto no Paraná, e a tendência foi majoritariamente crescente. A mortalidade por HIV/Aids apresenta tendências distintas segundo as características sociodemográficas, verificando-se necessidade de ações de prevenção e cuidado aos homens, adultos, idosos, não casados e negros em vista de mudança no perfil da mortalidade.


Abstract This investigation analyzed the trend of HIV/AIDS mortality by sociodemographic characteristics in the Brazilian states from 2000 to 2018. This is an ecological study of time-series of standardized rates of mortality from AIDS overall, by gender, age group, marital status, and ethnicity/skin color, employing the Prais-Winsten generalized linear model. The results showed that the states with the highest rates were Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Santa Catarina. The trend was increasing in the North and Northeast. Men had higher rates than women and the general population. The most advanced age groups showed a growing trend. The analysis by marital status showed higher and growing rates among the unmarried. Blacks had higher rates, except for Paraná, with a mainly increasing trend. Mortality due to HIV/AIDS had different trends by sociodemographic characteristics, with a need for preventive and care actions for men, adults, older adults, unmarried, and black people due to the change in the mortality profile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Linear Models , Marital Status
12.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 184-190, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364983

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a pathological process that involves cardiac muscle tissue death. Intravenous thrombolysis with fibrinolytics or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), an invasive technique, can be performed for tissue revascularization. PCI has been preferred as compared to non-invasive methods, although few studies have described its use in Brazil. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to analyze data on the use of primary PCI and investigate the relevance of hospitalizations for the treatment of STEMI in the country. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional analysis of data from the Brazilian Unified Health system (SUS) Department of Informatics (DATASUS) from 2010 to 2019 was conducted. Results: Hospitalizations for STEMI represented 0.6% of all hospital admissions in Brazil in the analyzed period, 0.9% of hospital costs, and 2.1% of deaths. The number of hospitalizations due to STEMI was 659,811, and 82,793 for PCIs. Length of hospital stay was 36.0% shorter and mortality rate was 53.3% lower in PCI. The mean cost of PCI was 3.5-fold higher than for treatment of STEMI. Conclusions: Data on hospitalizations for STEMI treatment in Brazil revealed high hospitalization and mortality rates, elevated costs, and long hospital stay. Although primary PCI is a more expensive and less used technique than other methods, it can reduce the length of hospital stay and mortality in the treatment of STEMI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary/methods , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coronary Disease/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
13.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 174-180, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364980

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The wide range of clinical presentations of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) makes it indispensible to use tools for risk stratification and for appropriate risks management; thus, the use of prognosis scores is recommended in the immediat clinical decision-making. Objective To validate the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score as a predictor of in-hospital and 6-month post-discharge mortality in a population diagnosed with ACS. Methods This is a prospective cohort study of consecutive patients diagnosed with ACS between May and December 2018. GRACE scores were calculated, as well as their predictive value for in-hospital and 6-month post-discharge mortality. The validity of the model was assessed by two techniques: discriminative power using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and goodness-of-fit, using the Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) test, at the 5% level of significance. Results A total of 160 patients were included, mean age 64 (±10.9) years; of which 60% were men. The risk model showed to have satisfactory ability to predict both in-hospital mortality, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.95; p = 0.014), and 6-month post-discharge mortality, with AUC of 0.78 (95%CI, 0.62-0.94), p = 0.002. The HL test indicated good-fit for both models of the GRACE score. Conclusion In this study, the GRACE risk score for predicting mortality was appropriately validated in patients with ACS, with good discriminative power and goodness-of-fit. The results suggest that the GRACE score is appropriate for clinical use in our setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Prognosis , Risk Assessment/methods , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Forecasting/methods , Hospital Mortality , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy
14.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 287-292, Mar.-Apr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364979

ABSTRACT

Abstract Takayasu's arteritis is a type of primary systemic vasculitis that affects medium and large arteries, including the aorta and its main branches, as well as the pulmonary and coronary arteries. Although rare in children, it is the third most common vasculitis in the pediatric population, often with delayed diagnosis due to the nonspecific presentation of clinical symptoms in its initial phase. This is a case of a 16-year-old girl with a giant ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, who needed surgery on an emergency basis. The etiological aspects involved in aneurysms in young patients are also addressed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Aortic Rupture/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/mortality , Takayasu Arteritis/complications , Aortic Rupture/etiology , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/diagnostic imaging , Takayasu Arteritis/diagnosis , Hypertension/complications
16.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 113-122, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356305

ABSTRACT

Abstract ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a highly prevalent condition worldwide. Reperfusion therapy is strongly associated with the prognosis of STEMI and must be performed with a high standard of quality and without delay. A systematic review of different reperfusion strategies for STEMI was conducted, including randomized controlled trials that included major cardiovascular events (MACE), and systematic reviews in the last 5 years through the PRISMA ( Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) methodology. The research was done in the PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, in addition to a few manual searches. After the exclusion criteria were applied, 90 articles were selected for this review. Despite the reestablishment of IRA patency in PCI for STEMI, microvascular lesions occur in a significant proportion of these patients, which can compromise ventricular function and clinical course. Several therapeutic strategies - intracoronary administration of nicorandil, nitrates, melatonin, antioxidant drugs (quercetin, glutathione), anti-inflammatory substances (tocilizumab [an inhibitor of interleukin 6], inclacumab, P-selectin inhibitor), immunosuppressants (cyclosporine), erythropoietin and ischemic pre- and post-conditioning and stem cell therapy - have been tested to reduce reperfusion injury, ventricular remodeling and serious cardiovascular events, with heterogeneous results: These therapies need confirmation in larger studies to be implemented in clinical practice

18.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 58-64, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356321

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background In Brazil the factors involved in the risk of death in patients with COVID-19 have not been well established. Objective To analyze whether elevations of high-sensitivity troponin I (hTnI) levels influence the mortality of patients with COVID-19. Methods Clinical and laboratory characteristics of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were collected upon hospital admission. Univariate and binary logistic regression analyzes were performed to assess the factors that influence mortality. P-value<0.05 was considered significant. Results This study analyzed192 patients who received hospital admission between March 16 and June 2, 2020 and who were discharged or died by July 2, 2020. The mean age was 70±15 years, 80 (41.7%) of whom were women. In comparison to those who were discharged, the 54 (28.1%) who died were older (79±12 vs 66±15years; P=0.004), and with a higher Charlson´s index (5±2 vs 3±2; P=0.027). More patients, aged≥60years (P <0.0001), Charlson´s index>1 (P=0.004), lung injury>50% in chest computed tomography (P=0.011), with previous coronary artery disease (P=0.037), hypertension (P=0.033), stroke (P=0.008), heart failure (P=0.002), lymphocytopenia (P=0.024), high D-dimer (P=0.024), high INR (P=0.003), hTnI (P<0.0001), high creatinine (P<0.0001), invasive mechanical ventilation (P<0.0001), renal replacement therapy (P<0.0001), vasoactive amine (P<0.0001), and transfer to the ICU (P=0.001), died when compared to those who were discharged. In logistic regression analysis, elevated hTnI levels (OR=9.504; 95% CI=1.281-70.528; P=0.028) upon admission, and the need for mechanical ventilation during hospitalization (OR=46.691; 95% CI=2.360-923.706; P=0.012) increased the chance of in-hospital mortality. Conclusion This study suggests that in COVID-19 disease, myocardial injury upon hospital admission is a harbinger of poor prognosis.

19.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(1): 71-80, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357462

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Although autonomic dysfunction has been shown to be associated with liver cirrhosis, the prevalence and prognostic implications are unclear. Abnormal heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of autonomic function, has not been well investigated in cirrhosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of high-risk HRV parameters in a cohort of cirrhotic patients and their association with cardiac dysfunction and mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective observational study conducted in the Federal University of São Paulo. METHOD: A cohort of 120 patients, comprising 17 healthy controls and 103 cirrhotic outpatients, was evaluated and followed for 10 months. HRV analysis was based on 24-hour Holter monitoring and defined using time-domain and frequency-domain parameters. RESULTS: The HRV parameters were statistically lower in cirrhotic patients than in healthy subjects. High-risk HRV parameters were prevalent, such that 64% had at least one high-risk parameter. Time-domain parameters correlated with Child scores (P < 0.0001). In regression models, HRV parameters were independent predictors of diastolic dysfunction and mortality. During 10 months of follow-up, there were 11 deaths, all of patients with at least one high-risk HRV parameter. Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated low survival rates among patients with standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN) < 100. CONCLUSION: Reduced HRV is prevalent in liver cirrhosis and is related to cardiac dysfunction, severity of liver disease and mortality. Abnormal high-risk HRV parameters are prevalent among cirrhotic patients and are also predictors of mortality. Our findings highlight the need for a more careful cardiac evaluation of cirrhotic patients.

20.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): 6-13, feb 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353404

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las cardiopatías congénitas críticas (CCC) son las anomalías estructurales del corazón ductus-dependientes, que pueden llevar a la muerte o requieren tratamiento invasivo en el primer mes de vida. Objetivo. Conocer la prevalencia y distribución de CCC en recién nacidos de Argentina, en comparación con otros países, y la proporción de detección prenatal y de mortalidad perinatal. Material y métodos. Se utilizó material de la Red Nacional de Anomalías Congénitas de Argentina (RENAC) del período 2009-2018, y de otros sistemas de vigilancia de Estados Unidos (EE. UU.), Europa y Colombia. Para Argentina se analizó la proporción de detección prenatal, mortalidad perinatal y prevalencia de recién nacidos con CCC según jurisdicción y subsector de salud. Resultados. Prevalencia de CCC de 11,46 (IC95 %: 11,02-11,92) cada 10 000 nacimientos. El 43,93 % tuvo detección prenatal y la mortalidad perinatal fue del 25 %. La tetralogía de Fallot fue el defecto específico más frecuente. La prevalencia de CCC y el porcentaje de detección prenatal fue significativamente menor en el subsector público, mientras que la mortalidad perinatal fue mayor en este subsector. La prevalencia de CCC observada fue menor que en los registros de EE. UU. (NBDPN) y Europa (EUROCAT). El registro de Bogotá mostró prevalencias específicas diferentes. Conclusión. La prevalencia de CCC es más baja que la observada en otros países, y aún menor en el sector público de Argentina. Se enfatiza la necesidad de mejorar la detección prenatal e implementar la oximetría de pulso en recién nacidos como prueba de tamizaje obligatorio y universal.


Introduction. Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) is a term that refers to ductus-dependent structural anomalies of the heart that may be fatal or require invasive management in the first month of life. Objective. To know the prevalence and distribution of CCHD among newborns in Argentina, compared to other countries, and the proportion of prenatal detection and perinatal mortality. Material and methods. Data provided by the National Network of Congenital Anomalies (Red Nacional de Anomalías Congénitas de Argentina, RENAC) for the 2009-2018 period and by other surveillance systems in the United States, Europe, and Colombia were used. For Argentina, the proportion of prenatal detection, perinatal mortality, and CCHD prevalence in newborns by jurisdiction and health system subsector were analyzed. Results. The prevalence of CCHD was 11.46 (95% confidence interval: 11.02-11.92) every 10 000 births. Prenatal detection was possible in 43.93% of cases, and perinatal mortality was 25%. Tetralogy of Fallot was the most frequent specific defect. The prevalence of CCHD and percentage of prenatal detection was significantly lower in the public subsector, whereas perinatal mortality was higher in this subsector. The prevalence of CCHD was lower than in the United States (NBDPN) and European (EUROCAT) registries. The Bogotá Registry showed different specific prevalence values. Conclusion. The prevalence of CCHD is lower than what has been observed in other countries, and even lower in the public sector of Argentina. The need to improve prenatal detection and implement pulse oximetry among newborns as a mandatory and universal screening is emphasized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnosis , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Oximetry , Registries , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
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