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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240118, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278559


Abstract For many centuries human populations have been suffering and trying to fight with disease-bearing mosquitoes. Emerging and reemerging diseases such as Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya affect billions of people around the world and recently has been appealing to control with chemical pesticides. Malathion (MT) is one of the main pesticides used against mosquitoes, the vectors of these diseases. This study aimed to assess cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the malathion for the bioindicator Allium cepa L. using a multivariate and integrative approach. Moreover, an appendix table was compiled with all available literature of insecticides assessed by the Allium cepa system to support our discussion. Exposures during 48h to 0.5 mg mL-1 and 1.0 mg mL-1 MT were compared to the negative control (distilled water) and positive control (MMS solution at 10 mg L-1). The presence of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequency, and mitotic index abnormalities was evaluated. Anaphase bridges were the alterations with higher incidence and presented a significantly elevated rate in the concentration of 0.5 mg mL-1, including when compared to the positive control. The integrative discriminant analysis summarizes that MT in assessed concentrations presented effects like the positive control, corroborating its potential of toxicity to DNA. Therefore, it is concluded that MT in its pure composition and in realistic concentrations used, has genotoxic potential in the biological assessment of A. cepa cells. The multivariate integrative analysis was fundamental to show a whole response of all data, providing a global view of the effect of MT on DNA.

Resumo Por muitos séculos, as populações humanas sofrem e tentam combater os mosquitos transmissores de doenças. Doenças emergentes e reemergentes como Dengue, Zika e Chikungunya afetam bilhões de pessoas em todo o mundo e, recentemente, vem apelando ao controle com pesticidas químicos. O Malation (MT) é um dos principais pesticidas usados ​​contra mosquitos, vetores dessas doenças. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a citotoxicidade e a mutagenicidade do MT para o bioindicador Allium cepa L. usando uma abordagem multivariada e integrativa. Além disso, uma tabela suplementar foi compilada com toda a literatura disponível de inseticidas avaliada pelo sistema Allium cepa para apoiar nossa discussão. Exposições ao MT durante 48h a 0,5 mg mL-1 e 1,0 mg mL-1 foram comparadas a um controle negativo (água destilada) e um controle positivo (10 mg L-1 de MMS). Foram avaliadas a presença de aberrações cromossômicas, frequência de micronúcleos e anormalidades no índice mitótico. As pontes anafásicas foram as alterações com maior incidência e apresentaram uma taxa significativamente elevada na concentração de 0,5 mg mL-1, inclusive quando comparadas ao controle positivo. A análise discriminante integrativa resume que o MT nas concentrações avaliadas apresentou efeitos semelhantes ao controle positivo, corroborando seu potencial de toxicidade para o DNA. Portanto, conclui-se que o MT, em sua composição pura e nas concentrações realistas utilizadas, possui potencial genotóxico na avaliação biológica de células de A. cepa. A análise integrativa multivariada foi fundamental para mostrar uma resposta completa de todos os dados, fornecendo uma visão global do efeito da MT no DNA.

Humans , Animals , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection , Insecticides/toxicity , DNA Damage , Chromosome Aberrations , Plant Roots , Onions , Mosquito Vectors , Malathion/toxicity , Mitotic Index
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-6, 01/jan./2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411461


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mutagenic potential of fluoxetine and fluoxetine-galactomannan. Methods: Chromosomal aberration test and Salmonella typhimurium/microsome mutagenicity assay. Results: The results showed that fluoxetine (250 µg/mL) can cause chromosomal breaks of treated leukocytes and increase the frequency of reversion of the tester strains of S. typhimurium / microsome assay only at the highest concentration (5 mg/mL), while fluoxetine encapsulated in galactomannan did not cause these changes (leukocytes and S. typhimuriums strains). Conclusion: In summary, fluoxetine showed a mutagenic effect detectable only at high concentrations in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic models. Furthermore, the fluoxetine/galactomannan complex, in this first moment, prevented the mutagenicity attributed to fluoxetine, emphasizing that the present encapsulation process can be an alternative in preventing these effects in vitro.

Objetivos: avaliar o potencial mutagênico da fluoxetina e da fluoxetina-galactomanana. Métodos: Teste de aberração cromossômica e ensaio de mutagenicidade de Salmonella typhimurium /microssoma. Resultados: a fluoxetina (250 µg/mL) pode causar quebras cromossômicas de leucócitos tratados e aumentar a frequência de reversão das cepas testadoras de S. typhimurium /microssoma apenas na concentração mais alta (5 mg/mL), enquanto a fluoxetina encapsulada em galactomanano não causou essas alterações (leucócitos e cepas de S. typhimurium). Conclusão: a fluoxetina mostrou um efeito mutagênico detectável apenas em altas concentrações em modelos eucarióticos e procarióticos. Além disso, o complexo fluoxetina/galactomanan, neste primeiro momento, evitou a mutagenicidade atribuída à fluoxetina, ressaltando que o presente processo de encapsulamento pode ser uma alternativa na prevenção desses efeitos in vitro.

Fluoxetine , Chromosome Aberrations , Salmonella typhimurium , Chromosome Breakage , Microsomes , Mutagenicity Tests
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226427, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1393274


Aim: This study aimed to investigate whether non-ionizing radiation emitted by smartphones is likely to cause genotoxic effects on oral epithelial cells. Methods: Thirty adults were distributed into two groups according to the mobile phone brand used, namely Samsung (Samsung, Seoul, South Korea) and Apple (Apple, California, USA). The material was collected with gentle swabbing of the right and left buccal mucosa using a cervical brush, then the micronucleus test was performed. Results: The Mann-Whitney test with a 5% significance level did not reveal statistically significant differences in micronuclei frequency between the exposed and non-exposed sides (p=0.251). The different brands do not seem to cause risks of inducing genetic damage because there were no statistically significant differences between them (p=0.47). Conclusion: Therefore, our results suggest no correlations of micronuclei frequency in the exposed buccal cells of mobile phone users at the exposure standard levels observed

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Radiation, Nonionizing/adverse effects , Radio Waves , Micronucleus Tests , Epithelial Cells , Smartphone , Mouth Mucosa , Mutagenicity Tests
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 302-306, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920772


Objective@#To examine the effects of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S ( BPS ), bisphenol F ( BPF ) and bisphenol AF ( BPAF ) on the proliferation and oxidative stress of BRL 3A rat liver cells, and to preliminarily evaluate their mutagenicities.@*Methods@#In vitro cultured BRL 3A rat liver cells were treated with BPA, BPS, BPF and BPAF at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μmol/L for 48 h, respectively. Then, the cell viability was determined using the CCK-8 assay, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration ( IC50 ) was calculated. The minimum inhibitory concentration for BRL 3A cell proliferation was screened, and the intracellular reactive oxygen species ( ROS ) was measured in BRL 3A cells using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate ( DCFH-DA ) assay. In addition, the effects of BPA, BPS, BPF and BPAF at concentrations of 1 000, 200, 40, 8 and 1.6 μg/plate on the mutant colonies of histidine-deficient Salmonella typhimurium ( TA1535, TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 ) were tested using the Ames test.@*Results@#Treatment with BPA and BPF at concentrations of 100 to 200 μmol/L and with BPAF at concentrations of 25 to 200 μmol/L inhibited BRL 3A cell survival at a concentration-dependent manner, while exposure to BPS at concentrations of 5 to 200 μmol/L resulted in no changes in BRL 3A cell survival. The IC50 values of BPA, BPS, BPF and BPAF were 131.7, >200, 187.5 and 21.6 μmol/L against BRL 3A cells, respectively. Treatment with BPS at 100 μmol/L or BPAF at 25 μmol/L caused no significant changes in the ROS level; however, exposure to BPA at 100 μmol/L and BPF at 100 μmol/L significantly increased the ROS level. Ames test showed that BPA, BPS, BPF and BPAF did not induce mutagenicity in TA1535, TA97a, TA98, TA100 or TA102 strains.@*Conclusions@#BPAF shows the highest cytotoxicity to BRL 3A cells, and low-concentration exposure to BPS has few effects on BRL 3A cells. The cytotoxicity of bisphenols against BRL 3A cells may be associated with the induction of oxidative stress. None of the four bisphenols show mutagenic effects under the present experimental conditions.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936469


ObjectiveThe genotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in rats was determined by Pig⁃a mutation assay in vivo. MethodsCombined with 28-day oral toxicity test, male SD rats were given ZnO NPs by oral administration for 28 days, at doses of 0, 14, 70 and 350 mg‧kg-1 (maximum concentration of nanoscale dispersion state). Rats in control groups received 350 mg‧kg-1 of normal size ZnO, 40 mg‧kg-1 N-ethyl-N⁃nitrosourea(ENU)or 0 mg·kg-1 ZnO NPs(solvent control group) Changes of body weight were recorded. At 0, 15, 28 d and 28 d of recovery observation period, 200 μL of tail venous blood was collected from each group, which was labeled by APC mouse anti-rat erythroid cells and FITC mouse anti-rat CD59. The information of 1×106 red blood cells(RBC) from each sample were collected by flow cytometry, and the mutation rate of RBCCD59- was calculated. ResultsCompared with the solvent control group, after 15 days of intragastric administration, the mutation rate of RBC CD59- in peripheral blood of in 350 mg‧kg-1 ZnO NPs group and 40 mg‧kg-1 ENU group was significantly increased while that of in 70 mg‧kg-1 ZnO NPs group was also significantly increased after 28 days of intragastric administration.with time-response and dose-response relationship. All groups except 40 mg‧kg-1 ENU group showed no significant difference in the mutation rate of RBCCD59- in peripheral blood in comparison with the solvent control group after 28-days recovery observation. Conclusion70 and 350 mg‧kg-1 ZnO NPs can increase the mutation rate of Pig⁃a gene in peripheral blood of SD rats.

Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1250451


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate genotoxicity of zinc oxide, P. A. calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregate and an iodoform paste using comet assay on human lymphocytes. Material and Methods: Two positive controls were used: methyl-methanesulfonate for the P.A. calcium hydroxide and mineral trioxide aggregate; and doxorubicin for the iodoform paste and zinc oxide. There were also two negative controls: distilled water for the P.A. calcium hydroxide and mineral trioxide aggregate; and DMSO for the iodoform paste and zinc oxide. Comets were identified using fluorescence microscopy and 100 of them were counted on each of the three slides analyzed per drug test. A damage index was established, taking into consideration the score pattern that had previously been determined from the size and intensity of the comet tail. Analysis of variance, followed by Tukey's test, was used to compare the means of the DNA damage indices. Results: The DNA damage index observed for mineral trioxide aggregate (7.08 to 8.58) and P.A. calcium hydroxide (6.50 to 8.33), which were similar to negative control index. On the other hand, damage index for zinc oxide (104.7 to 218.50) and iodoform paste (115.7 to 210.7) were similar to positive control index. Conclusion: Iodoform paste and zinc oxide showed genotoxicity at all concentrations used.

Humans , Tooth, Deciduous , Zinc Oxide , Comet Assay , Genotoxicity , Mutagenicity Tests/instrumentation , Zinc Oxide , Brazil , Calcium Hydroxide , Analysis of Variance , Microscopy, Fluorescence
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 68(3): 425-437, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1143732


Abstract Introduction: Formaldehyde is a substance widely used in the industry; however, it is classified as mutagenic and carcinogenic to humans. In order to determine the risk of workers who are occupationally exposed to formaldehyde, it is necessary to monitor its environmental concentration levels and the biomarkers that allow identifying its potential health effects. Unfortunately, in Colombia there are not guidelines on occupational exposure to this substance. Objective: To review recent studies on occupational exposure to formaldehyde to design a monitoring and surveillance strategy for Colombian workers exposed to this substance. Materials and methods: A literature review was conducted in PubMed, MedLine, Science-Direct and Embase using the following search strategy: articles on occupational exposure to formaldehyde published in English or Spanish between 2013 and 2017. The following search terms were used: "occupational exposure", "formaldehyde" "mutagenicity test" y "DNA adducts" and their Spanish equivalents. Results: The initial search yielded 103 articles, of which only 36 met the inclusion criteria. Conclusions: Proper management of the risk derived from occupational exposure to formaldehyde, as well as the appropriate medical follow-up of these workers, requires the implementation of a series of interdisciplinary actions that allow the creation of a comprehensive occupational health surveillance system for workers exposed to this substance.

Resumen Introducción. El formaldehido es una sustancia ampliamente usada a nivel industrial; sin embargo, es considerada un agente mutagénico y carcinógeno para los humanos. Para determinar el grado de riesgo de los trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos (TOE) al formaldehido, debe hacerse un seguimiento de sus niveles de concentración ambiental y de los biomarcadores que permiten identificar su daño potencial para la salud. En Colombia, lamentablemente, no existen lineamientos respecto a la exposición ocupacional a esta sustancia. Objetivo. Revisar estudios recientes sobre exposición ocupacional a formaldehido para diseñar una estrategia de seguimiento y vigilancia de los TOE a esta sustancia en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura en PubMed, MedLine, ScienceDirect y Embase mediante la siguiente estrategia de búsqueda: artículos sobre exposición ocupacional a formaldehido publicados en inglés o español entre 2013 y 2017. Los términos de búsqueda fueron "occupational exposure", "formaldehyde" "mutagenicity test" y "DNA adducts" y sus equivalentes en español. Resultados. La búsqueda inicial arrojó 103 registros, sin embargo solo 36 artículos cumplieron los criterios de inclusión establecidos. Conclusiones. La gestión adecuada del riesgo derivado de la exposición ocupacional a formaldehido, asi como el seguimiento médico apropiado de estos trabajadores, requiere la implementación de una serie de acciones interdisciplinarias que permitan la creación de un sistema de vigilancia ocupacional integral de los TOE a esta sustancia.

Occupational Exposure , Biomarkers , Formaldehyde , Mutagenicity Tests
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 25(8): 3273-3298, Ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133102


Resumo O agrotóxico malathion vem sendo amplamente utilizado no mundo em programas de controle de arboviroses e em 2015 foi classificado pela Agência Internacional para Pesquisas em Câncer (IARC) como provável agente carcinogênico para seres humanos. Este trabalho objetivou a sistematização das evidências dos efeitos carcinogênicos e mutagênicos associados à exposição do malathion e seus análogos, malaoxon e isomalathion. A busca foi realizada nas bases de dados TOXLINE, PUBMED e SCOPUS por artigos originais publicados de 1983 a 2015. Do total de 273 artigos elegíveis, foram selecionados 73. Os resultados dos estudos in vitro e in vivo evidenciaram danos genéticos e cromossômicos provocados pelo malathion; os estudos epidemiológicos evidenciaram associações significativamente positivas para cânceres de tireóide, de mama, e ovariano em mulheres na menopausa. Estas evidências do efeito carcinogênico do malathion devem ser considerados diante de sua utilização em programas de controle de arboviroses.

Abstract Malathion has been widely used worldwide in arbovirus control programs. In 2015, it was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a probable carcinogen to humans. This work aimed to systematize the evidence of the carcinogenic and mutagenic effects associated with the exposure of malathion and its analogs, malaoxon and isomalathion. The search was carried out in Toxline, PubMed and Scopus databases for original papers published from 1983 to 2015. In all, 73 papers were selected from a total of 273 eligible papers. The results of in vitro and in vivo studies showed mainly genetic and chromosomal damages caused by malathion. The epidemiological studies evidenced significant positive associations for thyroid, breast, and ovarian cancers in menopausal women. This evidence of the carcinogenic effect of malathion should be considered before its use in arbovirus control programs.

Humans , Female , Malathion/toxicity , Mutagens/toxicity
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 853-861, May-June, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129489


The present study tested a comet assay that was modified for compatibility with Giemsa staining to assess the drug genotoxicity in the peripheral blood of rats. We analysed the peripheral blood of 16 female Wistar rats (N=8 rats/group) from a control group and from a group that was treated with an intraperitoneal injection of 50mg cyclophosphamide/kg. The comet assay was carried out with modifications of the blood volume and immersion time in the lysing solution and different combinations of electrophoresis conditions (running time, voltage and current), to Giemsa staining. The lysing time and electrophoresis conditions allowed for the expression of all classes of DNA damage during the electrophoresis run, and the comets were efficiently stained with Giemsa. The technique showed high reproducibility for the DNA classes. The results demonstrate that the modified comet assay with Giemsa staining can be standardized for routine laboratory procedures using a 20µL blood sample, 3h and 30min immersions in the lysing solution and electrophoresis runs with 23 to 25 V and 310 and 360mA of electrical current. The modified comet assay with Giemsa staining that was described in the present study was standardized to be applied in the laboratory routine.(AU)

O presente estudo testou um ensaio cometa modificado para a coloração de Giemsa para avaliar a genotoxicidade de fármacos no sangue periférico de ratos. Analisou-se o sangue periférico de 16 ratas Wistar (n=8 ratas/grupo) de um grupo controle e de um grupo que foi tratado com uma injeção intraperitoneal de 50mg/kg pv. de ciclofosfamida. O ensaio cometa foi realizado com modificações do volume sanguíneo e do tempo de imersão na solução de lise, bem como com diferentes combinações de condições de eletroforese (tempo de corrida, tensão e corrente), para coloração de Giemsa. O tempo de lise e as condições de eletroforese permitiram a expressão de todas as classes de danos no DNA durante a corrida de eletroforese, e os cometas foram eficientemente corados com Giemsa. A técnica mostrou alta reprodutibilidade para as classes de DNA. Os resultados demonstram que o ensaio cometa modificado com coloração de Giemsa foi padronizado para procedimentos laboratoriais de rotina usando-se uma amostra de sangue de 20µL, 3h30min de imersão na solução de lise e eletroforese com 23 a 25 V e 310 e 360mA. O ensaio cometa modificado com coloração de Giemsa descrito foi padronizado para ser aplicado na rotina laboratorial.(AU)

Animals , Rats , Staining and Labeling/veterinary , Azure Stains/toxicity , Comet Assay/veterinary , Genotoxicity/analysis , Electrophoresis/veterinary , Mutagenicity Tests/veterinary
J Environ Biol ; 2020 Mar; 41(2): 216-221
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214496


Aim: To examine the possible role of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in affecting the ultimate mutagenic potency of 2,6- and 3,5-dimethylaniline (DMA) and their metabolites.Methodology: Two cell lines, nucleotide excision repair (NER)-proficient AA8 and deficient UV5 cells were treated with 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 μM of 2,6- and 3,5-DMA for 48 hr or their N-hydroxyl and aminophenol metabolites for 1 hr. Cell survival was determined by trypan blue exclusion assay, and 8-azaadenine-resistant mutants at adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt) gene locus were evaluated.Results: A dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity and mutant fraction was observed in AA8 and UV5 cells, treated with 2,6- and 3,5-DMA and their metabolites, but showed considerable variation in potency; N-hydroxyl and aminophenol metabolites of 2,6- and 3,5-DMA in serum-free α-minimal essential medium (MEM) having the highest potency, and 2,6- and 3,5-DMA in regular MEM at least. Repair-deficient UV5 cells were more sensitive to cytotoxic and mutagenic action than repair-proficient AA8 cells. Interpretation: These findings suggest that 2,6- and 3,5-DMA-induced DNA damage response may trigger cytotoxicity and mutagenicity when not completely repaired

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-203740


The integral biological testing of soil samples of four districts of the Tula region was performed. The Tula regionwas selected for the study because it was subjected to radioactive contamination in 1986 but at present, it isconsidered to be fairly safe for that matter. The districts were selected according to both the presence of industrialpollution and relative ecological safety. The use/non-use of land for crop production was also taken into account(eight sites in total, samples № 1-8). Three different bioassays were used: microorganisms Salmonellatyphimurium, cell culture of mammalian Cricetulus griseus, and invertebrates Ceriodaphnia affinis. A relativelyhigh direct mutagenic activity was detected at the sites of the Efremovsky and Shchekino districts (№ 1 and № 3respectively), where the mutagenic index was 3.3 and 3.9 respectively. Substances contained in the № 2 and № 4soil extract samples turned out to be pro-mutagens, i.e. induced mutations upon using metabolic activation. Thesoil samples, such as № 1 and № 3 also showed genotoxicity in Cricetulus griseus cells with the increase of thefrequency of chromosomal and chromatid-type aberrations by several times, compared with control. In theexperiments on Ceriodaphnia affinis, toxicity was detected in the № 1, № 3, № 5 and № 7 samples, in which thedeath rate of the crustaceans was 35-45 %, whereas, in the remaining samples, the decrease in the survival rateof the crustaceans did not exceed 15 %. Therefore, the integral bio testing enables detection not only in thepresence of ecotoxicants but also it can indicate their origin - industrial or agricultural.

Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 326-333, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829099


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the cytotoxic, apoptotic, mutagenic and immunomodulatory activities of Kaempferia galanga Linn. (KG) extract and ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) in vitro.@*METHODS@#The present study investigated the cytotoxic [using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide test], apoptotic (using a mitochondrial membrane potential assay), mutagenic (using a micronucleus test) and immunomodulatory (using flow cytometry) activities of the ethanolic extract of KG and its bioactive component, EPMC, against two cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell lines, CL-6 and HuCCT1, and one normal human cell line, OUMS-36T-1F.@*RESULTS@#Both KG extract and EPMC exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against both CCA cells. The cytotoxic activity was supported by their concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis. CL-6 was most sensitive (3-4 fold) and selective to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), compared with KG extract and EPMC [median half inhibiting concentration (IC) and selectivity index (SI) were 23.01 μg/mL and 17.32; 78.41 μg/mL and 4.44; 100.76 μg/mL and 2.20, respectively for 5-FU vs. KG extract vs. EPMC]. HuCCT1 was relatively more sensitive and selective to 5-FU and EPMC than KG extract [median IC and SI were 66.03 μg/mL and 6.04; 60.90 μg/mL and 3.65; 156.60 μg/mL and 2.23, respectively for 5-FU vs. EPMC vs. KG extract]. EPMC produced relatively potent cytotoxic activity against polymorphonuclear cells (IC = 92.20 μg/mL). KG extract and EPMC exhibited concentration-dependent mutagenic activity, as well as inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6.@*CONCLUSION@#Considering cytotoxic, apoptotic, immunomodulatory and mutagenic activities, further development of KG as a drug candidate is likely to focus on the oral pharmaceutical formulation of a standardized KG extract rather than isolated compounds.

Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18289, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089218


Metabolism of anabolic androgenic steroids is important for its physiological effects. The aim was to investigate the effects of finasteride (a 5α-reductase inhibitor - 5αR) on cardiac and mutagenic effects promoted by ND. Male Wistar rats were separated into three groups: CONT, received the vehicles of ND and finasteride (Peanut oil+Saline); DECA group, received ND (20, i.m.), and DECAF received ND and finasteride (100 µ, i.p.), for four weeks. After, hypertrophy, cytokines and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) activity was determined in heart. Bone marrow was used for micronucleus evaluation. Treatment with ND promotes increase in cardiac hypertrophy, ACE activity and disbalance among pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and combination with finasteride worsened those effects. Association with finasteride ameliorates the toxic effects of ND on bone marrow cells, as was observed by a normalization of the number of micronucleate polychromatic erythrocytes and the mitotic index. Our data demonstrates that deleterious effects promoted by ND are depend, at least in part, of its metabolization. Also, inhibition of 5αR by finasteride present variated effects dependent on organ studied. It can promote increase on cardiac damage and a reduction on mutagenic effects of ND, which demonstrated that dehydronandrolone has diverse role on ND effects..

Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1319-1325, out.-dez. 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1022203


Objective: The study's goal has been to analyze if environmental or occupational exposure to pesticides can produce changes in pregnant women living in a countryside municipality. Methods: The participants of this study were twenty-three pregnant women, who both answered a questionnaire and donated biological material in order to perform Micronucleus (MN) Tests in lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells, and also for measuring the enzyme activity of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase. Results: Considering the total analyzed samples, the following was found: an average of 8 ± 2.92 MN/1000 oral epithelial cells from urban participants; an average of 6.82 ± 3.43 MN/1000 oral epithelial cells from rural participants; and 100% of the microscope slides contained cells with two MN, which shows high intensity lesions to the DNA. There was found a high frequency of spontaneous abortions (34.8%), greater than in Brazil. Conclusion: The exposure of pregnant women living in a countryside municipality to pesticides may increase the rate of spontaneous abortions, as well as the chances of mutagenic effects

Objetivo: Analisar se a exposição ambiental ou ocupacional aos agrotóxicos causa alterações em gestantes residentes em um município rural. Métodos: Compuseram a amostra 23 gestantes, que responderam a um questionário e doaram amostras biológicas para a realização dos testes de micronúcleos (MN) em linfócitos, em células do epitélio oral, e para a dosagem da atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase eritrocitária. Resultados: Obteve-se uma média de 8 ± 2,92 MN/1000 células do epitélio oral analisadas em amostras de participantes da zona urbana, 6,82 ± 3,43 MN/1000 de participantes da zona rural, e 100% das lâminas continham células com dois MN, o que demonstra lesões ao DNA de maior intensidade. Encontrou-se uma frequência elevada de casos de abortos espontâneos (34,8%), superior à encontrada no Brasil. Conclusão: A exposição de gestantes residentes em um município rural aos agrotóxicos eleva a taxa de abortos espontâneos, bem como as chances de ocorrência de efeitos mutagênicos

Objetivo: Analizar si la exposición ambiental o ocupacional a los agrotóxicos causa cambios en gestantes residentes en un municipio rural. Métodos: Compusieron la muestra 23 gestantes, que respondieron a un cuestionario y donaron muestras biológicas para la realización de las pruebas de micronúcleos (MN) en linfocitos, en células del epitelio oral, y para la dosificación de la actividad de la enzima acetilcolinesterasa eritrocitaria. Resultados: Se obtuvieron una media de 8 ± 2,92 MN / 1000 células del epitelio oral analizadas en muestras de participantes de la zona urbana, 6,82 ± 3,43 MN / 1000 de participantes de la zona rural, y el 100% de las láminas contenían células con dos MN, lo que demuestra lesiones al ADN de mayor intensidad. Se encontró una frecuencia elevada de casos de abortos espontáneos (34,8%), superior a la encontrada en Brasil. Conclusión: La exposición de gestantes residentes en un municipio rural a los agrotóxicos eleva la tasa de abortos espontáneos, así como las posibilidades de ocurrencia de efectos mutagênicos

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Agrochemicals/toxicity , Abortion , Mutagenicity Tests/methods , Acetylcholinesterase/pharmacology , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(2): 155-159, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019454


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is known as the fourth most common cancer. Current treatments for cancer have damaged the sensitive tissues of the healthy body, and in many cases, cancer will be recurrent. Therefore, need for treatments that are more effective is well felt. Researchers have recently shifted their attention towards antipsychotic dopamine antagonists to treat cancer. The anticancer activities of aripiprazole remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole on gastric cancer and normal cell lines. METHODS: In this regard, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aripiprazole were investigated in MKN45 and NIH3T3 cell lines by methyl tetrazolium assay and on peripheral blood lymphocytes by micronucleus assay. For this purpose, cells were cultured in 96 wells plate. Stock solutions of aripiprazole and cisplatin were prepared. After cell incubation with different concentrations of aripiprazole (1, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 μL), methyl tetrazolium solution was added. For micronucleus assay fresh blood was added to RPMI culture medium 1640 supplemented, and different concentrations of aripiprazole (50, 100 and 200 μL) were added. RESULTS: The finding of present study showed that the IC50 of aripiprazole in the cancer cell line (21.36 μg/mL) was lower than that in the normal cell line (54.17 μg/mL). Moreover, the micronucleus assay showed that the frequency of micronuclei of aripiprazole at concentrations below 200 μM was much less than cisplatin. CONCLUSION: Aripiprazole can be a good cytotoxic compound and good candidate for further studies of cancer therapy.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: O câncer gástrico é conhecido como o quarto câncer mais comum. Os tratamentos atuais para o câncer danificaram os tecidos sensíveis do corpo saudável e, em muitos casos, o cancro será recorrente. Portanto, a necessidade de tratamentos que são mais eficazes é desejada. Recentemente, os pesquisadores mudaram sua atenção para os antagonistas antipsicóticos da dopamina para tratar o câncer. As atividades anticâncer de aripiprazol permanecem desconhecidas. OBJETIVO: Este estudo objetivou avaliar a eficácia e a segurança do aripiprazol no câncer gástrico e nas linhagens celulares normais. MÉTODOS: A este respeito, a citotoxicidade e a genotoxicidade do aripiprazol foram investigadas em linhas celulares MKN45 e NIH3T3 por ensaio de metil tetrazólio e em linfócitos periféricos de sangue por ensaio de micronúcleos. Para este efeito, as células foram cultivadas em 96 placas. As soluções de estoque de aripiprazol e cisplatina foram preparadas. Após incubação celular com diferentes concentrações de aripiprazol (1, 10, 25, 50, 100 e 200 μL), a solução de metil tetrazólio foi adicionada. Para o ensaio do micronúcleo o sangue fresco foi adicionado ao meio de cultura RPMI 1640 suplementado, e as concentrações diferentes de aripiprazole (50, 100 e 200 μL) foram adicionadas. RESULTADOS: O presente estudo mostrou que o IC50 de aripiprazol na linhagem celular cancerosa (21,36 μg/mL) foi menor do que na linha celular normal (54,17 μg/ mL). Além disso, o ensaio de micronúcleos demonstrou que a frequência de micronúcleos de aripiprazol em concentrações inferiores a 200 μM foi muito inferior à cisplatina. CONCLUSÃO: O aripiprazol pode ser um bom composto citotóxico e bom candidato para estudos adicionais da terapia do câncer.

Humans , Animals , Mice , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Aripiprazole/toxicity , Micronucleus Tests/methods , NIH 3T3 Cells/drug effects , Mutagenicity Tests
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 1976-1979, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-857843


OBJECTIVE: To research the teratogenic and mutagenic toxicity of agarwood extracts produced by agar-wit technique for functional food development (slices dose 0.60 g•d-1). METHODS: Pregnant rats of 6 to 15 d were given with agarwood extracts at 45, 105, 150 mg•kg-1 by gastric perfusion directly every day, then killed and anatomized after being pregnant for 20 d. During the whole course of treatment, the activity and body weight of pregnant rats, fetal survival rate, absorption number, malformation type and number of fetus were observed and recorded. RESULTS: The agarwood extracts had no effect on the body weight of pregnant rats at 45, 105, 150 mg•kg-1 dosages, and the numbers of implantation, live fetuses, fetuses and stillbirths of fetus, malformation type and number had no significant difference compared with the control group (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Agarwood extracts have no teratogenic and mutagenic toxicity for rat fetuses.

Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4742, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019812


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the induction of DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with sickle cell disease, SS and SC genotypes, treated with hydroxyurea. Methods The study subjects were divided into two groups: one group of 22 patients with sickle cell disease, SS and SC genotypes, treated with hydroxyurea, and a Control Group composed of 24 patients with sickle cell disease who were not treated with hydroxyurea. Peripheral blood samples were submitted to peripheral blood mononuclear cell isolation to assess genotoxicity by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay, in which DNA damage biomarkers - micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds - were counted. Results Patients with sickle cell disease treated with hydroxyurea had a mean age of 25.4 years, whereas patients with sickle cell disease not treated with hydroxyurea had a mean age of 17.6 years. The mean dose of hydroxyurea used by the patients was 12.8mg/kg/day, for a mean period of 44 months. The mean micronucleus frequency per 1,000 cells of 8.591±1.568 was observed in the Hydroxyurea Group and 10.040±1.003 in the Control Group. The mean frequency of nucleoplasmic bridges per 1,000 cells and nuclear buds per 1,000 cells for the hydroxyurea and Control Groups were 0.4545±0.1707 versus 0.5833±0.2078, and 0.8182±0.2430 versus 0.9583±0.1853, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between groups. Conclusion In the study population, patients with sickle cell disease treated with the standard dose of hydroxyurea treatment did not show evidence of DNA damage induction.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o efeito da indução de danos ao DNA em células monocelulares do sangue periférico de pacientes com doença falciforme, genótipos SS e SC, tratados com hidroxiureia. Métodos Os sujeitos da pesquisa foram divididos em dois grupos: um de 22 pacientes com doença falciforme genótipos SS e SC tratados com hidroxiureia, e o outro controle, composto por 24 pacientes com doença falciforme que não eram tratados com o fármaco. As amostras de sangue periférico foram submetidas ao isolamento de células mononucleares do sangue periférico para avaliação da genotoxicidade pelo ensaio de micronúcleo citoma com bloqueio da citocinese, tendo sido quantificados os biomarcadores de danos ao DNA - micronúcleos, pontes nucleoplasmáticas e brotamento nuclear. Resultados Os pacientes com doença falciforme tratados com hidroxiureia apresentaram média de idade de 25,4 anos, enquanto aqueles com doença falciforme não tratados com hidroxiureia tiveram média de idade de 17,6 anos. A dose média de hidroxiureia utilizada pelos pacientes foi de 12,8mg/kg/dia, por período médio de 44 meses. A frequência média de micronúcleos por 1.000 células de 8,591±1,568 foi observada no Grupo Hidroxiureia e de 10,040±1,003 no Grupo Controle. Adicionalmente, a frequência média de pontes nucleoplasmáticas por 1.000 células e brotamento nuclear por 1.000 células para o Grupo Hidroxiureia e Controle foi de 0,4545±0,1707 versus 0,5833±0,2078, e de 0,8182±0,2430 versus 0,9583±0,1853, respectivamente. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos. Conclusão Na população estudada de pacientes com doença falciforme com tratamento em dose padrão de hidroxiureia, não houve evidência de indução de danos ao DNA.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , DNA Damage/drug effects , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxyurea/pharmacology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/genetics , DNA Damage/genetics , Micronucleus Tests , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/adverse effects , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cytokinesis , Hydroxyurea/adverse effects , Hydroxyurea/therapeutic use , Anemia, Sickle Cell/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Mutagenicity Tests , Mutation/drug effects
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190017, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012676


BACKGROUND Only benznidazole (Bnz) (1) and nifurtimox (Nfx) (2) are licensed for the treatment of Chagas disease although their safety and efficacy profile are far from ideal. Farmanguinhos from Fiocruz has developed seven nitroimidazole compounds (4-10) analogs of megazol (3). OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether the genotoxic effect of 3 was abolished in the seven nitroimidazoles (4-10) analogs using the in vitro alkaline comet assay (CA) and the in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in whole human blood cells (WHBC) and correlate this effect with their trypanocidal activity using bloodstream trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. METHODS The toxicity of 3-10 to WHBC in the in vitro CA was determined using the fluorescein diacetate/ethidium bromide assay. DNA damage in the in vitro CA was evaluated according to tail size in four classes (0-3) and methyl methane-sulfonate (MMS) was used as a positive control. The cytotoxicity of 3-10 to WHBC in the CBMN was measured using the cytokinesis-block proliferation index and the replication index. The number of the micronucleate cells in 2,000 binucleate cells by experimental group was determined. Mitomycin C and N-deacetyl-N-methylcolchicine were used as positive controls. FINDINGS Compound 3 showed a significant DNA strand break effect through the in vitro CA and highly significant clastogenic and/or aneugenic effect in the CBMN. Compounds 5, 6, 8, 9 and 10 showed negative results in the CBMN and positive results in the in vitro CA, while the inverse effect was observed for 4 and 7. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Compound 10 was the most promising to proceed with the development as a drug candidate in the treatment of Chagas disease showing absence of chromosomal cytogenetic damage and high activity against T. cruzi, about two times higher than 3 and the clinical drug 1.

Trypanocidal Agents/therapeutic use , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacology , Nitroimidazoles/therapeutic use , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Mutagenicity Tests/methods
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 306-310, May-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888877


Abstract The goal of this study was to analyze cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity to bone marrow cells of mice of nature identical synthetic flavorings, passion fruit and strawberry, and artificial synthetic flavorings, vanilla, chocolate, tutti-frutti and cookie, at doses 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg. The additives were given to the animals by gavage in a single daily application for seven days. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post Tukey's post hoc test, p <0.05. Animals treated with 2.0; 5.0 and 10.0 mL/Kg of flavorings chocolate, strawberry and cookie, and 5.0 and 10.0 mL/Kg of flavorings vanilla and passion fruit died on the fifth and sixth day of the experiment, respectively. The doses 0.5 and 1.0 mL/Kg of the six additives significantly reduced erythropoiesis in the examined tissue. Also, treatments 0.5 and 1.0 mL/Kg of chocolate, and 1.0 mL/Kg of strawberry and biscuit induced the formation of micronuclei in the bone marrow erythrocytes, at a significant frequency. Therefore, under the study conditions, the six microingredients analyzed were cytotoxic and genotoxic, and additives strawberry, chocolate and cookie were also mutagenic in at least one of the evaluated doses.

Resumo Os aromatizantes são essenciais para a indústria na confecção de alimentos industrializados. Porém, pouco se sabe sobre o potencial tóxico desses microingredientes alimentares. Dessa forma, objetivou-se neste trabalho analisar, em células de medula óssea de camundongos, a citotoxicidade, genotoxicidade e mutagenicidade de aromatizantes alimentares sintéticos idênticos ao natural, de maracujá e morango, e artificiais, de baunilha, chocolate, tutti-frutti e biscoito, nas doses 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 5,0 e 10,0 mL/Kg. Os aditivos foram administrados aos animais via gavagem em aplicação diária única durante sete dias. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao procedimento estatístico ANOVA com pós teste de Tukey, com p < 0.05. Os animais tratados com 2,0; 5,0 e 10,0 mL/Kg dos aromatizantes de chocolate, morango e biscoito, e 5,0 e 10,0 mL/Kg dos aromatizantes de baunilha e maracujá vieram a óbito no quinto e sexto dia de experimento, respectivamente. As doses 0,5 e 1,0 mL/Kg dos seis aditivos reduziram significativamente a eritropoiese do tecido analisado. Ainda, os tratamentos 0,5 e 1,0 mL/kg de chocolate, e 1,0 mL/Kg de morango e biscoito induziram a formação de micronúcleos aos eritrócitos de medula em frequência significante. Portanto, nas condições de estudo estabelecidas, os seis microingredientes analisados foram citotóxico e genotóxicos, e os aditivos de morango, chocolate e biscoito também foram mutagênicos em pelo menos uma das doses avaliadas.

Animals , Mice , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Bone Marrow Cells/drug effects , Bone Marrow Cells/pathology , Flavoring Agents/toxicity , Cytotoxins/toxicity , Mutagens/toxicity
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 345-350, May-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888873


Abstract Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don. is a bush which belongs to Celastraceae family and occurs specially in Brazilian Cerrado. Its leaves, stem, seeds and fruits are popularly used for several medicinal purposes, such as antitumoral, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial. In this study, the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of S. crassifolia stem bark fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic) were evaluated by the Ames mutagenicity assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. By the obtained results, all S. crassifolia fractions did not significantly increase the number of prototrophic revertants for histidine (His+) in both S. typhimurium strains tested (p > 0.05), suggesting absence of mutagenicity. Regarding antimutagenicity, the fractions ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic significantly decreased the number of His+ revertants colonies induced by positive control for strain TA98 (p < 0.05), demonstrating protection against mutagenicity induced by 4-nitroquinolile1-oxide, whereas the hexane fraction did not show antimutagenic effect in this strain. In the TA100 strain, all fractions of S. crassifolia protected DNA against the harmful action of sodium azide, and the hexane fraction exhibited the greatest protection in this work. Thus, it's possible conclude that the fractions of S. crassifolia tested in this study could be used in chemoprevention.

Resumo Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don. é uma árvore que pertence à família Celastraceae e ocorre especialmente no Cerrado Brasileiro. Suas folhas, caule, sementes e frutos são popularmente utilizados para vários fins medicinais, tais como antitumoral, antirreumático, anti-inflamatório e antimicrobiano. Neste estudo, nós avaliamos as atividades mutagênica e antimutagênica de frações da casca do caule de S. crassifolia (hexânica, acetato de etila e hidroalcoólica) pelo ensaio de mutagenicidade de Ames em Salmonella typhimurium, cepas TA98 e TA100. Pelos resultados obtidos todas as frações de S. crassifolia não aumentaram significativamente o número de revertentes prototróficas para histidina (His+) em ambas as cepas de S. typhimurium testadas (p > 0.05), sugerindo ausência de mutagenicidade. Em relação à antimutagenicidade, as frações acetate de etila e hidroalcoólica reduziram significativamente o número de colônias revertentes His+ induzidas pelo controle positive para a cepa TA98 (p < 0.05), demonstrando sua ação protetora contra a mutagenicidade induzida por 4-nitroquinolile1-oxide, enquanto a fração hexânica não demonstrou efeito antimutagênico nesta cepa. Na cepa TA100, todas as frações de S. crassifolia protegeram o DNA contra a ação lesiva de azida sódica, e a fração hexânica exibiu a maior proteção desse trabalho. Assim, concluímos que as frações de S. crassifolia testadas neste estudo poderiam ser utilizadas em quimioprevenção.

Antimutagenic Agents/pharmacology , Salacia/chemistry , Mutagens/toxicity , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Salmonella typhimurium/genetics , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Mutagenicity Tests , 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide/toxicity