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Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 31(111): 43-46, 20230000. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1427067


Múltiples infecciones oportunistas pueden manifestarse simultáneamente cuando la inmunosupresión es grave en pacientes infectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. Se presenta un caso de coinfección de VIH, Bartonella spp y Mycobacterium kansasii, siendo escasos los reportes a la fecha de dicha asociación y aun más en pacientes que desconocen su condición de VIH

Multiple opportunistic infections can manifest simultaneously when immunosuppression is severe in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. A case of co-infection with HIV, Bartonella spp and Mycobacterium kansasii is presented, with few reports to date of this association and even more so in patients who are unaware of their HIV status.

Humans , Male , Adult , Bartonella Infections/diagnosis , HIV/immunology , Mycobacterium
Rev. argent. cir. plást ; 29(1): 54-58, 20230000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1428908


Las infecciones periprotésicas son una complicación poco frecuente en cirugía de implantes mamarios, pero de difícil resolución si son causadas por gérmenes como las micobacterias. Mycobacterium abscessus es una micobacteria no tuberculosa de rápido crecimiento, que se presenta de manera atípica, generando abscesos y fístulas cutáneas. En este reporte presentamos el caso de una paciente que fue intervenida por recambio de implantes mamarios y mastopexia secundaria. La paciente presentó un seroma temprano como manifestación inicial y posteriormente desarrolló múltiples abscesos en todo el parénquima mamario. El tratamiento instaurado en la paciente fue la extracción del implante mamario,curaciones diarias de la herida, antibioticoterapia prolongada y punciones periódicas guiadas por ecografía, con cultivo del material obtenido. El objetivo de nuestro reporte fue presentar esta complicación generada por un germen poco frecuente, su forma de presentación, diagnóstico y el tratamiento establecido

Although periprosthetic infections are a rare complication in breast implant surgery, they are difficult to resolve if they entail germs like mycobacteria. Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing, nontuberculous mycobacterium that occurs atypically and generates abscesses and cutaneous fistulas. In this report, we present the case of a patient that underwent surgery for a breast implant replacement and a secondary mastopexy. The initial manifestation the patient evinced was an early seroma. Later, she developed multiple abscesses in all the breast parenchyma. The treatment established for the patient involved extracting the breast implant, daily cleaning and dressing of the wound, prolonged antibiotic therapy, and periodical punctures guided by ultrasound, accompanied by culture sampling. The aim of this report is to present this infrequent germ-generated complication, its form of manifestation, its diagnosis, and the established treatment.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Breast Implants/adverse effects , Abscess/therapy , Mycobacterium abscessus , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/therapy
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 27(1): 102722, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420733


Abstract Rationale Perianal tuberculosis is extremely rare without previous or active pulmonary infection. Ulcerative skin lesion is a rare presentation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the oral, perianal, or genital mucosa and the adjacent skin. Case report A 71-year-old woman complained of pain during evacuation and fecal incontinence for two years. There was an ulcerated lesion in the perianal and intergluteal region and perianal fistulous tracts. A polymerase chain reaction test on blood and biopsies of perianal ulcers, perianal fistula, and the intergluteal area was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The pathological examination revealed a chronic epithelioid granulomatous inflammatory process with the presence of multinucleated giant cells. After the end of the tuberculosis drug regimen, there was marked improvement in the patient's clinical condition. Conclusion Even in the absence of an identifiable primary focus, tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative and fistulous lesions of the perianal area.

Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431360


ABSTRACT Acid-fast bacteria can be implicated in skin and soft tissue infections. Diagnostic identification can be challenging or not feasible by routine laboratory techniques, especially if there is no access to the Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology. Here, we present two cases of skin and soft tissue infections caused by two different acid-fast bacteria, Nocardia brasiliensis and Mycobacterium marinum. They both grew on Löwenstein-Jensen medium, Sabouraud agar medium and blood agar medium. Both bacteria appeared acid-fast by Ziehl-Neelsen stain and Gram-positive by Gram stain. The identification was performed by MALDI-TOF MS and gene analysis. N. brasiliensis and nontuberculous mycobacterium M. marinum represent rare pathogens that cause severe skin and soft tissue infections. Failure to identify the causative agent and subsequent inappropriate or inadequate treatment may lead to severe complications or even disseminated disease, especially in immunocompromised individuals.

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 56: e0612, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431402


ABSTRACT Background: Brazil has the second largest number of leprosy cases worldwide, and the state of São Paulo has been considered non-endemic since 2006. Methods: We analyzed 16 variable number tandem repeats loci and three single nucleotide polymorphisms loci of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) in 125 clinical isolates from patients in different municipalities in the state. Results: The clustering pattern of M. leprae indicated that the transmission of leprosy persisted in the state and included scenarios of intra-extra-familial transmission in areas with low endemicity. Conclusions: A significantly active circulation of M. leprae was observed. Therefore, surveillance and control measures must be implemented.

Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244311, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285616


Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado ​​para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados ​​para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Humans , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Rifampin/pharmacology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965575


@#Abstract: Objective To clone PE_PGRS35 gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis(MTB),construct recombinant vector pET28a⁃PE_PGRS35,express and purify the PE_PGRS35 protein of MTB H37Rv heterologously,and explore a new target against MTB after bioinformatics analysis. Methods The PE_PGRS35 coding gene was amplified by PCR and used to construct the expression vector pET28a⁃PE_PGRS35 by recombinant cloning technology,which was transformed to E. coli BL21(DE3)after successful sequencing and induced by using IPTG. The obtained PE_PGRS35 protein was purified by Ni column affinity chromatography and analyzed by bioinformatics. Results The pET28a⁃PE_PGRS35 prokaryotic expression vector was constructed correctly as identified by sequencing. The PE_PGRS35 protein was mainly expressed in the form of inclusion bodies,with a relative molecular mass of about 53 000 and a purity of 90%. Bioinformatics analysis showed that PE_PGRS35 protein was an acid⁃labile protein,with main secondary structure of β⁃sheet and random coil,and no transme⁃ mbrane region,which was presumed to be an extramembrane protein with 39 phosphorylation sites and two conserved domains. Total 10 proteins,including Rv1769,PPE8,PPE64,PPE54,PPE24,PPE16,PPE35,PPE6,PPE28 and PE2, interacted with PE_PGRS35 protein. Conclusion PE_PGRS35 protein with high purity was successfully obtained,which provided a reference for the further development of new targets for drugs against MTB.

China Pharmacy ; (12): 391-396, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-962479


OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness, safety, economy, innovation, suitability and accessibility of recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis fusion protein (EC), and to provide evidence for selecting skin detection methods for tuberculosis infection diagnosis and auxiliary diagnosis of tuberculosis. METHODS The effectiveness and safety of EC compared with purified protein derivative of tuberculin (TB-PPD) were analyzed by the method of systematic review. Cost minimization analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-utility analysis were used to evaluate the short-term economy of EC compared with TB-PPD, and cost-utility analysis was used to evaluate the long-term economy. The evaluation dimensions of innovation, suitability and accessibility were determined by systematic review and improved Delphi expert consultation, and the comprehensive score of EC and TB-PPD in each dimension were calculated by the weight of each indicator. RESULTS The scores of effectiveness, safety, economy, innovation and suitability of EC were all higher than those of TB-PPD. The affordability scores of the two drugs were consistent, while the availability score of EC was lower than those of TB-PPD. After considering dimensions and index weight, the scores of effectiveness, safety, economy, innovation, suitability, accessibility and the comprehensive score of EC were all higher than those of TB-PPD. CONCLUSIONS Compared with TB-PPD, EC performs better in all dimensions of effectiveness, safety, economy, innovation, suitability and accessibility. However, it is worth noting that EC should further improve its availability in the dimension of accessibility.

Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(6): e272-e277, dic. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1399728


Existen numerosas entidades en la población pediátrica que pueden presentarse en forma de quistes o como lesiones de similares características. De estas patologías, las infecciosas son las más frecuentes. Se presenta el caso de una paciente oriunda de Bolivia con migración reciente a la Argentina que presentó una coinfección con tuberculosis e hidatidosis pulmonar. Ambas infecciones se pueden presentar con signos y síntomas similares y, aunque la asociación citada es poco frecuente en la bibliografía, ciertos mecanismos inmunitarios podrían intervenir en la coinfección de parásitos helmintos y micobacterias. Ambas patologías son infecciones prevalentes en nuestra región y deben ser tenidas en cuenta entre los diagnósticos diferenciales ante pacientes con imágenes quísticas o cavitarias pulmonares.

Numerous entities in the pediatric population can present in the form of cysts or as lesions with similar characteristics. Of the pathologies that can cause these images in children, infectious diseases are the most frequent. We present the case of a native of Bolivia with recent immigration to Argentina who presented a pulmonary co-infection with tuberculosis and hydatidosis. Both infections can present with similar signs and symptoms and although this association is rarely reported in the literature, certain immunological mechanisms could intervene in the causal association of co-infection between helminth parasites and mycobacteria. Both pathologies are very prevalent infections in our region and should be taken into account among the differential diagnoses in patients with cystic or cavitary pulmonary diseases.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Cysts , Echinococcosis/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Lung Diseases
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(12): 4461-4466, Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404203


Resumo A tuberculose (TB) apresenta incidências elevadas em todo o mundo, sendo ainda mais grave em pessoas privadas de liberdade (PPL). Foi avaliada a completude das notificações de TB de PPL no SINAN realizadas por equipes de atenção primária prisional (eAPP) ou por outros estabelecimentos de saúde do RS. Estudo descritivo, transversal, utilizando dados de notificações de PPL feitas no SINAN TB pelas eAPP ou por outros estabelecimentos de saúde, de janeiro de 2014 a novembro de 2018. Foi analisado o percentual de completude das variáveis: sexo, raça/cor, escolaridade, HIV, tipo de entrada, baciloscopia de escarro, cultura do escarro, Aids, tratamento antirretroviral durante o tratamento para a TB, tratamento diretamente observado (TDO), baciloscopia de 6º mês e situação de encerramento. Praticamente 53% dos casos de TB em PPL foram notificados por eAPP, e 47,1% foram notificados por outros estabelecimentos de saúde. Oitenta por cento das variáveis foram classificadas na categoria 4 (75,1% a 100% de completude). No entanto, as variáveis TDO e baciloscopia de 6º mês foram classificadas na categoria 3 (50,1% e 75% de completude). Embora não comprometa a notificação da TB no SINAN, a ausência de dados pode prejudicar a qualidade das informações sobre a doença.

Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) has a high incidence in several countries and is even more severe in prisoners. We evaluated the completeness of prisoners TB notifications in the Notifiable Disease Information System (SINAN) carried out by prison primary care teams (eAPP) or by other health facilities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS). This descriptive cross-sectional study used prisoners data notifications in the SINAN TB by the eAPP or other health facilities from January 2014 to November 2018. We analyzed the percentage of completeness of the variables: gender, ethnicity, schooling, HIV, entry type, sputum smear, sputum culture, AIDS, ART during TB treatment, directly observed treatment (DOT), sixth-month smear, and closure status. Around 52.9% of TB cases in prisoners were reported by eAPP, and other health facilities reported 47.1% of the cases. Eighty percent of the variables were classified in category 4 (75.1% to 100% completeness). However, the DOT and sixth-month smear variables were classified into category 3 (50.1% and 75% completeness). While it does not compromise the notification of TB in the SINAN, the lack of data can impair the quality of information about the disease.

J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(6): 621-625, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422007


Abstract Objective: This study aimed to describe the clinical and laboratory findings of patients diagnosed with pleural tuberculosis at two hospitals in southern Brazil. Methods: Patients aged < 18 years were evaluated retrospectively. The patients' medical and epidemiological history, tuberculin skin test results, radiological and pathological findings, and pleural fluid analysis results were retrieved. Results: Ninety-two patients with pleural tuberculosis were identified. The mean age was 10.9 years old. Twenty-one percent were children aged six years or less. The most common symptoms were fever (88%), cough (72%), and chest pain (70%). Unilateral pleural effusion was observed in 96% of the cases. Lymphocyte predominance was found in 90% of the pleural fluid samples. The adenosine deaminase activity of the pleural fluid was greater than 40 U/L in 85% of patients. A diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia with antibiotic prescriptions was observed in 76% of the study population. Conclusions: Tuberculosis etiology must be considered in unilateral pleural effusion in a child with contact with a case of tuberculosis. Pleural fluid biomarkers contribute to the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis in children and adolescents.

Medicina (B.Aires) ; 82(6): 951-954, dic. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422092


Resumen La utilización de procedimientos estéticos que mejoren la imagen corporal está en constante crecimiento, y también las infecciones asociadas a ellos, como las micobacteriosis atípicas. La meso terapia es un procedimiento mínimamente invasivo que consiste en la aplicación de sustancias que buscan estimular la dermis y el tejido celular subcutáneo, para el tratamiento de la celulitis y el rejuvenecimiento de la piel. Reportamos un caso de infección micobacteriana posterior a una mesoterapia en glúteos y muslos que se presentó como abscesos subcutáneos, que respondieron satisfactoriamente al tratamiento antibiótico prolonga do con claritromicina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. Se han informado infecciones asociadas a mesoterapia en España, América Latina y el Caribe, que tendrían posiblemente un origen común: la falta de controles sanitarios. Destacamos la importancia de estar alertados sobre estas complicaciones infecciosas y la necesidad de reforzar las medidas de seguridad necesarias para evitarlas.

Abstract The use of aesthetic procedures that improve body image is constantly growing, as well as infections associated with them, such as atypical mycobacteriosis. Mesotherapy is a minimally invasive aesthetic procedure that consists of the application of substances that seek to stimulate the dermis and subcutaneous cellular tissue, for the treatment of cellulite and skin rejuvenation. We report a case of mycobacterial infection after mesotherapy in the buttocks and thighs that appeared as subcutaneous abscesses, they responded satisfactorily to prolonged antibiotic treatment with clarithromycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Infections associated with mesotherapy have been reported in Spain, Latin America and the Caribbean, all possibly related to lack of health controls. We emphasize the importance of being aware of these infectious complications and the need to reinforce the necessary security measures to avoid them.

Rev. med. hered ; 33(4)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424211


Objetivos : Determinar si la formación de cordones ocurre en la microcolonias de M. kansasii. Material y métodos : Se sembraron en medio solido 7H11, cuatro especies de micobacterias patógenas de alta prevalencia Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis y Mycobacterium neonarum y se evaluaron hasta por 21 días, realizando complementariamente las coloraciones Ziehl-Neelsen para cada una de ellas. Para observar la presencia de la formación de cordones en las microcolonias, se utilizó microscopia de fase invertida. Resultados : En todas las especies se observó a nivel de las microcolonias la formación de cordones, además se identificó la formación de cordones en etapa temprana por la coloración Zhiel-Nelsen en Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium abscessus, y Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusiones : Mycobacterium kansasii es capaz de desarrollar cordones a nivel microscópico, por lo que la premisa basada en la formación de cordones por M. tuberculosis como un patrón diferencial de las demás micobacterias deben ser tomadas con cautela.

SUMMARY Objectives : Determine if cord formation occurs in microcolonies of M. kansasii. Methods : 4 highly prevalent pathogenic mycobacterial species Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium neonarum were sown in 7H11 solid medium and observed for up to 21 days, additionally Ziehl-Neelsen staining was performed for each of them. Additionally, Ziehl-Neelsen staining was performed for each of them, observing the presence of cord formation in the microcolonies and determining their relationship with virulence and specific species Results : In all the species cultivated in solid medium 7H11, the formation of cords was observed at the level of the microcolones, in addition, the formation of cords in an early stage was identified by the Zhiel-Nelsen staining in Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium abscessus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusions : Mycobacterium kansasii is capable of developing beads at the microscopic level as was observed in microcoloneas, so the premise based on beads by microscopy specific for the M. tuberculosis species as a differential pattern from the other mycobacteria by forming beads in cultures must be taken with caution so as not to generate a misdiagnosis since there are other species that are capable of forming a similar pattern as has been observed in Mycobacterium kansasii.

An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(3): 133-137, 20221115.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1401571


La tuberculosis (TB) cutánea es una forma rara de tuberculosis extrapulmonar y puede tener diversas manifestaciones clínicas. La afectación cutánea puede producirse como resultado de inoculación exógena, diseminación contigua desde un foco de infección, o mediante la propagación hematógena desde un foco distante 1. Las formas multibacilares de localización cutánea siguen siendo, con mucho, las más comunes en los niños 2. La tuberculosis cutánea representa sólo el 1-2% de las formas extrapulmonares de TB. Se clasifica en varias variantes, y la escrofulodermia es una forma de tuberculosis endógena. Afecta a personas de todas las edades, sin embargo, los niños, los adolescentes y los ancianos se ven muy afectados, debido a la incapacidad inmunológica para contener la infección por micobacterias. La escrofulodermia puede presentarse de forma aislada o coexistir con formas pulmonares y diseminadas de TB. Se presenta como nódulos eritematosos que se fistulizan y descargan material caseoso y purulento 3. Los exámenes patológicos revelan abscesos, necrosis y granulomas de tipo tuberculoide (3). La correlación clínica, biológica, patológica y, a veces, la progresión con el tratamiento antibacilar son la clave del diagnóstico 2

Cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that can have diverse clinical manifestations. Cutaneous involvement may occur as a result of exogenous inoculation, contiguous dissemination from a focus of infection, or by hematogenous spread from a distant focus (1). Multibacillary forms of cutaneous localization remain by far the most common in children (2). Children and the elderly are greatly affected due to immunological inability to contain the mycobacterial infection. Scrofuloderma can occur in isolation or coexist with pulmonary and disseminated forms of TB. It presents with erythematous nodules that fistulize and discharge caseous and purulent material (3). Anatomopathological examinations reveal abscesses, necrosis and tuberculoid granulomas (3). Clinical, biological, pathological correlation and sometimes progression with antibacillary treatment are the key to diagnosis (2)

Tuberculosis , Pediatrics , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous , Infections , Mycobacterium
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 68(10): 1389-1393, Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406573


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Leprosy is a disabling infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of leprosy among household contacts of leprosy patients. METHODS: This study is a serological survey in household contacts of leprosy patients who had been treated or were undergoing treatment in the city of Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil, from 2006-2016, using clinical examination and screening for anti- Phenolic glycolipid-I antibodies with Mycobacterium leprae-flow serology. RESULTS: A total of 263 index cases of leprosy were identified during the study period. Of these, 53 were approached, and among their household contacts, 108 were examined. The ML-flow test was positive in 2 (1.85%) individuals, but clinical examination revealed no signs or symptoms of leprosy in them. Therefore, they were considered to have a subclinical infection. Leprosy was not confirmed in any household contacts. In this study, a lower percentage of household contacts, when compared to that in the literature, had a positive Mycobacterium leprae-flow test result. CONCLUSION: The use of Mycobacterium leprae-flow should be encouraged during the follow-up of at-risk populations, such as the household contacts of leprosy patients.

Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 70(3): e205, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422761


Abstract Introduction: Diagnosing extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a challenge for physicians. It has been suggested that cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), which is produced by mesothelial cells, may be an EPTB diagnostic biomarker. Objective: To describe serum CA-125 levels behavior in patients with TB treated in a referral university hospital located in Cali, Colombia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 99 TB patients treated at Fundación Valle del Lili between 2007 and 2016 with CA-125 measurements (U/mL) made before TB treatment was started. Cases were classified as pulmonary TB (PTB) (n=33) or EPTB (n=66). A bivariate analysis was performed to compare the variables of interest (sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory findings data) between EPTB and PTB groups, and to determine differences between patients with CA-125 positive results and those with negative results in relation to mortality. Results: Elevated CA-125 levels were reported in 55 patients (55.56%), and positive CA-125 results (>35 U/mL) were more frequent in the EPTB group (59.09% vs. 48.48%). In the EPTB group, results were positive in tuberculous serositis cases (100% pericardial TB, 68.42% peritoneal TB, and 66.66% pleural TB), and in 66.66% of miliary TB and spinal TB cases, respectively. Also, 15 TB infection-related deaths were reported in the follow-up period (n=66), of which 13 had a CA-125 positive result, finding a significant difference with those with negative results (p=0.021); however, 47.05% of the surviving patients also had a positive result. Conclusions: Most of tuberculous serositis, miliary TB, and spinal TB cases showed elevated CA-125 levels before starting TB treatment. Therefore, CA-125 may be useful for prognostic purposes in these patients.

Resumen Introducción. El diagnóstico de la tuberculosis extrapulmonar (TBEP) es un reto para los médicos. Se ha sugerido que el antígeno del cáncer 125 (CA-125), producido por las células mesoteliales, puede ser un biomarcador diagnóstico de TBEP. Objetivo. Describir el comportamiento de los niveles séricos del CA-125 en pacientes con tuberculosis (TB) atendidos en un hospital de referencia de Cali, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal realizado en 99 pacientes con TB y mediciones de CA-125 (U/mL) antes de iniciar tratamiento para TB atendidos en la Fundación Valle del Lili entre 2007 y 2016. Los casos se clasificaron como TB pulmonar (TBP) (n=33) o TBEP (n=66). Se realizó un análisis bivariado para comparar las variables de interés (datos sociodemográficos, clínicos y de laboratorio) entre los grupos TBEP y TBP, y para determinar diferencias entre pacientes con resultados positivos y negativos para CA-125 en relación con la mortalidad. Resultados. Se reportaron niveles elevados de CA-125 en 55 pacientes (55.56%). Los resultados positivos para CA-125 (>35 U/mL) fueron más frecuentes en el grupo TBEP (59.0% vs. 48.48%). En el grupo TBEP se encontraron resultados positivos en los casos de serositis tuberculosa (100% TB pericárdica, 68.42% TB peritoneal y 66.66% TB pleural), y en 66.66% de los casos de TB miliar y vertebral, respectivamente. Además, se reportaron 15 muertes relacionadas con la infección por TB en el período de seguimiento (n=66), de las cuales 13 tuvieron un resultado positivo para CA-125, encontrando una diferencia significativa con aquellas con resultados negativos (p=0.021); sin embargo, el 47.05% de los pacientes supervivientes también tuvo un resultado positivo. Conclusiones: La mayoría de los casos de serositis tuberculosa, TB miliar y vertebral tuvieron niveles elevados de CA-125 antes de iniciar el tratamiento de la TB. El CA-125 puede resultar útil para fines de pronóstico en estos pacientes.

Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(3): 368-371, jul.-sep. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410007


RESUMEN La tuberculosis cutánea es una presentación rara de la infección por Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Se presenta el caso de una mujer sin antecedentes médicos de importancia, con un tiempo de enfermedad de año y medio, caracterizado por lesiones tipo esporotricoide, con diseminación linfocutánea en miembro superior derecho, de evolución lentamente progresiva. Se realizó un estudio histopatológico encontrándose células gigantes tipo Langhans y escasa necrosis. El paciente recibió terapia de esquema sensible antituberculoso, con evolución favorable.

ABSTRACT Cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare presentation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We present the case of a woman without important medical history, with a disease period of one year and a half, characterized by sporotrichoid-like lesions, with lymphocutaneous dissemination in the right upper limb, and with slowly progressive evolution. The histopathological tests revealed Langhans type giant cells and scarce necrosis. The patient received therapy with a sensitive antituberculous scheme, and evolved favorably.

Humans , Female , Tuberculosis, Cutaneous , Giant Cells, Langhans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Sporotrichosis , Upper Extremity
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 74(2): e768, May.-Aug. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1408905


RESUMEN Introducción: La coinfección del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y la tuberculosis ha alterado su presentación histológica, esto es particularmente frecuente en las linfadenitis. Objetivos: Realizar la caracterización etiológica de linfadenopatías producidas por el género Mycobacterium, destacar la importancia del diagnóstico precoz de esta enfermedad para evitar diseminación de la infección, tanto en pacientes inmunocompetentes como inmunodeficientes, específicamente con VIH/sida. Método: Se realizó estudio descriptivo-prospectivo entre enero de 2017 y enero de 2019. Durante este período se recibieron 5640 muestras, de estas 81 obtenidas a partir de tejido ganglionar; la toma de muestra mayoritariamente fue quirúrgica 74 (91,35 %) y 7 (8,64 %) por biopsia aspirativa (BAAF). Del total de muestras, 60 (74,07 %) procedían de pacientes con VIH/sida, las muestras se descontaminaron por el método de ácido sulfúrico al 4 %, se cultivaron en medio sólido Löwenstein-Jensen e incubaron a 37°C. Se realizaron lecturas semanalmente. Para identificar Mycobacterium tuberculosis se realizó la prueba rápida comercial inmunocromatográfica SD TB AgMPT64. Resultados: De 81 muestras analizadas se obtuvieron 22 (27,16 %) aislamientos, 16 (72,72 %) de Mycobacterium tuberculosis, y 6 (27,27 %) de especies no tuberculosas. De estas, 18 (81,81 %) procedían de pacientes con VIH/sida. Conclusión: Por todo lo antes expuesto es importante la vigilancia diagnóstica en este tipo de infección extrapulmonar, tanto para M. tuberculosis como para otras especies no tuberculosas y poder comenzar tempranamente el tratamiento específico evitando la diseminación de la infección, pues esta puede tener consecuencias fatales, sobre todo en pacientes con algún tipo de inmunosupresión, como aquellos con VHI/sida. Si un paciente mantiene fiebre prolongada, con linfadenopatías, sin síntomas respiratorios y no responde a los tratamientos con antibióticos, es necesario pensar en este tipo de infección.

ABSTRACT Introduction: The coinfection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis has altered its histological presentation; this is particularly frequent in lymphadenitis. Objective: To carry out the etiological characterization of lymphadenopathies produced by the genus Mycobacterium, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis of this disease to avoid dissemination of the infection, both in immunocompetent and immunodeficient patients, specifically HIV / AIDS. Methods: A descriptive-prospective study was carried out between January 2017 - January 2019. During this period, 5640 samples were received, of these 81 obtained from lymph node tissue, the sample collection was mostly surgical 74 (91.35%) and 7 (8.64%) by aspiration biopsy (BAAF). Of the total samples, 60 (74.07%) were from HIV / AIDS patients, the samples were decontaminated by the 4% sulfuric acid method and cultured in solid Löwenstein-Jensen medium and incubated at 370C, the readings were made weekly. For the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the commercial SD TB AgMPT64 immunochromatographic rapid test was performed. Results: Of 81 samples analyzed, 22 (27.16%) isolates were obtained, 16 (72.72%) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), and 6 (27.27%) of non-tuberculous species, of these 18 (81.81%) were from HIV / AIDS patients. Conclusion: For all the above, diagnostic surveillance is important in this type of extrapulmonary infection, both for M tuberculosis and for other non-tuberculous species and to be able to start specific treatment early, avoiding the spread of the infection, since it can have fatal consequences on all in patients with some type of immunosuppression, such as HIV/AIDS. If a patient maintains a prolonged fever, with lymphadenopathy, without respiratory symptoms and does not respond to antibiotic treatment, it is necessary to consider this type of infection.

J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(4): 431-437, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386105


Abstract Objective: To analyze the prevalence of Mycobacterium leprae detection and the associated factors among social contacts in the school environment of multibacillary cases living in a hyperendemic municipality of the state of Mato Grosso. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 236 social contacts of multibacillary leprosy from public schools and residents in Cuiabá (Mato Grosso) in 2018. The sources of information were interviews and nasal swab tests for molecular analysis by polymerase chain reaction - PCR. For the prevalence ratio estimates, crude and adjusted analyses were performed using robust Poisson regression and their respective confidence intervals (95% CI). The ArcGIS 9.1 software was used for the geographic distribution analyses. Results: The prevalence of detection of M. leprae in social contacts was 14%. A total of 63.6% of the schools surveyed had 5.1% to 50% of the social contacts of leprosy with positive PCR. The analysis of the geographic distribution in the neighborhoods showed a high prevalence of infection, being higher than 50% in some localities. The highest proportion of positive results occurred in the northern region of the city and from a precarious socioeconomic class. Conclusion: The results showed a high prevalence of detection of M. leprae among social contacts in areas with poor socioeconomic conditions. In these regions, there is a greater risk of

Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431286


Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sistemática de casos de linfadenitis tuberculosa en niños publicados en la literatura hasta abril de 2022. Materiales y Métodos: Se buscó reportes de casos de linfadenitis tuberculosa por M. tuberculosis en niños, en las bases de datos de Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, LILACs, Ovid MEDLINE, EBSCO y BMJ Case Reports. Resultados: Se seleccionó 41 reportes, que informaron 46 pacientes. La mayoría fueron varones (52,2%), de 8,5 (5-12) años, con tiempo de enfermedad de 2 (1-5) meses. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes fueron linfadenopatía palpable (60,9%), fiebre (52,2%) y tos (26,1%). También se encontró pérdida de peso (17,4%), escrófula (15,2%), dificultad respiratoria (13%), hiporexia (13%), dolor localizado (13%), exantema cutáneo (13%), sudoración nocturna (4,3%), dolor abdominal (4,3%) e ictericia (2,2%). Los ganglios cervicales fueron los más comprometidos (71,4%). Solo 17,4% tuvo compromiso pulmonar asociado. El PPD fue positivo en 77,1%, la baciloscopia en 17,2%, la histopatología en 94,1% y el cultivo en 58,8%. Conclusiones: La linfadenitis tuberculosa en niños fue más frecuente en varones, entre 5 y 12 años, inmunizados por BCG y sin contacto conocido de tuberculosis. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron linfadenopatía palpable, fiebre y tos. Además, se presentaron cuadros atípicos con dificultad respiratoria, dolor localizado, exantema cutáneo, dolor abdominal e ictericia. Los ganglios cervicales fueron los más afectados. El estudio histopatológico fue la prueba con mayor sensibilidad diagnóstica detectando el 94,1% de casos.

Objective: To conduct a systematic review of tuberculous lymphadenitis cases in children published until April 2022. Materials and methods: Case reports of tuberculous lymphadenitis by M. tuberculosis in children were searched in Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, LILACs, Ovid MEDLINE, EBSCO, and BMC Case Reports databases. Results: Forty-one reports were selected and a total of 46 patients were included. The majority were males (52,2%) of 8,5 (5-12) years old. The time of disease was 2 (1-5) months. The most frequent clinical manifestations were palpable lymphadenopathy (60,9%), fever (52,2%) and cough (26,1%). Weight loss (17,4%), scrofula (15,2%), respiratory distress (13%), hyporexia (13%), localized pain (13%), skin rash (13%), night sweats (4.3%), abdominal pain (4.3%) and jaundice (2,2%) were also founded. Cervical nodes were most frequently involved (71,4%). Only 17,4% were associated with lung involvement. PPD was positive in 77.1%, bacilloscopy in 17.2%, histopathology in 94,1% and culture in 58,8%. Conclusions: Tuberculous lymphadenitis in children was more frequent in boys, between 5 and 12 years, immunized by BCG and without known contact with tuberculosis. The principal symptoms were palpable lymphadenopathy, fever and cough. However, atypical symptoms were respiratory difficulty, localized pain, skin rash, abdominal pain, and jaundice. Cervical nodes were the most affected. The test with greatest sensitivity was the histopathological study which detected 94,1% of cases.