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An. bras. dermatol ; 96(6): 762-764, Nov.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355644


Abstract Lobomycosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by the yeast Lacazia loboi, typically found in tropical and subtropical geographical areas. Transmission occurs through traumatic inoculation into the skin, especially in exposed areas, of men who work in contact with the soil. Lesions are restricted to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, with a keloid-like appearance in most cases. The occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma on skin lesions with a long evolution is well known; however, there are scarce reports of lobomycosis that developed into squamous cell carcinoma. The authors report a patient from the Brazilian Amazon region, with lobomycosis and carcinomatous degeneration, with an unfavorable outcome, due to late diagnosis.

Humans , Male , Lacazia , Lobomycosis/pathology , Keloid/pathology , Skin/pathology , Brazil
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(4): 458-471, July-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285098


Abstract Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative disorders, characterized by infiltration of the skin by mature malignant T cells. Mycosis fungoides is the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, accounting for more than 60% of cases. Mycosis fungoides in the early-stage is generally an indolent disease, progressing slowly from some patches or plaques to more widespread skin involvement. However, 20% to 25% of patients progress to advanced stages, with the development of skin tumors, extracutaneous spread and poor prognosis. Treatment modalities can be divided into two groups: skin-directed therapies and systemic therapies. Therapies targeting the skin include topical agents, phototherapy and radiotherapy. Systemic therapies include biological response modifiers, immunotherapies and chemotherapeutic agents. For early-stage mycosis fungoides, skin-directed therapies are preferred, to control the disease, improve symptoms and quality of life. When refractory or in advanced-stage disease, systemic treatment is necessary. In this article, the authors present a compilation of current treatment options for mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome.

Humans , Skin Neoplasms/therapy , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous , Mycosis Fungoides/therapy , Sezary Syndrome/therapy , Quality of Life
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(2): 240-246, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339263


Resumen | El síndrome verrugoso tropical comprende condiciones cutáneas infecciosas, crónicas y granulomatosas que cursan con placas, nódulos o úlceras verrugosas, de ahí su nombre. Este síndrome incluye la cromoblastomicosis, la esporotricosis, la paracoccidioidomicosis, la lobomicosis, la leishmaniasis y la tuberculosis cutánea verrugosa, todas ellas enfermedades de amplia distribución en áreas tropicales y subtropicales. Sus diagnósticos pueden ser difíciles y confundirse entre sí, lo cual es más frecuente entre la esporotricosis y la leishmaniasis. Para distinguirlas se recurre a criterios clínicos y epidemiológicos, y a métodos diagnósticos como intradermorreacción, examen directo, biopsia, cultivo, inmunofluorescencia y PCR, algunos de los cuales no son de uso común. El diagnóstico preciso conduce al tratamiento adecuado. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 18 años con extensas placas verrugosas en una rodilla, inicialmente interpretadas como leishmaniasis verrugosa por la clínica, la epidemiología y la biopsia. Se le trató con Glucantime® durante 20 días, pero no presentó mejoría, por lo que se tomó una nueva biopsia que también se interpretó como leishmaniasis cutánea. La revisión de ambas biopsias evidenció inflamación con granulomas abscedados y presencia de cuerpos asteroides esporotricósicos, que condujeron al diagnóstico de esporotricosis, el cual se confirmó luego con el cultivo del hongo. Las lesiones remitieron con la administración de itraconazol. La clínica y la epidemiología de la leishmaniasis y las de la esporotricosis pueden ser semejantes, por lo que la biopsia y los estudios de laboratorio son esenciales para establecer el diagnóstico. El cuerpo asteroide esporotricósico es patognomónico de esta entidad. Se revisaron los conceptos esenciales de estas condiciones y los criterios para diferenciarlas.

Abstract | The tropical verrucous syndrome includes infectious, chronic, and granulomatous skin conditions appearing with plaques, nodules, or ulcers with a warty surface which gives name to the syndrome. It includes forms of chromoblastomycosis, sporotrichosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, lobomycosis, leishmaniasis, and tuberculosis verrucosa cutis with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical areas. The diagnoses may be difficult and confused among them, especially between sporotrichosis and leishmaniasis. Clinical, epidemiologic, intradermal reactions, direct smears, skin biopsies, cultures, immunofluorescence, and PCR are used to differentiate them, although several of these methods are not commonly used. We present an 18-year-old man with extensive verrucous plaques in one knee interpreted by clinic, epidemiology, and biopsy as verrucous cutaneous leishmaniasis. He was treated with Glucantime® for 20 days without improvement. A new biopsy was made that was also interpreted as cutaneous leishmaniasis. The revision of both biopsies showed inflammation with abscessed granulomas and asteroid sporotrichotic bodies at the center of the granulomas that led to the diagnosis of sporotrichosis later confirmed by the fungus culture. The patient responded to the treatment with itraconazole. As clinical and epidemiological findings of leishmaniasis and sporotrichosis can be similar, skin biopsy and other paraclinical studies are necessary to establish a proper diagnosis. The asteroid sporotrichotic body is pathognomonic of this mycosis. We review here the essential concepts of leishmaniasis and sporotrichosis and the criteria to differentiate them.

Sporotrichosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous , Dermatomycoses , Mycoses
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(2): 195-199, 15/06/2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362266


Neuroparacoccidiodimycosis (NPDM) is an uncommon granulomatous disease, which more frequently affects immunocompromised male patients over 30 years of age in the course of chronic lung disease. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (PB) is an endemic fungus in Brazil, and grows as thick-walled yeast (with round to oval bodies) measuring 10 µm to 60 µm in diameter. Neuroparacoccidiodimycosi may develop many years after transmission and/or primary lung involvement. The authors describe a case of NPDM affecting a male patient, 52 years of age, farmer, heavy smoker, with clinical complaint of headache, asthenia, seizures, and prostration in the previous nine months. Upon physical examination, the patient presented regular general condition, without other relevant physical alterations. Computed tomography (CT) showed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules associated to enlargement of the mediastinal lymph node. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CTscans of the central nervous system showed six heterogeneous nodular lesions compromising the frontal and parietal lobes, the largest one measuring 3.8 3.2 3.2 cm. The hypothesis of a neoplastic process compromising the lung and brain was considered. A biopsy of the mediastinal lymph node showed epithelioid granulomas, which exhibited round, thin-walled fungal structures in Grocott silver stain. The stereotactic biopsy of the frontal lesion was constituted by necrotic tissue admixed with some round to oval, thin-walled fungi measuring 10 µm to 60 µm, compatible with PB (identified on Grocott silver stain/confirmed in culture). The diagnosis of NPDM was then established. The employed therapeutic regimen was intravenous amphotericin B, itraconazole, and sulfamethoxazole-trimetropin. After ninety days of clinical follow-up, no episodes of seizures/neurological deficits were identified, and a marked decrease in the number and size of the lung and brain lesions were found.

Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 25(2): 315-323,
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279424


RESUMEN Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en el Hospital Universitario Clínico Quirúrgico Cmdte. «Manuel Fajardo Rivero¼, Santa Clara, Villa Clara, marzo - julio de 2020, con el objetivo de describir las infecciones bacterianas y fúngicas asociadas a la COVID-19. La población de estudio fue de 202 pacientes que permanecieron ingresados con diagnóstico confirmado de infección por SARS-CoV-2. Las variables de estudio fueron: edad, sexo, infección asociada, estado al egreso, microorganismos aislados y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana. El 7,9 % de los pacientes presentó una infección asociada; el 7,4 % falleció (la mayoría de las defunciones ocurrieron en los meses de marzo y abril, previo al establecimiento del protocolo definitivo de tratamiento de la COVID-19 en Cuba). El 60 % de los fallecidos presentaron una infección asociada. Escherichia coli fue el microorganismo más aislado. Es necesario establecer un protocolo de diagnóstico terapéutico para determinar las infecciones bacterianas y fúngicas asociadas al coronavirus.

ABSTRACT A descriptive study was carried out at "Cmdte. Manuel Fajardo Rivero" Clinical and Surgical University Hospital in Santa Clara, Villa Clara from March to July 2020, with the aim of describing bacterial and fungal infections associated with COVID-19. The study population consisted of 202 patients who remained hospitalized with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Age, gender, associated infection, discharge status, isolated microorganisms, and antimicrobial susceptibility were the variables studied. The 7.9% of the patients had an associated infection; 7.4% died (most deaths occurred in March and April, prior to the establishment of the definitive protocol for the treatment of COVID-19 in Cuba). The 60% of the deceased patients had an associated infection. Escherichia coli was the most isolated microorganism. A diagnostic and therapeutic protocol is necessary to determine the bacterial and fungal infections associated with the coronavirus.

Bacterial Infections , Coronavirus Infections , Coinfection , Mycoses
Infectio ; 25(1): 11-15, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154395


Resumen Objetivo: describir las características socio-demográficas, presentación clínica y condiciones extrínsecas que pueden favorecer el desarrollo de la pitiriasis versicolor. Material y métodos: estudio observacional descriptivo, de corte transversal y prospectivo, en el que se incluyeron pacientes con diagnóstico clínico y micológico de pitiriasis versicolor entre enero y diciembre de 2018, que asistieron al Hospital Universitario Centro Dermatológico Federico Lleras Acosta. Resultados: se incluyeron un total de 42 pacientes con diagnóstico de pitiriasis versicolor confirmado por examen directo, el 62% fueron hombres con una edad promedio de 33 años. La localización más común fue el tórax anterior (68%) y posterior (65%), en fototipos III y IV (78.5%), con una tonalidad hipocrómica. El 28% presentaron cuadros recurrentes, con síntomas hasta 7 años antes de la consulta. El signo de Besnier fue positivo en el 95% de los casos. El 64% refirió antecedente personal de hiperhidrosis y el 67% practicaba algún deporte como buceo, natación o gimnasia. Discusión: la identificación de las condiciones extrínsecas presentes esta población permite orientar medidas de prevención para evitar recurrencias de pitiriasis versicolor. Los viajes a lugares de clima cálido y la práctica de deportes son factores que favorecen el desarrollo de la micosis. En las formas clínicas atípicas se sugiere realizar siempre el examen micológico directo para confirmar el diagnóstico. El signo de Besnier es una maniobra útil para el diagnóstico clínico de la pitiriasis versicolor, particularmente cuando el acceso al examen directo es limitado.

Abstract Objective: to describe the sociodemographic aspects, clinical presentation and extrinsic conditions that may increase the risk of developing pityriasis versicolor. Materials and methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional and prospective observational study was conducted. Patients with clinical and mycological diagnosis of ptyriasis versicolor were included from january to december 2018 who attended to the Hospital Universitario Centro Dermatológico Federico Lleras Acosta. Results: a total of 42 patients were included in the study, all of them had confirmed mycological diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. The most common location of the lesions was the anterior thorax (68%) and posterior thorax (65%), in III and IV phototypes (78.5%) with a hypochromic color. 28% had recurrent infection, with symptoms mean of 7 years before the consultation. The Besnier sign was positive in 95% of cases, 64% reported personal history of hyperhidrosis and 67% practiced some sports: diving, swimming and gymnastics. Discussion: recognizing extrinsic conditions that may increase the risk of developing pitiraisis versicolor in this population allows identifying control measures to prevent a relapse. The main factors involved in the development of pitiraisis versicolor were traveling to places with high temperatures and sport practice. In atypical clinical presentation it is mandatory to perform the mycological direct test to confirm the diagnosis. The Besnier sign is a useful method for the clinical diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor, particularly when access to direct examination is limited.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tinea Versicolor , Signs and Symptoms , Epidemiology , Colombia , Reinfection , Hyperhidrosis , Malassezia , Mycoses
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(1): 27-33, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152805


Abstract Background: Mycosis fungoides is the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Most early-stage mycosis fungoides cases follow an indolent course, hence considered by doctors a relatively easy condition. However, since mycosis fungoides bears the title of cancer, patients might perceive it differently. Objective: To investigate patients' illness perception, and its relationships to quality of life, depression, anxiety, and coping among early-stage mycosis fungoides patients. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted. Patients from a single tertiary medical center completed the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, the MF/SS-CTCL Quality of Life scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and The Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale. Results: Thirty patients (25 males, five females, mean age 51.60) with stage I mycosis fungoides were enrolled. Mycosis fungoides had a little impact on patients' daily life, quality of life, and levels of depression and anxiety, and they generally coped well. Disease understanding was low and was negatively correlated with impairment to quality of life and depression. Patients felt that stress and worry were features of the disease's etiology. Study limitations: A small sample of patients was included. Conclusion: Patients with early-stage mycosis fungoides adapt well to their disease. Psychological interventions should be aimed at improving patients coping style and enhancing illness understanding, in order to maintain high quality of life.

Humans , Male , Female , Skin Neoplasms , Mycosis Fungoides , Perception , Quality of Life , Adaptation, Psychological , Cross-Sectional Studies , Middle Aged
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 43-49, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279072


Resumen Introducción: La micosis fungoide es el linfoma primario de células T en piel más frecuente, con expresividad clínica heterogénea. Objetivo: Reportar las variedades clínicas y las características sociodemográficas de pacientes con micosis fungoide tratados en un hospital dermatológico. Métodos: Se incluyeron 290 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico e histopatológico de micosis fungoide atendidos en el transcurso de 11 años. Se realizó descripción sociodemográfica de los pacientes, quienes se clasificaron conforme las variantes clínicas e histopatológicas. Resultados: 58 % de los casos de micosis fungoide se presentó en mujeres y 42 % en hombres. La variedad clínica más común fue la clásica en 46.2 %; la discrómica representó 35.2 %, del cual la hipopigmentada fue la más representativa (7.6 %); la poiquilodérmica constituyó 4.1 % y la foliculotrópica, 3.1 %. La variedad papular se presentó en seis pacientes (2.1 %), la de placa única en tres (1 %) y la ictiosiforme, siringotrópica y la piel laxa granulomatosa, en un paciente cada una. La variedad granulomatosa se encontró en 0.7 % y 1.4 % presentó eritrodermia. Conclusiones: La variedad clínica más frecuente de micosis fungoide fue la clásica en fase de placa, seguida de las variedades discrómicas. Otras variedades clínicas representaron 18.6 %.

Abstract Introduction: Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common primary skin T-cell lymphoma, which is characterized for a heterogeneous clinical expressivity. Objective: To report clinical variants and sociodemographic characteristics in patients with MF under the care of a dermatological hospital. Methods: 290 patients with MF clinical and histopathological diagnosis attended to over the course of 11 years were included. Sociodemographic description of patients was made, who were classified according to clinical and histopathological variants. Results: MF was recorded in 57.9 % of women and 42 % of men. The most common clinical variant was the classic type in 46.2 %; dyschromic variants accounted for 35.2 %, out of which hypopigmented MF was the most representative (17.6 %); poikilodermatous MF accounted for 4.1 %, and folliculotropic, for 3.1%. The papular variant occurred in six patients (2.1 %), the single-plaque variety in three (1%), and the ichthyosiform, syringotropic and granulomatous slack skin varieties occurred in one patient each. The granulomatous variant was found in 0.7 %, and 1.4 % had erythroderma. Conclusions: The most common MF clinical variant was classic plaque stage, followed by dyschromic variants. Other clinical variants accounted for 18.6 %.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Mycosis Fungoides/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/classification , Skin Neoplasms/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Mycosis Fungoides/classification , Mycosis Fungoides/therapy , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 808-813, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911525


Objective:To investigate the value of flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood in the diagnosis of erythroderma.Methods:A total of 29 patients with erythroderma were collected from Hospital of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from September 2017 to December 2020, including 6 with erythrodermic mycosis fungoides (EMF) , 5 with Sézary syndrome (SS) , 18 with inflammatory erythroderma (IE) with different etiologies. Four healthy volunteers served as healthy controls. Flow cytometry was performed to detect peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, immunophenotypes and clonality, and their differences were analyzed between inflammatory erythroderma and lymphoma-related erythroderma. One-way analysis of variance and least significant difference- t test were used for comparisons between groups. Results:The proportions of T cells, B cells, NK cells and CD4 -CD8 - cells significantly differed among the EMF group, SS group, IE group and control group (all P < 0.001) . The proportion of T cells was significantly higher in the SS group (93.8% ± 3.4%) than in the EMF group (42.7% ± 6.4%) and IE group (46.0% ± 6.8%, t = 12.8, 14.4, respectively, both P < 0.001) , and the proportion of CD4 -CD8 - cells was significantly lower in the IE group (0.37% ± 0.40%) than in the EMF group (2.93% ± 0.84%) and SS group (2.38% ± 0.74%, t = 9.2, 6.7, respectively, both P < 0.05) . The expression of clonal T-cell receptor β-chain variable region (TCR-vβ) was not detected in healthy controls or IE patients; the T cell subsets expressing clonal TCR-vβ were detected in 3 cases of EMF and all cases of SS, and they were all identified to be cells with a CD4 +CD7 -CD26 - phenotype. There were significant differences among the above 4 groups of subjects in the proportions of CD4 + T lymphocytes expressing chemokine receptors CCR4, CXCR3, CCR5, cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) or programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) on the cell surface (all P < 0.001) . Compared with the SS group and EMF group, the IE group showed significant decreased proportions of CD4 + T lymphocytes expressing CCR4, CLA or PD-1 (all P < 0.001) , but significantly increased proportions of CD4 + T lymphocytes expressing CXCR3 or CCR5 (all P < 0.001) . Conclusion:Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, immunophenotypes and clonality can provide a reference for the etiological diagnosis of erythroderma, and is helpful for the differential diagnosis between lymphoma-associated erythroderma and inflammatory erythroderma.

Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1348000


Sporotrichosis is a dermatozoonosis, caused by dimorphic pathogenic fungi of the genus Sporothrix. Although Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most frequent and pathogenic species identified from the Brazilian sporotrichosis hyperendemic, to the best of our knowledge this is the first report of its molecular diagnosis from a cat with ocular lesions. A 3-month-old female, domestic feline presented an ocular manifestation with granuloma in the lower-left palpebral conjunctiva, in addition to mucocutaneous lesions in varied locations throughout the body. Samples were collected for subsequent cytopathology, fungal culture, serology, and molecular genotyping. Itraconazole was prescribed for the treatment of sporotrichosis and the animal was considered clinically cured at the end of 5 months of treatment and discharged. S. brasiliensis-cat interactions can manifest with a multitude of clinical forms that resemble either infectious or noninfectious diseases. Both the need for meticulous cat physical evaluation by a veterinarian followed by accurate laboratory diagnosis are key Public Health measures in the Brazilian sporotrichosis hyperendemic area.(AU)

A esporotricose é uma dermatozoonose causada por fungos patogênicos dimórficos do gênero Sporothrix. Embora o Sporothrix brasiliensis seja a espécie mais patogênica e prevalente na hiperendemia brasileira de esporotricose, segundo nosso conhecimento este é o primeiro relato de um gato com lesões oculares causadas por esta espécie, via diagnóstico molecular. Um felino doméstico com três meses de idade apresentou manifestação ocular com granuloma em conjuntiva palpebral inferior esquerda, além de lesões mucocutâneas em diferentes áreas do corpo. Amostras foram coletadas para posterior citopatologia, cultura de fungos, sorologia e genotipagem molecular. O itraconazol foi prescrito para o tratamento da esporotricose e o animal foi considerado clinicamente curado ao final de cinco meses de tratamento, recebendo alta. As interações do S. brasiliensis com o gato podem se manifestar com uma infinidade de formas clínicas que se assemelham a doenças infecciosas ou não. A necessidade de avaliação física meticulosa desses animais por um médico veterinário, seguida do diagnóstico laboratorial preciso, são medidas essenciais em saúde pública na área hiperendêmica para a esporotricose no Brasil.(AU)

Animals , Cats , Sporotrichosis , Cats/injuries , Cats/microbiology , Eye Injuries/microbiology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876499


Objective To understand the clinical characteristics, susceptibility factors, and the composition and distribution of pathogenic fungi in Shiyan area. Methods From January 2018 to December 2018, at the outpatient department of Taihe Hospital, a total of 498 patients with superficial mycosis were confirmed by clinical features and microbial identification. Clinical data was collected and statistical analysis of these patients was carried out. Results Among 498 patients, the top three diseases were 123 cases of tinea corporis (24.70%), 110 cases of onychomycosis (22.09%), and 54 cases of body ringworm (10.84%). The top three pathogenic fungi were Trichophyton rubrum (232 strains, 46.59%), Trichophyton interdigitale (71 strains, 14.26%) and Candida albicans (41 strains, 8.23%). There were some differences in the incidence of patients of different genders, ages, and jobs. Conclusion Tinea cruris was the main superficial mycosis in Shiyan area and Trichophyton rubrum was the main pathogen of superficial mycosis. The epidemic trend is similar to that in most regions of the country, but it has its own characteristics.

Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(3): e562, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156548


Introducción: La histoplasmosis es una micosis profunda o sistémica causada por un hongo dimórfico que se puede diseminar principalmente en pacientes con inmunosupresión, como los que tienen diagnóstico de virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. El síndrome de reconstitución inmune consiste en un empeoramiento paradójico de una condición conocida o de nueva aparición después del inicio de la terapia antirretroviral. Objetivo: Describir un caso de histoplasmosis diseminada asociada a síndrome de reconstitución inmune en un paciente con infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 32 años con diagnóstico de infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, con cuadro clínico de tres semanas de evolución. Este cuadro inició posterior al comienzo de la terapia antirretroviral, que consistió en pápulo-nódulos umbilicados diseminados, con compromiso pulmonar; además, tenía histopatología y cultivo positivos para Histoplasma capsulatum sl. y prueba de antigenuria para histoplasma también positiva. Se consideró un diagnóstico de histoplasmosis diseminada con presentación cutánea, fue la expresión de un síndrome de reconstitución inmune por desenmascaramiento. Se inició manejo con anfotericina B liposomal y se mantuvo la terapia antirretroviral; posteriormente se continuó el tratamiento con itraconazol durante 12 meses con mejoría de las lesiones. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico clínico, histopatológico y microbiológico fue oportuno; el paciente presentó una adecuada respuesta al tratamiento. Esta es una micosis curable e incluso prevenible, si se diagnostica a tiempo, se inicia tratamiento precoz y se mantiene la terapia retroviral(AU)

Introduction: Histoplasmosis is a deep or systemic mycosis caused by a dimorphic fungus which may disseminate mainly in immunocompromised patients, such as those diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus. Immune reconstitution syndrome is a paradoxical worsening of a known condition or a condition appearing after the start of antiretroviral therapy. Objective: Describe a case of disseminated histoplasmosis associated to immune reconstitution syndrome in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Case report: A case is presented of a male 32-year-old patient diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus with a clinical status of three weeks' evolution. The current status developed after the start of antiretroviral therapy. It consisted in disseminated umbilicated papular nodules with pulmonary involvement, as well as positive Histoplasma capsulatum sl. histopathology and culture, and a positive histoplasma antigen test. A diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis with a cutaneous presentation was considered. It was the expression of immune reconstitution syndrome by unmasking. Treatment was started with liposomal amphotericin B, maintaining the antiretroviral therapy. Management was then continued with itraconazole for 12 months with improvement of the lesions. Conclusions: Timely clinical, histopathological and microbiological diagnosis was performed. The patient displayed an adequate response to treatment. This mycosis is curable and even preventable when a diagnosis is made in time, treatment is started early and the retroviral therapy is maintained(AU)

Humans , Skin Diseases , HIV , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/complications , Mycoses , Histoplasmosis/etiology
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(3): e532, sept.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156544


Introducción: En la actualidad las infecciones fúngicas representan un problema para la salud humana. Las infecciones causadas por especies patógenas de hongos registran un incremento constante y se ubican entre el cuarto y décimo lugar como causa de muerte, particularmente en las unidades de cuidado intensivo. Un diagnóstico adecuado y precoz impacta directamente en la morbilidad y mortalidad asociadas a estas. Objetivo: Describir las principales técnicas de diagnóstico no convencional de las enfermedades fúngicas más frecuentes, en especial las relacionadas con el diagnóstico serológico y molecular. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura científica sobre el tema, publicada entre 2000 y 2019. Se revisaron un total de 63 trabajos. Como motores de búsqueda se emplearon Google y Google Scholar. Se revisaron las bases de datos Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, BUCea y SciELO. Análisis y síntesis de la información: Las técnicas serológicas se emplean en el diagnóstico de las micosis invasivas o sistémicas por ser fáciles, rápidas y confiables. La detección de anticuerpos tiene utilidad limitada en el diagnóstico de las micosis invasivas debido a que la respuesta puede estar retrasada, reducida o no existir en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. La detección de componentes no antigénicos liberados por los hongos durante la infección y la secuenciación de ácidos nucleicos fúngicos son otras opciones para el diagnóstico de las micosis. Conclusiones: El desarrollo biotecnológico aporta nuevas herramientas que incrementan las oportunidades de identificación de las micosis. En la actualidad se disponen de métodos basados tanto en la detección de marcadores inmunológicos como de elementos moleculares específicos. La eficacia de las herramientas no convencionales para el diagnóstico depende de la correcta combinación de estas(AU)

Introduction: Fungal infections are a current human health problem. Infections caused by pathogenic fungal species constantly increase in number, and are ranked between the fourth and tenth leading causes of death, particularly in intensive care units. Early accurate diagnosis has a direct impact on the morbidity and mortality of fungal infections. Objective: Describe the main non-conventional diagnostic techniques for the most common fungal diseases, especially those related to serological and molecular diagnosis. Methods: A review was conducted of the scientific literature about the topic published between the years 2000 and 2019. A total 63 publications were reviewed. The search engines used were Google and Google Scholar. The databases Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, BUCea and SciELO were reviewed. Data analysis and synthesis: Serological techniques are used for the diagnosis of invasive or systemic mycoses because they are easy, fast and reliable. The detection of antibodies has a limited usefulness in invasive mycosis diagnosis, for the response may be delayed, reduced or inexistent in immunocompromised patients. Detection of non-antigenic components released by fungi during infection and sequencing of fungal nucleic acids are other mycosis diagnosis options. Conclusions: Biotechnological development contributes new tools increasing mycosis identification opportunities. Methods are currently available which are based on detection of immunological markers and specific molecular elements. The efficacy of non-conventional diagnostic tools depends on their appropriate combination(AU)

Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mycoses/diagnosis , Mycoses/mortality , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods
Multimed (Granma) ; 24(5): 1197-1209, sept.-oct. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135369


RESUMEN La eritrodermia es una erupción eritematosa más o menos escamosa que afecte a más del 90% de la superficie corporal. Se trata de una enfermedad capaz de comprometer el pronóstico vital y que puede complicarse con desequilibrios hidroelectrolíticos, trastornos de la termorregulación, infecciones, así como con fallo cardiovascular. En la presente publicación referimos el caso de un paciente masculino de 72 años con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial y de Lepra que recibió poliquimioterapia, es ingresado en el servicio de dermatología en el período de observación, pues hace alrededor de un año comenzó a presentar enrojecimiento de la piel y múltiples escamas. Al momento del examen se observa paciente eritrodérmico, ectropión, distrofia ungueal importante, con adenopatías palpables axilares e inguinales, asociado un prurito intenso generalizado. Se realizan estudios para el diagnostico incluyendo biopsia de ganglios inguinal y de piel, esta última compatible con Micosis Fungoide. Actualmente se reconocen tres variantes eritrodérmicas en el linfoma cutáneo de células T: el síndrome de Sézary, la Eritrodermia en micosis fungoide y la Eritrodermia en linfomas cutáneos de células T:No Especificada. Si bien se entiende al síndrome de Sézary como una expresión leucémica del linfoma cutáneo de células T eritrodérmico, con numerosas células de Sézary en piel, sangre y otros tejidos, la Eritrodermia en micosis fungoide se determinaría ante la ausencia de estos mismos hallazgos hematológicos e histológico ante un cuadro clínico eritrodérmico. Se hace necesaria la publicación del artículo por la forma de presentación de la micosis fungoide, teniendo en cuenta que esta dermatosis tiene un sin número de diagnósticos diferenciales que la hace la gran simuladora en la Dermatología.

ABSTRACT Erythroderma is a more or less scaly erythematous rash that affects more than 90% of the body surface area. It is a disease capable of compromising the vital prognosis and that can be complicated by hydroelectrolytic imbalances, thermoregulation disorders, infections, as well as cardiovascular failure. In this publication we refer to the case of a 72-year-old male patient with a history of high blood pressure and leprosy who received polychemotherapy, is admitted to the dermatology service in the observation period, as about a year ago he began to develop redness of the skin and multiple scales. At the time of the examination, an erythrothermal patient, ectropion, important ungueal dystrophy, with axillary and inguinal palpable adenopathies, associated with a widespread intense itching, is observed. Studies are conducted for diagnosis including inguinal and skin node biopsy, the latter compatible with Mycosis Fungoide. Three erythrodermal variants are currently recognized in skin T-cell lymphoma: Sézary syndrome, Erythroderma in fungoid mycosis, and Erythroderma in skin T-cell lymphomas: Undepede. While Sézary syndrome is understood as a leukemia expression of erythrodermal T-cell skin lymphoma, with numerous Sézary cells in skin, blood and other tissues, Erythroderma in fungoid mycosis would be determined in the absence of these same haematological and histological findings before an erythrodermal clinical picture. It is necessary to publish the article by the form of presentation of fungoid mycosis, taking into account that this dermatosis has a number of differential diagnoses that makes it the great simulator in Dermatology.

RESUMO Eritrodermia é uma erupção cutânea mais ou menos erethema que afeta mais de 90% da superfície do corpo. É uma doença capaz de comprometer o prognóstico vital e que pode ser complicada por desequilíbrios hidroelegóticos, distúrbios termoreguladores, infecções, bem como insuficiência cardiovascular. Nesta publicação, refere-se ao caso de um paciente do sexo masculino de 72 anos com histórico de pressão alta e hanseníase que recebeu poliquimoterapia, é internado no serviço de dermatologia no período de observação, pois há cerca de um ano começou a desenvolver vermelhidão da pele e múltiplas escamas. No momento do exame, observa-se um paciente eritrótermal, ectropion, importante distrofia ungueal, com adenopatias palpáveis axilares e inguinais, associadas a uma coceira intensa generalizada. São realizados estudos para diagnóstico, incluindo biópsia inguinal e nódulo da pele, este último compatível com Mycosis Fungoide. Três variantes eritromicais são atualmente reconhecidas em linfoma de células T da pele: síndrome de Sézary, Erythroderma na micose fungoide, e Erythroderma em linfomas de células T da pele: Undepede. Enquanto a síndrome de Sézary é entendida como uma expressão de leucemia de linfoma de pele de células T eritorodérmica, com numerosas células Sézary na pele, sangue e outros tecidos, eritrorgema em micose fungoide seria determinada na ausência desses mesmos achados haematológicos e histológicos diante de um quadro clínico eritroxermal. É necessário publicar o artigo sob a forma de apresentação da micose fungoide, tendo em vista que essa dermatose possui uma série de diagnósticos diferenciais que o torna o grande simulador em Dermatologia.

Rev. argent. dermatol ; 101(3): 41-50, set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155662


RESUMEN La esporotricosis es una micosis subcutánea causada por el Sporothrix schenkii. De presentación clínica variada, la que nos ocupa posee forma cutánea fija de evolución polimorfa, lo que ocasiona un diagnóstico tardío y tratamientos incorrectos que conllevan a complicaciones. Se presenta el caso de una paciente pediátrica, sin antecedentes de inoculación traumática. Con historia de lesión de inicio nodular tipo picadura en región interescapular. Dos meses después se ulcera en la región central y se cubre de costras. El paciente se automedica con betametasona, clotrimazol y gentamicina crema, generando remisión temporal de la lesión. Posteriormente, la lesión reaparece y es diagnosticada como cicatriz queloide, infiltrándose con corticoides. Un mes y medio después, se agrava además con dolor y prurito, y es tratada con antibióticos. Sin presentar mejoría, acude a consulta dermatológica donde, por cultivo, es diagnosticada con esporotricosis cutánea fija granulomatosa complicada con sobreinfección por Candida spp. y Staphylococcus aureus. Se realiza tratamiento con Itraconazol y Yoduro de potasio presentando mejoría clínica. El diagnóstico temprano de la esporotricosis cutánea es esencial para evitar cambios atípicos en la evolución de la lesión. El tratamiento adecuado en el momento oportuno, minimiza las secuelas físicas y psicológicas en el paciente.

ABSTRACT Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by Sporothrix schenkii complex. Its clinical presentation is diverse, but the fixed cutaneous form has a polymorphic evolution, causing a diagnosis delay and wrong treatments that lead to complications. We present the case of a pediatric patient, with no history of traumatic inoculation. Came with a history of a sting-like nodular lesion in the interscapular region. Two months later it ulcerates in the central region and is covered with scabs. The patient self-medicates with a cream that contains betamethasone, clotrimazole and gentamicin, generating temporary remission of the lesion. Subsequently, the lesion reappears and is diagnosed as a keloid scar, treated with infiltration of corticosteroids. A month and a half later, it is also aggravated with pain and itching, and is treated with antibiotics. Without showing any improvement, she went to a dermatological clinic where, by culture, she was diagnosed with fixed granulomatous cutaneous sporotrichosis complicated with Candida spp overinfection. and Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment with Itraconazole and Potassium Iodide is performed presenting clinical improvement. The early diagnosis of cutaneous spotrichosis is essential to avoid atypical changes in the evolution of the lesion. The right treatment at the right time minimizes the physical and psychological sequelae in the patient.

Rev. argent. dermatol ; 101(3): 91-100, set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155666


RESUMEN Las enfermedades cutáneas en pacientes con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y/o síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (SIDA) son comunes y altamente incapacitantes; sin embargo, la micosis fungoide (MF) es una complicación inusual en pacientes con VIH, por tal motivo no ha sido completamente dilucidado su etiopatogénesis ni su forma de presentación o manifestaciones clínicas en pacientes con esta patología. Se presenta el caso de una paciente con diagnóstico de VIH y MF atendida en la unidad de Dermatología del Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe. Medellín - Colombia.

ABSTRACT Cutaneous diseases in patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common, becoming highly disabling entities in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); however, mycosis fungoides (MF) is a complication of low occurrence in patients with HIV, so it has not been clearly elucidated its presentation or manifestations in patients with this pathology. In this report we present the case of a patient with a diagnosis of HIV and MF treated at the Dermatology Unit of the Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, in Medellín, Colombia.

An. bras. dermatol ; 95(4): 521-523, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130919


Abstract Chromoblastomycosis is a subcutaneous mycosis with chronic evolution that mainly affects the lower limbs and, less frequently, the auricles. Clinically, it presents with papillary verrucous, nodular, and/or tumoral lesions, whether isolated or infiltrated, forming plaques and, sometimes, atrophic in some areas. Histopathologically, it is characterized by a dermal granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate, and the diagnosis can be confirmed by the presence of fumagoid bodies in anatomopathological or direct mycological exams. The treatment to be indicated will depend on the extent and location of the lesions, using systemic antifungals, surgical removal, cryotherapy, thermotherapy, and immunoadjuvants. The present study reports an atypical presentation of chromoblastomycosis on the auricle.

Humans , Male , Chromoblastomycosis , Ear Auricle , Itraconazole , Ear, External , Middle Aged , Antifungal Agents
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 326-331, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130881


Abstract Background: Diagnosis of mycosis fungoides is challenging due to the non-specificity of clinical and histopathological findings. The literature indicates an average delay of 4-6 years for a conclusive diagnosis. Refinement of the histopathological criteria for the diagnosis of patients in early stages of the disease is considered of interest. Objectives: To study the histopathological aspects of early-stage mycosis fungoides and the applicability, in a retrospective form, of the diagnostic algorithm proposed by Pimpinelli et al. Methods: Observational, retrospective, transversal study based on revision of histopathological exams of patients with suspected mycosis fungoides. Medical records were reviewed, and complementary immunohistochemistry performed. Results: Sixty-seven patients were included. The most frequent histopathological features were superficial perivascular lymphoid infiltrate (71.6%), epidermotropism (68.7%), lymphocytic atypia (63.8%), hyperkeratosis (62.7%) and acanthosis (62.7%). Forty-three patients scored 4 points at the algorithm, by clinical and histological evaluation. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 23 of the 24 patients with less than 4 points. Of those 23, 22 scored 1 point, allowing a total of 61 patients (91%) with the diagnosis of early-stage mycosis fungoides. Study limitations: Its retrospective character, reduced sample size and incomplete application of the algorithm. Conclusions: Application of the Pimpinelli et al. algorithm, even in an incomplete form, increased the percentage of cases diagnosed as mycosis fungoides. Routine application of the algorithm may contribute to earlier and specific management and improvement of the patients' outcome.

Humans , Male , Female , Algorithms , Mycosis Fungoides/diagnosis , Mycosis Fungoides/pathology , Reference Values , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , Lymphocytes/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Disease Progression , Middle Aged
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205600


Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are the two most commonly seen obstructive airway disorders, affecting millions of people across the world. Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS) includes the patients having features of both COPD and asthma. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to evaluate spectrum of fungal infection in sputum/induced sputum/bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples of ACOS patients. Materials and Methods: Our prospective study conducted on 80 patients diagnosed ACOS, in exacerbation, of either sex attending the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Pandit Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, after taking permission from the ethical committee. Sputum or induced sputum or BAL sample was collected in sterile vials and sent to the microbiology department for the examination for fungal species. In microbiology, sputum/BAL samples were subjected to direct microscopic examination using KOH and cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. The culture was observed daily until 21 days for any fungal growth. Results: Out of 80 patients of ACOS, 43 were males and 37 were females. Culture results were positive for fungal species in 33 patients out of 80 patients (41.2%). Different species of fungi were cultured such as Candida (22.6%), Aspergillus flavus (5%), Aspergillus fumigatus (2.5%), Aspergillus niger (2.5%), Penicillium non-marneffei (3.8%), Trichosporon spp. (3.8%), and Geotrichum spp. (1.3%). Conclusion: Our observations show that a wide spectrum of fungal species is prevalent in respiratory tract in ACOS patients. Determination of pulmonary mycosis in ACOS is required to detect, and treat the coinfection with fungus well in time and decrease morbidity and mortality due to ACOS.

J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200023, 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135136


Endemic systemic mycoses remain a health challenge, since these opportunistic diseases are increasingly infecting immunosuppressed patients. The simultaneous use of antifungal compounds and other drugs to treat infectious or non-infectious diseases has led to several interactions and undesirable effects. Thus, new antifungal compounds should be investigated. The present study aimed to evaluate the activity of liriodenine extracted from Annona macroprophyllata on agents of systemic mycoses, with emphasis on the genus Paracoccidioides. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined by the microdilution method. The cellular alterations caused by liriodenine on a standard P. brasiliensis (Pb18) strain were evaluated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Results: Liriodenine was effective only in 3 of the 8 strains of the genus Paracoccidioides and in the Histoplasma capsulatum strain, in a very low concentration (MIC of 1.95 µg.mL-1); on yeasts of Candida spp. (MIC of 125 to 250 µg.mL-1), including C. krusei (250 µg.mL-1), which has intrinsic resistance to fluconazole; and in Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii (MIC of 62.5 µg.mL-1). However, liriodenine was not effective against Aspergillus fumigatus at the studied concentrations. Liriodenine exhibited fungicidal activity against all standard strains and clinical isolates that showed to be susceptible by in vitro tests. Electron microscopy revealed cytoplasmic alterations and damage to the cell wall of P. brasiliensis (Pb18). Conclusion: Our results indicate that liriodenine is a promising fungicidal compound that should undergo further investigation with some chemical modifications.(AU)

Paracoccidioides , Microscopy, Electron , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cryptococcus neoformans , Cryptococcus gattii , Mycoses , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification