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1.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 101-107, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013345

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveMyelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is a group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders,and this study aims to investigate the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α) in the bone marrow cells of patients with MDS and its correlation with the clinical features of MDS,the therapeutic efficacy of arsenic-containing Chineseherbal compound,and the survival prognosis. MethodAccording to the inclusion and exclusion criteria,27 MDS patients treated with arsenic-containing Chinese herbal compound in the Department of Hematology,Xiyuan Hospital,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences from January 2022 to September 2022 were included,and their bone marrow samples were collected by myelotomy. HIF-1α expression level in bone marrow cells was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to analyze its correlation with clinical features,and logistic and Cox regression was used to analyze the risk factors affecting the efficacy and prognostic survival of MDS patients. ResultThe HIF-1α mRNA expression level was lower in bone marrow cells of MDS patients than in healthy subjects. HIF-1α was positively correlated with the degree of myelodysplasia(r=0.384,P<0.05) and bone marrow granulocytic system%(G%)(r=0.560,P<0.01). Logistic regression showed that HIF-1α was a risk factor for the prognosis in the follow-up of the efficacy of treatment(P<0.05)and Cox regression showed that HIF-1α was an independent factor affecting the survival prognosis of MDS patients [odds ratio(OR)=398.968,95% confidence interval(CI)(1.281,116 858.743),P<0.05]. ConclusionThe level of HIF-1α expression in bone marrow cells of MDS patients was closely related to the degree of clinical myelodysplasia and G%,and HIF-1α was a risk factor for the efficacy for and survival prognosis of MDS patients.

2.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(supl.2): S68-S75, July 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514186

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The data on the pattern of primary hematologic malignancies in Bahrain is sparse, although previously published studies suggested rising trends in their incidence. This study aimed to compare with regional and world data and identify any changing trends. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional chart analysis study was done on all cases of primary hematologic malignancies of bone marrow origin of Bahraini nationals presenting during the 10-year period from January 2005 to December 2014 at the sole oncology referral center in Bahrain during the study period. Results: In a total of 272 cases, the primary hematologic malignancies in decreasing order of frequency with respective median ages at diagnosis were: acute myeloid leukemia (AML; 26.1%, 39 years), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; 22.8%, 9 years), multiple myeloma (MM, 16.2%, 57 years), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, 14%, 39.5 years), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS; 12.5%, 56 years) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; 5.5%, 65 years). The overall crude annual incidence rate of these malignancies was 4.8/105 population. Age-specific incidence rates were found to increase dramatically with age, except for ALL, for which it peaked in the pediatric age group. The age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) per 105 per year were 1.47 (AML), 1.13 (MM), 0.93 (ALL), 0.85 (MDS), 0.81 (CML) and 0.44 (CLL). Conclusion: The pattern of primary hematologic malignancies in Bahrain shows unique features that distinguish it from trends reported in Eastern and Western world populations.

3.
Journal of Leukemia & Lymphoma ; (12): 505-509, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989012

ABSTRACT

The acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes are common myeloid neoplasms for which allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is one of the main curative therapies. In high-risk patients, the relapse rate can be more than 40%, and patients with post-transplantation relapses have a very poor prognosis, so preventing relapse after transplantation is crucial. The maintenance therapy is a group of interventions to prevent relapse when morphological, molecular biological and cytogenetic results are constantly negative after transplantation. Currently, the commonly used maintenance therapy is the application of demethylating drugs, targeted drugs, etc., but their necessity, medicine plan, adverse effects, multi-drug combinations, and other aspects need to be studied urgently. This article will systematically describe the progress of post-transplantation maintenance therapy for high-risk myeloid neoplasms based on drug classification.

4.
Journal of Leukemia & Lymphoma ; (12): 158-160, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988967

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of demethylating drugs decitabine and azacitidine in treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).Methods:The clinical data of 15 patients initially diagnosed with MDS in Fujian Provincial Hospital from May 2010 to May 2020 were retrospectively analyzed; 10 patients were treated with decitabine (10-30 mg·m -2·d -1, 3-5 d consecutively) and 5 patients were treated with azacitidine (75 mg·m -2·d -1 for 7 d consecutively). Gene mutation, risk stratification, efficacy and adverse reactions were observed. Results:Among 15 patients, 9 cases were males and 6 cases were females, with a median age of 64 years (51-84 years). The median follow-up time was 18 months (4-62 months). There were 3 cases in high-risk group, 10 cases in medium-risk group and 2 cases in low-risk group. SF3B1, TET2 and STAG2 mutations were more common in patients with low to moderate risk; DNMT3A, EZH2, U2AF1, RUNX1 and TP53 mutations were more common in patients with high-risk. All patients were evaluated for efficacy after 2-3 courses of treatment, and the total effective rate was 66.7% (10/15). Among them, 1 case (6.7%) achieved complete remission, 1 case (6.7%) achieved bone marrow complete remission (mCR), 2 cases (13.3%) achieved partial remission, and 6 cases (40%) achieved hematological improvement. During the treatment, 9 cases had grade 3-4 hematological toxicity and 6 cases had grade 3-4 infection. There was no grade 3-4 bleeding, nausea, vomiting and liver function damage. During the follow-up to May 2020, 9 patients survived and 6 patients died.Conclusions:Demethylating drugs decitabine and azacitidine have high rates of complete remission and partial remission and a low rate of adverse drug reactions in MDS patients.

5.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 907-910, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982149

ABSTRACT

With the development of molecular biology techniques, the people's understanding of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has greatly improved, a heterogeneous hematopoietic pre-malignant disorder of the stem cells. Gene mutations include RNA splicing, DNA methylation, chromosome modification, transcription factors, signal transduction kinases, RAS pathways, cohesion complexes, DNA repair, etc. Gene mutation is the determinant of diagnostic typing and therapeutic efficacy of MDS. The new concepts of CHIP and ICUS have aroused people's attention to the elderly patients with clonal hematopoiesis and non-clonal cytopenia but without MDS characteristics, who have the possibility of high-risk transformation to MDS and leukemia. In order to better understand the pathogenesis of MDS, the significance of gene mutations, CHIP and ICUS in the diagnosis and prognosis of MDS were reviewed in this paper.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , DNA Methylation , Mutation , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/pathology , Prognosis , Signal Transduction
6.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441594

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El mieloma múltiple con expresión de inmunoglobulina M de superficie constituye una enfermedad rara cuya causa es desconocida y se caracteriza por una alta tasa de anormalidades genéticas en las células plasmáticas o sus precursores. Objetivo: Determinar las características clínicas y sus asociaciones con la expresión inmunofenotípica de inmunoglobulina M de superficie e inmunohistoquímica de CD20 en una paciente afectada de mieloma múltiple precedido por síndrome mielodisplásico. Presentación del caso: Paciente femenina, 68 años de edad. Admitida en el Servicio de Hematología Clínica. Al momento del diagnóstico presentó palidez, trombocitopenia, hipercalcemia y lesiones óseas. Inicialmente, mediante citometría de flujo se detectaron patrones aberrantes para granulocitos, neutrófilos, monocitos y serie eritroide, sugerentes de síndrome mielodisplásico. Posteriormente se observó aumento de las células plasmáticas del 18 % en el frotis de médula ósea, exhibiendo una morfología similar a linfocitos. Se reportó una población patológica de 6 % de la celularidad total, mostrando positividad para CD38, CD117 e inmunoglobulina M de superficie, negatividad para CD19 y CD45, fenotipo coherente con células plasmáticas anormales. Adicionalmente resultados de inmunohistoquímica relataron tinción difusa de CD20 en biopsia de médula ósea. La paciente logró recuperarse luego de un trasplante autólogo de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas. Conclusión: Los resultados resaltan la importancia de diagnosticar y monitorear casos únicos que permitan un tratamiento oportuno del paciente.


Introduction: Multiple Myeloma with expression of surface immunoglobulin M is a rare entity, whose cause is unknown, and is characterized by a high rate of genetic abnormalities in plasma cells or their precursors. Objective: To determining the clinical characteristics and their associations with the immunophenotypic expression of surface immunoglobulin M and CD20 immunohistochemistry in a patient affected by Multiple Myeloma preceded by Myelodysplastic syndrome. Case presentation: A 68-year-old female patient is admitted to the Clinical Hematology Service. At the time of diagnosis, she presented pallor, thrombocytopenia, hypercalcemia, and bone lesions. Initially, flow cytometry detected aberrant patterns for neutrophilic granulocytes, monocytes, and the erythroid series suggestive of myelodysplastic syndrome. Subsequently, an 18% increase in plasma cells was observed in the bone marrow smear, exhibiting a lymphocyte-like morphology. A pathological population of 6% of the total cellularity was reported, showing positivity for CD38, CD117 and surface immunoglobulin M, negativity for CD19 and CD45, a phenotype consistent with abnormal plasma cells. Additionally, immunohistochemical results reported diffuse CD20 staining in bone marrow biopsy. The patient managed to recover after an autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Conclusion: The results found highlight the importance of diagnosing and monitoring single cases that allow timely treatment of the patient.


Subject(s)
Female , Aged
7.
Journal of Leukemia & Lymphoma ; (12): 103-106, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929743

ABSTRACT

Objective:To deepen the understanding of myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis (MDS/MPN-RS-T), and to improve the levels of precise diagnosis and individualized treatment.Methods:The clinical data and next-generation sequencing molecular cloning results of two MDS/MPN-RS-T patients who were admitted to the First People's Hospital of Chuzhou in October 2017 and November 2019 were retrospectively analyzed, and the related literature was reviewed.Results:Case 1 was a 76-year-old female. The mutation loads from high to low were DNMT3A, JAK2 V617F and SF3B1. After administration of hydroxyurea, this patient acquired amelioration in anemia, and the platelet count improved. The clinical course was indolent. Case 2 was a 66-year-old male, who was initially diagnosed with essential thrombocythemia but failed to acquire response after hydroxyurea treatment. MDS/MP-RS-T was diagnosed after comprehensive examination. The mutation loads from high to low were SF3B1, ASXL1, JAK2 V617F and SRSF2. Pancytopenia occurred after disease progression, and the JAK2 V617F mutation finally turned negative. Administration of erythropoietin and lenalidomide failed to improve the condition, but low-dose decitabine treatment (10 mg/d, 3-5 d, once a month) improved the hematopoiesis.Conclusions:The co-mutation of JAK2 V617F and SF3B1 has a suggestive effect on the diagnosis of MDS/MPN-RS-T, and dynamic next-generation sequencing is helpful to elucidate the molecular nature of clinical heterogeneity of the disease. Low-dose decitabine has a certain curative effect on MDS/MPN-RS-T.

8.
Chinese Journal of Primary Medicine and Pharmacy ; (12): 1794-1797, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-955914

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical characteristics, imaging features, treatment, prognosis, and possible causes of myelodysplastic syndrome complicated by acute cerebral infarction.Methods:The clinical data of four patients with myelodysplastic syndrome complicated by acute cerebral infarction who received treatment at Peking University International Hospital and Beijing Jingcheng Boai Hospital from January to December 2021 were retrospectively analyzed.Results:All four patients experienced myelodysplastic syndrome complicated by acute cerebral infarction for the first time. They were aged 60-69 years, with a median age of 65 years. Bone marrow suppression occurred in the four patients with myelodysplastic syndrome after chemotherapy, resulting in a remarkable reduction in the number of platelets. All four patients had just been transfused with platelets before the onset of myelodysplastic syndrome complicated by acute cerebral infarction. The main clinical manifestations were dyskinesia, language disorder, paresthesia, and dizziness. Three patients had multiple foci, two of them involved bilateral cerebral hemispheres, and only one patient had a single focus. Circulation improvement and symptomatic treatment were given after admission. Two patients with cerebral hernia died, and two patients were discharged after improvement.Conclusion:The pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome complicated by acute cerebral infarction is complex. It includes many causes rather than common risk factors for stroke. Myelodysplastic syndrome complicated by acute cerebral infarction is rare in the clinic. It is difficult to treat, is serious, and has a poor prognosis.

9.
Journal of Leukemia & Lymphoma ; (12): 701-704, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954022

ABSTRACT

Almost 50% myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients have different splicing factor mutations, including SF3B1, SRSF2, U2AF1. Different splicing factor mutations cause the various mechanisms of slicing abnormality and eventually lead to the similar MDS phenotypes, indicating that splicing factor mutations might generate the common pathopoiesia pathway different from slicing abnormality. Recent studies have shown that SF3B1, U2AF1 and SRSF2 mutations could contribute to the accumulation of R-loop, cause DNA damage and repair abnormality, activate ATR-Chk1 pathway and finally promote apoptosis and tumorigenesis. This paper reviews the role of R-loop in the pathogenesis of MDS and the progress of related targeted drugs.

10.
Journal of Leukemia & Lymphoma ; (12): 680-683, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954020

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the therapeutic effect of venetoclax combined with azacitidine in treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) complicated with monoclonal globulinemia of unknown significance (MGUS).Methods:The clinical data of a patient with MDS complicated with MGUS in the Second People's Hospital of Shenzhen in December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, and the literatures were reviewed.Results:According to results of bone marrow smear, cytogenetics, and next-generation sequencing, the patient was diagnosed as MDS and MGUS complicated with ASXL1, RUNX1, EZH2, STAG2 mutations as well as t(11;14). No response was observed after 2 courses of azacitidine and 1 course of azacitidine plus HAG. Later the patient achieved complete remission and negative RUNX1 and STAG2 mutations after a course of venetoclax combined with azacitidine. Meanwhile, M protein exhibited a decrease more than 50%. To date, the patient was still in complete remission.Conclusions:The regimen of venetoclax combined with azacitidine shows a significant efficacy and good tolerance to patient with co-occurrence of MDS and MGUS with t(11; 14).

11.
Journal of Leukemia & Lymphoma ; (12): 659-663, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954016

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical characteristics, gene mutation, treatment and prognosis of familial aggregation myelodysplastic syndromes/acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML).Methods:The 3 familial aggregation MDS/AML admitted to Shanghai Yangpu District Hospital from August 2012 to March 2019 were collected. The bone marrow examination, gene mutation detection, therapeutic effect and prognosis of the patients were retrospectively analyzed, and the relevant literature was reviewed.Results:In pedigree 1, the survival time of 2 AML patients was 8 months and 1 month, respectively. In pedigree 2, the transformation time of 2 patients diagnosed MDS to AML/high-risk MDS was 4 and 3 months, the survival time was 5 and 8 months, respectively. TP53 and RUNX1 mutations were detected in the older brother. In pedigree 3, the survival time of the AML patient was 13 months, and the MDS patient was stable.Conclusions:Familial aggregation MDS/AML has rapid progression and short survival time, and its diagnosis needs to be combined with family history, cytogenetics, and molecular biology.

12.
Journal of Leukemia & Lymphoma ; (12): 445-448, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953984

ABSTRACT

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a kind of heterogeneous myeloid tumor that originates from hematopoietic stem cells and is characterized by hematopoietic dysfunction and high risk of transformation into myeloid leukemia. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has a great therapeutic potential for MDS patients and is the only effective option to cure MDS. Factors such as disease type, disease prognosis stratification, timing of transplantation, the intensity of preconditioning and relapse after transplantation all affect the survival of patients after transplantation. It is of great importance to clarify transplantation indications, flexibly choose patients at different times, select appropriate conditioning regimens and monitor the relapse after transplantation for improving the prognosis of MDS patients after transplantation. This article reviews the current progress of the application of allo-HSCT in MDS patients from these aspects.

13.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 281-288, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928922

ABSTRACT

DNA hypermethylation is an epigenetic modification that plays a critical role in the oncogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Aberrant DNA methylation represses the transcription of promotors of tumor suppressor genes, inducing gene silencing. Realgar (α-As4S4) is a traditional medicine used for the treatment of various diseases in the ancient time. Realgar was reported to have efficacy for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). It has been demonstrated that realgar could efficiently reduce DNA hypermethylation of MDS. This review discusses the mechanisms of realgar on inhibiting DNA hypermethylation of MDS, as well as the species and metabolisms of arsenic in vivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arsenicals/therapeutic use , DNA , DNA Methylation/genetics , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/genetics , Sulfides
14.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 516-521, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928746

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) in combination of ATG and post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) -induced immune tolerance after transplantation in treatment of childhood myelodysplastic syndromes(MDS).@*METHODS@#From July 2016 to November 2020, a total of 8 children with MDS receiving the haploidentical allo-HSCT combined with ATG and PTCy-induced immune tolerance after transplantation in our hospital were enrolled, whose clinical data were retrospected and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Median age at diagnosis of the 8 children (1 male and 7 females) was 6.4 (range, 10 months to 15 years) years old. The median medical history of MDS was 2.7 years (range, 3 months to 8 years). Among the 8 patients, 7 cases were diagnosed with refractory cytopenia of childhood and one with refractory anemia with excess of blasts. The HSC donors were father, mother or brother of patients and HLA matching in 6-9/12 loci were identical. All the donors were healthy and didn't carry the same pathogenic genes as the recipients. The median age of donors was 36.4 (range, 25 to 49) years old. The median mononuclear cell (MNC) number of the graft was 19.8, ranging in (13.2-47.3)×108/kg, and the median CD34+ cell number was 11.8×106/kg, ranging in (5.0-18.3)×106/kg. Graft-versus-host disease prophylactic regimen was started on day 3 and 4 after transplantation, in which cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg·d) was administered by intravenous infusion. From day 5 after transplantation, low-dose tacrolimus was administered by intravenous infusion and mycophenolate mofetil was administered orally. The median time of neutrophil and platelet engraftment was 12.6 (rang, 11 to 15) days and 13.3 (rang, 11 to 18) days, respectively. All the patients achieved full donor chimerism on neutrophil engraftment after transplantation. The median follow-up time was 1 032 (rang, 747 to 1 536) days. Both overall survival rate and disease-free survival rate were 100%.@*CONCLUSION@#Haplo-HSCT combined with ATG and PTCy-induced immune tolerance after transplantation is a safe and effective treatment for children with MDS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cyclophosphamide , Graft vs Host Disease/drug therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/drug therapy , Transplantation Conditioning , Treatment Outcome
15.
Cancer Research and Clinic ; (6): 683-686, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958916

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the efficacy and safety of azacitidine alone or combined with half-course CAG (arorubicin + cytarabine + granulocyte colony stimulating factor) regimen and azacitidine combined with full-course CAG regimen in treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).Methods:The clinical data of 51 patients with AML and MDS admitted to Datong Fifth People's Hospital from September 2019 to March 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 17 patients received azacitidine alone 7-day regimen, 17 patients received azacitidine combined with half-course CAG regimen and 17 patients received azacitidine combined with full-course CAG regimen. The remission rate, adverse reaction rate and supportive treatment were compared among the three groups.Results:The objective remission rate (ORR) was 58.8% (10/17), 64.7% (11/17) and 70.6% (12/17) in azacitidine alone group, azacitidine combined with half course CAG group, and azacitidine combined with full course CAG group, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant among the above groups ( P = 0.773). The main adverse reaction after treatment with azacitidine was bone marrow suppression,and 32 patients had grade 3-4 hematological side effects. The average time of agranulocytopenia was (15±5) d, 23 patients had infection and 11 cases had hemorrhage. There were no significant differences of the three groups in the hemorrhage incidence, the infection, incidence, agranulocytosis time, the amount of red blood cell infusion and the amount of platelet infusion (all P > 0.05). Except 1 patient died of acute left ventricular dysfunction after chemotherapy in the first cycle and 1 patient died of cerebral hemorrhage after chemotherapy in the third cycle, all the patients successfully completed the chemotherapy after active symptomatic support treatment and safely passed the bone marrow suppression period. Conclusions:Azacitidine alone, azacitidine combined with half-course CAG, azacitidine combined with full-course CAG regimens in the treatment of AML/MDS all show good curative effects, and their adverse reactions are similar to supportive treatment. Azacitidine combined with full-course CAG regimen has a relatively high effective rate.

16.
Autops. Case Rep ; 12: e2021382, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374487

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disease with an incidence of 0.2 cases per million. PAP has multiple causes, including autoimmune, hereditary, congenital, or secondary. The latter includes hematologic conditions and exposure to different kinds of dust. Most patients present fever, dyspnea, and cough. The chest computed tomography (CT) may reveal the crazy-paving polygonal shapes with superimposed ground glass opacities delimited by thickened interlobular septa; however, this finding is more prevalent in patients with autoimmune PAP. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) shows a milky-opaque appearance with PAS-positive debris on cytology. Treatment is focused on the underlying disease; however, some patients may require whole lung lavage for symptomatic management. We report a case of a 30-year-old female with a history of familial myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with GATA 2 mutation who presented to the outpatient clinic with several months of progressive dyspnea and nonproductive cough. The chest CT revealed bilateral ground-glass opacities prominently in the upper lobes. She underwent a bronchoscopy with lavage and biopsy, which revealed fragments of lung parenchyma with intra-alveolar coarse granular eosinophilic material strongly positive for PAS and d-PAS. The overall clinical presentation and histologic findings were diagnostic of PAP. Her GM-CSF was negative, and due to her history of MDS, secondary PAP (S-PAP) was strongly suspected. She underwent a successful allogeneic bone marrow pluripotent stem cell transplant to treat the myelodysplastic syndrome, with a follow-up chest CT showing clear lung parenchyma. The patient had resolution of symptoms about four months after the bone marrow transplant, confirming the diagnosis of S-PAP.

17.
Autops. Case Rep ; 12: e2021393, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383897

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Co-occurrence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and plasma cell neoplasm in patients with no history of chemo and/or radiotherapy is rarely reported. Herein, we report a case of a female in her seventieth decade of life who was referred to the hospital for pancytopenia. The patient was asymptomatic and was doing well overall. Serum protein electrophoresis was remarkable for a lambda-restricted monoclonal protein (IgG) estimated at 1.8g/dL. Immunoglobulin G serum level was also elevated, and serum Kappa/Lambda free light chain ratio was decreased. At that time, a bone marrow biopsy showed myelodysplastic syndrome with excess blasts-2 (MDS-EB2) and a monoclonal plasma cell proliferation. Some studies have shown that patients with plasma cell neoplasm could be associated with an increased risk of developing MDS compared to the general population. Based on reviewing the literature, to our knowledge, the pathological mechanism of the co-occurrence of both diseases is not yet clear.

18.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(1): 35-42, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1154289

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal hematological diseases. In addition to defects in hematologic progenitor and stem cells, dysfunctions in the bone marrow microenvironment (BMM) participate in the MDS pathogenesis. Furthermore, the immune response is deregulated by the pro-inflammatory response prevailing in low-risk MDS, while immunosuppression predominates in high-risk MDS. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), part of the BMM, are characterized by plastic adherent growth and multipotentiality. They exhibit immunomodulatory properties and sustain hematopoiesis. There is conflicting evidence regarding their status in MDS. The aim of this study was to characterize MDS-MSC and evaluate the effect of 5-Azacytidine. Methods: The MSC from MDS patients and controls were cultured and characterized according to the International Society of Cell Therapy recommendations. Immunomodulatory properties were assessed by studying the MSD cytokine production, using the cytometric bead array. We evaluated the effect of 5-Azacytidine on the MSC cytokine production. Results: We included 35 MDS patients and 22 controls. The MSC from patients and controls were cultured and characterized. The MSC from patients showed morphological differences, but there were no differences in immunophenotype or multipotentiality. The interleukin 6 (IL-6) was the main MSC secreted cytokine. The MDS-MSC produced higher levels of IL-6, IL-17, interferon gamma, or interferon γ (INF-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The in vitro 5-Azacytidine treatment induced a significant decrease in the IL-6 production by MDS-MSC. Conclusions: The MDS-MSC show an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The in vitro treatment with 5-Azacytidine lead to a significant reduction in the IL-6 production by the MDS-MSC, restoring the IL-6 levels to those found in controls. The MSC produced inflammatory cytokines involved in the MDS pathogenesis, representing a potential future therapeutic target. Moreover, 5-Azacytidine may have a stromal effect, modulating the immune response in MDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Azacitidine , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Interleukin-6 , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Cytokines , Immunity
19.
Cancer Research on Prevention and Treatment ; (12): 985-988, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988483

ABSTRACT

The next-generation sequencing detecting gene mutation has been recommended for the routine diagnosis of suspicious myelodysplastic symdromes patients. Recently, several pre-MDS conditions, a new subtype MDS with SF3B1, gene mutations integrated prognosis scores and gene mutations-based clinical decision-making and treatment choice were proposed. Nowadays, it is a big problem to standardize the generation, analysis, clinical interpretation and reporting of NGS data in China. It will open new horizons for individualized medicine of patients with MDS in the future by implementing integrated genomics into the diagnostic and treatment algorithms.

20.
Cancer Research on Prevention and Treatment ; (12): 409-413, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988386

ABSTRACT

At present, the patients with transfusion-dependent lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) have limited treatment options when erythropoiesis-stimulating agent is ineffective or relapsed. With more understanding of the pathological and molecular genetics characteristics of MDS, the development of precise medical treatment of MDS has been promoted. Small-molecule inhibitors, such as transforming growth factor β inhibiter, telomerase inhibiter and hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, provide novel therapeutic strategies for patients. This article reviews the treatment of transfusion-dependent lower-risk MDS patients and discusses the latest clinical research and development of novel targeted agents.

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