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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245753, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278536

ABSTRACT

Abstract The species Eugenia involucrata DC. is a plant native to Brazil and is traditionally used for intestinal problems, however, little research has documented about its biological potential and phytochemical profile. Thus, the objective of this study was to carry out preliminary phytochemical prospecting, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of E. involucrata extracts. Using the E. involucrata leaves, aqueous and organic extracts were obtained using the following solvents (ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate). The phytochemical prospecting detected the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts presented antimicrobial activity for most of the bacterial strains tested, as well as for yeast Candida albicans, with concentrations between 3.12 and 50 mg/mL. The ethanolic and metanolic extract presented high free radical sequestration potential (>90%). The methanol extract showed an IC50 value statistically equal to that found for the commercial antioxidant BHT (p <0.05). The crude extracts obtained with ethanol and methanol were the most promising. These results suggest that methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts are a promising source of natural bioactive.


Resumo A espécie Eugenia involucrata DC. é uma planta nativa do Brasil e tradicionalmente utilizada para problemas intestinais, porém, poucas pesquisas documentam sobre seu potencial biológico e perfil fitoquímico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma prospecção fitoquímica preliminar, o potencial antimicrobiano e antioxidante dos extratos de E. involucrata. A partir das folhas de E. involucrata, foram obtidos extratos aquosos e orgânicos com os seguintes solventes (etanol, metanol, hexano, acetona, diclorometano e acetato de etila). A prospecção fitoquímica detectou a presença de saponinas, esteroides, flavonóides e taninos nos extratos. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana para a maioria das cepas bacterianas testadas, assim como para a levedura Candida albicans, com concentrações entre 3,12 e 50 mg/mL. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram alto potencial de sequestro de radicais livres (> 90%). O extrato metanólico apresentou IC50 estatisticamente igual ao encontrado para o antioxidante comercial BHT (p <0,05). Os extratos brutos obtidos com etanol e metanol foram os mais promissores. Esses resultados sugerem que os extratos metanólico, etanólico e aquoso são uma fonte promissora de bioativos naturais.


Subject(s)
Eugenia , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Phytochemicals , Antioxidants/pharmacology
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 226-243, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342815

ABSTRACT

Several species of the Myrcia genus have been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase in the crude extract (EBF) and in the ethyl acetate fraction (FFA) of Myrcia hatschbachii, as well as to identify isolated phenolic compounds and to evaluate the antioxidant property and preliminary in vitro toxicity against Artemia salina. EBF (IC50: 3.21 µg/mL) and FFA (IC50: 1.14 µg/mL) showed inhibitory activity superior to acarbose (IC50: 193.65 µg/mL). In addition, they showed inhibitory effects of pancreatic lipase (IC50: 556.58 µg/mL for EBF and 532.68 µg/mL for FFA), antioxidant potential, absence of preliminary toxicity and presence of gallic andellagic acids in FFA. The relevant results in the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase motivate new studies for the development of herbal medicines that assist in the treatment of diabetic patients.


Varias especies del género Myrcia se han utilizado en la medicina popular para tratar la diabetes. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar la actividad inhibitoria de la α-glucosidasa y la lipasa pancreática en el extracto crudo (EBF) y en la fracción de acetato de etilo (FFA) de Myrcia hatschbachii, así como identificar compuestos fenólicos aislados y evaluar la propiedad antioxidante y toxicidad in vitro preliminar contra Artemia salina. EBF (IC50: 3.21 µg/mL) y FFA (IC50: 1.14 µg/mL) mostraron una actividad inhibitoria superior a la acarbosa (IC50: 193.65 µg/mL). Además, mostraron efectos inhibitorios de la lipasa pancreática (IC50: 556.58 µg/mL para EBF y 532.68 µg/mL para FFA), potencial antioxidante, ausencia de toxicidad preliminar y presencia de ácidos gálico y elágico en FFA. Los resultados relevantes en la inhibición de la α-glucosidasa y la lipasa pancreática motivan nuevos estudios para el desarrollo de medicamentos a base de hierbas que ayudan en el tratamiento de pacientes diabéticos.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lipase/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Pancreas/enzymology , Phenols/analysis , X-Ray Diffraction , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers , Complex Mixtures , Ellagic Acid , Gallic Acid , Antioxidants/chemistry
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 260-269, may. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342820

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to undertake a screening experiment on essential oils (EO) of Myrcia lundiana, Ocimum basilicum and Lippia alba against six food-spoiling pathogenic bacteria. Seventy-two (72) samples were initially analyzed fo antimicrobial activity based on the agar diffusion test. The minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations were determined for the 12 samples which showed greatest antimicrobial potential in this stage. Two samples of L. alba, three samples of M. lundiana and seven samples of O. basilicum showed a MIC of 0.12-125 µL/mL for the six tested bacteria. Of these, the EO of O. basilicum cultivar Maria Bonita stood out with the lowest MIC and MBC. Thus, a mixture simulating this essential oil was prepared from commercial standards of the compounds (±)-linalool, geraniol and 1,8-cineole. Significantly higher MIC and MBC were detected in the simulation compared to the respective EO, suggesting a synergistic effect between compounds.


El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un experimento de detección en aceites esenciales (AE) de Myrcia lundiana, Ocimum basilicum y Lippia alba contra seis bacterias patógenas que estropean los alimentos. Setenta y dos (72) muestras fueron analizadas inicialmente para la actividad antimicrobiana basada en la prueba de difusión en agar. Se determinaron las concentraciones mínimas inhibitoria (CMI) y bactericida (CMB) para las 12 muestras que mostraron el mayor potencial antimicrobiano en esta etapa. Dos muestras de L. alba, tres muestras de M. lundiana y siete muestras de O. basilicum mostraron un CMI de 0.12-125 µL/mL para las seis bacterias analizadas. De estos, el AE de O. basilicum cultivar Maria Bonita se destacó con el CMI y CMB más bajos. Por lo tanto, se preparó una mezcla que simula este aceite esencial a partir de los estándares comerciales de los compuestos de (±)-linalol, geraniol y 1,8-cineol. Se detectaron CMI y CMB significativamente más altos en la simulación en comparación con el AE respectivo, lo que sugiere un efecto sinérgico entre los compuestos.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Ocimum basilicum/chemistry , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Food , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200772, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278459

ABSTRACT

Abstract Eucalyptus species possess anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, and insecticidal properties. In this study, the chemical composition and biological activities of Eucalyptus cinerea essential oil (EO) and the leaf and stem anatomy were investigated. EO was extracted by Clevenger apparatus and the compounds were identified by GC/MS. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, ABTS, and reducing phosphomolybdenum complex. Broth microdilution was used to determine antimicrobial activity. Cytotoxicity was verified against HeLa, HRT-18, and Calu-3 cells by MTT assay. The cytotoxic mechanism was studied by cell DNA content, cell cycle, and DNA fragmentation. The microscopic analyzes of the leaves and the stems were performed by light microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The main constituent of the EO was 1,8-cineole (55.24%). The EO showed low antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Calu-3 cells showed a significant reduction in viability with IC50 of 689.79 ± 29.34 μg/mL. EO at 1000 μg/mL decreased the DNA content in Jurkat cells. In general, EO increased cell percentage in sub-G0 and S phases with concomitant reduction of cell percentage in G0/G1 and G2/M phases and provided DNA fragmentation of 29.73%. Anatomical and micromorphological features of the leaves and stems can help in the species identification and its differentiation from other Eucalyptus species.


Subject(s)
Terpenes , Biological Phenomena , Oils, Volatile , Myrtaceae , Microscopy
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(2): 132-146, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342208

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effects of dichloromethane extract (DME) from Myrcia splendenson alterations caused by type 2 diabetes in the blood and kidney of rats, in order to reduce side effects caused by synthetic drugs. Rats received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg),15 minutes after nicotinamide (120 mg/kg) or water. After 72 hours, the glycemic levels were evaluated to confirm diabetes and the animals received (15 days) DME (25, 50, 100 or 150 mg/Kg) or water. DME partially reversed hyperglycemia and (100 and 150 mg/kg) reversed hypertriglyceridemia. Histopathological findings elucidated that DME reduced damage to pancreatic islets. DME 150 mg/kgreversed the increases in TBA-RS, the reduction in the sulfhydryl content, 100 and 150 mg/kg increased CAT, reversed the decrease in GSH-Px and increased it activity in the blood. DME 150 mg/kg reversed CAT and GSH-Px reductions in the kidney. We believe that DME effects might be dependent on the presence of phenolic compounds.


Investigamos los efectos del extracto de diclorometano (DME)de Myrcia splendens sobre las alteraciones causadas por la diabetes tipo 2 en la sangre y los riñones de las ratas, para reducir los efectos secundarios causados por las drogas sintéticas. Las ratas recibieron estreptozotocina (60 mg/kg), 15 minutos después de la nicotinamida (120 mg/kg) o agua. Después de 72 horas, se confirmo la diabetes y los animales recibieron (15 días) DME (25, 50, 100 o 150 mg/Kg) o agua. DME revierte parcialmente la hiperglucemia y revierte la hipertrigliceridemia. DME redujo el daño a los islotes pancreáticos. DME revirtió los aumentos en TBA-RS, la reducción en el contenido de sulfhidrilo, aumentó la CAT, revirtió la disminución en GSH-Px y aumentó su actividad en la sangre. Además, DME revirtió las reducciones de CAT y GSH-Px en el riñón. Creemos que los efectos provocados por DME pueden depender de la presencia de compuestos fenólicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Methylene Chloride/administration & dosage , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Hypolipidemic Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 568-577, 01-03-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146421

ABSTRACT

In the Myrtaceae family, the species Eugenia involucrata DC., popularly known as "cerejeira-do-mato", is traditionally used for the antidiarrheal and digestive action of its leaves. However, no studies were found in the literature regarding its antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. In this context, the objective of the present study was to determine the chemical composition by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate the antimicrobial activity by the broth microdilution technique and the antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazila (DPPH) method of the essential oil of E. involucrataleaves. GC-MS identified 28 compounds, all sesquiterpenes, corresponding to 89.41% of the essential oil. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was observed for all Gram-positive bacteria tested (Staplylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis,Bacillus subtilis and Staplylococcus aureus) and for yeast Candida albicans. The essential oil presented a reduction capacity of DPPH up to 66.81%, evidencing its antioxidant potential. It is suggested that the antimicrobial and antioxidant action of E. involucrata essential oil is related to the presence of the major compounds, elixene (26.53%), ß-caryophyllene (13.16%), α-copaene (8.41%) and germacrene D (7.17%).


Na família Myrtaceae, a espécieEugenia involucrata DC. popularmente denominada "cerejeira-do-mato" é conhecida tradicionalmente pela ação antidiarreica e digestiva de suas folhas. Contudo, na literatura não foram encontrados trabalhos referentes ao seu potencial antimicrobiano e antioxidante. Neste contexto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a composição química por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (CG-EM) e avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana pela técnica de microdiluição em caldo e a atividade antioxidante pelo método do 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidrazila (DPPH) do óleo essencial das folhas de E. involucrata. A CG-EM identificou 28 compostos, todos sesquiterpenos, correspondendo a 89,41% do óleo essencial. A atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial foi observada para todas as bactérias Gram-positivas testadas (Staplylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis,Bacillus subtilise Staplylococcus aureus) e para a levedura Candida albicans. O óleo essencial apresentou capacidade redutora de radicais DPPH de até 66,81%, evidenciando sua potencialidade antioxidante. Sugere-se que a ação antimicrobiana e antioxidante do óleo essencial de E. involucrata esteja relacionada à presença dos compostos majoritários, elixeno (26,53%), ß-cariofileno (13,16%), -copaeno (8,41%) e germacreno D (7,17%).


Subject(s)
Myrtaceae , Eugenia , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants , Mass Spectrometry , Bacillus , Bacteria , Biological Products , Candida albicans , Oils , Distillation , Chromatography, Gas , Enterococcus faecalis , Volatile Organic Compounds
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827232

ABSTRACT

Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Baeckea frutescens resulted in the isolation of three new mono- or sesquiterpene-based meroterpenoids, frutescones S-U (1-3), and one pair of new (±)-5,7-dihydroxy-8-isobutyryl-6-methyldihydroflavonol (4). Their structures and absolute configurations were established by HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR, and quantum chemical ECD calculation. Compound 1 exhibited inhibitory effect on NO production in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages with an IC value being 0.81 μmol·L.

8.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 56(4): e1779, oct.-dez. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1093254

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El tratamiento de la enfermedad periodontal incluye la terapia mecánica, el cual se complementa con el uso de antibióticos/antisépticos, lo que podría plantear efectos adversos a largo plazo. Objetivo: Describir el potencial farmacológico del fruto de la M. dubia, y su aplicación como complemento en la terapia periodontal. Métodos: Se revisaron revistas internacionales de impacto de la Web of Science relacionadas con el tema (58 revistas). Se consultaron las bases de datos Google Académico, SciELO, PubMed y EBSCO, utilizando los descriptores: "review"; "phytotherapy"; "myrtaceae"; "gingivitis"; "periodontitis"; "periodontal diseases"; "anti-bacterial agents"; "anti-inflammatory agents"; "dental plaque"; "antioxidants"; "plants, toxic"; "adverse effects". Se obtuvo 517 artículos de los cuales 60 fueron incluidos en el estudio. El 91,7 por ciento de los artículos fueron de los últimos tres años. Integración de la información: Se expuso las propiedades y seguridad en humanos del uso de la M. dubia. Conclusiones: La M. dubia tiene actividad antimicrobiana in vitro frente a microorganismos de la biopelícula dental, siendo más sensibles el S. mutans, S. mitis y P. gingivalis al extracto hidroalcohólico de la semilla, y el S. aureus al extracto hidroalcohólico de las hojas y corteza. También se evidencia su actividad antiinflamatoria. Los hallazgos sugieren que el extracto etanólico de la M. dubia podría incorporarse en antisépticos de uso bucal, dado su potencial antibiopelícula y antiinflamatoria(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Treatment of periodontal disease includes mechanical therapy complemented with antibiotics / antiseptics, which could lead to the occurrence of long-term adverse effects. Objective: Describe the pharmacological potential of the fruit of M. dubia and its use as adjunct in periodontal therapy. Methods: A review was conducted of international high impact journals from the Web of Sciences which dealt with the topic (58 journals). The databases Google Scholar, SciELO, PubMed and EBSCO were consulted, using the descriptors "review", "phytotherapy", "Myrtaceae", "gingivitis", "periodontitis", "periodontal diseases", anti-bacterial agents", "anti-inflammatory agents", "dental plaque", "antioxidants", "plants, toxic", "adverse effects". A total 517 papers were obtained, of which 60 were included in the study. 91.7 percent of the papers had been published in the last three years. Data integration: A description was provided of the properties and safety of the use of M. dubia in humans. Conclusions: M. dubia has in vitro antimicrobial activity against dental biofilm microorganisms, particularly S. mutans, S. mitis and P. gingivalis to the seed hydroalcoholic extract, and S. aureus to the leaf and peel hydroalcoholic extract. Anti-inflammatory activity was also observed. Results suggest that M. dubia ethanolic extract could be incorporated into oral antiseptics, given its antibiofilm and anti-inflammatory potential(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontal Diseases/drug therapy , Review Literature as Topic , Myrtaceae/adverse effects , Phytotherapy/methods , Databases, Bibliographic
9.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 36(4): 573-582, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058792

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos. Evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de la Myrciaria dubia sobre microorganismos orales. Materiales y métodos . Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura siguiendo las recomendaciones PRISMA mediante búsquedas en Pubmed, LILACS, SciELO, ProQuest, EBSCO y Google Scholar, de estudios publicados durante 2008 y 2018. Resultados . Se recopilaron 11 estudios, in vitro, todos los estudios evidenciaron actividad antimicrobiana positiva, principalmente por cada una de las partes de sus frutos, sobre grampositivos. Sin embargo, dicha actividad fue comparada con clorhexidina en solo dos estudios y en otro resultó ser mejor que un antibiótico. Se detectó un alto riesgo de sesgo en la mayoría de estudios. Los compuestos fenólicos incluidos polifenoles y acilfloroglucinoles fueron señalados como los responsables de su actividad. Conclusiones . Existe evidencia sobre la actividad antimicrobiana de M. dubia. Su estudio como antimicrobiano contra microorganismos orales es aún incipiente, pero se advierte un gran potencial debido a los fitoquímicos potentes que posee. Además, se necesita más estudios de calidad, que comparen su actividad versus antisépticos orales y sobre más microorganismos asociados a caries dental y enfermedad periodontal.


ABSTRACT Objectives. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Myrciaria dubia on oral microorganisms. Materials and Methods. A systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines was conducted through searches of studies published between 2008 and 2018 in Pubmed, LILACS, SciELO, ProQuest, EBSCO, and Google Scholar. Results. Eleven (11) in vitro studies were gathered; all the studies showed positive antimicrobial activity on gram-positives, mainly by each of the parts of its fruits. However, such activity compared to chlorhexidine in only two studies, and, in another study, it was better than an antibiotic. A high risk of bias was detected in most studies. Phenolic compounds, including polyphenols and acylphloroglucinols, were identified as responsible for its activity. Conclusions. There is evidence of antimicrobial activity in M. dubia. Its study as an antimicrobial against oral microorganisms is still incipient, but there is great potential thanks to the potent phytochemicals it contains. Also, additional quality studies are required: comparing their activity versus oral antiseptics and on microorganisms associated with dental caries and periodontal disease.

10.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(6): 1695-1707, nov./dec. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049093

ABSTRACT

Myrcia ovata, an endemic species to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, presents antifungal properties. The phytopathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Plenodomus destruens,and Thielaviopsis paradoxa are responsible for the diseases citrus postbloom fruit drop, sweet potato foot rot, and coconut stem bleeding, respectively. The antifungal activity of the essential oils of five M. ovata chemotypes (MYRO-159, nerolic acid chemotype; MYRO-180, nerolic acid + linalool chemotype; MYRO-388, geraniol chemotype; MYRO-157, citral + (E)-nerolidol chemotype; and MYRO-174, isopulegol + linalool chemotype), four major compounds (nerolic acid, nerolic acid + linalool, geraniol, and citral + (E)-nerolidol), and threepure compounds (citral, (E)-nerolidol, and linalool) against the fungi C. acutatum, P. destruens,and T. paradoxawere evaluated. For this, in vitro tests were conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications, testing concentrations (v/v) ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 µL.mL-1. All treatments presented toxicity at different levels to the three fungi. For C. acutatum,the essential oil from the individual MYRO-180 (nerolic acid + linalool chemotype) and its major compound showed the lowest Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) of 0.03 and 0.1 µL.mL-1, respectively. For P. destruens, the essential oil from the individual MYRO-159 (nerolic acid chemotype) presented the lowest MIC of 0.05 µL.mL-1. The nerolic acid + linalool chemotype and its major compound presented an MFC of 0.07 µL.mL-1. For T. paradoxa, the major compound citral + (E)-nerolidol stood out with the lowest MIC and MFC of 0.03 and 0.2 µL.mL-1, respectively. Linalool presented the lowest toxicity to the three tested fungi.


Myrcia ovata, uma espécie nativa de fitofisionomia de Restinga, possui atividade antifúngica. Os fitopatógenos Colletotrichum acutatum, Plenodomus destruens e Thielaviopsis paradoxa são responsáveis pelas doenças podridão floral de citros, mal-do-pé da batata doce e resinose do coqueiro, respectivamente. A atividade antifúngica de cinco quimiotipos de M. ovata (MYRO-159, quimiotipo ácido nerólico; MYRO-180, ácido nerólico + linalol; MYRO-388, quimiotipo geraniol; MYRO-157, quimiotipo citral + (E)-nerolidol; e, MYRO-174, quimiotipo isopulegol + linalol), quatro compostos majoritários (ácido nerólico, ácido nerólico + linalol, geraniol e citral + (E)-nerolidol) e três compostos isolados (citral, (E)-nerolidol e linalol) foram avaliados sobre os fungos C. acutatum, P. destruens e T. paradoxa. Testes in vitro foram conduzidos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições e concentrações (v/v), que variaram de 0,01 a 1,0 µL.mL-1. Todos os tratamentos testados apresentaram atividade antifúngica. Para o fungo C. acutatum, o óleo essencial do indivíduo MYRO-180, de quimiotipo ácido nerólico + linalol, e seu composto majoritário apresentaram menores Concentração Mínima Inibitória (CMI) e Concentração Mínima Fungicida (CMF) de 0,03 e 0,1 µL.mL-1, respectivamente. Para o fungo P. destruens, o óleo essencial do indivíduo MYRO-159, de quimiotipo ácido nerólico, apresentou menor CMI de 0,05 µL.mL-1, e o quimiotipo ácido nerólico + linalol e seu composto majoritário apresentaram a menor CMF de 0,07 µL.mL-1. Para o fungo T. paradoxa,a combinação de citral + (E)-nerolidol destacou-se com CMI e CMF de 0,03 e 0,2 µL.mL-1, respectivamente. Linalol foi o menos tóxico sobre os três fungos testados.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Colletotrichum , Myrtaceae , Antifungal Agents
11.
Rev. peru. biol. (Impr.) ; 26(2): 235-242, abr.-jun. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094373

ABSTRACT

Myrcianthes ferreyrae (McVaugh) McVaugh, el "arrayan" es un árbol endémico y amenazado de las lomas costeras del sur de Perú. El presente trabajo evaluó su estado de conservación entre marzo 2011 a agosto 2012. Se realizó el conteo de todos los individuos en casi todo su rango de distribución conocido (lomas de Atiquipa, Taymara y Chala viejo en la Provincia de Caraveli, Arequipa); se estableció un total de 9 parcelas de 0.25 ha, tres en cada localidad y en cada una se tomaron datos estructurales de todos los árboles con un diámetro un basal mayor a 10 cm; además, se evaluaron parámetros de mortalidad, regeneración natural y la presencia de disturbios. El arrayan tiene una población de 586 individuos, presenta una distribución diamétrica en forma de campana, la categoría de mortalidad más común es la tala de individuos; el porcentaje de regeneración natural es 33.12%, todos pertenecientes a las lomas de Atiquipa. Se concluye que poblacion de M. ferreyrae esta fuertemente amenazada, conformada por individuos adultos y con poca regeneración natural. En el manejo de esta especie debe considerarse su fragilidad y los problemas que tiene para su regeneración.


Myrcianthes ferreyrae (McVaugh) McVaugh, "arrayan" is an endemic and threatened tree of the "lomas" formations of south Peru. We evaluated their conservation status between March 2011 to August 2012; for which, all individuals were counted in its distributional range known (Atiquipa, Taymara and Chala Viejo hills in the Province of Caraveli, Arequipa). We established 9 plots of 0.25 hectares, three in each locality; in each plot we obtained data of all trees greater than 10 cm basal diameter, plus mortality parameters, its natural regeneration and presence of disturbances. Myrcianthes ferreyrae has a population of 586 individuals, its diameter distribution shows a bell form, the most common category mortality was logging; the natural regeneration was 33.12%, all belonging to the Atiquipa hills. We conclude that M. ferreyrae is strongly threatened, formed by adult individuals and with little natural regeneration. In management of M. ferreyrae should be considered its fragility and the problems it has for its regeneration.

12.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 127-132, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983990

ABSTRACT

Abstract In recent years, natural products with antifungal and antioxidant activities are being increasingly researched for a more sustainable alternative to the chemicals currently used for the same purpose. The plant pathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata is a causative agent of diseases in citrus, leading to huge economic losses. Antioxidants are important for the production of medicines for various diseases that may be related to the presence of free radicals, such as cancer, and in the cosmetic industry as an anti-aging agent and the food industry as preservatives. This study evaluated the antifungal and antioxidant potential of extracts of mature leaves of Myrcia splendens, a tree species that occurs in the Brazilian Cerrado. The antioxidant potential was analyzed by an assay of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging method, and the antifungal activity was assessed through the evaluation of mycelial growth. Majority of the extracts exhibited a strong antioxidant activity, especially the acetonic extract (4A). The antioxidant activity may be related to the presence of phenolic compounds. However, the extracts showed no inhibitory activity of mycelial growth of the fungus tested, with the exception of dichloromethanic extract (2B), which had an inhibitory effect (10.2%) at the end of testing.


Resumo A busca de produtos naturais com atividades antifúngica e antioxidante tem crescido nos últimos anos como alternativa mais sustentável para os produtos químicos atualmente usados para estas funções. O fungo fitopatogênico Alternaria alternata é agente causador de doenças nos citros, levando a grandes perdas econômicas. Substâncias antioxidantes são importantes tanto para a produção de medicamentos para diversas doenças que podem estar relacionadas à presença de radicais livres, como o câncer, bem como para a indústria cosmética, como agentes anti-envelhecimento e para a indústria alimentícia, como conservantes. Este trabalho avaliou o potencial antifúngico dos extratos de folhas maduras de Myrcia splendens , uma espécie arbórea que ocorre no cerrado brasileiro. O potencial antioxidante foi analisado por meio de ensaio da capacidade sequestrante do radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl e o antifúngico, por meio da avaliação do crescimento micelial. A maioria dos extratos apresentou atividade antioxidante muito forte, especialmente o extrato acetônico (4A). A atividade antioxidante pode ser relacionada a presença de compostos fenólicos. Por outro lado, os extratos não apresentaram atividade inibitória do crescimento micelial do fungo testado, com exceção do extrato diclorometânico (2B), que foi o único que teve efeito inibitório (10,2%) ao final do teste.


Subject(s)
Myrtaceae/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17742, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039072

ABSTRACT

The essential oil of the leaves of Eugenia sulcata, in the Myrtaceae family, has a demonstrated antihypertensive effect, but its effects on heart muscle and its toxicity have not yet been elucidated. Little chemical or biological data are available for E. sulcata, whether emphasizing the beneficial effects or the pharmacological security of this species. This study aims to evaluate myocardial contractility and to analyze angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and myosin ATPase activities associated with use of this essential oil. In addition, we evaluated the immunotoxicity of E. sulcata essential oil. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated daily for 30 days (10 mg/kg of oil) to evaluate the isometric force of the papillary muscle, ACE measured by fluorimetry, and myosin ATPase activities by inorganic phosphate. Lymphocyte cultures were used to evaluate cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and mutagenicity of the essential oil. The results demonstrate that the treatment did not change the cardiac contraction force and did not alter the functioning of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, extrusion of the membrane calcium, or modify the membrane calcium channels or ß-adrenergic receptor activity. Tetanic contractions were potentiated in the SHR animals. Myosin ATPase activity was also increased in the SHR animals. Cardiac ACE activity was reduced in both animal strains, and the serum ACE was reduced only in the SHR animals. The essential oil did not cause cytotoxicity or mutagenicity and presented low DNA damage. Our results demonstrated that the essential oil does not change myocardial contractility and does not present relevant immunotoxicity


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Oils/adverse effects , Myrtaceae/adverse effects , Eugenia/adverse effects , Myocardial Contraction/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/immunology , Myocardial Contraction
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17584, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039064

ABSTRACT

In South American folk medicine members of the genus Myrciaria are used for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea, asthma, inflammation and post-partum uterine cleansing. The aim of this work was to evaluate its antileishmanial properties (in vitro) of essential oil derived from leaves of Myrciaria plinioides D. Legrand, a plant species that is native in South of Brazil. The essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation using fresh leaves of M. plinioides. The chemical composition of this essential oil (MPEO, M. plinioides essential oil) was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). MPEO was assayed in vitro for antileishmanial properties against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania infantum, and for cytotoxicity against murine peritoneal macrophages. The MPEO comprised 66 components and was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes (82.66%) containing spathulenol (21.12%) as its major constituent. The MPEO was effective against L. amazonensis with IC50 value of 14.16 ± 7.40 µg/mL, while against L. infantum the IC50 value was higher with 101.50 ± 5.78 µg/mL. The MPEO showed significant activity against L. amazonensis, and presented a selectivity index (SI) of 6.60. The results suggest that the essential oil from leaves of M. plinioides is a promising source for new antileishmanial agents against L. amazonensis.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Brazil/ethnology , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Myrtaceae/anatomy & histology , Leishmania infantum , Plant Leaves/classification , Leishmania
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774284

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Psidium guajava occurs worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas. It has been used to treat inflammation, diabetes, fever, hypertension and ulcers. However, its antidiarrheal and protein conservative activities still need to be investigated.@*METHODS@#Fifty-four male rats were divided into normal and diarrheal rats. The normal rats were divided into 4 groups: control, low-dose P. guajava leaf extract (50 mg/kg), high-dose P. guajava leaf extract (100 mg/kg) and gallic acid. Treatments were administrated orally in 1 mL saline for a 1-month period. The diarrheal rats were divided into 5 groups: desmopressin (0.2 mg/kg) drug, low-dose P. guajava leaf extract (50 mg/kg), high-dose P. guajava leaf extract (100 mg/kg), gallic acid and an untreated control. Doses were given daily for a 1-month period while the untreated control received no treatment.@*RESULTS@#Diarrhea was responsible for an observed decline in kidney weight and serum sodium, potassium and chloride. Further, diarrhea was positively correlated with a significant increase in urine volume, and excretion of electrolytes, serum urea, creatinine and uric acid in the urine. In contrast, there was a proportional increase in the lipid peroxidation value in diarrhea and a significant decline was observed in serum superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione levels in diarrhea. Also, diarrhea inhibited blood proteins. The oral intake of P. guajava leaf extract by diarrheal rats restored all of these parameters to near normal levels. High-dose P. guajava leaf extract was more effective than the same compound at a low dose.@*CONCLUSION@#P. guajava leaf extract elicited antidiarrheal and protein conservative effects.

16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(6): 1505-1512, nov.-dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-968930

ABSTRACT

Campomanesia aurea (Myrtaceae) is a native species from the Pampa region. It has edible fruits, ornamental characteristics and ability to recover potential degraded areas. It is naturally propagated by seeds. However, for its most efficient use for seedling production or replanting of vegetation, a basic knowledge about the conditions required for maximum germination is required. The objective of this work is to evaluate the germination of C. aurea seeds and its germinative behavior under different light conditions. Seeds from three collection sites were analyzed as for photoblastism, provenance and maturation by germination test, germination speed index, mean germination time and normal seedling formation. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and compared by Tukey test at 5% probability of error. For the three collection sites, no differences were observed for germination and the MGT of seeds in the absence or presence of light, indicating that it is a neutral photoblastic species. For different collection sites, no differences were observed for germination percentage, but seeds collected in Barão do Triunfo showed higher GSI and normal seedling formation than seeds collected at Morro do Osso and Morro Santana. Such differences may be related to the degree of fruit maturation and seed moisture. Seeds of C. aurea are neutral photoblastic, and present a germination rate higher than 85%.


Campomanesia aurea (Myrtaceae) é uma espécie nativa do Pampa. Possui frutos comestível, potencial ornamental e para recuperação de áreas degradadas. Propaga-se naturalmente por sementes, contudo, para sua utilização com maior eficiência para a produção de mudas ou recomposição da vegetação, são necessários conhecimentos básicos das condições necessárias para se obter máxima germinação. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a germinação de sementes de C. aurea e o comportamento germinativo em diferentes condições de luz. Sementes procedentes de três locais de coleta foram analisadas quanto ao fotoblastismo, procedência e maturação pelos testes de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação, tempo médio de germinação e formação de plântulas normais. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e comparados pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade de erro. Para os três locais de coleta não foram observadas diferenças na germinação e no TMG das sementes em ausência ou presença de luz, indicando que tratase de uma espécie fotoblástica neutra. Para os diferentes locais de coleta, não foi verificado diferenças na porcentagem de germinação, porém sementes coletadas em Barão do Triunfo apresentaram maior IVG e formação de plântulas normais do que sementes coletadas no Morro do Osso e Morro Santana. Essas diferenças podem estar associadas ao grau de maturação dos frutos e a umidade das sementes. Sementes de C. aurea são fotoblásticas neutras, apresentando germinação superior a 85%.


Subject(s)
Seeds , Analysis of Variance , Germination , Myrtaceae , Light
17.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(6): 604-609, nov. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007366

ABSTRACT

This study describes the qualitative and quantitative seasonal analysis of the essential oils from an unexplored plant Eugenia brevistyla, native from Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest and Semidecidual Forest. Analysis by GC-FID and GC-MS allowed the identification of 28 compounds. The largest fraction corresponds to oxygenated sesquiterpenes in all seasons. The major compound was E-nerolidol in all seasons, being higher in winter (83.14%) and lower in spring (69.6%). The second major compound was byciclogermacrene in the spring and in the summer essential oils. Alloaromadendrene and spathulenol were the second major compounds in autumn and winter, respectively. Sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons showed higher variation along the year (58%) than oxygenated sesquiterpenes (2%). No monoterpenes were found in the analyzed essential oils.


Este estudio describe el análisis estacional cualitativo y cuantitativo del aceite esencial de la planta inexplorada Eugenia brevistyla, nativa de la Selva Tropical Atlántica dey del Bosque Semidecidual de Brasil. El análisis por GC-FID y GC-MS permitió la identificación de 28 compuestos. La fracción más grande corresponde a sesquiterpenos oxigenados en todas las estaciones. El compuesto principal fue E-nerolidol en todas las estaciones, siendo más alto en invierno (83.14%) y más bajo en la primavera (69.6%). El segundo compuesto principal fue biciclogermacreno en los aceites esenciales de la primavera y del verano. El aloaromadendreno y el espatulenol fueron los segundos compuestos principales en otoño e invierno, respectivamente. Los hidrocarburos sesquiterpénicos mostraron una mayor variación a lo largo del año (58%) que los sesquiterpenos oxigenados (2%). No se encontraron monoterpenos en los aceites esenciales analizados.


Subject(s)
Seasons , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Eugenia , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Brazil , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Monoterpenes/analysis , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
18.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(5): 1200-1209, sept./oct. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-967307

ABSTRACT

The present study evaluated the antifungal activity of the essential oils of chemotypes of Myrcia lundiana and their major compounds on the fungi Fusarium pallidoroseum, Fusarium solani, and Colletotrichum musae. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GCMS/FID. For the evaluation of the antifungal activity, the essential oils and the major compounds were tested at the concentration of 0.1 mL/L until the fungicidal effect was detected. The major compounds detected in the essential oil were 1,8-cineole, isopulegol, and citral. The chemotypes (MLU-005 and MLU-019) provided 100% mycelial growth inhibition for the fungus F. pallidoroseum from the concentration of 1.1 mL/L (minimum inhibition concentration - MIC). For chemotype (MLU-022), the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) was 0.3 mL/L. For F. solani, the essential oils of the chemotypes (MLU-005 and MLU-019) presented MIC at concentrations of 7.0 and 5.0 mL/L, respectively. The essential oil of the chemotype (MLU-022) presented MFC of 0.6 mL/L. Different MIC was observed for the three studied chemotypes for the fungus C. musae, ranging between 0.4 mL/L, for the chemotype (MLU-005); 0.5 mL/L, for the chemotype (MLU-022); and 0.7 mL/L, for the chemotype (MLU-019). The best MFC was observed for the chemotype (MLU-005) (0.5 mL/L). The major compounds tested separately presented better MIC values when compared with their chemotypes, except for the compound 1,8-cineole, which presented lower mycelial growth inhibition for the three fungi tested, suggesting that the chemical profile or the presence of some other compound of the essential oil may inhibit the growth of the three fungi studied. The compound isopulegol provided lower MFC for the fungus C. musae (0.4517 mL/L) when compared with the fungi F. pallidoroseum and F. solani, (MFC of 0.4927 mL/L). The compound citral provided a lower MFC on the fungus C. musae (0.1668 mL/L) in relation to the other fungi tested. The essential oils of the chemotypes of M. lundiana and their major compounds showed potential to control the studied phytopathogens and can be an alternative for agriculture for presenting an inhibitory and fungicidal effect against these organisms at lower concentrations.


O presente trabalho avaliou a atividade antifúngica de óleos essenciais de quimiotipos de Myrcia lundiana dos seus compostos majoritários sobre os fungos Fusarium pallidoroseum, Fusarium solani e Colletotrichum musae. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados por CGEM/DIC. Para avaliação da atividade antifúngica, foram testados os óleos essenciais e os compostos majoritários na concentração de 0,1 mL/L até encontrar o efeito fungicida. Os principais compostos presentes no óleo essencial foram 1,8-cineol, isopulegol e citral. Os quimiotipos (MLU-005 e MLU-019) proporcionaram 100% de inibição do crescimento micelial para o fungo F. pallidoroseum a partir da concentração de 1,1 mL/L (Concentração Inibitória Mínima ­ CIM). Para o quimiotipo (MLU-022), a melhor concentração fungicida mínima (CFM) foi de 0,3 mL/L. Para F. solani, os óleos essenciais dos quimiotipos (MLU-005 e MLU-019) apresentaram CIM nas concentrações de 7,0 e 5,0 mL/L, respectivamente. O óleo essencial do quimiotipo (MLU-022) apresentou CFM de 0,6 mL/L. Observou-se CIM diferenciado para os três quimiotipos estudados para o fungo C. musae, variando entre 0,4 mL/L, para o quimiotipo (MLU-005); 0,5 mL/L, para o quimiotipo (MLU-022); e 0,7 mL/L, para o quimiotipo (MLU-019). O quimiotipo MLU-005 apresentou o melhor CFM, 0,5 mL/L. Os compostos majoritários testados separadamente apresentaram melhores valores de CIM frente aos seus quimiotipos, exceto o composto 1,8-cineol, que apresentou menor inibição do crescimento micelial para os três fungos testados, sugerindo que o perfil químico ou a presença de algum outro composto no óleo essencial pode estar atuando na inibição do crescimento dos três fungos estudados. O composto isopulegol proporcionou menor CFM para o fungo C. musae (0,4517 mL/L) em relação aos fungos F. pallidoroseum e F. solani, para os quais apresentou CFM de 0,4927 mL/L. O composto citral proporcionou um menor CFM sobre o fungo C. musae (0,1668 mL/L), em relação aos demais fungos testados. Os óleos essenciais de quimiotipos de M. lundiana e seus compostos majoritários apresentaram potencial para o controle dos fitopatógenos estudados, podendo ser considerados como uma alternativa para a agricultura, uma vez que em concentrações mais baixas apresentaram efeito inibitório e fungicida frente a estes organismos.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Colletotrichum , Myrtaceae , Monoterpenes , Fungi , Fusarium
19.
European J Med Plants ; 2018 May; 23(2): 1-7
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-189379

ABSTRACT

The oil of Feijoa skin (Feijoa sellowiana, family Myrtaceae) was isolated by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC-MS analysis. As a result, 76 components were isolated. Among 19 peaks identified which three were reported for the first time in this plant (Elixene, Linalylanthranilate and Farnesol). The sesquiterpene group was predominant, accounting for 97.8% of the total oil. Of which Caryophyllene was the most abundant 17.7%, followed by Germacrene D14.4%, Humulene 10.5%, Ledene 14%, Spathulenol 8.5%, Cadina-3,9-diene 8.3%, Farnesol 8%, Linalylanthranite 5.6%, β-elemene 4.8%, α-Cubebene 2.7%. Other constituents were also present in oil such as Octanone 5.3%, D limoneme 0.17%, Ocimene 1.6%, Benzoicacidmethylester 1.1%.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811739

ABSTRACT

@#Phytochemical studies on the fruits of Eucalyptus globulus led to the isolation of twelve compounds. The structures of these compounds were elucidated as: ellagic acid(1), 3-O-methylellagic acid 4′-O-α-rhamnopyranoside(2), valoneic acid dilactone(3), isobiflorin(4), biflorin(5), 8-β-C-glucopyranosyl-5, 7-dihydroxy-2-isobutylchromone(6), 8-β-C-glucopyranosyl-5, 7-dihydroxy-2-isopropylchromone(7), quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(8), quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucuronide-6″-methyl ester(9), (+)-lyoniresin-4-yl β-D-glucopyranoside(10), cypellocarpins A(11), and eucaglobulin 1(12), by means of spectroscopic analyses(ESI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR). Compounds 3-10 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

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