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1.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(1): e509, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280334

ABSTRACT

La leptospirosis es una zoonosis con potencial epidémico y de difícil diagnóstico que requiere un manejo integral para orientar las medidas de prevención y control; sin embargo, una de las dificultades es la existencia de más de 300 serovares, la supervivencia de la bacteria en el ambiente por más de 180 días y la importancia del agua como vehículo de transmisión. Esto asociado con los efectos adversos de los antibióticos y su efecto sobre la multirresistencia generada por la mayoría de las bacterias, hace que se evalúen nuevas alternativas a partir de la biodiversidad. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este artículo es abordar la leptospirosis y su diagnóstico enfatizando en el control convencional de la infección y las alternativas de tratamiento a partir del uso de plantas medicinales. Para esto se realizó una revisión exhaustiva de artículos en bases de datos. La información encontrada permitió establecer los aspectos relevantes de la enfermedad, su diagnóstico y tratamiento, tanto con antimicrobianos convencionales como frente a nuevas alternativas de origen natural. Se concluye que es importante realizar investigaciones orientadas hacia la búsqueda de principios activos que puedan contribuir al control de Leptospira spp., agente causal de la leptospirosis, una de las zoonosis más importantes por su impacto en salud humana, veterinaria y del ecosistema(AU)


Leptospirosis is a potentially epidemic zoonosis of difficult diagnosis which requires comprehensive management to indicate appropriate prevention and control measures. However, some of the difficulties are the existence of more than 300 serovars, survival of the bacteria in the environment for more than 180 days, and the role of water as a route of transmission. The above situation, alongside the adverse effects of antibiotics and their effect on the multi-drug resistance developed by most bacteria, lead to the search for new alternatives based on biodiversity. The purpose of the study was therefore to address leptospirosis and its diagnosis highlighting conventional control of the infection as well as treatment options based on the use of medicinal plants. To achieve this end, an exhaustive review was conducted of papers included in databases. The information obtained made it possible to determine the relevant aspects of the disease, its diagnosis and its treatment with conventional antimicrobials as well as new alternatives of a natural origin. Conclusions point to the importance of conducting research aimed at the search for active principles potentially contributing to control of Leptospira spp., the causative agent of leptospirosis, one of the most relevant zoonoses in terms of its impact on the health of humans, animals and the ecosystem(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Survivorship , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/drug therapy
2.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 51(2): e20200423, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142753

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Sausages are highly susceptible to microbial spoilage. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is the main group of spoilage bacteria in vacuum packed cooked sausages. To control microbial growth natural antimicrobials have been used as food preservatives. The aim of this study was to identify strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from spoiled commercial Calabresa sausages and use them in an in vitro challenge with the natural antimicrobials, nisin (NI) and ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL). Mass spectrometry identification of LAB isolated from sausages using MALDI-TOF revealed a predominance of L. plantarum in the LAB population. RAPD-PCR of L. plantarum strains showed four different genetic profiles. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of NI and ε-PL, alone and in combination, against a pool of different profiles L. plantarum were determined. MIC of NI and ε-PL were 0.468 mg/ L and 75 mg/ L; respectively, whereas MBC of NI and ε-PL were 12.48 mg/L and 150 mg/L, respectively. The combined effect of NI and ε-PL was determined using concentrations at 1/4 and 1/8 of individual MICs. Synergistic effect was confirmed at both concentrations showing a fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.5 and 0.2, respectively. The combination of NI and ε-PL at a small concentration of 0.05 mg/L and 9.375 mg/L, respectively, showed inhibitory effect towards spoilage L. plantarum Results show the potential of the combined use of NI and ε-PL to control sausage spoilage-associated with lactobacilli.


RESUMO: Linguiças são altamente susceptíveis à deterioração microbiana. As bactérias ácido lácticas (BAL) são o principal grupo de bactérias deteriorantes em linguiças cozidas embaladas a vácuo. Para controlar o crescimento microbiano, antimicrobianos naturais têm sido utilizados como conservantes de alimentos. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar cepas de bactérias ácido lácticas isoladas de linguiças Calabresa em deterioração e utilizá-las como modelo in vitro com os antimicrobianos naturais nisina (NI) e ε-poly-L-lysina (ε-PL). A identificação por espectrometria de massa das BAL isoladas das linguiças usando a técnica de MALDI-TOF revelou predominância de L. plantarum. A PCR-RAPD revelou quatro perfis genéticos diferentes. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) de NI e ε-PL, individualmente e em combinação, contra o pool de L. plantarum foram determinadas. O valor de CIM de NI e ε-PL foi 0,468 mg/L e 75 mg/L, respectivamente, e de CBM de NI e ε-PL foi 12,48 mg/L e 150 mg/L, respectivamente. O efeito da combinação de NI e ε-PL foi determinada usando concentrações de 1/4 e 1/8 dos CIMs individuais. O efeito sinérgico foi confirmado em ambas concentrações mostrando um índice de concentração inibitório fracionado de 0,5 e 0,2, respectivamente. A combinação de NI e ε-PL em baixa concentração, 0,05 mg/L e 9,375 mg/L, respectivamente, mostrou efeito inibitório contra L. plantarum. Os resultados demonstram o potencial do uso combinado de NI e ε-PL para o controle de lactobacilos associados à deterioração em linguiça.

3.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 41(1): 3-12, jan./jun.2020. Tab, Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224198

ABSTRACT

The tendency to replace synthetic antimicrobials for natural ones in food industry and an increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics resulted in a necessity to find new alternatives, and essential oils are emerging as promising substitutes for synthetic chemicals in food preservation. The objective of this work was to test the antimicrobial activity of oregano (OEO) and clove (CEO) essential oils over a range of bacteria, molds and yeast of importance as pathogens or food spoilage. The antimicrobial activity of oregano and clove essential oils were analyzed by disk diffusion method and broth microdilution test (MIC) of OEO and CEO were determined for each tested microorganism. OEO and CEO were evaluated in natura (IN) and after thermal processing (TP) at 120 o C for 5 min. Both OEO and CEO presented the same inhibition zones for IN and TP samples, for all tested microorganisms, indicating that these oils can be thermally processed maintaining their antimicrobial activity. For OEO and CEO, the more sensitive microorganisms were the fungi (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum and Candida albicans), followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Methicillin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); the lowest antimicrobial activities were observed against Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis. In general, OEO resulted in higher inhibition zones and lower MIC values for all tested microorganisms, suggesting that it was more effective as an antimicrobial agent than CEO (AU)


A preferência mundial para alimentos mais saudáveis e livres de aditivos químicos pelos consumidores, associada ao aumento da resistência bacteriana, resultaram na necessidade de medidas alternativas no setor de alimentos. Os óleos correspondem a antimicrobianos naturais e constituem uma classe emergente como substitutos dos produtos químicos sintéticos na conservação de alimentos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de orégano (OEO) e cravo (CEO ) frente a bactérias, fungos e leveduras de importância no setor de alimentos. OEO e CEO foram avaliados in natura (IN) e após processamento térmico (TP) a 120 o C por 5 minutos. Para avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana frente a cada microrganismo empregou-se o método de discodifusão e o teste de microdiluição em caldo (MIC). Tanto o OEO quanto o CEO apresentaram zonas de inibição semelhantes para amostras IN e TP, indicando que a atividade antimicrobiana desses óleos são resistentes a altas temperaturas. Os microrganismos mais sensíveis para ambos os óleos essenciais foram os fungos (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum e Candida albicans), seguidos por Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus e Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA). Já as cepas Streptococcus mutans e Enterococcus faecalis apresentaram uma maior resistência frente à atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais. Em geral, os maiores halos de inibição e menores valores de MIC foram obtidos quando empregado o OEO, sugerindo uma maior atividade microbiana do mesmo quando comparado ao CEO. (AU)


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Food , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Yeasts , Diffusion , Food Preservation , Fungi
4.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 50(3): e20190785, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089563

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The plant, Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith (Fabaceae), commonly called cumaru, is widespread in the Caatinga cearense, a less known ecosystem in Brazil. A. cearensis is rich in several compounds like protocatechuic acid, tannins, coumarin, flavonoids and phenolic heterosides, such as amburosides A and B, that have been isolated. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial potential and draw the chemical profile of the distinct characteristics of A. cearensis stem bark decoction, for its possible potential as a food conservation agent. The chemical compounds were characterized by one- and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR analyses and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS). The compounds of coumarin, amburosides A and B, and glycosylated (Z)-o-coumaric acid. Using the plaque microdilution technique, the antimicrobial action was tested on Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The decoction demonstrated antimicrobial activity on Gram-positive bacteria. This was encouraging because natural antimicrobials are beneficial for food production, as they can inhibit the pathogenic microorganisms and boost the quality of hygiene and cleanliness.


RESUMO: Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith (Fabaceae) é uma planta comum na Caatinga cearense, onde é popularmente conhecida como cumaru. Vários compostos têm sido isolados de A. cearensis, incluindo ácido protocatecúico, taninos, cumarina, flavonóides e heterosídeos fenólicos, como por exemplo os amburosídeos A e B. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o potencial antimicrobiano e caracterizar o perfil químico do decocto da casca do caule de A. cearensis, visando a sua possível utilização na conservação de alimentos. A caracterização dos compostos químicos foi realizada pelas análises de RMN uni e bidimensionais de 1H e 13C, e cromatografia líquida acoplada à espectrometria de massa. Foram identificados a cumarina, os amburosídeos A e B, e o ácido (Z)-o-cumárico glicosilado. A atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada pela metodologia de microdiluição em placa sobre Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus e Listeria monocytogenes. O decocto mostrou atividade antimicrobiana sobre bactérias Gram-positivas. Antimicrobianos naturais podem oferecer vantagens para a produção de alimentos, inibindo microorganismos patogênicos e melhorando a qualidade higiênico-sanitária.

5.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 67(3): 187-199, sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1021749

ABSTRACT

Low-acid mayonnaise produced with raw egg is a product rich in oil, almost a home-made product, but it is susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis, which results in deterioration of the product and forms undesirable components such as free radicals and reactive aldehydes. A better understanding of the factors that affect and can prevent lipid oxidation and microbial growth is essential to improve the product's lifetime. This review presents information on the factors that influence lipid oxidation and can accelerate the proliferation of microorganisms. Monitoring these possible factors can reduce the induction period that accelerates rancidity and ensure microbiological safety of the product, possibly increasing shelf life. The most effective means to slow lipid oxidation in mayonnaise and ensure its safety is the use of antioxidants and antimicrobials. Currently, several synthetic additives are being replaced by natural products such as essential oils. Therefore, to provide a better base for the food industry, an effective antioxidant and antimicrobial system must be designed for mayonnaise(AU)


A maionese de baixa acidez é um produto similar a maionese caseira, produzida com ovo in natura é um produto rico em óleo, susceptível à oxidação lipídica e contaminação microbiana por Salmonella Enteritidis, o que resulta em deterioração do produto e a formação de componentes indesejáveis, tais como os radicais livres e aldeídos reativos. Uma melhor compreensão dos fatores que afetam e que podem prevenir a oxidação de lipídios e multiplicação microbiana é essencial para melhorar o tempo de vida do produto. Esta revisão apresenta o conhecimento dos fatores que influenciam a oxidação lipídica e que podem acelerar a multiplicação de microrganismos. O acompanhamento destes fatores possíveis pode reduzir o período de indução que aceleram o ranço e garantir a segurança microbiológica do produto o que poderia aumentar o tempo de prateleira da maionese. Os meios mais eficazes para retardar a oxidação lipídica na maionese e garantir a sua segurança é a utilização de antioxidantes e antimicrobianos. Atualmente, diversos aditivos sintéticos estão sendo substituídos por produtos naturais, como os óleos essenciais. Portanto, para proporcionar uma melhor base para a indústria alimentar um sistema antioxidante e antimicrobiano eficaz deve ser concebido para maionese(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Salmonella/pathogenicity , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Oxidation , Eating , Food Handling
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(9): 905-911, set. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-829320

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se determinar atividade antisséptica do óleo essencial de Lippia origanoides na presença de leite bovino. A composição química do óleo essencial de alecrim pimenta foi determinada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG-EM), sendo detectados 53 compostos, dos quais 16 foram identificados (>0,1% área total). O carvacrol (32,7%), p-cimeno (23%), timilmetil éter, cariofileno (7,98%) e o γ-terpineno (5,40%) foram os componentes mais abundantes. A concentração inibitória mínima para Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 e E. coli ATCC 8739 foi de 60µL/mL, enquanto para Salmonella Choleraesuis ATCC 35640 foi de 90µL/mL. A concentração bactericida mínima foi de 120µL/mL para as três bactérias. Avaliou-se a atividade antisséptica do óleo essencial na concentração de 120µL/mL na presença de leite bovino sobre as mesmas cepas bacterianas. O óleo em estudo apresentou efeito inibitório do crescimento das cepas em diferentes tempos de ação (p<0,05). S. aureus apresentou maiores índices de inibição após 5 min de contato e Escherichia coli e Salmonella Choleraesuis após 15 min. O óleo essencial de alecrim-pimenta revelou ser um potencial antimicrobiano natural, mesmo na presença de matéria orgânica constituída de uma matriz nutricional complexa que é o leite bovino.(AU)


This study aimed to determine the antiseptic activity of the essential oil of Lippia origanoides in the presence of bovine milk. The essential oil chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (CG EM) 53 compounds were detected, of which 16 were identified (>0.1% total area). The carvacrol (32.7%), p-cymene (23%), thymil methyl ether (10.03%), caryophyllene (7.98 %) and γ-terpinene (5.40%) were the most abundant components. The minimum inhibitory concentration for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 was 60uL/mL, as for this Salmonella Choleraesuis ATCC 35640 was 90uL/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentration was 120µL/mL for all three bacteria. We evaluated the antiseptic activity of the essential oil in the concentration of 120µL/mL in the presence of bovine milk for the same bacterial strains. The oil under study It showed an inhibitory effect of growth of the strains in different action times (p <0.05). S. aureus showed higher inhibition rates after 5 min of contact and E. coli and Salmonella Choleraesuis after 15 min. The essential oil Lippia origanoides proved to be a natural antimicrobial potential even in the presence of organic matter consists of a complex nutritional matrix is bovine milk.(AU)


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/analysis , Lippia/microbiology , Milk/microbiology , Thymol/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents, Local , Cattle , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Products with Antimicrobial Action
7.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(3): 505-512, jul.-set. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-722269

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar, quantificar os constituintes, e avaliar a atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais extraídos de rizomas de açafrão (Curcuma longa L.) e gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) cultivados nas condições de Manaus/AM frente a 14 salmonelas entéricas isoladas de frango resfriado. A extração dos óleos essenciais foi realizada utilizando-se aparelho tipo Clevenger e a composição determinada por Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas (CG-MS). A atividade antibacteriana foi realizada com o emprego de técnica de microdiluição em caldo. O óleo essencial de gengibre se mostrou expressivamente mais eficiente do que o óleo de açafrão, tanto em termos de ação bacteriostática (concentração inibitória mínima de 2500 a 5000 µg.mL-1) quanto bactericida (concentração bactericida mínima de 5000 a 10000 µg.mL-1) observando-se variação apenas em duas as amostras em termos de resistência a ação bactericida deste óleo. Assim, o óleo essencial de gengibre, representa uma alternativa para o controle de Salmonella enterica, entretanto, demais estudos abordando o sinergismo com alimentos são indicados.


The objective of this work was to identify, quantify constituents and evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oils from rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) grown under conditions of Manaus/AM front of enteric salmonella isolated from chilled poultry. The extraction of essential oils was performed using the Clevenger type apparatus and composition determined by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity was performed with the use of microdilution broth. The essential oil of ginger proved significantly more efficient than tumeric oil, both in terms of bacteriostatic action (minimum inhibitory concentration 2500-5000 mg µg mL-1) and bactericidal (minimum bactericidal concentration 5000-10000 mg µg mL-1) observing changes in only two samples in terms of resistance to bactericidal activity of this oil. Thus, the essential oil of ginger, is an alternative for the control of Salmonella enterica, however, other studies addressing the synergism with food are indicated.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Curcuma/classification , Ginger/classification , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Feeding Behavior , Food Preservation/classification , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162997

ABSTRACT

Aims: We investigated the antibacterial activity of three groups of phenolic compounds obtained from the chloroform (CHCl3) extract of the fleshy seed coat (sarcotestas) of Ginkgo biloba. Study Design: An experimental study. Methodology: Inhibition of microbial growth was measured by an agar diffusion method and susceptibility tests were performed by the broth microdilution method. Bactericidal effect of Ginkgo biloba compound 5-7 against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was assessed by time-kill assay. Results: Ginkgo biloba compounds 5-7 and 8-10 showed high antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including several food-borne pathogens. In particular, compounds 5-7 and 8-10, containing phenolic acids and bilobols, respectively, were highly effective against Salmonella enteric serovar Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, and Shigella dysenteriae. On the opposite, compounds 1-4, containing cardanols, showed little antibacterial activity. Compounds 5-7 exerted a bactericidal and bacteriolytic effect on Salmonella enteric serovar Typhimurium with a Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and a Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of 8.3 μg ml–1. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that phenolic compounds derived from Ginkgo biloba sarcotestas, because of their strong inhibitory characteristics towards food pathogens, can be considered ideal candidates for possible application in food microbiology due to their natural origins.

9.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 39(3): 170-176, jul.-sep. 2007. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-634554

ABSTRACT

Different natural antimicrobials affected viability of bacterial contaminants isolated at critical steps during a beer production process. In the presence of 1 mg/ml chitosan and 0.3 mg/ml hops, the viability of Escherichia coli in an all malt barley extract wort could be reduced to 0.7 and 0.1% respectively after 2 hour- incubation at 4 °C. The addition of 0.0002 mg/ml nisin, 0.1 mg/ml chitosan or 0.3 mg/ml hops, selectively inhibited growth of Pediococcus sp. in more than 10,000 times with respect to brewing yeast in a mixed culture. In the presence of 0.1mg ml chitosan in beer, no viable cells of the thermoresistant strain Bacillus megaterium were detected. Nisin, chitosan and hops increased microbiological stability during storage of a local commercial beer inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum or Pediococcus sp. isolated from wort. Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) (8 kV/cm, 3 pulses) application enhanced antibacterial activity of nisin and hops but not that of chitosan. The results herein obtained suggest that the use of these antimicrobial compounds in isolation or in combination with PEF would be effective to control bacterial contamination during beer production and storage.


Diferentes antimicrobianos naturales disminuyeron la viabilidad de bacterias contaminantes aisladas en etapas críticas del proceso de producción de cerveza. En un extracto de malta, el agregado de 1 mg/ml de quitosano y de 0,3 mg ml de lúpulo permitió reducir la viabilidad de Escherichia coli a 0,7 y 0,1%, respectivamente, al cabo de 2 horas de incubación a 4 °C. El agregado de 0,0002 mg/ml de nisina, 0,1 mg/ml de quitosano o de 0,3 mg/ml de lúpulo inhibió selectivamente (10.000 veces más) el crecimiento de Pediococcus sp. respecto de la levadura de cerveza en un cultivo mixto. El agregado de 0,1 mg/ml de quitosano permitió disminuir la viabilidad de una cepa bacteriana termorresistente, Bacillus megaterium, hasta niveles no detectables. Por otra parte, el agregado de nisina, quitosano y lúpulo aumentó la estabilidad microbiológica durante el almacenamiento de cervezas inoculadas con Lactobacillus plantarum y Pediococcus sp. aislados de mosto de cerveza. La aplicación de campos eléctricos pulsantes (CEP) (3 pulsos de 8kV/cm) aumentó el efecto antimicrobiano de la nisina y del lúpulo, pero no el del quitosano. Los resultados obtenidos indicarían que el uso de antimicrobianos naturales en forma individual o en combinación con CEP puede constituir un procedimiento efectivo para el control de la contaminación bacteriana durante el proceso de elaboración y almacenamiento de la cerveza.


Subject(s)
Bacillus megaterium/isolation & purification , Beer/microbiology , Chitosan/pharmacology , Electromagnetic Fields , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Humulus , Industrial Microbiology/methods , Lactobacillus plantarum/isolation & purification , Nisin/pharmacology , Pediococcus/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Bacillus megaterium/drug effects , Bacillus megaterium/growth & development , Bacillus megaterium/radiation effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/growth & development , Escherichia coli/radiation effects , Fermentation , Food Preservation , Lactobacillus plantarum/drug effects , Lactobacillus plantarum/growth & development , Lactobacillus plantarum/radiation effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pediococcus/drug effects , Pediococcus/growth & development , Pediococcus/radiation effects , Temperature
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