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1.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 454-462, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377387

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Clinical assessment of head and neck cancers is highly challenging owing to the complexity of regional anatomy and wide range of lesions. The diagnostic evaluation includes detailed physical examination, biopsy and imaging modalities for disease extent and staging. Appropriate imaging is done to enable determination of precise tumor extent and involvement of lymph nodes, and detection of distant metastases and second primary tumors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the initial staging discrepancy between conventional contrasted computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and its impact on management plans for head and neck malignancies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cross-sectional study in two tertiary-level hospitals. METHODS: This study included 30 patients with primary head and neck malignant tumors who underwent contrasted computed tomography and whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT assessments. The staging and treatment plans were compared with the incremental information obtained after 18F-FDG PET/CT. RESULTS: 18F-FDG PET/CT was found to raise the stage in 33.3% of the cases and the treatment intent was altered in 43.3% of them, while there was no management change in the remaining 56.7%. 18F-FDG PET/CT had higher sensitivity (96% versus 89.2%) and accuracy (93% versus 86.7%) than conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that 18F-FDG PET/CT had higher sensitivity and accuracy for detecting head and neck malignancy, in comparison with conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography. 18F-FDG PET/CT improved the initial staging and substantially impacted the management strategy for head and neck malignancies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Radiopharmaceuticals , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Positron-Emission Tomography , Neoplasm Staging
2.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(1): 25-31, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375756

ABSTRACT

Objectives Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in the world, with survival correlated with the extension of the disease at diagnosis. In many low-/middle-income countries, the incidence of CRC is increasing rapidly, while decreasing rates are observed in high-income countries. We evaluated the anatomopathological profile of 390 patients diagnosed with CRC who underwent surgical resection, over a six-year period, in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Results Adenocarcinomas accounted for 98% of the cases of primary colorectal tumors, and 53.8% occurred in female patients. The average age of the sample was 63.5 years, with 81.8% of individuals older than 50 years of age and 6.4% under 40 years of age. The most frequent location was the distal colon; pT3 status was found in 71% of patients, and pT4 status, in 14.4%. Angiolymphatic and lymph-node involvements were found in 48.7% and 46.9% of the cases respectively. Distant metastasis was observed in 9.2% of the patients. Advanced disease was diagnosed in almost half of the patients (48.1%). The women in the sample had poorly-differentiated adenocarcinomas (p=0.043). Patients under 60 years of age had a higher rate of lymph-node metastasis (p=0.044). Tumor budding was present in 27.2% of the cases, and it was associated with the female gender, themucinous histological type, and the depth of invasion (pT3 and pT4). Conclusions We conclude that the diagnosis of advanced disease in CRC is still a reality, with a high occurrence of aggressive prognostic factors, which results in a worse prognosis. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness/diagnosis , Neoplasm Staging
3.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(1): 40-48, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364901

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Knowing the information regarding the panorama of lymphoma diagnosis in patients treated in the Brazilian Public Unified Health System from the last 10 years is a challenge for Strategic Health Planning. Objective To characterize the Brazilian population with lymphoma treated in the Brazilian Public Unified Health System between 2008 and 2017 regarding staging, sex, residence site and mortality. Material and methods A descriptive, retrospective, and longitudinal trial with secondary data from DataSUS (SIA/SUS and SIM/SUS) obtained from patients with ICD-10 C81-85. Results There were 70,850 lymphoma cases between 2008 and 2017, of which 55% were male, the median age was 51 years, and 27% had Hodgkin Lymphoma. Most patients (56%) were treated outside the residence city. São Paulo State accounted for 25% of patients. Treatment initiation took more than 60 days in 27% of cases. A total of 45,601 deaths were due to lymphoma (12% Hodgkin Lymphoma and 88% Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma), with a median age 63 years, and were mainly males (55%). Staging data were inadequate in 23% of patients, and analysis was performed only on the valid records. Advanced disease was diagnosed in 58% of patients (60% male; 57% female) and was more common in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (62%) versus Hodgkin Lymphoma (49%). Discussion Late diagnosis interferes with mortality rates. Health promotion and cancer prevention campaigns, especially targeting the male public, and training for early diagnosis and early treatment are needed. Conclusion Effective measures for early diagnosis and treatment are urgently needed for lymphoma control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Hodgkin Disease/diagnosis , Lymphoma/diagnosis , Mortality , Delayed Diagnosis , Neoplasm Staging
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932383

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the value of ultrasound combined with thyroglobulin (Tg) in preoperative N staging of thyroid carcinoma.Methods:The clinical data of 1 138 patients with thyroid carcinoma in the Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital) from August 2018 to October 2020, who confirmed by surgery and pathology were analyzed retrospectively. The 1 138 cases were divided into pN0, pN1a, and pN1b stages. Kappa consistency test was used to analyze the consistency of ultrasound evaluation of N staging and pathological N staging. Pathology result was taken as the gold standard to analyze the correlation between some preoperative serum markers and lymph node metastasis. The ROC curve was used to compare the diagnostic value of ultrasound, Tg, and ultrasound combined with Tg for lymph node metastasis.Results:The preoperative ultrasound assessment of N staging was moderately consistent with pathology(Kappa=0.459, P<0.01). Between pN0 and pN1(pN1a+ pN1b) stages, the differences in free triiodothyronine (fT3), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and Tg were statistically significant (all P<0.05). Among the different indicators, only Tg had significant effect on lymph node metastasis ( P<0.01) .The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of Tg in predicting lymph node metastasis of thyroid cancer was 0.679, while the best cut-off value for Tg was 25.245 μg/L. The AUC of only ultrasound and ultrasound combined with Tg were 0.699 and 0.775, respectively. Therefore, combined diagnosis method was better than ultrasound only. Conclusions:Preoperative ultrasound and thyroglobulin has a specific value in evaluating the N staging of thyroid carcinoma. The combination of the two is more valuable in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis than ultrasound only.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931677

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical value of peripheral blood circulating tumor cells (CTC) in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.Methods:Sixty-four patients with prostate cancer who received treatment in Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps Hospital, China between June 2018 and May 2020 were included in the cancer group. An additional 35 patients with benign prostatic lesions who concurrently received treatment in the same hospital were included in the benign disease group. Twenty male patients with non-prostate disease were included in the control group. Cell enrichment, separation, staining and identification together with Gleason score and pathological stage were subjected to one-way analysis of variance.Results:The percentage of patients with CTC count ≥ 3 in the cancer, benign disease and control groups was 73.43% (47/64), 17.14% (6/35) and 10.00% (2/20), respectively. The level of prostate-specific antigen in patients with CTC was significantly higher than that in patients without CTC ( t = 2.89, P < 0.05). There was significant difference in CTC count between different Gleason score groups ( F = 3.25, P < 0.05) and between different pathological stage groups ( F = 3.42, P < 0.05). Conclusion:Peripheral blood CTC measurement can be used as an auxiliary method for the differentiation of benign and malignant prostate diseases. CTC count in patients with prostate cancer is correlated with prostate-specific antigen level, Gleason score, and pathological stage. Therefore, peripheral blood CTC measurement plays an auxiliary role in predicting prognosis in patients with CTC. This study is innovative and scientific.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931188

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the changes of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating B cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insertion site 1 mRNA (Bmi-1 mRNA) and microRNA-21 (miR-21) before and after treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody in advanced colorectal cancer, and analyze their association with treatment response.Methods:The clinical data of 98 patients with advanced colorectal cancer from March 2019 to March 2021 in Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. After treatment with cetuximab, complete remission was in 4 cases, partial remission in 26 cases, stable disease in 39 cases, and progressive disease in 29 cases. The patients with complete remission and partial remission were classified as remission group (30 cases), the stable disease and progressive disease were classified as non-remission group (68 cases). Before treatment and after 2 cycles of treatment, the plasma level of ctDNA was detected by high-throughput sequencing; the levels of Bmi-1mRNA and miR-21 were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Spearman correlation was used to analyze the relationship between ctDNA, Bmi-1mRNA, miR-21 and treatment responsiveness after 2 cycles of treatment; multivariate Logistic regression was used to analyze the independent risk factors affecting treatment responsiveness; receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to evaluate the value of ctDNA, Bmi-1mRNA and miR-21 in predicting remission after 2 cycles of treatment.Results:There were no significant differences in ctDNA, Bmi-1mRNA and miR-21 before treatment between 2 groups ( P>0.05); the ctDNA, Bmi-1mRNA and miR-21 after 2 cycles of treatment in remission group were significantly lower than those in non-remission group: (10.03 ± 3.32) μg/L vs. (15.33 ± 5.14) μg/L, 0.13 ± 0.04 vs. 0.19 ± 0.05 and 0.81 ± 0.26 vs. 1.08 ± 0.24, and there were statistical differences ( P<0.01). Spearman correlation analysis result showed that ctDNA, Bmi-1mRNA and miR-21 were negatively correlated with treatment response ( r = -0.500, -0.506 and -0.531; P<0.01). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis result showed that, after controlling for the number of distant metastatic organs and clinical stage, ctDNA, Bmi-1mRNA and miR-21 were still independent risk factors for treatment response in patients with advanced colorectal cancer ( OR = 3.342, 2.725 and 1.838; 95% CI 3.116 to 3.584, 2.647 to 2.805 and 1.768 to 1.911; P<0.01). ROC curve analysis result showed that the area under the curve (AUC) of ctDNA, Bmi-1mRNA combined with miR-21 after 2 cycles of treatment to predict the treatment response was the largest with 0.922. Conclusions:The changes of ctDNA, Bmi-1mRNA and miR-21 in patients with advanced colorectal cancer before and after treatment with EGFR monoclonal antibody are related to the treatment response. Combined detection is helpful for screening patients sensitive to EGFR-targeted therapy, and can provide reference for new targets of molecular intervention.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930330

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the relationship between perineural invasion and other clinicopathological factors and its effect on the prognosis of gastric cancer.Methods:The clinicopathological data of 665 patients with gastric cancer were retrospectively analyzed. According to the presence of perineural invasion, the patients were divided into perineural invasion positive group and perineural invasion negative group. The relationship between perineural invasion and other clinicopathological factors and its effect on the prognosis of gastric cancer were analyzed. After eliminating the potential confusion bias between the two groups by propensity score matching (PSM) , the differences of 5-year cumulative survival rate between the two groups of gastric cancer patients were compared.Results:The incidence of perineural invasion was 17.0% (113 cases) . The binary logistic regression analysis showed that the depth of tumor invasion and vascular tumor thrombus were independent factors influencing the occurrence of gastric cancer perineural invasion (all P<0.001) . Univariate analysis showed that age (>60 years) , tumor diameter (>4 cm) , borrmann classification, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, degree of differentiation, vascular tumor thrombus, perineural invasion, tumor nodule, tumor site, resection site, and surgical operation were the influencing factors for the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer ( P<0.05) , but multivariate analysis showed that age (>60 years) , tumor diameter (>4cm) , depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, and positive vascular tumor thrombi were independent risk factors affecting the prognosis of gastric cancer patients ( P<0.05) .However, perineural invasion cannot be an independent factor influencing the poor prognosis of gastric cancer in a multivariate analysis. Survival analysis was performed after propensity matching scores, and it was found that there was no statistically significant difference in the five-year survival rate between the perineural invasion positive group and the perineural invasion negative group (34.6% vs 43.0%; χ2=1.713; P=0.191) ,and there was no significant difference in the survival curve analysis between the two. Conclusion:Most patients with gastric cancer of perineural invasion have poor prognosis, but perineural invasion cannot be an independent prognostic factor for the prognosis of gastric cancer.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930057

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the differences in distribution and prognosis of cervical cancer patients in the 2009 and 2018 editions of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging, and to analyze the prognostic factors of cervical cancer patients.Methods:The clinical data of 524 cervical cancer patients admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from January 2010 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. The cases were staged according to the 2009 and 2018 FIGO staging, and the Kendall τb coefficient was calculated to compare the consistency of the distribution of the two stages. Kaplan-Meier was used for survival analysis, and log-rank test was used to test the difference of prognosis in each stage. Cox-regression was used to analyze the prognostic factors of cervical cancer patients.Results:In the 2009 FIGO edition of staging, 1 case of stage ⅠB1 was reduced to stage ⅠA1 due to the microscopic infiltration depth <5 mm, 51 cases of stage ⅠB1 were raised to stage ⅠB2 due to 2 cm<the maximum diameter of the tumor≤4 cm, and 43 cases of stage ⅠB2 were raised to stage ⅠB3 due to the maximum diameter of the tumor>4 cm. A total of 119 cases raised to stage ⅢC1 due to pelvic lymph node metastasis, and 11 cases raised to stage ⅢC2 due to para-aortic lymph node metastasis. The distribution of cases in the two stages was consistent (τb=0.61, P<0.001). There were statistically significant differences in overall survival (OS) ( χ2=107.13, P<0.001; χ2=93.02, P<0.001; χ2=92.74, P<0.001) and progression-free survival (PFS) ( χ2=91.95, P<0.001; χ2=77.69, P<0.001; χ2=73.27, P<0.001) among patients with different stages of FIGO in 2018 (ⅠA, ⅠB, Ⅱ, ⅢA, ⅢB, ⅢC1, ⅢC2, Ⅳ) and 2009 (ⅠA, ⅠB, Ⅱ, ⅢA, ⅢB, Ⅳ) and patients with different T stages (T 1, T 2, T 3, T 4). There were statistically significant differences in OS ( χ2=20.71, P<0.001) and PFS ( χ2=24.25, P<0.001) in 2018 FIGOⅠB and ⅢC stages, and there was a statistically significant difference in OS between stage ⅢC1 and stage ⅠB2 ( χ2=6.18, P=0.013). Multivariate analysis showed that age ( HR=1.88, 95% CI: 1.08-3.28, P=0.026), pathological type ( HR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.04-4.27, P=0.038), lymph node metastasis ( HR=2.18, 95% CI: 1.34-3.56, P=0.002), parametrial spread ( HR=2.56, 95% CI: 1.52-4.29, P<0.001), maximum tumor diameter ( HR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.18-3.30, P=0.009), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) positive after treatment ( HR=4.49, 95% CI: 2.09-9.68, P<0.001) and Hemoglobin (HB) level before treatment ( HR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.35-0.96, P=0.035) were independent risk factors for OS in patients with cervical cancer. According to the 2018 FIGO stage, the 5-year OS rates of patients with stage ⅠB1, ⅠB2, ⅠB3 were 100%, 97.1% and 87.9% respectively, with a statistically significant difference ( χ2=7.79, P=0.020), and there was a statistically significant difference between stage ⅠB1 and ⅠB3 ( χ2=5.55, P=0.019). According to the 2009 FIGO stage, the 5-year OS rates of patients with stage ⅠB1 and ⅠB2 were 95.7% and 84.3% respectively, with a statistically significant difference ( χ2=9.08, P=0.003). For patients with 2018 FIGO stage ⅠB, SCCA positive after treatment ( HR=1 172.50, 95% CI: 10.37-132 554.51, P=0.003) was an independent risk factor for OS, and differentiation degree ( HR=0.09, 95% CI: 0.01-0.81, P=0.032), treatment method ( HR=0.17, 95% CI: 0.04-0.71, P=0.015) and SCCA positive after treatment ( HR=190.68, 95% CI: 14.27-2 547.67, P<0.001) were independent risk factors for PFS. For patients with 2018 FIGO stage ⅠB, stage ( HR=9.56, 95% CI: 2.38-38.32, P=0.001), SCCA positive after treatment ( HR=126.32, 95% CI: 12.36-1 290.60, P<0.001) and lymph node metastasis ( HR=20.07, 95% CI: 3.63-111.11, P=0.001) were independent risk factors for OS, and differentiation degree ( HR=0.11, 95% CI: 0.02-0.63, P=0.013), treatment method ( HR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.06-0.75, P=0.015) and SCCA positive after treatment ( HR=43.83, 95% CI: 7.94-241.84, P<0.001) were independent risk factors for PFS. According to the 2018 FIGO stage, the 5-year OS rates of patients with stage ⅡA and ⅡB were 95.7% and 75.6% respectively, with a statistically significant difference ( χ2=13.96, P<0.001). The 5-year PFS rates of patients with stage ⅡA and ⅡB were 83.1% and 67.1% respectively, with a statistically significant difference ( χ2=7.61, P=0.006). According to the 2009 FIGO stage, the 5-year OS rates of patients with stage ⅡA and ⅡB were 90.9% and 75.0% respectively, with a statistically significant difference ( χ2=8.85, P=0.003). The 5-year PFS rates of patients with stage ⅡA and ⅡB were 75.7% and 66.7% respectively, with a statistically significant difference ( χ2=4.07, P=0.044). For patients with 2018 FIGO stage Ⅱ, pathological type ( HR=20.28, 95% CI: 2.93-140.32, P=0.002) and stage ( HR=4.35, 95% CI: 1.02-18.55, P=0.047) were independent risks factors for OS. For patients with 2009 FIGO stage Ⅱ, pathological type ( HR=5.82, 95% CI: 1.62-20.94, P=0.007) was an independent risk factor for OS, and pathological type ( HR=3.09, 95% CI: 1.22-7.85, P=0.017) and lymph node metastasis ( HR=2.07, 95% CI: 1.22-3.51, P=0.007) were independent risk factors for PFS. For patients with 2018 FIGO stage Ⅲ, maximum tumor diameter ( HR=3.31, 95% CI: 1.45-7.56, P=0.005) and SCCA positive after treatment ( HR=4.67, 95% CI: 1.22-17.86, P=0.024) were independent risk factors for OS, and pathological type ( HR=4.15, 95% CI: 1.47-11.77, P=0.007) and SCCA positive after treatment ( HR=3.96, 95% CI: 1.45-10.86, P=0.007) were independent risk factors for PFS. Conclusion:The 2018 and 2009 FIGO staging have a good distribution consistency in the cervical cancer patients, and the 2018 FIGO stage ⅠB has more advantages in judging the prognosis, but stage ⅢC cannot accurately judge the prognosis. Lymph node metastasis and maximum tumor diameter are more important prognostic factors.

9.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 35: e1656, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383218

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT - BACKGROUND: At least 12 lymph nodes (LNs) should be examined following surgical resection of colon cancer. As it is difficult to find small LNs, fat clearing fixatives have been proposed, but there is no consensus about the best option. AIM: The objective of this study was to verify if Carnoy's solution (CS) increases the LN count in left colon cancer specimens. METHODS: A prospective randomized trial (clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT02629315) with 60 patients with left colon adenocarcinoma who underwent rectosigmoidectomy. Specimens were randomized for fixation with CS or 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF). After dissection, the pericolic fat from the NBF group was immersed in CS and re-dissected (Revision). The primary endpoint was the total number of LNs retrieved. RESULTS: Mean LN count was 36.6 and 26.8 for CS and NBF groups, respectively (p=0.004). The number of cases with <12 LNs was 0 (CS) and 3 (NBF, p=0.237). The duration of dissection was similar. LNs were retrieved in all cases during the revision (mean: 19, range: 4-37), accounting for nearly 40% of the LNs of this arm of the study. After the revision, no case was found in the NBF arm with <12 LNs. Two patients had metastatic LNs during the revision (no upstaging occurred). CONCLUSION: Compared to NBF, CS increases LN count in colon cancer specimens. After conventional pathologic analysis, fixing the pericolic fat with CS and performing a second dissection substantially increased the number of LNs.


RESUMO - RACIONAL: Pelo menos 12 linfonodos (LNs) devem ser examinados após a ressecção cirúrgica do câncer de cólon. Como é difícil encontrar LNs pequenos, fixadores de clareadores de gordura foram propostos, mas não há consenso sobre a melhor opção. OBJETIVO: Verificar se a solução de Carnoy (SC) aumenta o número de LNs obtidos em espécimes de câncer de cólon esquerdo. MÉTODOS: Ensaio prospectivo randomizado (clinictrials.gov: NCT02629315) com 60 pacientes com adenocarcinoma de cólon esquerdo submetidos à retossigmoidectomia. As amostras foram randomizadas para fixação com SC ou formalina tamponada neutra a 10% (NBF). Após a dissecção, a gordura pericólica do grupo NBF foi imersa em SC e redissecada (Revisão). O endpoint primário foi o número total de LNs recuperados. RESULTADOS: O número médio de LNs foi de 36,6 e 26,8 para os grupos CS e NBF, respectivamente (p=0,004). O número de casos com <12 LNs foi 0 (CS) e 3 (NBF, p=0,237). A duração da dissecção foi semelhante. LNs foram recuperados em todos os casos durante a revisão (média de 19, intervalo: 4-37), representando quase 40% dos LNs deste braço do estudo. Após a revisão, nenhum caso no braço NBF permaneceu com <12 LNs. Dois pacientes tiveram LNs metastáticos encontrados durante a revisão (não ocorreu upstaging). CONCLUSÃO: Em comparação com NBF, a SC aumenta a contagem de LNs em espécimes de câncer de cólon. Após a análise patológica convencional, a fixação da gordura pericólica com SC e a realização de uma segunda dissecção aumentaram o número de LNs.

10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(2): 471-482, Fev. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356085

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este estudo transversal investigou a prevalência e os fatores associados ao diagnóstico de câncer de mama em estágio avançado entre 18.890 mulheres assistidas em hospital especializado da capital do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, entre os anos 1999 e 2016. Utilizou-se regressão de Poisson com variância robusta para estimar razões de prevalência e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança. Apresentaram maiores prevalências de diagnóstico nessa condição mulheres com idade entre 20-39 e 40-49 anos, de raça/cor da pele preta e parda, que viviam sem companheiro(a), procedentes de outros municípios do estado do Rio de Janeiro, que tiveram o Sistema Único de Saúde como origem do encaminhamento e que foram diagnosticadas nos sexênios 1999-2004 e 2005-2010. Em contrapartida, mulheres com idade entre 60-69 e 70-99 anos, que cursaram algum nível de escolaridade, com histórico familiar de câncer e que chegaram ao hospital com diagnóstico e sem tratamento apresentaram menores prevalências de diagnóstico em estágio avançado. Esses resultados podem ser considerados no planejamento de ações de prevenção secundária, a fim de antecipar o diagnóstico de câncer de mama dos grupos mais vulneráveis e assim colaborar para a redução da prevalência do diagnóstico em estágio avançado.


Abstract This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with advanced stage breast cancer diagnosis among 18,890 women assisted in a specialized hospital in the capital of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1999 to 2016. We used Poisson regression with robust variance to estimate prevalence ratios and respective 95% confidence intervals. The highest prevalence of diagnosis in this condition was in women aged 20-39 and 40-49 years, black and brown, living without a partner, from other cities of the state of Rio de Janeiro, who were referred by the Unified Health System and diagnosed in the 1999-2004 and 2005-2010 six-year periods. On the other hand, women aged 60-69 and 70-99 years, with some schooling level, with a family history of cancer and who arrived at the hospital with diagnosis and without treatment had lower prevalence of advanced stage breast cancer diagnosis. These results can be considered when planning secondary prevention actions to anticipate and, thus, collaborate to reduce the prevalence the breast cancer diagnosis in the most vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
11.
Ginecol. obstet. Méx ; 90(3): 261-272, ene. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385020

ABSTRACT

Resumen ANTECEDENTES: Las pacientes con un tumor limítrofe del ovario pueden tratarse conservadoramente en etapas tempranas y con ello conseguir una supervivencia considerable. Las etapas avanzadas tienen un periodo libre de enfermedad prolongado, algunas con crecimiento de implantes peritoneales y recaída posterior a 10 años del tratamiento. OBJETIVO: Conocer cuál es el pronóstico de las pacientes con un tumor limítrofe del ovario, y su tratamiento en México y otros países. MÉTODOLOGÍA: Revisión sistemática de ensayos clínicos recientes registrados en las bases de datos de PubMed, Embase y Cochrane de artículos publicados en inglés y en español entre los años 2006 y 2021. Además, una revisión analítica de la experiencia acumulada en 10 años en la atención de pacientes con tumor limítrofe del ovario atendidas en la Unidad Médica de Alta Especialidad de Oncología del Centro Médico Nacional siglo XXI del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, en la Ciudad de México y otros centros médicos de la República Mexicana. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron 62 artículos relacionados con los términos de búsqueda; de éstos, se descartaron 11 porque no eran artículos originales solo de tumores limítrofes del ovario y 4 porque el texto completo estaba escrito en idiomas diferentes al inglés y español. Uno más se eliminó porque sus conclusiones diferían del objetivo planteado y su sustento se consideró endeble. Al final se analizaron 41 artículos. CONCLUSIONES: Las posibilidades de atención quirúrgica de pacientes con tumor limítrofe del ovario, con preservación de la fertilidad, son altas pues su recurrencia es baja. Los tumores microinvasores mucinosos, con permeación vascular y linfática, tendrán mayor posibilidad de recaída a largo plazo. En general, su pronóstico de supervivencia, en cada etapa, es alto. La linfadenectomía retroperitoneal no está indicada en etapas tempranas de la enfermedad.


Abstract BACKGROUND: Patients with borderline ovarian tumor can be treated conservatively in early stages and thereby achieve considerable survival. Advanced stages have a prolonged disease-free period, some with peritoneal implant growth and relapse after 10 years of treatment. OBJECTIVE: To know the prognosis of patients with borderline ovarian tumor and its treatment in Mexico and other countries. METHODOLOGY: Systematic review of recent clinical trials registered in PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases of articles published in English and Spanish between 2006 and 2021. In addition, an analytical review of the experience accumulated in 10 years in the care of patients with borderline ovarian tumor attended at the Oncology High Specialty Medical Unit of the XXI Century National Medical Center of the Mexican Social Security Institute, in Mexico City and other medical centers in the Mexican Republic. RESULTS: We found 62 articles related to the search terms; of these, 11 were discarded because they were not original articles only on ovarian borderline tumors and 4 because the full text was written in languages other than English and Spanish. One more was eliminated because its conclusions differed from the stated objective and its support was considered weak. In the end, 41 articles were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The chances of surgical care of patients with ovarian borderline tumor, with fertility preservation, are high because its recurrence is low. Mucinous microinvasive tumors, with vascular and lymphatic permeation, will have a higher chance of long-term relapse. In general, their prognosis for survival, at each stage, is high. Retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy is not indicated in early stages of the disease.

12.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 25(4): 180-187, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388941

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Aplicar la técnica de anticuerpos monoclonales para HER2/neu (human epidermal growth 2/neuro glioblastoma), en tumores de indígenas nativos de Perú con diagnóstico de cáncer de mama, así como correlacionar la sobreexpresión molecular con la sobrevida global. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio experimental, prospectivo y analítico. Se evaluaron 23 muestras biológicas de tumores de pacientes indígenas andinos de Arequipa, con diagnóstico definitivo de adenocarcinoma de mama. La expresión del receptor HER2/neu se determinó mediante inmunohistoquímica con anticuerpos monoclonales. Resultados: El 43,4% (10 casos) fueron positivos para sobreexpresión del receptor. Los casos negativos fueron 56,6%. La supervivencia global de las pacientes a los 3 años fue 69,9% cuando los tumores tenían HER2/neu sobreexpresados y 84,6% para los negativos, mostrando diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p=0,017). Conclusiones: La técnica de inmunohistoquímica en tumores mamarios de indígenas andinos puede aplicarse siguiendo los protocolos mundiales. Así mismo, hubo correlación entre la sobreexpresión del receptor HER2/neu con menor sobrevida global. El principal beneficio de esta técnica es justificar el uso de terapia biológica con anticuerpos monoclonales, según el perfil molecular, en población nativa de Arequipa, en un hospital cercano a su residencia.


Abstract Objective: To apply the monoclonal antibody technique for HER2/neu, in tumors of indigenous natives of Peru with breast cancer, as well as to correlate molecular overexpression with global survival. Patients and methods: Experimental, prospective and analytical study. 23 biological samples of tumors from indigenous Andean patients from Arequipa, with a definitive diagnosis of breast adenocarcinoma, were evaluated. HER2/neu expression was determined by immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies. Results: 43.4% (10 cases) were positive for receptor overexpression. The negative cases were 56.6%. The overall survival of the patients at 3 years was 69.9% when the tumors had overexpressed HER2/neu and 84.6% for the negative ones, showing a statistically significant difference (p = 0.017) Conclusions: The immunohistochemical technique in Andean indigenous mammary tumors can be applied following world protocols. Likewise, there was a correlation between the overexpression of the HER2 / neu receptor with lower overall survival. The main benefit of this technique is to justify the use of biological therapy with monoclonal antibodies, according to the molecular profile, in the native population of Arequipa, in a hospital near their residence.

13.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(4): 411-418, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341164

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bone and soft tissue sarcomas consist of a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin that can affect patients from any age. The precise staging of these lesions determines the best therapeutic strategies and prognosis estimates. Two staging systems are the most frequently used: the system proposed by the University of Florida group, led by Dr. William F. Enneking (1980) and adopted by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS), and the system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) (1977), currently in its 8th edition (2017). This paper updates the reader on the staging of bone and soft tissue sarcomas affecting the musculoskeletal system.


Resumo Os sarcomas ósseos e das partes moles consistem em grupo heterogêneo de neoplasias malignas de origem mesenquimal que podem ocorrer em qualquer faixa etária. O estadiamento preciso destas lesões determina as melhores estratégias terapêuticas e estimativas de prognóstico. Dois sistemas de estadiamento são os mais frequentemente empregados no manejo destas neoplasias: o sistema proposto pelo grupo da Universidade da Flórida, liderado pelo Dr. William F. Enneking (1980), adotado pela Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) e o sistema desenvolvido pela American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) (1977) que se encontra em sua 8a edição (2017). O presente artigo busca atualizar o leitor a respeito do estadiamento dos sarcomas ósseos e das partes moles que acometem o sistema musculoesquelético.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pathology, Surgical , Sarcoma , Diagnostic Imaging , Neoplasms, Bone Tissue , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasms, Connective Tissue
14.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(2): 137-144, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156096

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present study aims to evaluate the profile of endometrial carcinomas and uterine sarcomas attended in a Brazilian cancer center in the period from 2001 to 2016 and to analyze the impact of time elapsed fromsymptoms to diagnoses or treatment in cancer stage and survival. Methods This observational study with 1,190 cases evaluated the year of diagnosis, age-group, cancer stage and histological type. A subgroup of 185 women with endometrioid histology attended in the period from 2012 to 2017 was selected to assess information about initial symptoms, diagnosticmethods, overall survival, and to evaluate the influence of the time elapsed from symptoms to diagnosis and treatment on staging and survival. The statistics used were descriptive, trend test, and the Kaplan- Meier method, with p-values < 0.05 for significance. Results A total of 1,068 (89.7%) carcinomas (77.2% endometrioid and 22.8% nonendometrioid) and 122 (10.3%) sarcomas were analyzed, with an increasing trend in the period (p < 0.05). Histologies of non-endometrioid carcinomas, G3 endometrioid, and carcinosarcomas constituted 30% of the cases. Non-endometrioid carcinomas and sarcomas weremore frequently diagnosed in patients over 70 years of age and those on stage IV (p < 0.05). The endometrioid subgroup with 185 women reported 92% of abnormal uterine bleeding and 43% diagnosis after curettage. The average time elapsed between symptoms to diagnosis was 244 days, and between symptoms to treatment was 376 days, all without association with staging (p = 0.976) and survival (p = 0.160). Only 12% of the patients started treatment up to 60 days after diagnosis. Conclusion The number of uterine carcinoma and sarcoma cases increased over the period of 2001 to 2016. Aggressive histology comprised 30% of the patients and, for endometrioid carcinomas, the time elapsed between symptoms and diagnosis or treatment was long, although without association with staging or survival.


Resumo Objetivo O presente estudo avaliou o perfil dos carcinomas endometriais e sarcomas uterinos atendidos em um centro brasileiro de câncer no período de 2001 a 2016, e avaliou o impacto do tempo decorrido entre os sintomas até o diagnóstico ou tratamento no estadiamento e sobrevida pelo câncer. Métodos Estudo observacional com 1.190 casos que analisou o ano do diagnóstico, faixa etária, estágio e tipo histológico do câncer. Um subgrupo de 185 mulheres com histologia endometrioide e atendidas no período de 2012 a 2017 foi selecionado para avaliar informações sobre sintomas iniciais, métodos de diagnóstico, sobrevida global e para analisar a relação entre o tempo decorrido a partir dos sintomas até o diagnóstico e tratamento no estadiamento e sobrevida. Foram realizadas análises estatísticas descritiva, de tendência linear e de sobrevida pelo método de Kaplan-Meier, com valores de p < 0,05 para significância. Resultados Os casos estudados de acordo com a histologia foram 1.068 (89,7%) carcinomas (77,2% endometrioides e 22,8% não endometrioides) e 122 (10,3%) sarcomas, com tendência crescente no período (p < 0,05). Histologias de carcinomas não endometrioides, G3 endometrioides e carcinossarcomas consistiram em 30% dos casos. Carcinomas não endometrioides e sarcomas forammais frequentemente diagnosticados em pacientes acima de 70 anos de idade e em estágio IV (p < 0,05). O subgrupo com185 mulheres com carcinoma endometrioide apresentou 92% de sangramento uterino anormal e 43% de diagnóstico após curetagem. O tempo médio decorrido entre os sintomas e o diagnóstico foi de 244 dias e entre os sintomas e o tratamento, 376 dias, todos sem associação com estadiamento (p = 0,976) e sobrevida (p = 0,160). Apenas 12% das pacientes iniciaram o tratamento em até 60 dias após o diagnóstico. Conclusão O número de casos de carcinomas e sarcomas uterinos aumentaram no período de 2001 a 2016. A histologia agressiva compreendeu 30% dos pacientes e, no caso dos carcinomas endometrioides, o tempo decorrido entre os sintomas e o diagnóstico ou tratamento foi longo, embora sem associação com estadiamento ou sobrevida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Sarcoma/diagnosis , Uterine Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/diagnosis , Sarcoma/surgery , Sarcoma/pathology , Time Factors , Uterine Neoplasms/surgery , Uterine Neoplasms/pathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/surgery , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/pathology , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909135

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the characteristics of multi-slice spiral CT images in lung cancer with cystic lesions and improve the accuracy of diagnosis.Methods:The clinical data of 27 cases of cystic lung cancer confirmed by pathological results of surgery or puncture who received treatment during 2012-2019 in Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province, China were collected. The clinical stages, pathological results and the characteristics of multi-slice spiral CT images were analyzed.Results:All 27 cases were diagnosed with peripheral lung cancer. Type VI peripheral lung cancer occurred in 12 (44.44%) cases, and adenocarcinoma in 17 (62.96%) cases. Stage Ia lung cancer occurred in 18 (66.67%) patients. Above 70% of CT images showed irregular cystic structure [70.37% (19/27)], polycystic structure [74.07% (20/27)], and vessels passing through the cysts [70.37% (19/27). Over 90% of CT images displayed unsmooth inner wall of the cysts [92.59% (25/27)] and fuzzy margin of the cysts [96.30% (26/27)].Conclusion:It is very difficult to diagnose lung cancer with cystic lesions. This kind of atypical lung cancer should be considered when the imaging features of peripheral lung cancer appear including thickened cystic wall, fuzzy cystic margin, vascular bundle sign and pleural indentation sign.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907571

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the differences in population distribution and prognosis of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in T staging of the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) 7th edition and UICC 8th edition, and to analyze the prognostic factors in patients with NPC.Methods:The clinicopathologic date of 184 patients with newly diagnosed NPC treated with IMRT at the Department of Radiation Oncology of Weifang People′s Hospital of Shandong Province from June 1, 2005 to December 31, 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were restaged according to the 7th and 8th edition of the UICC staging system. The distribution of T staging of patients in the two staging systems was analyzed, and the consistency of the two staging systems was compared using the Kappa consistency test. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis, and log-rank test was used to compare the prognostic differences among T stages. Cox regression model was used to analyze the prognostic factors of patients with NPC.Results:Of all 184 patients with NPC, stage T 1, T 2, T 3 and T 4 respectively accounted for 18.5% (34/184), 16.8% (31/184), 15.2% (28/184) and 49.5% (91/184) according to the 7th edition UICC staging system. However, stage T 1, T 2, T 3 and T 4 respectively accounted for 18.5% (34/184), 34.2% (63/184), 30.4% (56/184) and 16.8% (31/184) according to the 8th edition UICC staging system. The T staging population distribution of the two staging systems showed moderate consistency (Kappa=0.58). There was a statistically significant difference in overall survival (OS) among patients with stage T 1, T 2, T 3, T 4 according to the 7th edition UICC staging system ( χ2=10.606, P=0.014). There were statistically significant differences in OS between stage T 1 and stage T 2, T 3, T 4 ( χ2=4.866, P=0.027; χ2=11.965, P=0.001; χ2=4.351, P=0.037). The OS curves of stage T 2 and T 4 could not be separated. Moreover, the OS curves of stage T 3 and T 4 were distributed in reverse order. There was a statistically significant difference in OS among patients with stage T 1, T 2, T 3, T 4 according to the 8th edition staging system ( χ2=8.663, P=0.034). There were statistically significant differences in OS between stage T 1 and stage T 3, T 4( χ2=8.746, P=0.003; χ2=7.580, P=0.006). The OS curves of stage T 1 to T 4 were distributed in order, but the curves of stage T 3 and T 4 could not be separated. There was a statistically significant difference in progression-free survival (PFS) among patients with stage T 1, T 2, T 3, T 4 according to the 7th edition UICC staging system ( χ2=11.289, P=0.010). There were statistically significant differences in PFS between stage T 1 and stage T 2, T 3, T 4 ( χ2=8.209, P=0.004; χ2=13.302, P<0.001; χ2=6.550, P=0.010). The PFS curves of stage T 2 and T 4 could not be separated. Moreover, the PFS curves of stage T 3 and T 4 were distributed in reverse order. There was a statistically significant difference in PFS among patients with stage T 1, T 2, T 3, T 4 according to the 8th edition staging system ( χ2=12.074, P=0.007). There were statistically significant differences in PFS between stage T 1 and stage T 2, T 3, T 4( χ2=5.182, P=0.023; χ2=11.217, P=0.001; χ2=10.174, P=0.001). The PFS curves of stage T 1 to T 4 were distributed in order, but the curves of stage T 3 and T 4 could not be separated. The results of Cox multivariate analysis showed that T staging of both staging systems were the independent prognostic factors of the OS ( P=0.013; P=0.026) and PFS ( P=0.031; P=0.012). However, T staging of the two editions were not the independent prognostic factors of the local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) ( P=0.351; P=0.167) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) ( P=0.059; P=0.052). The age was the independent prognostic factor of the OS ( HR=2.70, 95% CI: 1.53-4.76, P=0.001; HR=2.74, 95% CI: 1.55-4.84, P=0.001), PFS ( HR=2.72, 95% CI: 1.46-5.08, P=0.002; HR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.57-5.52, P=0.001), LRFS ( HR=5.87, 95% CI: 1.62-21.27, P=0.007; HR=6.02, 95% CI: 1.61-22.49, P=0.008) and DMFS ( HR=2.40, 95% CI: 1.22-4.72, P=0.011; HR=2.63, 95% CI: 1.34-5.18, P=0.005). N staging was the independent prognostic factor of the OS ( P=0.031; P=0.028). Conclusion:The T staging population distribution of the 7th and 8th edition UICC staging system had moderate consistency, and the T staging of the 8th edition is more advantageous in predicting the prognosis of OS and PFS. In both editions, T staging is an independent prognostic factor for OS and PFS.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942232

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the clinicoradiological characteristics of clinical T1 renal cell carcinoma patients and to investigate the risk factors of renal sinus invasion in cT1 renal cell carcinoma patients undergoing nephrectomy.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted in cT1 renal cell carcinoma patients from January 2016 to August 2019 in Department of Urology, Peking University Third Hospital, who underwent partial or radical nephrectomy by analyzing clinicopathological and radiological data. The influencing factors of renal sinus invasion for cT1 renal cell carcinoma were determined by χ2 test, Mann-Whitney U test and Logistic regression analysis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 507 patients were enrolled, including 354 males (69.8%) and 153 females (30.2%). The median age was 59 years and the median body mass index (BMI) was 25.5 kg/m2. Eighteen patients (3.6%) had gross hematuria preoperatively. The median tumor diameter was 3.5 cm. Three hundred twenty-two patients (63.5%) were staged clinical T1a and 165 cases (36.5%) were staged clinical T1b. The median R.E.N.A.L. score was 8. Three hundred fifty-nine patients (70.8%) had regular tumor border and 148 (29.2%) irregular. All the patients underwent surgical treatment, including 186 (36.7%) partial nephrectomy and 321 (63.3%) radical nephrectomy. Postoperative pathology showed seventy-five patients (14.8%) had renal sinus invasion, including 18 in cT1a (5.6%) and 57 in cT1b (30.8%). Univariate analysis showed that age (P=0.020), R.E.N.A.L. score (R value, E value, N value, P < 0.001) and tumor border (P < 0.001) were associated risk factors for cT1 renal cell carcinoma with renal sinus invasion. On multivariate binary Logistic analysis, R.E.N.A.L. score (P≤0.020) and irregular tumor border (P=0.001) were independent risk factors.@*CONCLUSION@#For cT1 renal cell carcinoma patients undergoing nephrectomy, about 15% had renal sinus invasion postoperatively. High R.E.N.A.L. score and irre-gular tumor border help predicting cT1 renal cell carcinoma renal sinus invasion.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Female , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Nephrectomy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911704

ABSTRACT

The study is to explore the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for endometrial carcinoma. Clinical data of 199 patients with endometrial cancer confirmed by diagnostic uterine curettage in the Second Hospital of Jilin University and the People′s Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from June 2017 to December 2019 were reviewed retrospectively. The data were analyzed by SPSS 21.0 software. MRI scan was performed before operation, the diagnostic accuracy of MRI for the preoperative staging of endometrial carcinoma was 85.9%(171/199) with postoperative pathological results as gold standard. The Kappa values of muscular infiltration, cervical infiltration and lymph node metastasis were 0.353, 0.574 and 0.573, respectively ( P<0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy for myometrial invasion on MRI were 45.2%(19/42), 88.5%(139/157), 51.4%(19/37), 85.8%(139/162) and 79.4%(158/199), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy for cervical invasion on MRI were 58.3% (14/24), 96.0%(168/175), 66.7% (14/21), 94.4%(168/178)and 91.5%(182/199), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy for lymph node metastasis on MRI were 12/18, 95.6%(173/181), 60.0%(12/20), 96.6%(173/179)and 93.0%(185/199), respectively. The results indicate that MRI has high accuracy and negative predictive rate in evaluation of preoperative staging of endometrial cancer.

19.
Mastology (Online) ; 31: 1-5, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150671

ABSTRACT

Objective: To discuss the practical difficulties associated with breast cancer staging, especially in the context of populationbased cancer registries (PBCR). Methods: This is a short communication that discusses the importance and temporal evolution of breast cancer staging, as well as the limitations and new challenges associated with this process. Results: This study discusses the importance and temporal evolution of breast cancer staging, as well as the limitations and new challenges associated with this process. Minimal divergences in physical examination and disagreements in imaging tests can classify the patient in a higher or lower stage of the disease. In some population-based registries, up to 20% of the information regarding the clinical stage of breast cancer may be mistaken. Conclusion: We highlight the necessity for continuing education and constant training for all professionals involved in the breast cancer epidemiological context. The utilization of new technologies can help standardize the information and reduce the divergences related to cancer staging registry.

20.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(3): e1616, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355520

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Gastric and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma are responsible for approximately 13.5% of cancer-related deaths. Given the fact that these tumors are not typically detected until they are already in the advanced stages, neoadjuvancy plays a fundamental role in improving long-term survival. Identification of those with complete pathological response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is a major challenge, with effects on organ preservation, extent of resection, and additional surgery. There is little or no information in the literature about which endoscopic signs should be evaluated after NAC, or even when such re-evaluation should occur. Aim: To describe the endoscopic aspects of patients with gastric and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinomas who underwent NAC and achieved pCR, and to determine the accuracy of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in predicting the pCR. Methods: A survey was conducted of the medical records of patients with these tumors who were submitted to gastrectomy after NAC, with anatomopathological result of pCR. Results: Twenty-nine patients were identified who achieved pCR after NAC within the study period. Endoscopic responses were used to classify patients into two groups: G1-endoscopic findings consistent with pCR and G2-endoscopic findings not consistent with pCR. Endoscopic evaluation in G1 was present in an equal percentage (47.4%; p=0.28) in Borrmann classification II and III. In this group, the predominance was in the gastric body (57.9%; p=0.14), intestinal subtype with 42.1% (p=0.75), undifferentiated degree, 62.5% (p=0.78), Herb+ in 73.3% (p=0.68). The most significant finding, however, was that the time interval between NAC and EGD was longer for G1 than G2 (24.4 vs. 10.2 days, p=0.008). Conclusion: EGD after NAC seems to be a useful tool for predicting pCR, and it may be possible to use it to create a reliable response classification. In addition, the time interval between NAC and EGD appears to significantly influence the predictive power of endoscopy for pCR.


RESUMO Racional: O adenocarcinoma gástrico e da junção esofagogástrica é responsável por aproximadamente 13,5% das mortes relacionadas ao câncer. Dado que esses tumores não são normalmente detectados até que já estejam em estágios avançados, a neoadjuvância desempenha um papel fundamental na melhoria da sobrevida em longo prazo. A identificação daqueles com resposta patológica completa (pCR) após a quimioterapia neoadjuvante (NAC) é um grande desafio, com efeitos na preservação do órgão, extensão da ressecção e cirurgia adicional. Há pouca ou nenhuma informação na literatura sobre quais sinais endoscópicos devem ser avaliados após a NAC, ou mesmo quando essa reavaliação deve ocorrer. Objetivo: Descrever os aspectos endoscópicos de pacientes com adenocarcinoma gástrico e da junção esofagogástrica que foram submetidos à quimioterapia neoadjuvante e alcançaram pCR, e determinar a acurácia da esofagogastroduodenoscopia (EGD) em predizer a pCR. Métodos: Foram revisados os prontuários de pacientes submetidos à gastrectomia subtotal e total após NAC, com resultado anatomopatológico de pCR. Resultados: Vinte e nove pacientes que alcançaram pCR após NAC foram identificados no período estudado. As respostas endoscópicas foram usadas para classificar os pacientes em dois grupos: G1- achados endoscópicos consistentes com pCR, G2 - achados endoscópicos não consistentes com pCR. A avaliação endoscópica no G1 esteve presente em igual percentual (47,4%; p=0,28) na classificação de Borrmann II e III. Nesse grupo, a predominância foi no corpo gástrico (57,9%; p=0,14), subtipo intestinal com 42,1% (p=0,75), grau indiferenciado, 62,5% (p=0,78), Herb+ em 73,3% (p=0,68). O achado mais significativo, no entanto, foi que o intervalo de tempo entre NAC e EGD foi maior para G1 do que G2 (24,4 vs. 10,2 dias, p=0,008). Conclusão: A EGD após NAC, nessa pesquisa, sugeriu ser método útil para prever pCR, mediante uma classificação de resposta confiável. Além disso, o intervalo de tempo entre NAC e EGD parece influenciar significativamente a sua capacidade preditiva de diagnosticar a pCR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Treatment Outcome , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Endoscopy , Esophagogastric Junction , Neoplasm Staging
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