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1.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-9, 01/jan./2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378520

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: avaliar a cobertura e os fatores associados à não realização do exame citopatológico do colo do útero entre mulheres de 18 a 39 anos no Brasil. Métodos: estudo transversal, de base populacional, com dados de inquérito domiciliar com 2.002 mulheres alfabetizadas de áreas urbanas, selecionadas por amostragem aleatória por conglomerados em 2016. Foram avaliados a prática do exame nos três anos anteriores e os fatores associados à não realização, com cálculo de razão de prevalência ajustada (RPaj) e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) por regressão de Poisson. Resultados: a cobertura do exame entre mulheres de 18-39 anos foi de 66,5%, sendo mais elevada naquelas de 35-39 anos (76,8%). Mulheres com renda familiar até 1 salário-mínimo (RPaj=2,08;IC95% 1,72-2,54), que estudaram até a 4a série (RPaj=2,30;IC95% 1,22-2,67), residentes na região Nordeste (RPaj=1,79;IC95% 1,34-2,09) e em municípios com até 20.000 habitantes (RPaj=3,15;IC95% 2,33-3,96) apresentaram maior prevalência de não realização do exame. Conclusão: a cobertura do exame citopatológico esteve abaixo do recomendado, com disparidades socioeconômicas e geográficas. Os dados sugerem necessidade de oportunizar o rastreamento entre mulheres jovens de maior risco para o câncer do colo do útero.


Objectives: to evaluate the coverage and factors associated with non-performing Pap smear test among women aged 18-39 years in Brazil. Methods: cross-sectional, population-based study with household survey data with 2,002 literate women from urban areas, selected by random sampling by clusters in 2016. The practice of Pap test in the previous three years and associated factors with non-participation were evaluated, with calculation of adjusted prevalence ratio (PRad) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) by Poisson regression. Results: coverage of Pap tests among women 18-39 years was 66.5%, being higher in those aged 35-39 years (76.8%). Women with a family income up to 01 minimum wage (PRad=2.08; 95%CI 1.72-2.54), who studied up to 4th grade (PRad=2.30; 95%CI 1.22-2.67) and residents in the Northeast region (PRad=1.79; 95%CI 1.34-2.09) and in municipalities up to 20,000 inhabitants (PRad=3.15; 95%CI 2.33-3.96) had a higher prevalence of non-participation in screening. Conclusions: the coverage of the Pap smear test was below recommended, with socioeconomic and geographical disparities. The data suggest the need to provide screening among young women at higher risk for cervical cancer.


Subject(s)
Papanicolaou Test , Women , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Cervix Uteri , Mass Screening , Health Surveys
2.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-4, 01/jan./2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379702

ABSTRACT

Objectives: to describe and examine oral hygiene habits and self-reported gingival bleeding in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Methods: in an observational and prospective study, 140 women were evaluated during chemotherapy between 2017 and 2019. Results and Conclusion: more than 40% of participants reported gingival bleeding at some point during chemotherapy. Flossing was unsatisfactory at baseline and in the intermediate cycle as well as did not affect self-reported gingival bleeding. The amount of tooth brushing per day was a predictor of self-reported gingival bleeding at the end of chemotherapy.


Objetivos: descrever e examinar os hábitos de higiene bucal e o autorrelato de sangramento gengival em mulheres com câncer de mama em quimioterapia. Métodos: em um estudo observacional prospectivo, foram avaliadas 140 mulheres ao longo da quimioterapia, entre 2017 e 2019. Resultados e Conclusão: mais de 40% das participantes relataram sangramento gengival em algum momento da quimioterapia. O uso de fio dental foi insatisfatório no baseline e ciclo intermediário, bem como não afetou o autorrelato de sangramento gengival. A quantidade de escovação dentária por dia foi um preditor para o autorrelato de sangramento gengival ao fim da quimioterapia.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Oral Hygiene , Dental Devices, Home Care , Self Report
3.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(2): 82-87, 20220801.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380442

ABSTRACT

El Sarcoma Embrionario Indiferenciado, como tumor primario hepático es una patología que se presenta en la edad pediátrica, en adultos los casos son raros y representan aproximadamente el 0.2% de los tumores hepáticos primarios. Es una patología sumamente agresiva cuya presentación clínica es inespecífica destacándose el dolor en epigastrio e hipocondrio derecho y, en algunos casos, masa palpable en esta región del abdomen, así como síntomas de afectación sistémica como fiebre y pérdida de peso. El tratamiento curativo consiste en la resección quirúrgica del tumor y, en casos de irresecabilidad o afectación extrahepática, se justifica considerar radioquimioterapia paliativa y asociarla o no a cirugía. Pero a pesar de todo, el pronóstico es sombrío con una sobrevida menor a un año, por lo que el diagnóstico temprano es esencial. Se presenta el primer caso registrado de Sarcoma Embrionario Indiferenciado Hepático del Adulto en Paraguay


The primary hepatic sarcoma is a pathology characteristic of pediatric age, in adults are rare and account for approximately 0.2% of primary tumors. It is an extremely aggressive pathology whose clinical presentation is non-specific, highlighting the pain in epigastrium and right hypochondrium and in some cases, palpable mass in this region of the abdomen, as well as symptoms of systemic involvement such as fever and weight loss. The main treatment consists of surgical removal of the tumor and in cases of unresectableness or extrahepatic involvement it is justified to consider paliative radiochemotherapy and associate it or not with surgery. However, the prognosis is bleak with a survival of less than one year, so early diagnosis is essential. We present here the first registered case of Adult Primary Hepatic Sarcoma in Paraguay


Subject(s)
Sarcoma , Liver Neoplasms , Adult
4.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Online) ; 43(2): 25-28, maio-ago. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1361992

ABSTRACT

Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) is a common mesenchymal lesion on the skin where it is better known as dermatofibroma. It mainly affects areas of the integument exposed to the sun. It can occur in the mucous membranes, being quite unusual in the oral cavity. This article presents a rare case of benign oral fibrous histiocytoma in childhood. An eleven-year-old male patient sought the stomatology clinic of the dentistry course at a reference university in northeastern Brazil, complaining of an asymptomatic increase in volume on the cheek, with an evolution of approximately two years. On intraoral examination, a lesion in the cheek mucosa was observed, measuring approximately 4 cm. The lesion had a nodular, circumscribed, reddish appearance, showing ulcerated areas covered by a yellowish pseudomembrane on its surface. The clinical diagnostic hypothesis was pleomorphic adenoma. Excisional biopsy was performed and, after morphological and immunohistochemical evaluation, the diagnosis of BFH was reached. Although it is a lesion with an excellent prognosis, BFH must be carefully analyzed for the differential diagnosis with malignant neoplasms that may have a mild appearance, such as fibrosarcoma or dermatofibrosarcoma. In addition, other benign lesions such as desmoplastic fibroblastoma, myofibroma, myopericytoma and nodular fasciitis may, in some histological sections, mimic the microscopic appearance of benign fibrous histiocytoma. In this reported case, immunohistochemical evaluation was essential to conclude the diagnosis of BFH(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous/diagnosis , Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(6): 2291-2302, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374997

ABSTRACT

Resumo O estudo objetivou investigar conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas de profissionais da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF) sobre o controle do câncer do colo do útero (CCU) recomendadas pelo Ministério da Saúde (MS). Trata-se de estudo transversal, que utilizou questionário autoaplicável junto aos médicos e enfermeiros da ESF de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, em 2019. Para a análise, empregou-se os testes qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher, nível de significância 5%. Entre os 170 pesquisados, o que correspondeu a 93% dos profissionais da ESF no município, a prevalência de conhecimento adequado foi de 39,4% e teve associação com idade mais jovem e sexo feminino. A prevalência de atitude adequada foi de 59.5%, e de práticas adequadas 77,6%, ambos associados a maior tempo de graduação. A presença das diretrizes do MS nas unidades associou-se aos desfechos conhecimento e prática adequada, ratificando a importância de material de apoio para consulta dos profissionais. Apenas 28,2% dos profissionais relataram ter recebido capacitação nos últimos três anos e 50,3% realizaram ações educativas para as usuárias. Destaca-se necessidade de ações de educação permanente junto aos profissionais, visando uma atuação mais efetiva para o enfrentamento e erradicação do CCU.


Abstract The study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of professionals of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) on the control of uterine cervical cancer (CCU) recommended by the Ministry of Health (MS). This is a cross-sectional study, which used a self-administered questionnaire with the doctors and nurses of the FHS of Juiz de Fora, MG, in 2019. For analysis, the chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used, 5% level of significance. Among the 170 surveyed, which corresponded to 93% of FHS professionals in the city, the prevalence of adequate knowledge was 39.4% and had association with younger age and female gender. The prevalence of an adequate attitude was 59.5% and of appropriate practices 77.6%, both associated with a longer time since graduation. The presence of the Ministry of Health guidelines in the units was associated with the outcomes, knowledge and adequate practice, confirming the importance of support material for consultation by professionals. Only 28.2% of professionals reported having received training in the last 3 years and 50.3% carried out educational actions for users. The need for permanent education actions with professionals is highlighted, aiming at a more effective action to confront and eradicate CCU.

6.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(3): 412-416, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376536

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Lymphomas arising from cardiac myxomas represent a particularly rare pathology, with only few cases reported in the literature. Case presentation: We report a complete excision of a malignant lymphoma arising from a cardiac myxoma in a 44-year-old female patient. The myxoma presented like a floating mass within the left atrium with a maximum diameter of 3.5 cm. The clinical post-operative period was uneventful and the patient was dismissed on the 6th post-operative day. Conclusion: This case reinforces the concept of radical excision of cardiac neoplasms.

8.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(3): 377-392, junio 14, 2022. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378692

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Debido a que el cáncer de seno es una enfermedad asociada a una significativa tasa de morbilidad y mortalidad cuando se diagnostica en el período sintomático, se han hecho enormes esfuerzos orientados hacia la prevención primaria de esta enfermedad. Métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda de todos los experimentos clínicos aleatorizados que evaluaran la eficacia de la terapia endocrina para la reducción del riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de seno. La calidad metodológica de los estudios seleccionados fue valorada utilizando la herramienta de la Colaboración Cochrane para medir el riesgo de sesgo en ensayos aleatorizados. Se evaluó la heterogeneidad de los estudios primarios elegibles utilizando los estadísticos T², I², H². El sesgo de publicación fue evaluado mediante el test de Harbord y mediante la gráfica de funnel plot. La medida de efecto utilizada en este metaanálisis fue el riesgo relativo (RR) con el cálculo de los intervalos de confianza (IC) del 95%. Resultados. Encontramos doce experimentos clínicos aleatorizados que reclutaron a 68.180 mujeres, las cuales fueron asignadas al azar para recibir algún tipo terapia endocrina para reducir el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de seno o placebo. La terapia endocrina en conjunto redujo el riesgo proporcional de cáncer de seno (invasivo más in situ) en un 42 %, resultado estadísticamente significativo RR 0,58 (IC95% 0,50 ­ 0,69). Conclusiones. La terapia endocrina es el manejo estándar de prevención en mujeres sanas con riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de seno no hereditario.


Introduction. Because breast cancer is a disease associated with a significant morbidity and mortality rate when diagnosed in the symptomatic period, enormous efforts have been made towards the primary prevention of this disease. Methods. A search was conducted for all randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of endocrine therapy in reducing the risk of developing breast cancer. The methodological quality of the selected studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool to assess risk of bias in randomized trials. Heterogeneity of eligible primary studies was assessed using the T², I², H² statistics. Publication bias was evaluated using the Harbord test and the funnel plot. The effect measure used in this meta-analysis was the relative risk (RR) with the calculation of the 95% confidence intervals (CI).Results. We found twelve randomized clinical trials that recruited 68,180 women who were randomly assigned to receive some type of endocrine therapy to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer or placebo. Endocrine therapy as a whole reduced the proportional risk of breast cancer (invasive plus in situ) by 42%, a statistically significant result RR 0.58 (95% CI 0.50 - 0.69). Conclusions. Endocrine therapy is the standard preventive management in healthy women at risk of developing non-hereditary breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Prevention , Breast Neoplasms , Meta-Analysis , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators , Aromatase Inhibitors
9.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(3): 401-407, junio 14, 2022. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378694

ABSTRACT

Introducción. A nivel mundial los tumores gastrointestinales tienen un impacto importante en la mortalidad y se asocian a diferentes factores, entre ellos regionales y sociodemográficos. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la variación en el tiempo del cáncer gastrointestinal en una población del centro occidente de Colombia, dada su alta incidencia y desenlace frecuentemente fatal.Métodos. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo observacional con muestreo no probabilístico en un tiempo de seis años. Se seleccionaron pacientes diagnosticados con algún tipo de neoplasia del tracto digestivo, en un hospital de tercer nivel del centro occidente de Colombia. Resultados. Se evaluaron un total de 1152 pacientes. Los tumores del tracto digestivo superior (esófago, unión esófago-gástrica y estómago) fueron los más frecuentes (44 %), seguidos de los tumores del tracto digestivo medio e inferior (intestino delgado, colon, recto y ano; 31 %) y de los tumores hepato-bilio-pancreáticos (25 %). La edad media de presentación fue 64,6 años, con una mayor frecuencia en el sexo masculino (51,6 %). El adenocarcinoma fue el tipo histológico más común.Conclusión. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que los tumores gastrointestinales son una neoplasia frecuente en nuestro país, siendo los tumores gástricos los que se presentan con mayor prevalencia, seguidos de los tumores colorrectales y las neoplasias biliopancreáticas, las cuales se mantiene en el tiempo.


Introduction. Worldwide, gastrointestinal tumors have a significant impact on mortality and are associated with different factors, including regional and sociodemographics. The objective of this study was to describe the variation over time of gastrointestinal cancer in a population from Central-Western Colombia, given its high incidence and frequently fatal outcome. Methods. An observational retrospective study with non-probabilistic sampling was carried out over a period of six years. Patients diagnosed with some type of neoplasm of the digestive tract were selected in a tertiary care hospital in the Central-Western Colombia. Results. A total of 1152 patients were evaluated. Tumors of the upper digestive tract (esophagus, esophagogastric junction, and stomach) were the most frequent (44%), followed by tumors of the middle and lower digestive tract (small intestine, colon, rectum and anus; 31%), and hepatobiliary-pancreatic tumors (25%). The mean age of presentation was 64.6 years with a higher frequency in males (51.6%). Adenocarcinoma was the most common histological type.Conclusion. The results of this study show that gastrointestinal tumors are a frequent neoplasm in our country, with gastric tumors being the most prevalent, followed by colorectal tumors and biliopancreatic neoplasms, which are maintained over time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mortality , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Stomach , Incidence , Colon , Neoplasms
10.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(3): 408-416, junio 14, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378695

ABSTRACT

Introducción. A nivel mundial el cáncer colorrectal es la tercera causa de malignidad y la segunda causa de mortalidad por cáncer. En Colombia, tiene una prevalencia de 8,3 % dentro de las patologías neoplásicas, ubicándolo en el tercer lugar, después del cáncer de próstata y de mama, lo que lo cataloga como un problema de salud pública, por lo que es de gran importancia mantener datos actualizados acerca de su perfil epidemiológico. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal atendidos en el Hospital Universitario del Caribe, Cartagena, Colombia, durante el periodo 2015-2019. Se analizaron las variables sociodemográficas, clínicas, patológicas e histológicas. Resultados. Se encontraron un total de 268 pacientes atendidos por cáncer colorrectal, con predominio femenino en el (54,5 %) de los casos, y edad promedio de 62 años; con comorbilidades en 48,8 % y sintomatología de dolor abdominal en 56,7 %. El adenocarcinoma se encontró en el 82,1 % de los casos y la intervención más realizada fue la hemicolectomía derecha. Conclusión. El perfil epidemiológico del cáncer colorrectal encontrado en este estudio concuerda con los hallazgos de la literatura médica mundial, comprometiendo especialmente mujeres en nuestra institución.


Introduction. Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer mortality. In Colombia, it has a prevalence of 8.3% within neoplastic pathologies, placing it in third place, after prostate and breast cancer, which classifies it as a public health problem, making it of great importance to maintain up-to-date data on its epidemiological profile. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in patients with colorectal cancer treated at the Hospital Universitario del Caribe, Cartagena, Colombia, during the period 2015-2019. Sociodemographic, clinical, pathological and histological variables were analyzed. Results. A total of 268 patients treated for colorectal cancer were found, with a female predominance of 54.5% and an average age of 62 years; comorbidities in 48.8%, and symptoms of abdominal pain in 56.7%. Adenocarcinoma was found in 82.1% of cases and the most performed intervention was right hemicolectomy. Conclusion. The epidemiological profile of colorectal cancer found in this study is consistent with the findings of the world medical literature, especially involving women in our institution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colon , Neoplasms , Rectum , Adenocarcinoma , Epidemiology
12.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 454-462, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377387

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Clinical assessment of head and neck cancers is highly challenging owing to the complexity of regional anatomy and wide range of lesions. The diagnostic evaluation includes detailed physical examination, biopsy and imaging modalities for disease extent and staging. Appropriate imaging is done to enable determination of precise tumor extent and involvement of lymph nodes, and detection of distant metastases and second primary tumors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the initial staging discrepancy between conventional contrasted computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and its impact on management plans for head and neck malignancies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cross-sectional study in two tertiary-level hospitals. METHODS: This study included 30 patients with primary head and neck malignant tumors who underwent contrasted computed tomography and whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT assessments. The staging and treatment plans were compared with the incremental information obtained after 18F-FDG PET/CT. RESULTS: 18F-FDG PET/CT was found to raise the stage in 33.3% of the cases and the treatment intent was altered in 43.3% of them, while there was no management change in the remaining 56.7%. 18F-FDG PET/CT had higher sensitivity (96% versus 89.2%) and accuracy (93% versus 86.7%) than conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that 18F-FDG PET/CT had higher sensitivity and accuracy for detecting head and neck malignancy, in comparison with conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography. 18F-FDG PET/CT improved the initial staging and substantially impacted the management strategy for head and neck malignancies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Radiopharmaceuticals , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Positron-Emission Tomography , Neoplasm Staging
13.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 37(2): 183-188, abr.jun.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379838

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Os lipomas são esporádicos na mão e representam menos de 5% dos tumores de partes moles nesta topografia. Os lipomas gigantes, ainda menos comuns, são definidos por terem um diâmetro maior do que 5cm. Métodos: Executamos uma análise retrospectiva dos casos de pacientes com lipomas gigantes de mão, atendidos no período de 2017-2020, no Hospital Pasteur e Hospital de Clínicas, em Montevidéu, Uruguai. Resultados: Obtivemos quatro pacientes no período estudado. A idade de apresentação foi entre 51 e 62 anos (média de 57 anos). Três dos lipomas eram intramusculares profundos e um era superficial aos músculos regionais. O maior possuía eixo mais extenso de 70mm. Todos eram sintomáticos. A ressecção marginal foi realizada em todos eles, e o pós-operatório transcorreu sem intercorrências ou recorrências. A histopatologia confirmou lipoma típico em três casos, e lipoma com metaplasia óssea no outro. Conclusão: Lipomas gigantes de mão se apresentam como tumores indolores e de crescimento lento, que podem ser sintomáticos ao comprimir estruturas adjacentes. A ressonância magnética é o estudo de imagem escolhido para estes casos. O tratamento aplicável é a ressecção cirúrgica marginal e a recorrência é pouco comum.


Introduction: Lipomas are sporadic in hand and represent less than 5% of soft tissue tumors in this topography. Giant lipomas, even less common, are defined as having a diameter greater than 5 cm. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of the cases of patients with giant lipomas of the hand seen in the period 2017-2020, at Hospital Pasteur and Hospital de Clínicas, in Montevideo, Uruguay. Results: We obtained four patients during the study period. The age of presentation was between 51 and 62 years (mean 57 years). Three lipomas were deep intramuscular, and one was superficial to the regional muscles. The largest had a longer axle of 70mm. All were symptomatic. Marginal resection was performed in all of them, and the postoperative period was uneventful or recurrent. Histopathology confirmed typical lipoma in three cases and lipoma with bone metaplasia in the other. Conclusion: Giant lipomas of the hand present as painless, slow-growing tumors that may be symptomatic when compressing adjacent structures. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging study of choice for these cases. The applicable treatment is marginal surgical resection, and recurrence is uncommon.

14.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 37(2): 260-267, abr.jun.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379905

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer que mais acomete mulheres em todo o mundo é o de mama. Não bastasse o mal que a doença ativa é capaz de causar, após a cura as sequelas continuam atormentando a vida de milhares de mulheres. O trauma psicológico de uma mutilação pode ter repercussões psicológicas de difícil controle. A mastectomia salva a vida da mulher com câncer mamário; entretanto, a perda da mama pode manter o biopsicossocial da paciente doente. Reconstruir as mamas se torna, então, tempo crucial no tratamento destas mulheres. Métodos: O estudo dos acervos públicos e pessoais dos autores permitiram discorrer sobre a evolução artística e técnica das reconstruções mamárias através dos anos. Resultados: Estudos e reflexões de cirurgiões plásticos em todo o mundo possibilitaram a padronização de uma série de técnica e ferramentas para reconstrução da mama, que vão compor o arsenal do cirurgião moderno. Existem várias, incluindo técnicas com retalhos locais, como o plug flap e as técnicas de mamoplastia, retalhos de vizinhança, como retalho toracodorsal, materiais aloplásticos (expansores teciduais e próteses), numerosos retalhos autólogos, incluindo retalhos microcirúrgicos ou, ainda, técnicas combinadas frente aos variados tipos de casos. Paralelamente, a indústria de produtos médico-hospitalares desenvolveu material aloplástico (próteses e expansores) mais adequados e de melhor qualidade, que propiciam reconstruções mais seguras e mais previsíveis no que concerne ao uso dos implantes. Conclusão: O estado da arte atual da reconstrução mamária encontra pilares históricos bem fundamentados e auxílio tecnológico avançado, provendo condições para tratamentos refinados, de alta exigência e preparo do artista.


Introduction: The cancer that most affects women around the world is breast cancer. If the harm that the active disease is capable of causing was not enough, after the cure, the consequences continue to torment the lives of thousands of women. Furthermore, the psychological trauma of mutilation can have psychological repercussions that are difficult to control. Mastectomy saves the life of a woman with breast cancer; however, breast loss can keep the patient sick in the biopsychosocial aspect. Rebuilding the breasts then becomes crucial in the treatment of these women. Methods: The study of the authors' public and personal collections allowed us to discuss the artistic and technical evolution of breast reconstructions over the years. Results: Studies and reflections from plastic surgeons worldwide have enabled the standardization of a series of techniques and tools for breast reconstruction that will make up the arsenal of the modern surgeon. It includes techniques with local flaps, such as the plug flap and mammoplasty techniques, neighborhood flaps, such as the thoracodorsal flap, alloplastic materials (tissue expanders and prostheses), the numerous autologous flaps, including microsurgical flaps or, also, the combined techniques for the various types of cases. At the same time, the medical-hospital products industry has developed alloplastic materials (prostheses and expanders) that are more suitable and of better quality, which provide safer and more predictable reconstructions concerning the use of implants. Conclusion: The current state of the art in breast reconstruction finds well-founded historical pillars and advanced technological aid, providing conditions for advanced treatments.

15.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 349-355, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377377

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a type of cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between awareness of cervical cancer and HPV infection and attitudes towards HPV vaccine among women aged 15-49 years. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted at Karabük Training and Research Hospital, Turkey. METHODS: 500 women who visited the gynecology outpatient clinic of a public hospital between July 15 and December 31, 2019, were selected through random sampling. Data were collected using a sociodemographic questionnaire comprising nine questions (created by the researchers), the HPV and Cervical Cancer Awareness Questionnaire and the Carolina HPV Immunization Attitudes and Beliefs Scale. RESULTS: The relationship between the awareness questionnaire and the beliefs scale was explained through simple effect modeling of a structural equation. The women's knowledge score regarding cervical cancer and HPV infection was 4.69 ± 4.02 out of 15. Women were afraid of being diagnosed with cervical cancer and HPV infection, but they did not have sufficient information. They had poor information about the HPV vaccine, did not know how to obtain the vaccine and did not have enough information about its benefits and harmful effects. Women who were afraid of getting cervical cancer, and who thought that they were at risk, had more information about the HPV vaccine. CONCLUSION: Women need information about cervical cancer, HPV infection and the HPV vaccine. Midwives, nurses and physicians who provide healthcare services in gynecological follow-ups should provide information to women about the HPV vaccine and cervical cancer.


Subject(s)
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(5): 664-669, May 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376200

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the prognostic effect of the tumor-stroma ratio, which has been shown to have prognostic value in various cancers, in patients with gallbladder cancer who have undergone curative resection. METHODS: The records of gallbladder cancer patients who underwent surgical treatment in our clinic between December 2005 and March 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. The hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections representing the tumors were evaluated under light microscopy to determine tumor-stroma ratio, and based on the results, <50% was defined as the stroma-rich and ≥50% as the stroma-poor groups. RESULTS: A total of 28 patients, including 20 females and 8 males, with a mean age of 64.6 years, were included in this study. Stroma-poor and stroma-rich tumors were detected in 15 and 13 patients, respectively. There was no statistically significant relationship identified between tumor-stroma ratio and advanced age, gender, serum levels of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen, incidental or nonincidental diagnosis, jaundice, adjacent organ or structure resection, tumor location, grades 1-2 or 3, T1/T2 or T3/T4, N0 or N1/N2, M stage, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, lymphovascular invasion, and perineural invasion. The stroma-poor and stroma-rich groups had a 5-year survival rate of 30% and 19.2% and a median overall survival of 25.7 and 15.1 months, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between the groups (p=0.526). CONCLUSIONS: A low tumor-stroma ratio tended to be a poor prognostic factor in gallbladder cancer, although not to a statistically significant degree. This can be considered one of the preliminary studies, as further studies involving larger groups are needed.

17.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(1): 31-39, maio 05,2022. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370551

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a tendência da mortalidade por câncer de laringe no Brasil e regiões no período de 1980 a 2019. Metodologia: trata-se de um estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados foram provenientes do SIM/DATASUS, e foram estratificados segundo faixa etária, ano, local e sexo. Foi calculada a taxa padronizada de mortalidade (TPM) e utilizada para análise de tendência, por intermédio do modelo JoinPoint. Resultados: foi possível observar que o Brasil apresentou alto número de mortes em toda série temporal com cerca de 112.693 óbitos. No tocante as suas regiões destacaram-se o Sudeste, seguido do Sul com 62.111 e 23.356 mortes pelo agravo, respectivamente. Dentre as faixas etárias analisadas, o grupo de 60-79 anos apresentou predominância em ambos os sexos, com 56.947 ocorrências. Já para o sexo, o masculino apresentou mais de 98 mil mortes em detrimento de mais de 13 mil para o feminino, uma diferença 85,6%. Avaliando a tendência, o Brasil apresentou estabilidade em boa parte da série temporal, com diminuição significativa a partir de 2009 (APC -1,6). Nas regiões, o Nordeste apresentou a maior tendência de crescimento (AAPC 2,7) e o Norte também demonstrou crescimento a partir de 1990 (APC 1,8), as demais apresentaram redução considerável e significativa, exceto Centro-oeste que não apresentou JoinPoints. Conclusão: ressalta-se a importância da revisão, melhoria e até implementação de novas políticas de rastreamento a fim de aumentar o quantitativo de diagnóstico precoce e evitar, a longo prazo, a mortalidade.


Objective: to analyze the trend of mortality from laryngeal cancer in Brazil and regions from 1980 to 2019. Methods: this is an ecological time series study. Data came from SIM/DATASUS, and were stratified according to age group, year, location and sex. Age Standard Rates (ASR) were calculated and these were used for trend analysis, performed using the Joinpoint model. Results: it was possible to observe that Brazil had a high number of deaths in the entire time series, with about 112,693 deaths. Regarding its regions, the Southeast stood out, followed by the South with 62,111 and 23,356 deaths from the disease, respectively. Among the age groups analyzed, the 60-79 age group showed a predominance in both sexes, with 56,947 occurrences. As for gender, males had more than 98 thousand deaths at the expense of more than 13 thousand for females, a difference of 85.6%. Assessing the trend, Brazil showed stability in most of the time series, with a significant decrease as of 2009 (APC -1.6). In the regions, the Northeast showed the greatest growth trend (AAPC 2.7) the North also showed growth from 1990 (APC 1.8), the others showed a considerable and significant reduction, except for the Midwest, which did not present Joinpoints. Conclusion: we emphasize the importance of reviewing, improving and even implementing new screening policies in order to increase the number of early diagnoses and prevent, in the long term, mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Time Series Studies , Ecological Studies , Larynx , Mortality
18.
MedUNAB ; 25(1): 52-58, 202205.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372542

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El dolor abdominal agudo es una causa frecuente de consulta en los servicios de urgencias. Su incidencia es alrededor del 5%, de los cuales el 10%- 25% de los pacientes requieren tratamiento quirúrgico. Las neoplasias apendiculares primarias son infrecuentes, actualmente representan 1% de las neoplasias malignas de origen gastrointestinal. Existe un predominio en mujeres y se debe sospechar en pacientes con factores de riesgo. El objetivo es entender la importancia del diagnóstico oportuno en el abordaje del paciente con dolor abdominal agudo. Presentación del caso. Mujer con cuadro clínico de 5 días de dolor abdominal, con hallazgo en tomografía de abdomen de marcada dilatación quística del apéndice cecal con calcificaciones lineales y nodulares en la pared y su interior. Intraoperariamente, se realizó hemicolectomía derecha con resultado histológico de neoplasia mucinosa del apéndice (adenoma serrado) con pérdida de la muscularis mucosae, catalogándolo como adenocarcinoma de bajo grado. Discusión. Los tumores apendiculares representan el 1% de las neoplasias malignas de origen gastrointestinal, son un hallazgo incidental (0.7-1.4%) en los procedimientos de apendicectomía. El diagnóstico es histopatológico y el pronóstico se relaciona con la clasificación. Es importante conocer, identificar y sospechar esta patología dada su infrecuencia, con lo cual se puede mejorar el pronóstico en los pacientes. Conclusión. Los tumores apendiculares son infrecuentes, los cuales deben ser incluidos en el grupo de patologías causantes de dolor abdominal agudo.


Introduction. Acute abdominal pain is a frequent cause of consultation to emergency services. Its incidence is about 5%, of which 10%-25% of patients require surgical treatment. Primary appendiceal neoplasms are infrequent. They currently represent 1% of malignant neoplasms of gastrointestinal origin. They are predominant in women and must be suspected in patients with risk factors. The objective is to understand the importance of timely diagnosis in approaching patients with acute abdominal pain. Case report. A woman with clinical condition of 5 days of abdominal pain. Marked cystic dilation of the cecal appendix with linear and nodular calcifications on its wall and interior found in a tomography of the abdomen. Intraoperatively, a right hemicolectomy was performed with a histological result of mucinous neoplasm of the appendix (serrated adenoma) with loss of the muscularis mucosae, classifying it as a low grade adenocarcinoma. Discussion. Appendiceal tumors represent 1% of malignant neoplasms of gastrointestinal origin, with an incidental finding (0.7-1.4%) in appendectomy procedures. The diagnosis is histopathological, and prognosis is related to its classification. It is important to know, identify and suspect this pathology due to its infrequency, which can improve the patient's prognosis. Conclusion. Appendiceal tumors are infrequent and should be included in the group of pathologies that cause acute abdominal pain.


Introdução. A dor abdominal aguda é causa frequente de consulta nos serviços de emergência. Sua incidência é em torno de 5%, dos quais entre 10% e 25% dos pacientes necessitam de tratamento cirúrgico. As neoplasias primárias de apêndice são raras, representando atualmente 1% das neoplasias malignas de origem gastrointestinal. Há predominância em mulheres e deve-se suspeitar em pacientes com fatores de risco. O objetivo é compreender a importância do diagnóstico oportuno na abordagem de pacientes com dor abdominal aguda. Relato de caso. Mulher com quadro clínico de dor abdominal por 5 dias, com achado tomográfico de abdome de dilatação cística acentuada do apêndice cecal com calcificações lineares e nodulares na parede e seu interior. No intraoperatório foi realizada hemicolectomia direita com resultado histológico de neoplasia mucinosa de apêndice (adenoma serrilhado) com perda da muscularis mucosae, classificando-a como adenocarcinoma de baixo grau. Discussão. Os tumores apendiculares representam 1% das neoplasias malignas de origem gastrointestinal, sendo um achado incidental (0.7-1.4%) em procedimentos de apendicectomia. O diagnóstico é histopatológico e o prognóstico está relacionado à classificação. É importante conhecer, identificar e suspeitar desta patologia dada a sua infrequência, o que pode melhorar o prognóstico dos pacientes. Conclusão. Os tumores apendiculares são pouco frequentes e devem ser incluídos no grupo de patologias que causam dor abdominal aguda.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Appendix , Abdominal Pain , Diagnosis, Differential , Intestinal Neoplasms
19.
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(2): 204-222, Mar.-Apr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374228

ABSTRACT

Abstract The skin is regularly exposed to several environmental aggressions, including solar radiation, whose biological effects can induce sunburn, dyschromia, skin aging and cancer. Among the photoprotection measures, sunscreens comprise a relevant part of the strategy aimed to prevent solar radiation damage and, for effective action, the patient must adhere to the product use and the latter, in turn, must follow technical parameters to promote adequate protection. This review article brings together the most current and relevant concepts about photoprotection for dermatological use, including the challenges for their formulation, the risks of certain photoprotective active substances for individual and environmental safety and the importance of stringency in determining the product efficacy, considering the regulatory aspects, highlighting relevant differences between Brazil and other countries. Thus, when assessing a sunscreen, not only the visual aspects and sensory perception will be immediately evaluated, but also the quality and suitability of the vehicle, the chemical composition of the formulation, the environmental risks, the photostability of the screening system, and the measurement of its protection spectrum. Technical knowledge of sunscreens can help dermatologists in this important role of educating patients about the best photoprotective strategies in each situation.

20.
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(2): 157-165, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374232

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Several treatments are available for skin with advanced photodamage, which is characterized by the presence of actinic keratoses (AK). Objectives Evaluate the efficacy of using sunscreen with photolyase compared to regular sunscreen, as well as to compare the combination of a topical formulation of antioxidants versus placebo in the treatment of advanced photodamage. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, factorial clinical trial. Participants with AKs on their forearms were randomized to apply regular sunscreen (SC) or sunscreen with photolyase (SC+P) on both forearms during the day. One of the forearms in each group was randomized again to receive topical antioxidants (AOx), and the other forearm received a placebo cream (both for night application). The four groups were SC/AOx, SC/placebo, SC+P/AOx, and SC+P/placebo. The duration of treatment was 8 weeks. Primary outcomes were total AK clearance, decrease in Forearm Photoaging Scale (FPS), and AK severity scores. Secondary outcomes were reduction in AK count, partial clearance rate, and safety. Results Forty participants (80 forearms) were included. All groups showed significant improvement in outcomes at week eight. There were no significant differences between SC and SC+P for either outcome. AOx led to a significant reduction in AK count (22%; p < 0.05). Partial clearance was obtained in 18 (47.4%) forearms treated with AOx and in 9 (23.7%) treated with placebo (p < 0.05). All groups reduced the FPS score, without significant differences among them. Conclusions There is no difference in the treatment of advanced photodamage skin when comparing the use of sunscreen with photolyase and regular sunscreen, and topical antioxidants were more efficient in reducing AK count than placebo. Study limitations Short interval of follow-up and absence of re-evaluation in the absence of treatment were limitations of the present study.

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