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1.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(3): 443-448, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388016

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This is an anatomical study of C4 and C5 roots for nerve transfers in upper brachial plexus injuries, with surgical technique demonstration. Methods Fifteen brachial plexuses from both male and female cadavers were dissected. Morphological features of C4 and C5 roots were recorded and analyzed, followed by a neurotization simulation. Results In all dissections, C4 and C5 roots morphological features allowed their mobilization and neurotization with no need for a nerve graft. The surgical technique spared important regional nerve branches. Conclusion Based on these data, we conclude that C4-C5 nerve transfers are feasible and result in no additional neurological deficit in upper brachial plexus injuries.


Resumo Objetivo Estudo anatômico das raízes usadas na transferência nervosa de C4 para C5 nas lesões altas do plexo braquial, com demonstração da técnica cirúrgica. Métodos Dissecção de 15 plexos braquiais de cadáveres de ambos os sexos, registro e análise das características morfológicas das raízes de C4 e C5 e simulação de neurotização. Resultados As características morfológicas encontradas nas raízes de C4 e C5 em todas as dissecções permitiram a mobilização das mesmas e a realização de uma neurotização sem a necessidade de usar enxerto nervoso. A técnica cirúrgica permitiu preservar ramos nervosos importantes na região abordada. Conclusão Com base nos dados encontrados no presente estudo, podemos concluir que é possível realizar a transferência entre C4 e C5 sem provocar déficit neurológico adicional nas lesões altas de plexo braquial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Brachial Plexus/anatomy & histology , Brachial Plexus/injuries , Cadaver , Cervical Plexus/injuries , Nerve Transfer
2.
Rev. colomb. ortop. traumatol ; 36(1): 2-8, 2022. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1378755

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Confirmar factibilidad técnica de la neurotización del nervio axilar por la rama motora de la porción larga del tríceps con el fin de definir la anatomía quirúrgica de los nervios radial y axilar. Materiales y métodos Veinte hombros de cadáver fueron intervenidos para transferencia de la rama del Nervio Radial para la porción larga del tríceps a la rama anterior del Nervio Axilar por abordaje axilar. Se confirmó la escogencia correcta del nervio receptor por abordaje posterior. Resultados Se logró una disección adecuada de la primera rama motora del nervio radial del nervio axilar y de la rama anterior del Nervio Axilar. El origen de la rama motora se encontró en promedio a 3,8mm (+/- 7,3mm) distal al borde superior del tendón del dorsal ancho. El nervio axilar se encontró cefálico al borde superior del dorsal ancho a una distancia promedio de 11,3mm (+/-2,13mm) y distal al redondo menor 3.05mm (+/- 1,3mm), sutura con la primera rama del radial en el 100% de los casos sin tensión y se confirmó la adecuada transferencia en todos los casos. Conclusión La neurotización del nervio axilar con la primera rama del nervio radial se logró con éxito en el 100% por vía axilar. Este abordaje es adecuado, evitando tener que realizar cambios de posición a prono y doble abordaje, y si se requiere procedimientos adicionales de reconstrucción en el mismo tiempo quirúrgico tipo Oberlin y exploraciones supraclaviculares del plexo braquial se pueden realizar sin cambio de posición.


Objective To confirm the technical feasibility of neurotization of the axillary nerve by the motor branch of the long head of the triceps in order to define the surgical anatomy of the radial and axillary nerves. Materials and method Twenty cadaver shoulders were operated on for transfer of the radial nerve branch for the long head of the triceps to the anterior branch of the axillary nerve by axillary approach. The correct choice of the receiving nerve was confirmed by posterior approach. Results An adequate dissection of the first motor branch of the radial nerve of the axillary nerve and of the anterior branch of the Axillary Nerve was achieved, The origin of the motor branch was found on average at 3.8mm (+/−7.3mm) distal to the superior border of the latissimus dorsi tendon. The axillary nerve was found 11.3mm (+/−2.13mm) cephalad to the upper border of the latissimus dorsi and 3.05mm (+/−1.3mm) distal to the teres minor. A tensionless coaptation was obtained in all cases. Conclusion Neurotization of the axillary nerve with the first branch of the radial nerve was successfully achieved through the axillary approach. This approach is adequate, avoiding position change to prone and double approach, and if additional reconstruction procedures are required at the same surgical time, Oberlin type and supraclavicular explorations of the brachial plexus can be performed without changing position.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nerve Transfer , Radial Nerve , Brachial Plexus , Nerve Net
3.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(6): 705-710, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357134

ABSTRACT

Abstract Obstetric brachial plexus palsy is a rather common injury in newborns, caused by traction to the brachial plexus during labor. In this context, with the present systematic review, we aimed to explore the use of nerve graft and nerve transfer as procedures to improve elbow flexion in children with obstetric palsy. For the present review, we followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Wholis and SCOPUS databases. Predetermined criteria defined the following requirements for inclusion of a study: Clinical trials, quasi-experiments, and cohort studies that performed nerve graft and nerve transfer in children (≤ 3 years old) with diagnosis of obstetric palsy. The risk of bias in nonrandomized studies of interventions assessment tool was used for nonrandomized studies. Out of seven studies that used both procedures, three of them compared the procedures of nerve graft with nerve transfer, and the other four combined them as a reconstructive method for children with obstetric palsy. According to the Medical Research Council grading system, both methods improved equally elbow flexion in the children. Overall, our results showed that both techniques of nerve graft and nerve transfer are equally good options for nerve reconstruction in cases of obstetric palsy. More studies approaching nerve reconstruction techniques in obstetric palsy should be made, preferably randomized clinical trials, to validate the results of the present systematic review.


Resumo A paralisia obstétrica do plexo braquial é uma lesão bastante comum em neonatos, sendo causada pela tração do plexo braquial durante o trabalho de parto. A presente revisão sistemática tem como objetivo exploraro uso de enxertose transferências de nervo como procedimentos para melhora da flexão do cotovelo em crianças com paralisia obstétrica. A presente revisão sistemática seguiu as diretrizes Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA, na sigla em inglês) e foi baseada em pesquisa nos bancos de dados MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Wholis e SCOPUS. De acordo com os critérios pré-determinados, os artigos incluídos eram ensaios clínicos, quase-experimentos, e estudos de coortes sobre enxertos e transferências de nervos em crianças (de até 3 anos de idade) com diagnóstico de paralisia obstétrica. A ferramenta de avaliação Risk of Bias in Non-Randomized Studies of Interventions foi usada em estudos não randomizados. Sete estudos utilizaram os dois procedimentos; três deles compararam os procedimentos de enxerto e transferência de nervo, enquanto os outros quatro os combinaram como método reconstrutivo em crianças com paralisia obstétrica. Segundo o sistema de classificação do Medical Research Council, os dois métodos melhoraram a flexão do cotovelo das crianças de maneira similar. De modo geral, nossos resultados mostraram que o enxerto de nervo e a transferência de nervo são opções igualmente boas para a reconstrução nervosa em casos de paralisia obstétrica. Mais estudos sobre as técnicas de reconstrução nervosa na paralisia obstétrica devem ser realizados, de preferência ensaios clínicos randomizados, para validação dos resultados dessa revisão sistemática.


Subject(s)
Paralysis, Obstetric , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Nerve Transfer , Transplants , Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1542-1554, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922665

ABSTRACT

Our previous investigation suggested that faster seventh cervical nerve (C7) regeneration occurs in patients with cerebral injury undergoing contralateral C7 transfer. This finding needed further verification, and the mechanism remained largely unknown. Here, Tinel's test revealed faster C7 regeneration in patients with cerebral injury, which was further confirmed in mice by electrophysiological recordings and histological analysis. Furthermore, we identified an altered systemic inflammatory response that led to the transformation of macrophage polarization as a mechanism underlying the increased nerve regeneration in patients with cerebral injury. In mice, we showed that, as a contributing factor, serum amyloid protein A1 (SAA1) promoted C7 regeneration and interfered with macrophage polarization in vivo. Our results indicate that altered inflammation promotes the regenerative capacity of the C7 nerve by altering macrophage behavior. SAA1 may be a therapeutic target to improve the recovery of injured peripheral nerves.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brachial Plexus , Brachial Plexus Neuropathies/surgery , Humans , Mice , Nerve Transfer , Peripheral Nerves , Spinal Nerves
5.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 764-770, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156206

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze the anatomical variations of the motor branches of the radial nerve in the elbow region. The origin, course, length, branches, motor points and relationships with neighboring structures were evaluated. Materials and Methods Thirty limbs from15 adult cadavers were dissected and prepared by intra-arterial injection of a 10% glycerin and formaldehyde solution. Results The first branch of the radial nerve in the forearm went to the brachioradialis muscle (BR), originating proximally to the division of the radial nerve into superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) and posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) in all limbs. The branches to the extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (ECRL) detached from the proximal radial nerve to its division into 26 limbs, in 2, at the dividing points, in other 2, from the PIN. In six limbs, the branches to the BR and ECRL muscles originated from a common trunk. We identified the origin of the branch to the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (ECRB) in the PIN in 14 limbs, in the SBRN in 12, and in the radial nerve in only 4. The branch to the supinator muscle originated from the PIN in all limbs. Conclusion Knowledge of the anatomy of the motor branches of the radial nerve is important when performing surgical procedures in the region (such as the approach of the proximal third and the head of the radius, release of compressive syndromes of the posterior interosseous nerve and radial tunnel, and distal nerve transfers) in order to understand the order of recovery of muscle function after a nerve injury.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar as variações anatômicas dos ramos motores do nervo radial na região do cotovelo. Foram avaliadas a origem, curso, comprimento, ramificações, pontos motores e relações com estruturas vizinhas. Materiais e Métodos Foram dissecados 30 membros de 15 cadáveres adultos, preparados por injeção intra-arterial de uma solução de glicerina e formol a 10%. Resultados O primeiro ramo do nervo radial no antebraço foi para o músculo braquiorradial (BR), que se origina proximalmente à divisão do nervo radial em ramo superficial do nervo radial (RSNR) e nervo interósseo posterior (NIP) em todos os membros. Os ramos para o músculo extensor radial longo do carpo (ERLC) se desprenderam do nervo radial proximalmente à sua divisão em 26 membros, em 2, nos pontos de divisão, em outros 2, do NIP. Em seis, os ramos para os músculos BR e ERLC originavam-se de um tronco comum. Identificamos a origem do ramo para o músculo extensor radial curto do carpo (ERCC) no NIP em 14 membros, no RSNR em 12, e no nervo radial em apenas 4. O ramo para o músculo supinador originou-se do NIP em todos os membros. Conclusão O conhecimento da anatomia dos ramos motores do nervo radial é importante quando se realizam procedimentos cirúrgicos na região, como a abordagem do terço proximal e da cabeça do rádio, a liberação das síndromes compressivas do nervo interósseo posterior e do túnel radial, as transferências nervosas distais, e para entender a ordem de recuperação da função muscular após uma lesão nervosa.


Subject(s)
Radial Nerve , Radius , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Wrist , Cadaver , Nerve Transfer , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Elbow , Extremities , Forearm , Forearm Injuries , Glycerol , Head , Anatomy , Injections, Intra-Arterial
6.
Acta ortop. bras ; 28(5): 251-255, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130770

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyse the anatomical variations of the median nerve motor branches in the elbow region. Methods: Twenty upper limbs of 10 adult male cadavers were prepared by intra-arterial injection of a solution of 10% glycerol and formaldehyde. All cadavers belonged to the institution anatomy laboratory. Results: We found a great variability within the distribution of median nerve branches leading to forearm muscles. Only three limbs (14%) presented the normal standard of innervation described in anatomy treatises. The pronator teres muscle (PTM), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), palmaris longus (PL), and the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) received exclusive innervation from the median nerve in all forearms. The anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) also originated from the median nerve in all dissected limbs. Conclusion: A thorough understanding of the anatomy of the median nerve branches is important for performing surgeries such as: approach to the proximal third of the forearm, alleviation of pronator teres and anterior interosseous nerve compression syndromes, and distal nerve transfers. It also enables a better understanding the recovery of muscle function after a nerve injury. Level of Evidence IV, Case series.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar as variações anatômicas dos ramos motores do nervo mediano na região do cotovelo. Avaliamos origem, curso, comprimento, terminações nervosas dos ramos e suas relações com estruturas vizinhas. Métodos: Selecionamos 20 membros de 10 cadáveres adultos dissecados, preparados por injeção intra-arterial com solução de glicerina e formol a 10%. Todos do sexo masculino, pertencentes ao laboratório de anatomia da instituição. Resultados: O primeiro ramo do nervo mediano no antebraço foi o músculo pronador redondo. A distribuição dos ramos do nervo mediano para os músculos do antebraço mostrou grande variabilidade. Apenas 3 membros (14%) apresentaram padrão normal de inervação descrito nos tratados de anatomia. Os músculos pronador redondo, flexor radial do carpo, palmar longo e flexor superficial dos dedos receberam inervação exclusiva do nervo mediano em todos os antebraços. O nervo interósseo anterior originou-se do nervo mediano nos membros dissecados. Conclusão: Conhecer a anatomia dos ramos motores do nervo mediano é importante para realizar procedimentos cirúrgicos na região como a abordagem do terço proximal do antebraço, por exemplo a liberação das síndromes compressivas do pronador redondo e do nervo interósseo anterior; as transferências nervosas distais; também entender a ordem de recuperação da função muscular após uma lesão nervosa. Nível de Evidência IV, Série de casos.

7.
Acta ortop. bras ; 28(4): 186-189, Jul.-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130760

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate, through magnetic resonance imaging, the occurrence of fatty degeneration of the trapezius in adult patients undergoing nerve transfer procedure, using the spinal accessory nerve. Methods: A total of 13 patients meeting the criteria of unilateral brachial plexus injury and more than one year of postoperative care after nerve transfer surgery underwent an MRI scan of the trapezius. A T1-weighted 3D sequence was used, with the IDEAL technique using 8.0 mm cut thickness, 8.0 mm cut spacing, TR of 100 ms, TE of 3.45 ms, flip angle of 10 degrees, 20 cuts, on the sagittal plane. The images of the upper, transverse and lower parts of the trapezius muscle were then classified according to the degree of fatty degeneration, compared with the contralateral side, using the Goutallier score. Results: For the upper trapezius there was a change of the degeneration state in 23% (p = 0.083), for the transverse section there was a change in 84.6% (p = 0.003), for the lower one there was a change in 92.3% (p = 0.002). Conclusion: The upper trapezius did not undergo significant degeneration after transfer. The lower and transverse trapezius suffered fatty degeneration in most patients, indicating severe functional impairment. Level of Evidence IV, Case series.


RESUMO Objetivo: Através de imagens de ressonância magnética, investigar a ocorrência de degeneração gordurosa no músculo trapézio em pacientes adultos submetidos a procedimento de transferência de nervo envolvendo o nervo espinal acessório. Métodos: 13 pacientes com lesão do plexo braquial unilateral e mais de um ano de cirurgia de transferência de nervo utilizando o nervo espinal acessório foram submetidos a exame de ressonância magnética do músculo trapézio. Foi obtida uma sequência 3D ponderada em T1, com a técnica IDEAL, espessura de corte de 8,0 mm, espaçamento entre os cortes de 8,0 mm, TR de 100 ms, TE de 3,45 ms, flip angle de 10 graus e 20 cortes, no plano sagital. As imagens das porções superior, transversa e inferior do músculo trapézio foram classificadas de acordo com o grau de degeneração gordurosa e comparadas com o lado contralateral, utilizando o score de Goutallier. Resultados: Para o trapézio superior houve mudança no estado de degeneração em 23% (p = 0,083), para o trapézio transverso houve mudança em 84,6% (p = 0,003), e para o trapézio inferior houve mudança em 92,3% (p = 0,002). Conclusão: O trapézio superior não sofreu degeneração significativa após transferência. Os trapézios inferiores e médios sofreram degeneração gordurosa na maioria dos pacientes, indicando comprometimento funcional severo. Nível de Evidência IV, Série de casos .

8.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 33(4): 230-239, dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1177063

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La parálisis braquial obstétrica (PBO) constituye una complicación poco frecuente del parto. La mayoría de los pacientes recuperan espontáneamente, sin embargo en algunos casos debe realizarse una neurocirugía para reinervar músculos y restablecer funciones. Las ramas mayoritariamente afectadas son C5-C6. Oberlin describió por primavera vez un tipo de trasferencia nerviosa en 4 pacientes adultos, utilizando fascículos del nervio ulnar para reanimar el músculo bíceps. El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en realizar una nota técnica sobre la cirugía de Oberlin, en el contexto de una PBO. Esta nota técnica surge del análisis de 4 cirugías pediátricas y de las disecciones de 14 miembros superiores fetales. Descripción técnica: Paciente en decúbito dorsal, con el brazo afectado extendido, en supinación y abducción de 90°. Se incide piel 4cm de extensión en cara interna del brazo, hasta identificar la fascia braquial. Posteriormente se diseca la rama motora del bíceps y fascículos del ulnar. Mediante magnificación se aproximan los cabos y se realiza la neurorrafia. Discusión: Existen múltiples técnicas descriptas de transferencia nerviosa, escasa es la bibliografía en pacientes pediátricos. La cirugía de Oberlin puede ser realizada en pediatría. Conclusión: Presentamos los pasos de la cirugía de transferencia nerviosa descripta por Oberlin, la misma es reproducible en pacientes lactantes en contexto de PBO, quedando expuestos los detalles técnicos y los reparos anatómicos para su realización.


Introduction: Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) is a rare complication of labor. Most patients recover spontaneously, however, in some cases neurosurgery must be perform to re innervate muscles and restore functions. The most frequent affected roots are C5-C6. Oberlin first described a type of nervous transfer in 4 adult patients, using fascicles of the ulnar nerve to reanimate the biceps muscle. The objective of this paper is to make a technical note about Oberlin's surgery regarding OBPP. This technical note emerges from the analysis of 4 pediatric surgeries and 14 fetal upper limbs dissections. Technical description: Patient was place in dorsal decubitus, with the compromised upper limb extended in supination and 90 ° abduction. Skin incision of 4 cm long is made along the medial aspect of the arm, until the brachial fascia is identified. Subsequently, the motor branch of the biceps muscle and fascicles of the ulnar nerve are dissect. Under microscopic magnification, both nerves are approached and the neurorrhaphy is performed. Discussion: There are multiple nerve transfer techniques described; but bibliography in pediatric patients is limited. Oberlin surgery can be performed in pediatrics. Conclusion: The steps of the nerve transfer surgery described by Oberlin presented can be applied in the case of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy, the technical details and the anatomical repairs for its realization are outlined


Subject(s)
Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy , Pediatrics , Nerve Transfer
9.
Acta ortop. bras ; 27(6): 294-297, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038182

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the functional outcome of patients with traumatic brachial plexus injury undergoing the Oberlin procedure. Methods: Eighteen patients were assessed, comprising 17 men (94.4%) and 1 woman (5.6%), mean age 29.5 years (range 17-46 years), with upper traumatic brachial plexus injury (C5-C6 and C5-C7). We assessed active range of motion of the elbow, elbow flexion muscle strength and hand-grip strength, and applied the DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) questionnaire. Results: Four patients (22.2%) did not achieve effective elbow flexion strength (BMRC Grade 3). Mean active range of motion was 100.2° (±45.6°), and we observed a mean percentage of strength recovery relative to the contralateral limb of 35.5% (0-66.3%). Elbow flexion (p = 0.0001) and hand-grip (p = 0.0001) strength levels were lower on the affected side. Conclusion: The surgical technique described by Oberlin for brachial plexus injuries proved effective for restoring elbow flexion and produced no functional sequelae in the hand. Bicep strength outcomes were better when surgery was performed within 12 months of injury. Level of evidence II, retrospective study.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o resultado funcional dos pacientes com lesão traumática do plexo braquial submetidos à cirurgia de Oberlin. Métodos: Foram analisados 18 pacientes, sendo 17 homens (94,4%), com idade média de 29,5 anos (17 a 46 anos), com lesão traumática alta do plexo braquial (C5-C6 e C5-C7). Avaliamos a amplitude de movimento ativa do cotovelo, a força muscular de flexão do cotovelo e a força de preensão palmar, e aplicamos o questionário Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH). Resultados: Quatro pacientes (22,2%) não obtiveram força eficaz de flexão do cotovelo BRMC (Grau 3). A amplitude de movimentação ativa apresentou média de 100,2° (± 45,6°) e observamos média de 35,5% (0 a 66,3%) de percentual de recuperação da força em relação ao membro contralateral. Foi observada menor força de flexão de cotovelo (p = 0,0001) e de preensão manual (p = 0,0001) no lado acometido. Conclusão: A cirurgia descrita por Oberlin para lesões do plexo braquial mostrou-se eficiente para a restauração da flexão do cotovelo e não deixou sequelas funcionais para a mão. Os resultados para a força do bíceps são melhores nas cirurgias realizadas com menos de 12 meses de lesão. Nível de evidência II, estudo retrospectivo.

10.
Acta ortop. bras ; 27(6): 298-303, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038189

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This anatomical study aimed to analyze the possibility of transferring the radial nerve branches destined to the brachioradialis (BR), extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL), extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB), and supinator (SM) muscles to innervate the AIN. Methods: Ten limbs from five male cadavers were prepared by intra-arterial injection of a solution of 10% glycerol and formalin. Results: The presence of only one branch to the BR muscle was noted in 7 limbs and two branches were noted in three limbs. In two members of a common trunk with branch to the ECRL. In eight cases, we identified one branch for the ERLC and two branches in two cases. We identified only one branch for the ECRB, while in six limbs, two branches were noted, penetrating the muscular body at two different points. We identified at least two branches innervating the supinator muscle. The AIN was detached from the median nerve distal to the intercondylar line of the humerus. In seven limbs, it originated from the nervous fascicles of the posterior region of the median nerve and from the posterolateral fascicles in three limbs. The flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus muscles received more than one branch of the AIN in all limbs. Conclusion: The radial nerve branches for the ECRL, ECRB, and supinator muscles can be transferred directly to the AIN or to one of its branches after intraneural dissection, without tension even in elbow movements. Level of Evidence IV; Case series.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar a possibilidade de transferir os ramos do nervo radial (NR) destinados aos músculos braquiorradial (BR), extensor radial longo do carpo (LREC), extensor radial curto do carpo (ERCC) e supinador (SM) para reinervar o nervo interósseo anterior (NIA). Métodos: Estudo anatômico, no qual foram dissecados dez membros de cinco cadáveres preparados com solução de glicerina e formol a 10%. Resultados: A presença de apenas um ramo para o músculo BR foi registrada em sete membros e de dois ramos em três membros. Em dois membros de um tronco comum com ramo para o ERLC. Em oito membros, identificamos um ramo para o ERLC e, em dois membros, dois ramos. Identificamos apenas um ramo para o ECRB, este em seis membros, se dividia em dois ramos. Ainda, identificamos pelo menos dois ramos para o SM. Em sete membros, originou-se dos fascículos nervosos da região posterior do MN e, em três membros, dos fascículos posterolaterais.Os músculos flexores longo do polegar (FLP) e profundo dos dedos (FPD) receberam mais que um ramo do NIA em todos os membros. Conclusão: Os ramos do NR destinados aos músculos BR, ERLC, ECRB e SM podem ser transferidos ao NIA ou a um de seus ramos, sem tensão mesmo durante a movimentação do cotovelo. Nível de Evidência IV, Série de casos.

11.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 54(3): 253-260, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013717

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The purpose of this anatomical study was to analyze the possibility of transferring radial nerve branches to the supinator muscle to reinnervate the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) originating from the C7-T1 roots. Methods Thirty members of 15 cadavers, all male, prepared with an intra-arterial glycerol and formaldehyde solution injection, were dissected. Results All dissected limbs presented at least one branch intended for the superficial and the deep heads of the supinatormuscle. These branches originated fromthe PIN. A branch to the supinator muscle, proximal to the arcade of Frohse, was identified in six members. In addition, 2 and 3 branches to the supinator muscle were found in 11 and 4 members, respectively. In two limbs, only one branch detached from the PIN, but it duplicated itself proximal to the arcade of Frohse. Seven limbs had no branches to the supinatormuscle at the region proximal to the arcade of Frohse. The branches destined for the supinator muscle were sectioned at the neuromuscular junction for connection with no tension to the PIN. The combined diameter of the branches for the supinator muscle corresponded, on average, to 53.5% of the PIN diameter. Conclusion The radial nerve branches intended for the supinator muscle can be transferred, with no tension, directly to the PIN to restore thumb and finger extension in patients with C7-T1 brachial plexus lesions.


Resumo Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo anatômico, foi analisar a possibilidade de transferir os ramos do nervo radial destinados ao músculo supinador para reinervar o nervo interósseo posterior (NIP), que se origina das raízes C7-T1. Métodos Foram dissecados 30 membros de 15 cadáveres, todos do sexo masculino, preparados por injeção intra-arterial de uma solução de glicerina e formol a 10%. Resultados Em todos os membros dissecados, encontramos pelo menos um ramo destinado a cada uma das cabeças - superficial e profunda - do músculo supinador. Esses tiveram origem no NIP. Identificamos, proximal à arcada de Frohse, umramo para o supinador em seis membros; 2 ramos para o supinador em 11 membros e 3 ramos em 4 membros. Em dois membros, apenas um ramo desprendia-se do NIP, mas se duplicava proximalmente à arcada de Frohse. Em sete membros, não identificamos ramos para o supinador proximal à arcada de Frohse. Os ramos destinados ao músculo supinador foram seccionados na junção neuromuscular, podendo ser conectados sem tensão ao NIP. O diâmetro somado dos ramos destinados ao músculo supinador correspondeu, em média, a 53,5% do diâmetro do NIP. Conclusão Este estudo anatômico mostra que ramos do nervo radial destinados ao músculo supinador podem ser transferidos diretamente para o NIP semtensão para restaurar a extensão do polegar e dos dedos em pacientes com lesões de plexo braquial C7-T1.


Subject(s)
Peripheral Nerves , Brachial Plexus , Nerve Transfer , Muscle, Skeletal , Fingers
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 626-631, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002268

ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and variations of the palmaris longus nerve branch and define the feasibility of transferring this branch to the posterior interosseous nerve without tension. Thirty arms from 15 adult male cadavers were dissected after preparation with 20 % glycerin and formaldehyde intra-arterial injection. The palmaris longus muscle (PL) received exclusive innervation of the median nerve in all limbs. In most it was the second muscle of the forearm to be innervated by the median nerve. In 5 limbs the PL muscle was absent. In 5 limbs we identified a branch without sharing branches with other muscles. In 4 limbs it shared origin with the pronator teres (PT), in 8 with the flexor carpi radialis (FCR), in 2 with flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), in 4 shared branches for the PT and FCR and in two with PT, FCR, FDS. The mean length was (4.0 ± 1.2) and the thickness (1.4 ± 0.6). We investigated whether the branch for PL was long enough to be transferred to the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN). The branch diameter for PL corresponds to 46 % of the PIN. The PL muscle branch presented great variability. The PL branch could be transferred to the PIN proximally to the Froshe arcade without tension in all specimens even with full range of motion of the forearm. In 13 limbs was possible the tensionless transfer to PIN distal to the branches of the supinator muscle.


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las características anatómicas y las variaciones del ramo del músculo palmar largo y definir la posibilidad de transferir este ramo al nervio interóseo posterior sin tensión. Se disecaron 30 miembros superiores de 15 cadáveres de hombres adultos después de su preparación con 20 % de glicerina y formaldehído, inyectados por vía intraarterial. En todos los miembros el músculo palmar largo (PL) recibió inervación exclusiva del nervio mediano. En la mayoría de los casos, fue el segundo músculo del antebrazo inervado por el nervio mediano. En 5 miembros estaba ausente el músculo. En 5 miembros identificamos un ramo sin compartir ramos con otros músculos. En 4 miembros, compartió el origen con el músculo pronador redondo (PR), en 8 con el músculo flexor radial del carpo (FRC), en 2 con el músculo flexor superficial de los dedos (FCSD), en 4 ramos compartidos para el PR y FRC y en dos con PR, FRC, FCSD. La longitud media fue (4,0±1,2 cm) y el grosor (1,4±0,6 cm). Investigamos si el ramo del PL era lo suficientemente largo para ser transferido al nervio interóseo posterior (NIP). El diámetro del ramo para el PL corresponde al 46 % del NIP. El ramo del músculo PL presentó una gran variabilidad. El ramo del PL podría transferirse al NIP proximalmente a la «arcada de Frohse¼, sin tensión, en todas las muestras, incluso con el rango completo de movimiento del antebrazo. En 13 miembros fue posible la transferencia sin tensión al NIP distal a los ramos del músculo supinador.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Anatomic Variation , Forearm/innervation , Median Nerve/anatomy & histology , Peripheral Nerves/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Nerve Transfer
13.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 38(1): 7-11, 15/03/2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362609

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze 78 cases of brachial plexus injury submitted to the Oberlin technique between 2003 and 2012. The potential complications of this technique were analyzed, especially motor damage or hypoesthesia of the hand. Method Medical records from patients with brachial plexus injuries at the levels of the C5-C6 and C5-C6-C7 vertebrae were retrospectively analyzed. Cases submitted to the Oberlin procedure with or without concomitant brachial plexus procedures between 2003 and 2012 were evaluated. The minimum follow-up period was of 1 year. In addition to the clinical examination, electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brachial plexus were used to diagnose and locate the nerve damage. Results A total of 78 surgical patients met the inclusion criteria. Postoperative neurological changes, mostly transient, were observed in 18 patients. Hypoesthesia in the ulnar side of the handwas observed in seven cases; neuropathic pain in five cases; allodynia in four cases, and hand motor loss in two cases. Conclusion Based on the results of the present case series, we conclude that there are few sequelae in the donor nerve territory compared with the benefit of the Oberlin technique on the recovery of elbow flexion after brachial plexus injuries.


Subject(s)
Postoperative Complications , Brachial Plexus/surgery , Brachial Plexus/injuries , Musculocutaneous Nerve/surgery , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Nerve Transfer/methods , Hypesthesia/complications
14.
Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 540-543, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805425

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the long-term functional recovery after contralateral 7th cervical nerve(C7) transfer with brachial plexus root avulsion and the effect on the contralateral limbs after operation.@*Methods@#A total of 83 patients with injory of brachial plexus avulsion were underwent contralateral C7 transfer from September, 2004 to December, 2014. Among them, contralateral C7 were transferred to the median nerve in 33 cases, to radial nerve in 14 cases, to musculocutaneous nerve in 22 cases, and simultaneous transfer to median and musculocutaneous nerve in 14 cases. The followed-up contents included recovery of muscular strength and sensory innervated by the recipient nerve, bilateral limbs synergistic activity and the effect on the contralateral limbs after the surgery.@*Results@#All 83 cases were successfully followed-up for 3.2-6.2 years (average, 4.5 years), and found no significant effect on function of the contralateral limbs. In the group of C7 transferred to the median nerve group, 10 cases had muscle strength recovered≥M3, and 26 cases had sensory recovered≥S3; In the group of C7 transferred to the radial nerve, 6 cases had muscle strength recovered≥M3, and 9 cases had sensory recovered ≥S3; In the group of C7 transferred to the musculocutaneous nerve, 12 cases had muscle strength recovered≥M3, and 17 cases had sensory recovered≥S3. In the group of C7 simultaneous transferred to the median and musculocutaneous nerve, 6 cases had muscle strength of wrist and digital flexion recovered≥M3, 5 cases had elbow flexion recovered≥M3, 9 and 10 cases had sensory of innervated area and lateral forearm region recovered≥S3, respectively.@*Conclusion@#Contralateral C7 transfer is an ideal procedure for the treatment of total brachial plexus root avulsion with definitive clinical outcomes.

15.
Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 540-543, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-824857

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the long-term functional recovery after contralateral 7th cervical nerve(C7) transfer with brachial plexus root avulsion and the effect on the contralateral limbs after operation. Methods A total of 83 patients with injory of brachial plexus avulsion were underwent contralateral C7 transfer from September, 2004 to December, 2014.Among them, contralateral C7 were transferred to the median nerve in 33 cases, to radial nerve in 14 cases, to musculocutaneous nerve in 22 cases, and simultaneous transfer to median and musculocutaneous nerve in 14 cases.The followed-up contents included recovery of muscular strength and sensory innervated by the recipient nerve, bilateral limbs synergistic activity and the effect on the contralateral limbs after the surgery. Results All 83 cases were successfully followed-up for 3.2-6.2 years (average, 4.5 years), and found no significant effect on function of the contralateral limbs. In the group of C7 transferred to the median nerve group, 10 cases had muscle strength recov鄄ered≥M3, and 26 cases had sensory recovered≥S3; In the group of C7 transferred to the radial nerve, 6 cases had muscle strength recovered≥M3, and 9 cases had sensory recovered ≥S3; In the group of C7 transferred to the muscu鄄locutaneous nerve, 12 cases had muscle strength recovered≥M3, and 17 cases had sensory recovered≥S3.In the group of C7 simultaneous transferred to the median and musculocutaneous nerve, 6 cases had muscle strength of wrist and digital flexion recovered≥M3, 5 cases had elbow flexion recovered≥M3, 9 and 10 cases had sensory of innervated area and lateral forearm region recovered≥S3, respectively. Conclusion Contralateral C7 transfer is an ideal procedure for the treatment of total brachial plexus root avulsion with definitive clinical outcomes.

16.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 278-283, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-745397

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the feasibility of transferring of the obturator nerve onto the vesical branch of pelvic nerve with direct anastomosis,in order to restore the automatic micturition function of patients with bilateral lower sacral plexus injury (S2-S4).Methods Data of five patients (4 males and 1 female) with bilateral lower sacral plexus injury who had surgery from May to July 2018 were retrospectively analyzed.The average age was 26 years old (range,23-30 years old) and the average delay from injury to operation was 10.2 months (range,7-14 months).Three patients suffered with fell off injury and two patients had car accident injury.All patients presented with continence and the urodynamics revealed flaccid neuropathic bladder with neurogenic adynamia of detrusor muscle.The vesical branch of pelvic nerve was dissected between the bladder and the ureter where it entered the bladder neck from backward to forward almost vertically.The obturator nerve was dissected along the pelvic sidewall,and the comparable bundle branch of obturator nerve was transferred onto the vesical branch of pelvic nerve with direct anastomosis.The diameter and freed length of pelvic nerve and the fascicles of the obturator nerve were measured intraoperatively,and the cutaneous sensation of medial thigh and the muscle strength of hip adduction were evaluated postoperatively.Results The surgery was performed through the traditional abdominal paramedian approach in 3 patients and through the pararectus approach in 2 patients.The vesical branch of pelvic nerve in all five patients could be revealed clearly and there was enough operative space for nerve transferring.The surgery was successful in all five patients without any complication.The donor nerves were anterior branch of obturator nerve in 2 patients,posterior branch of obturator nerve in 1 patient,2/3 fascicles of anterior branch of obturator nerve in 1 patient and 2/3 fascicles of posterior branch of obturator nerve in 1 patient.The average length and diameter of freed fascicles of obturator nerve were 2.28 cm (range,1.9-2.6 cm) and 1.36 mm (range,1.2-1.5 mm).The average length and diameter of pelvic nerve were 2.46 cm (range,2.2-2.7 cm) and 1.2 mm (range,1.1-1.3 mm).The vesical branch of pelvic nerve and the bundle branch of the obturator never were comparable and anastomosed free of tension.The sensation of medial aspect of thigh was almost normal and the muscle strength of hip adduction was M4 postoperatively.Conclusion The vesical branch of pelvic nerve can be well exposed via pararectus approach.Transferring of the fascicles of obturator nerve onto the vesical branch of pelvic nerve is feasible and safe.

17.
Acta ortop. bras ; 26(6): 394-396, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-973588

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the relationship between the functional outcome achieved following Oberlin transfer, the cognitive level of the patient, and the time elapsed between the trauma event and surgery. Methods: Eighteen patients with a traumatic injury to the brachial plexus (C5-C6 and C5-C7) were evaluated. Seventeen (94.4%) patients were males and one (5.6%) was female, with a mean age of 29.5 years (range 17-46 years). We evaluated the active range of motion, elbow flexion strength, and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and determined the correlation between the procedural outcome and the patient's cognitive level, as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE). Results: We found statistically significant correlations between the MMSE scale and strength recovery (84.4%, p<0.001), which was classified as excellent, and between the MMSE and British Medical Research Council (BMRC) scales (78.4%, p>0.001), which classified cognitive level as good. Conclusions: We found a positive correlation between cognitive capacity and functional outcome of patients submitted to Oberlin surgery. The time elapsed between trauma and the surgical procedure showed an inversely proportional correlation with the strength of recovery. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a relação entre o resultado funcional obtido com a cirurgia de Oberlin, o nível cognitivo do paciente e com o tempo decorrido entre o trauma e a cirurgia. Métodos: Foram analisados dezoito pacientes, sendo 17 homens (94,4%) e uma mulher (5,6%), com idade média de 29,5 anos (17 a 46 anos), com lesão traumática alta do plexo braquial (C5-C6 e C5-C7). Avaliamos a amplitude de movimento ativa, a força muscular de flexão do cotovelo e o questionário DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) e determinamos a correlação entre o resultado obtido e o nível cognitivo do paciente, avaliado pelo Mini Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM). Resultados: Observamos correlações de significância estatística entre MEEM e recuperação de força (84,4%, p<0,001), classificada como ótima; MEEM e BMRC - British Medical Research Council (78,4%, p> 0,001), classificada como boa. Conclusões: Verificamos correlação positiva entre a capacidade cognitiva e os resultados funcionais dos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de Oberlin. O tempo decorrido entre o trauma e o procedimento cirúrgico apresenta uma relação inversamente proporcional com a recuperação da força. Nível de Evidencia II, Estudo retrospectivo.

18.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1500-1508, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975728

ABSTRACT

The anatomical relationship of the median nerve and its innervation pattern are variable and may have direct implications in surgical procedures such as distal nerve transfers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical variations of pronator teres muscle (PTM) innervation and its clinical significance in nerve transfers. Data were collected regarding the number of median nerve branches, site of their origin, contribution with branches of other muscles and the possibility of transferring expendable branches of PTM to the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) and radial nerve. The most common origin of the branches was proximal to the humeral intercondylar line. The presence of only one PTM branch was identified in 9 limbs, in which 6 was exclusive for this muscle. The majority of specimens presented more than one branch to the PTM, with two branches in 19, although only 6 of these did not share branches with other muscles. The proximal branch of the PTM was long enough to be transferred to the AIN in 23 limbs and branches of the radial nerve in all. These transfers were possible even during the forearm prone-supination and flexion-extension of the elbow. The use of the PTM branch may be considered for transfers in C7-T1 root injuries of the brachial plexus, with care regarding the availability of multiple PTM branches and tension to the AIN and radial nerve branches.


La relación anatómica del nervio mediano y su patrón de inervación son variables y pueden tener implicaciones directas en los procedimientos quirúrgicos, como las transferencias de los nervios distales. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las variaciones anatómicas de la inervación del músculo pronador redondo (MPR) y su importancia clínica en las transferencias nerviosas. Se obtuvieron datos sobre el número de ramas del nervio mediano, el lugar de origen, la contribución con ramas de otros músculos y la posibilidad de transferir ramas prescindibles de la MPR al nervio interóseo anterior (NIA) y al nervio radial. El origen más común de las ramas fue proximal a la línea intercondilar humeral. Se identificó la presencia de una sola rama de MPR en 9 miembros superiores, de los cuales 6 fueron exclusivas para este músculo. La mayoría de los especímenes presentaron más de una rama al MPR, con dos ramas en 19 de ellos, aunque solamente 6 no compartían ramas con otros músculos. La rama proximal del MPR fue lo suficientemente larga como para ser transferida a la NIA en un total de 23 miembros superiores y ramas del nervio radial. Estas transferencias fueron posibles incluso en el antebrazo, durante la supinación y la flexiónextensión del codo. El uso de la rama MPR puede considerarse para transferencias en lesiones de raíz C7-T1 del plexo braquial, con cuidado en cuanto a la disponibilidad de múltiples ramas de MPR y tensión a la NIA y las ramas nerviosas radiales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Anatomic Variation , Median Nerve/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/etiology
19.
Acta ortop. bras ; 26(5): 332-334, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-973574

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Nerve transfers are an alternative in the reconstruction of traumatic brachial plexus injuries. In this study, we report the results of branchial plexus reconstruction using accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer. Methods: Thirty-three patients with traumatic brachial plexus injuries underwent surgical reconstruction with accessory to suprascapular nerve transfers. The patients were divided into groups in which surgery was performed either within 6 months after the injury or more than 6 months after the injury. Results were assessed using the Constant score. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to the Constant score. Conclusion: Accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer was not an efficient method for recovering active ROM or strength in the shoulder. However, it effectively improved pain control and shoulder stability. Level of evidence II, Retrospective Study.


RESUMO Objetivo: A transferência de nervos é uma alternativa na reconstrução das lesões traumáticas do plexo braquial. Neste estudo, relatamos os resultados da reconstrução do plexo braquial com a transferência do nervo acessório para o nervo supraescapular. Métodos: Trinta e três pacientes com lesões traumáticas do plexo braquial foram submetidos à reconstrução cirúrgica com transferência do nervo acessório para o nervo supraescapular. Os pacientes foram divididos em grupos em que a cirurgia foi realizada dentro de 6 meses a partir da lesão ou mais de 6 meses depois da lesão. Os resultados foram avaliados com o escore Constant. Resultados: Não houve diferença significante entre os grupos com relação ao escore Constant. Conclusão: A transferência do nervo acessório para o nervo supraescapular não foi um método eficiente para recuperar a ADM ativa ou a força no ombro. No entanto, foi eficiente para melhorar o controle da dor e a estabilização do ombro. Nível de evidência II, Estudo Retrospectivo.

20.
Acta ortop. mex ; 32(5): 257-262, Sep.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124104

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar la eficacia del tratamiento quirúrgico mediante neurotización radial en pacientes con diagnóstico de lesión traumática aislada de nervio axilar. Material y métodos: Se presenta una serie de siete casos, seis hombres y una mujer, con promedio de edad de 51.6 años, con diagnóstico de lesión traumática aislada de nervio axilar tratados quirúrgicamente entre Enero 2013 y Diciembre 2016. Todos los pacientes fueron tratados mediante transferencia nerviosa de rama motora radial de la cabeza medial del tríceps, entre el sexto y decimoséptimo mes después del traumatismo, con un seguimiento mínimo de 12 meses. Se evaluó la eficacia del tratamiento mediante la Medical Research Council (MRC) y el cuestionario DASH. Resultados: En el análisis bivariado encontramos diferencias estadísticamente significativas con respecto al grado de mejoría de fuerza de rotación externa y de abducción medido por MRC preoperatoria y postoperatoria (p < 0.05). Los resultados también demostraron una significancia estadística en el rango de movimiento de abducción postoperatorio de hombro (p = 0.01). El cuestionario DASH demostró un porcentaje promedio de discapacidad de 20.29% después de 12 meses de seguimiento. Conclusión: La neurotización radial en pacientes con diagnóstico de lesión traumática aislada de nervio axilar proporciona un excelente grado de mejoría de fuerza de rotación externa y abducción, además de mejorar significativamente el rango de abducción del hombro; también se demostró, mediante cuestionario DASH, que el porcentaje de discapacidad es bajo.


Abstract: Purpose: To determine the efficacy of surgical treatment by radial nerve transfer in patients with a diagnosis of isolated axillary nerve traumatic injury. Material and methods: We present a series of seven cases, six men and one woman, with a mean age of 51.6 years, with a diagnosis of isolated traumatic axillary nerve injury between January 2013 and December 2016. All patients were treated by radial motor branch nerve transfer of the medial triceps head between the sixth and seventeenth months after trauma, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by the Medical Research Council (MRC) and the DASH questionnaire. Results: In the bivariate analysis we found statistically significant differences regarding the degree of external rotation and abduction strength measured by preoperative and postoperative MRC (p < 0.05). The results also demonstrated a statistical significance in the range of postoperative shoulder abduction movement (p = 0.01). The DASH questionnaire showed an average percentage of disability of 20.29% after 12 months of follow-up. Conclusion: Radial nerve transfer in patients diagnosed with axillary nerve traumatic injury provides an excellent degree of improvement in external rotation and abduction strength, in addition to significantly improving the shoulder abduction range, it was also demonstrated by DASH questionnaire that the percentage disability is low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Brachial Plexus/injuries , Nerve Transfer , Axilla/innervation , Range of Motion, Articular , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged
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