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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247181, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339388

ABSTRACT

Abstract The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Resumo Os protozoários incluem muitos patógenos humanos intracelulares. A detecção acurada desses patógenos é necessária para tratar as doenças. Na epidemiologia clínica, a identificação molecular de protozoários é considerada o método de identificação mais confiável e rápido do que a microscopia. Entre esses protozoários, o Cryptosporidium é considerado um dos importantes patógenos zoonóticos transmitidos pela água e uma das principais causas de uma doença diarreica denominada criptosporidiose em humanos, animais domésticos e selvagens. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar Cryptosporidium em zoofelídeos (N = 56) pertencentes a diferentes zoológicos da China, mas acidentalmente Colpodella foi encontrada na amostra de zoofelídeos e os dados filogenéticos confirmaram essa amplificação inesperada de amostras fecais usando nested-PCR em duas etapas. A análise filogenética revelou o fato sobre os primers específicos usados ​​anteriormente por muitos pesquisadores e a amplificação entre gêneros. Ficamos sabendo que o amplicon sequenciado geneticamente fornece uma identificação mais acurada das espécies. Este estudo sugere mais investigação sobre Colpodella, que foi negligenciada anteriormente, mas ganha a atenção dos pesquisadores depois de identificada em humanos e animais e é conhecida por se correlacionar com sintomas neurológicos em pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Phylogeny , China , Feces , Genotype
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e028520, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156222

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to identify members of the Sarcocystidae family in naturally infected wild birds at a rescue center in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The heart and brain of 44 wild birds were evaluated by bioassay in mice to detect T. gondii, and extracted DNA was used for nested PCR of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene to detect members of the Sarcocystidae family. The positive samples were sequenced, assembled, edited and compared with sequences deposited in GenBank. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from six (13.6%) out of 44 birds. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was identified in 10/44 (22.7%) of the birds. The amplified sequences exhibited 100% similarity with the DNA of the ME49 strain of T. gondii. Sarcocystis DNA (99% similarity) was identified in 5/44 (11.4%) of the birds. T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. are common in wild birds in Minas Gerais, Brazil.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar membros da família Sarcocystidae em aves silvestres de vida livre naturalmente infectadas e resgatadas no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Coração e cérebro de 44 aves silvestres foram avaliados por bioensaio em camundongos para detecção de T. gondii e extração de DNA para Nested-PCR do gene 18S do DNA ribossomal de membros da família Sarcocystidae. As amostras positivas foram sequenciadas, analisadas, editadas e comparadas com sequências depositadas no GenBank. Toxoplasma gondii foi isolado de seis (13,6%) das 44 aves. DNA de T. gondii foi identificado em 10/44 (22,7%) das 44 aves. As sequências amplificadas exibiram 100% de similaridade com o DNA da cepa ME49 de T. gondii. DNA de Sarcocystis (99% de similaridade) foi identificado em 5/44 (11,4%) das 44 aves. T. gondii e Sarcocystis spp. são encontrados, comumente, em aves silvestres no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil.

3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06670, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279525

ABSTRACT

Giardiasis is an important and prevalent zoonosis in dogs and humans caused by Giardia spp. The close relationship between pets and humans has physical, emotional and social benefits. The dogs have an important role in Giardia duodenalis cycle and transmission. This study aimed to verify the occurrence of the parasite in dogs from Central Region, in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, from April to October 2018. Dog feces (230) were submitted to Faust coproparasitological and molecular analyses. The positive samples in the nested-PCR (β-giardin gene) were sent for DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses (Neighbor-Joining). The occurrence of G. duodenalis, was 5.6% (13/230) and 4.3% (10/230) detected by coproparasitological technique and nested-PCR, respectively. There was no difference in the sensitivity of the tests used. From the faecal samples analyzed, there were no differences among the variables: diagnostic techniques, local, sex, and age of the animals (p>0.05). Only in the stool examination methodology a difference was observed between the ages (p<0.05). G. duodenalis assemblages were C and D, frequently reported in dogs. The close relationship between dogs and people may allow co-infections of circulating parasites in the population, including Giardia spp. and increasing the risk of transmission of zoonotic agents.(AU)


A giardíase é uma zoonose importante e prevalente em cães e humanos, sendo causada por Giardia spp. A estreita relação entre animais de estimação e seres humanos traz benefícios físicos, emocionais e sociais. Os cães têm um papel importante no ciclo e transmissão de Giardia duodenalis. Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a ocorrência do parasita em cães da Região Central, em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, de abril a outubro de 2018. As fezes de cães (230) foram submetidas a técnica coproparasitológica de Faust e análises moleculares. As amostras positivas no nested-PCR (gene β-giardin) foram enviadas para sequenciamento de DNA e posterior análise filogenética (Neighbor-Joining). A ocorrência de G. duodenalis foi de 5,6% (13/230) e 4,3% (10/230) detectados pela técnica coproparasitológica e nested-PCR, respectivamente. Não houve diferença na sensibilidade dos testes utilizados. Das amostras fecais analisadas, não houve diferenças entre as variáveis: técnicas de diagnóstico, local, sexo e idade dos animais (p>0,05). Somente na metodologia de exame de fezes observou-se diferença entre as idades (p<0,05). As assemblages de G. duodenalis encontradas foram C e D, frequentemente relatadas em cães. A estreita relação entre cães e pessoas pode permitir co-infecções de parasitas circulantes na população, incluindo Giardia spp. e aumentando o risco de transmissão de agentes zoonóticos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Giardiasis , Dogs/parasitology , Pets , Giardia
4.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e176255, 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1344779

ABSTRACT

Fowlpox virus (FPV) is one of the viruses affecting chickens worldwide, causing pathological and economic losses in the poultry industry. Viral lesions are easily recognizable by the eye and usually appear in the featherless areas, especially the head. Moreover, the virus could lead to blindness and mortality in some cases. This study diagnosed the suspected fowlpox cases, identified and classified the causative agent. We also analyzed the differences and similarities of closely related viruses at the neighboring and regional countries. Fifty samples were collected from three locations of Tikrit city from the domesticated chickens, which showed cutaneous lesions. Virus DNA was extracted directly from tissue samples before the nested PCR technique was performed. The virion core protein (P4b) gene is partially sequenced and analyzed with routine histological sectioning. Results showed that the virus causes pock lesions of dermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis. Hyperplasia and congestion of the chorioallantoic membrane were also recorded. The study also showed that the DNA of FPV could be extracted directly from animal tissue without further purification. The sequence analysis showed that the FPV was confirmed in all samples clustered in clade A identical with Iranian and Egyptian isolates. In conclusion, this study approved that the virus belongs to the classical dermal type of poxviruses and the short genetic distances between viruses related to closely neighboring countries. We also concluded that the conservative P4b gene included mutation sites that make this gene practical for diagnosing the virus and phylogenetic analysis.(AU)


O vírus da varíola aviária (VVA) é um dos vírus que acometem os frangos de corte em todo o mundo, causando perdas patológicas e econômicas na indústria aviária. As lesões causadas pelo vírus são facilmente reconhecidas pela observação visual e usualmente aparecem nas áreas do corpo das aves livres de penas, especialmente na cabeça. Além disso, em alguns casos a doença pode provocar a cegueira e a mortalidade de animais acometidos. O presente trabalho foi delineado para diagnosticar casos suspeitos de varíola aviária, identificar o agente causal e classificá-lo. Adicionalmente foram analisadas diferenças e similaridades com outros vírus estreitamente relacionados em localidades vizinhas e regionais. Cinquenta amostras foram colhidas em três localidades da cidade de Tikrit de frangos de corte, domesticados, que apresentavam lesões cutâneas. O DNA do vírus foi extraído diretamente das amostras de tecidos antes que a técnica de PCR fosse realizada. As proteínas do core do vírus, gene (P4b), foram parcialmente sequenciadas de analisadas em secções da rotina histológica. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que o vírus causa lesões variólicas com hiperplasia dermal e hiperqueratose. A hiperplasia e a congestão da membrana corioalantóica também foram registradas. O estudo também revelou que o DNA do VVA pode ser extraído diretamente de tecidos animais sem a realização de uma pré-purificação. A análise sequencial revelou que o VVA foi confirmado em todas as amostras agrupando-se em uma classe A, idêntica com isolados iranianos e egípcios. A conclusão obtida foi que o presente trabalho confirmou que o vírus pertence ao tipo dérmico clássico dos poxvirus e que as curtas distâncias genéticas entre os vírus relacionados são encontrados em países vizinhos. Também foi concluído que o gene conservador P4b inclui pontos de mutação que o tornam um gene prático para diagnosticar o vírus em análises filogenéticas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens/genetics , Chickens/injuries , Fowlpox/physiopathology , Fowlpox/genetics , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1731-1736, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131535

ABSTRACT

Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV-3) DNA has been detected in serum samples from apparently healthy pigs as well as pigs with different clinical conditions. Molecular detection of PCV-3 was observed in swine serum samples from Southeastern - Brazil using a nested PCR designed specifically for this study. The epidemiology and clinical aspects of PCV-3 infection were evaluated. The samples originated from 154 pigs of both genders from different production phases and with different clinical presentations, sampled from 31 pig farms visited between 2013 and 2018. In this study, PCV-3 was detected in 26.7% of samples from all populations across varying ages. Statistical association (P=0.0285) was observed only between animals with respiratory signs and PCV-3; no PCV-3-positive animal had diarrhea. No statistical association was observed between PCV-3 and age, or gender of the pigs. Because PCV-3 is a newly discovered virus, there is very little information about its epidemiology. We hope that these data can help in future studies investigating PCV-3 epidemiology.(AU)


O DNA do circovírus suíno 3 (PCV-3) foi detectado em amostras de soro de suínos aparentemente saudáveis, bem como em suínos com diferentes condições clínicas. A detecção molecular do PCV-3 foi observada em amostras de soro de suínos da região Sudeste do Brasil, com uma nested PCR desenhada especificamente para este estudo. A epidemiologia e os aspectos clínicos da infecção por PCV-3 foram avaliados. As amostras foram coletadas de 154 suínos de ambos os sexos, de diferentes fases de produção e com diferentes sinais clínicos. Os animais pertenciam a 31 granjas visitadas entre 2013 e 2018. Neste estudo, o PCV-3 foi detectado em 26,7% das amostras de animais saudáveis e de animais com variados sinais clínicos, de ambos os sexos e de idades variadas. Associação estatística (P=0,0285) foi observada apenas entre animais com sinais respiratórios e PCV-3; nenhum animal positivo para PCV-3 apresentava diarreia. Não foi observada associação estatística entre o PCV-3 e a idade ou o sexo dos suínos. Por se tratar de um vírus recém-descoberto, existem poucas informações sobre sua epidemiologia. Espera-se que os dados deste trabalho possam contribuir para futuros estudos sobre a epidemiologia do PCV-3.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine/virology , Circovirus/genetics , Circoviridae Infections/pathology , Circoviridae Infections/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(6): 430-437, June 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135649

ABSTRACT

Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is a polybacterial claw disease that is endemic to dairy cattle kept in loose house systems, and treponemas are the main bacteria implicated in this disease. The objective of this study was to report the occurrence of Treponema spp. in BDD from crossbred dairy cattle (Holstein x Zebu) kept in a pasture in the Brazilian Amazon biome. The diagnostic of BDD was performed by inspecting the distal extremities of cattle during milking in one or more visits comprising 15 farms. In total, it could be inspected 1,847 cows from August 2016 to July 2017, and 25 lesions of BDD were diagnosed. The feet were scored (System M: M0 = no lesion, M1 = ulcer stage <2cm, M2 = ulcer stage >2cm, M3 = healing stage, M4 = chronic stage, M4.1 = chronic stage with ulcer area). Twenty four biopsy samples were taken from feet with BDD and five biopsy samples from feet with no lesions. The histopathology of stained tissues was performed by hematoxylin and eosin and Warthin-Starry method. The samples were also tested by nested PCR for the three previously isolated BDD Treponema phylogroups (T. medium/T. vincentii-like, T. phagedenis-like and T. putidum/T. denticola-like). Spirochetes were observed in 54.2% (13/24) of the lesions, and in 91.7% (22/24) of the samples were detected the DNA of this spirochete belonging to the treponema phylogroups implicated in BDD. In 25% (6/24) of the lesions were detected all the phylogroups. Forty percent (40%, 2/5) of the M0 samples were also positive for the nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (nested-PCR), as 8.3% (2/24) of the lesions were negative in both techniques employed. Treponema putidum/T. denticola-like was the most detected bacterial in all the stages, and active lesions (M2 and M4.1) presented a greater proportion of T. medium/T. vincentii-like and T. phagedenis-like, but no statistical differences were observed (p>0.05). It could be concluded that BDD lesions in crossbred dairy cattle kept to pasture in the Amazon biome were classified as "polytreponemal" infections and the phylogroup T. putidum/T. denticola-like was the most frequent in the lesions.(AU)


Dermatite digital bovina (DDB) é uma enfermidade polibacteriana dos dígitos endêmica em vacas leiteiras criadas em estábulos e as treponemas são as principais bactérias envolvidas. Este estudo teve como objetivo relatar a ocorrência de Treponema spp. em DDB em bovinos leiteiros mestiços (Holandês x Zebu) criados a pasto no bioma amazônico brasileiro. O diagnóstico da DDB foi realizado pela inspeção, em uma ou mais visitas, das extremidades distais das vacas durante a ordenha em 15 propriedades. No total, foram inspecionadas 1.847 vacas de agosto de 2016 a julho de 2017 e diagnosticou-se 25 lesões de DDB. As extremidades distais inspecionadas foram classificadas em escores (M0 = sem lesão, M1 = estágio ulcerado <2cm, M2 = estágio ulcerado >2cm, M3 = estágio em cicatrização, M4 = estágio crônico, M4.1 = estágio crônico com área ulcerada) e realizada 24 biópsias de dígitos com DDB e cinco biópsias de dígitos em estágio M0. Foram realizadas a histopatologia pelas colorações de hematoxilina e eosina e pelo método de Warthin-Starry, e a nested de reação em cadeia de polimerase (nested-PCR) para os três filogrupos de treponemas previamente isolados de DDB (Treponema medium/T. vincentii-like, T. phagedenis-like e T. putidum/T. denticola-like). Espiroquetas foram observadas em 54,2% (13/24) das lesões e em 91,7% (22/24) detectou-se o DNA de, pelo menos, um dos filogrupos de treponemas pesquisados. Em 25% (6/24) das lesões foram detectados o DNA dos três filogrupos. Em 40% (2/5) das amostras em estágio M0 também foram positivas na nested-PCR, assim como 8,3% (2/24) das lesões foram negativas em ambas as técnicas empregadas. T. putidum/T. denticola-like foi o filogrupo mais detectado em todos os estágios e lesões ativas (M2 e M4.1) apresentaram uma maior proporção para Treponema medium/T. vincentii-like e T. phagedenis-like, mas não se obteve diferença estatística na ocorrência dos filogrupos entre os estágios das lesões (P>0,05). Conclui-se que lesões de DDB em rebanhos leiteiros mestiços criados a pasto no bioma amazônico brasileiro são "politreponemais" e o filogrupo T. putidum/T. denticola-like é o mais frequente nas lesões.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Treponema/isolation & purification , Digital Dermatitis/pathology , Digital Dermatitis/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Amazonian Ecosystem
7.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-209625

ABSTRACT

Background: Plasmodium falciparum existence continues to develop resistance to conventional antimalaria drugs in malaria endemic areas. Plasmodiaoften prevent drugs from interacting with the target site, hence, developing resistance to antimalaria drugs. Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt), are the major determinant of chloroquine resistance in human malaria parasite.Methodology:Malaria infection, Pfcrtand Pfmdr1 genes of isolates among school students within the age range of 11-22 years from four selected rural communities of Kwara state were studied.One hundred and eighty seven subjects (187) wereselected for the study. Blood samples were collected by finger prick method for malaria screening. Nested PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were done to detect alleles of pfcrtat codon 76 and pfmdr1at codon 86. DNA of isolates wasappropriately extracted from the filter paper blots using the methanol fixation method. Logistic regression was performed on the binary observations obtained while linear regression was conducted on the fifty (50) subjects that tested positive to malaria.Results:Out of 187 subjects screened, 26.7% (50) were positive to P. falciparum. Highest malaria parasite count of 36.4% was recorded in 14-16years age group while 20-22 years age group had the least malaria parasite count (15.4%). The result of the studied isolates indicated that out of 50 isolates analyzed for Pfcrtgene, wild type alleles accounted for 32% (16) while mutant alleles accounted for 68% (34). Alakuko Community accounted for the least number of T76 mutant alleles 10% (5) while Apado community recorded the highest number of T76 mutant gene 22% (11). For Pfmdr1gene analysis at codon 86, isolates from Apado community showed the highest mutant type alleles (Y86) of 22% (11), while Igbonla community in Ifelodun local government had the least mutant alleles, 6% (3).Conclusion:The overall result revealed existence of mutant alleles in both the Pfcrtand Pfmdr1genes which was higher than the wild type gene in both cases. The presence of chloroquine resistance genes among the studied population implies that alternative antimalaria drugs should be designed by pharmaceutical industry.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862525

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the infection of human parvovirus B19 among women of childbearing age in Xiangyang City, and to provide a reference for pregnant women's health care. Methods A total of 303 women of childbearing age in Xiangyang City from 2018 to 2019 were selected as the research subjects. B19 virus DNA in serum of the subjects was detected by nested PCR technology. The differences in the detection rate of B19 viral DNA among normal pregnancy, abnormal pregnancy, and infertility serum were statistically analyzed. The differences in the detection rate of B19 virus DNA among women of childbearing age at different ages were compared. Results The detection rate of B19 viral DNA in all 303 women of child-bearing age was 27.72%. The detection rate of B19 virus DNA in 26-35 year old women was higher than that in other age groups. The detection rate of B19 virus DNA in abnormal pregnancy group was significantly higher than that in normal pregnancy group (P <0.05). Conclusion The detection rate of B19 virus DNA in abnormal pregnancy and infertility group was significantly higher than that in normal pregnancy group, with the detection rate of B19 virus in 26-35 year old women of childbearing age being the highest among all age groups. It is necessary to strengthen the screening of B19 virus in pregnant women of childbearing age in this region to reduce its impact on fetal abortion.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-823130

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the application of Wondfo Rapid Diagnostic Kit (RDTs) in the diagnosis of imported malaria cases in the Malaria Reference Laboratory of Hubei Provence. Methods The complete blood samples of malaria cases and negative card deletion cases reported in Hubei Province from January 2015 to June 2018 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. The results of the provincial malaria reference laboratory were used as the standard, and were compared with those results detected by RDTs, microscopic examination and nested PCR. The differences were statistically analyzed. Results A total of 440 complete samples were collected by the Malaria Reference Laboratory of Hubei Provence, of which 418 samples were confirmed as positive, and 22 samples were confirmed as negative. In terms of the identification ability of P. falciparum, RDTs performed the best, with a coincidence rate of 100.00%, and the coincidence rates nested PCR and microscopic examination were 97.49% and 91.40%, respectively. In terms of the identification specificity for another 3 species of Plasmodium (P. vivax, P. ovarian and P. vivax), nested PCR was the best, the microscopy method was the second best, and RDTs was the lowest. Based on the comprehensive analysis of 12 individual indicators, RDTs had the highest score (32), while the microscopic examination and nested PCR scored 24 and 19, respectively. Conclusion RDTs had certain advantages in the detection of malaria, but they had a low identification specificity for different species. Thus, they can be used as auxiliary tools for microscopic examination and widely used in surveillance work after malaria elimination in Hubei Province.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827778

ABSTRACT

Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius have similar bioactive components and morphological characteristics, but they are known to have different medicinal values, high-sensitive and accurate method is expected to identify the sources of ginseng products and evaluate the quality, but with a huge challenge. Our established UHPLC-TOF/MS method coupled with orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model based on 18 ginsenosides was applied to discriminate the sources of raw medicinal materials in ginseng products, and nested PCR strategy was used to discover 6 novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in functional dammarenediol synthase (DS) gene for genetic authentication of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius for the first time. OPLS-DA model could identify the sources of raw ginseng materials are real or not. SNP markers were applied to identify ginseng fresh samples as well as commercial products, and proved to be successful. This established molecular method can tell exact source information of adulterants, and it was highly sensitive and specific even when total DNA amount was only 0.1 ng and the adulteration was as low as 1%. Therefore, this study made an attempt at the exploration of new type SNP marker for variety authentication and function regulation at the same time, and the combination of chemical and molecular discrimination methods provided the comprehensive evaluation and authentication for the sources of ginseng herbs and products.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210860

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in Penaeus vannamei samples were collected from Maharashtra and Gujarat farms. In the present study, shrimp samples from various shrimp ponds from two districts of Maharashtra and two districts of Gujarat were collected over a period of one year (February 2016 to April 2017). A total of 4513 shrimp samples were assessed for the presence of EHP by molecular characterization. Out of shrimp samples analysed, 31.2% samples were positive for EHP. The screening of EHP was done by single step and nested PCR targeting spore wall protein gene (SWP) of EHP resulting in product size of 514 bp and 148 bp for EHP respectively

12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 50(3): 677-684, July 2019. ilus., tab
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-RS | ID: biblio-1121770

ABSTRACT

Human mastadenovirus (HAdV) genus is related to several diseases, among them upper and lower respiratory tract illness. HAdV species B, C, D, and E are mainly associated with respiratory infections. The goal of this work was to identify the HAdV species associated with respiratory infections in hospitalized patients from southern Brazil. Samples were collected from 1996 to 2004 and 2011 to 2017. During this period, 28,524 samples were collected, and 9983 were positive for respiratory viruses, being 435 for HAdV. From these 435 samples, 57 were selected for characterization of HAdV species. For screening the presence of HAdV, a partial sequence of the DNA polymerase gene (DNApol gene) was amplified by nested PCR. Partial nucleotide sequencing was performed in positive samples, and HAdV (DNApol gene) was detected in 53 samples: species B (28;49.1%), C (16;8.0%), D (2; 3.5%), E (5; 8.7%), and untyped (2; 3.5%). Specie D was found only in 2017 and specie E in 2011 and 2012. The age of the patients ranged from < 1 to 81 years old, and 62.3%were male. No relationship between gender orage and identified HAdV species were observed. In addition, in the period of 2013­2017, 18 samples from patients who died were analyzed: 11 were related to species B, 4 to C, and 2 to D and 1 remained untyped. Circulation of HAdV species D and Evaried over the years, but species B and C were present throughout the evaluated period. In addition, respiratory infections by HAdVaffect elderly and children mainly. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Mastadenovirus/pathogenicity , Nucleic Acids , Morbidity
13.
Rev. biol. trop ; 67(1): 321-336, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041913

ABSTRACT

Abstract Phytoplasmas (class Mollicutes) are causal agents of plant diseases with an economic impact on crops or threatening local biodiversity. A survey was conducted from 2012 to 2016 on infected Catharanthus roseus plants that exhibited symptoms reminiscent of phytoplasma infection throughout Costa Rica. A total of 73 plants were collected exhibiting symptoms such as virescence, phyllody, axillary proliferation, little leaf, leaf malformation, chlorosis, or yellowing. All samples were tested by nested PCR using phytoplasma universal and specific primer pairs. Phytoplasma infection was detected in 52 (71.2 %) of the plants collected. Phytoplasmas of six subgroups belonging to 16Sr groups I, III, IX, XIII and XV were identified based on sequencing and in silico RFLP analyses. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' (16SrI) was the predominant group among the positive samples (n = 30) showing variety of symptoms and wide distribution from sea level to ca. 1 400 m.a.s.l. in six of the seven Costa Rican provinces. Group 16SrIII was the second most abundant (14 samples); and the remaining three groups were seldom found in C. roseus (8 samples). Moreover, group 16SrXIII phytoplasma was detected for the first time in the country. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of natural infection of C. roseus with phytoplasma subgroups 16SrI-B, 16SrI-P, 16SrIII-F, 16SrIX-F, 16SrXIII-A, and 16SrXV-B in Costa Rica and Central America.


Resumen Los fitoplasmas (clase Mollicutes) son agentes causales de enfermedades de plantas que provocan pérdidas económicas o amenazan la biodiversidad local. Una recolecta de plantas de Catharanthus roseus que mostraban síntomas de posible infección con fitoplasmas se realizó en diferentes lugares de Costa Rica desde 2012 a 2016. Un total de 73 plantas fueron recolectadas con síntomas tales como viriscencia, filodia, brotación axilar múltiple, reducción foliar, deformación foliar, clorosis, y amarillamiento. Todas las muestras fueron evaluadas mediante PCR anidado usando los pares de imprimadores universales y específicos para fitoplasmas. Infección por fitoplasmas se detectó en 52 (71.2 %) de las muestras. Fitoplasmas de seis subgrupos dentro de los grupos 16Sr I, III, IX, XIII y XV fueron identificados basados en secuenciación del ADN y análisis de polimorfismos de restricción (RFLP) in silico. El grupo predominante encontrado en las muestras positivas (n = 30) fue el 16SrI ('CandidatusPhytoplasma asteris'), éste mostró variedad de síntomas y amplia distribución desde el nivel del mar hasta casi los 1 400 m.s.n.m. en seis de las siete provincias de Costa Rica. El grupo 16SrIII fue el segundo más abundante (14 muestras); y los restantes tres grupos se encontraron en pocas muestras de C. roseus (8 muestras). Además, fitoplasmas del grupo 16SrXIII se detectaron por primera vez en el país. De acuerdo a nuestro conocimiento, este es el primer informe de infección natural de C. roseus con fitoplasmas de los subgrupos 16SrI-B, 16SrI-P, 16SrIII-F, 16SrIX-F, 16SrXIII-A y 16SrXV-B en Costa Rica y Centroamérica.


Subject(s)
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Vinca , Biodiversity , Infections/diagnosis
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 180-185, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042493

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ehrlichiosis is caused by agents belonging to Ehrlichia genus. Despite the frequent reports on the serological and molecular detection of E. canis in dogs in Brazil, there is scant data on ehrlichiosis in brazilian cats. This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp. in domestic cats from Greater Rio de Janeiro, and evaluating hematological changes associated with this rickettsial infection. We searched for IgG antibodies against E. canis on blood samples of 216 cats by Indirect Fluorescence Assay (IFA). Additionally, we performed nested PCR (nPCR) and real-time PCR (qPCR) assays targeting E. canis-16S rRNA and dsb gene, respectively. Fifty-seven (26.4%) cats were seropositive for Ehrlichia spp. by IFA. Ehrlichia spp.-16S rRNA gene fragments were detected in 3 cats (1.4%). Although the obtained 16S rRNA sequences showed 99 to 100% identity with E. canis, cats were negative in qPCR. Anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, left shift neutrophil and hyperproteinemia were observed. Anemia was statistically associated with seropositivity to E. canis and kittens showed lower positivity rates (p<0.05). This study showed that Ehrlichia spp. occur in domestic cats from Greater Rio de Janeiro. Further studies involving culture isolation are much needed to more precisely characterize these organisms.


Resumo A erliquiose é causada por agentes pertencentes ao gênero Ehrlichia . Apesar dos frequentes relatos de detecção sorológica e molecular de E. canis em cães no Brasil, existem poucos dados sobre a erliquiose em gatos brasileiros. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a ocorrência de Ehrlichia spp. em gatos domésticos do Grande Rio de Janeiro e avaliar as alterações hematológicas associadas a essa infecção rickettsial. Procuramos anticorpos IgG anti-E. canis em amostras de sangue de 216 gatos por Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI). Além disso, foram realizados ensaios de nested PCR (nPCR) e PCR em tempo real (qPCR) para detecção dos genes E. canis-16S rRNA e dsb , respectivamente. Cinquenta e sete (26,4%) gatos foram soropositivos para Ehrlichia spp. pela RIFI. Fragmentos do gene rRNA de Ehrlichia spp.-16S foram detectados em 3 gatos (1,4%) por ensaios de nPCR. Embora as sequências 16S rRNA obtidas tenham 99 a 100% de identidade com E. canis, os gatos foram negativos nos ensaios de qPCR. Anemia, trombocitopenia, leucocitose, desvio nuclear neutrofílico à esquerda e hiperproteinemia foram observados. Anemia foi estatisticamente associada à soropositividade para E. canis e filhotes apresentaram menores taxas de positividade (p <0,05). Este estudo demonstra que Ehrlichia spp. ocorrem em gatos domésticos da Grande Rio de Janeiro. Outros estudos envolvendo o isolamento por cultura são necessários para caracterizar com mais precisão esses organismos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cats , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Ehrlichiosis/veterinary , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ehrlichiosis/diagnosis , Ehrlichiosis/epidemiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761747

ABSTRACT

Detailed description of malaria in low transmission areas is crucial for elimination. The current study aimed to provide a comprehensive description for malaria transmission in Jazan, a low transmission district, southwestern Saudi Arabia. Patients at a tertiary care hospital were recruited in our study between August 2016 and September 2018. Malaria diagnosis was performed through a species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR), microscopy and Paramax-3™ rapid detection test (RDT). Malaria was detected in 30 patients by the PCR, with point prevalence of 10.9%. Of these malaria infections, 80% was imported, 26.6% was asymptomatic and 23.3% was sub-microscopic. Malaria was reported throughout the year, with February/March and September/October peaks. Infection was significantly more in males than in females (P=0.01). Likewise, infections were detected more in febrile than in non-febrile patients (P=0.01). Adult aged 15–24 years, fever and travel were identified as high-risk factors. Malaria was primarily attributed to Plasmodium falciparum mono-infections, followed by P. vivax mono-infections and lastly to falciparum/vivax mixed infections accounting 76.6%, 16.6%, and 6.6% of PCR-confirmed malaria cases, respectively. The nested PCR was superior to the smear microscopy (sensitivity 76.6%; specificity 100%) and the RDT (sensitivity 83.3%, specificity 94.2%). The overall percent agreement between microscopy and the RDT was 92.7% (kappa=0.63). High proportion of imported malaria including sub-microscopic and sub-patent cases were described. We suggest that incorporation of molecular tool into the conventional malaria diagnosis is beneficial in Jazan district.


Subject(s)
Adult , Coinfection , Diagnosis , Female , Fever , Humans , Malaria , Male , Microscopy , Plasmodium falciparum , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Saudi Arabia , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tertiary Healthcare
16.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 56(1): e150072, jun. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1007798

ABSTRACT

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that is highly prevalent and globally distributed, causing significant economic losses to the swine industry. Disease progression is characterized by reduced feed conversion and the development of lung lesions. Considering the limited information about the epidemiology of EP in Southern Brazil, the main objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of M. hyopneumoniae in swine lung samples and to evaluate the scores of lung lesions caused by local strains. A total of 120 samples was randomly collected and processed. DNA was extracted from lung tissue to perform nested-PCR and lungs were inspected to evaluate the presence of the pneumonia-like gross lesions of M. hyopneumoniae. The results showed 95.8% positive samples, while the lung lesion score analysis showed suggestive lesions in 60% of samples. The detection of positive samples in nested-PCR was associated with the presence of pneumonia-like gross lesions (P < 0.01). The results demonstrate a high occurrence of EP in slaughter pigs from southern Brazil.(AU)


O Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae é o agente causador da Pneumonia Enzoótica Suína (PES), doença altamente prevalente e mundialmente distribuída, causando grandes perdas econômicas para a indústria suinícola. A progressão da doença é caracterizada pela redução das taxas de conversão alimentar e o desenvolvimento de lesões pulmonares. Visto que há informação limitada sobre a epidemiologia da PES no sul do Brasil, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a prevalência de M. hyopneumoniae em amostras de pulmão suíno e avaliar o score de lesões pulmonares causadas pelas cepas locais. Um total de 120 amostras foram coletadas aleatoriamente, processadas e analisadas. O DNA foi extraído do tecido pulmonar para realização de Nested-PCR e os pulmões foram inspecionados para presença de lesões macroscópicas sugestivas de M. hyopneumoniae. Os resultados demonstraram 95,8% das amostras positivas para o patógeno. A análise do score pulmonar mostrou lesões sugestivas da PES em 60% das amostras. A detecção de amostras positivas no Nested-PCR foi associada com a presença de lesões sugestivas (P < 0.01). Os dados obtidos neste trabalho demonstram a alta prevalência da PES em granjas do RS.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine/microbiology , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/pathogenicity , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/diagnosis , Lung/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-751319

ABSTRACT

@#Sex determination is one of the basic components in victim identification. This study aims to ascertain the sex of an individual from burnt teeth samples exposed at different temperature and time through nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on the amelogenin (AMEL) sex marker, to calculate the specificity and sensitivity, and to compare with previous relevant studies. A total of 17 teeth samples was subjected to burning at different temperatures ranging from 100°C to 500°C, at 2 to 10 minutes. The whole tooth was used for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction by phenol-chloroform method. All samples were quantified for DNA concentration and then analyzed with nested PCR using two pairs of AMEL primer and results of sex typing were recorded. Out of 17 samples, genomic DNA extracted from 6 samples have concentrations ranging from 27.3 – 130.6 ng/µL. Nested PCR could amplify 16 samples for AMEL gene. Sex typing using AMEL gene showed 76.47% accuracy. Sensitivity of AMEL primer was increased from 6.67% to 63.64% using nested PCR technique; specificity of both external and internal primer was reported at 100%. Nested PCR of AMEL gene proved to be a suitable method for unequivocal determination of sex from degraded DNA samples.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750349

ABSTRACT

@#Infection of the oral cavity with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) has been implicated as one of the risk factors for the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Among the high-risk HPV types, HPV 16 and 18 are the most common infective agents in oral cancers. This study aimed to compare the presence of high-risk HPV in genetic materials obtained from saliva, blood and tissues of OSCC patients in Malaysia. The genomic DNA was extracted from saliva (n=13), blood (n=59) and tissue (n=63) and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of human beta globin gene to confirm the presence and integrity of DNA. Positive amplification was then screened for high-risk HPV by nested PCR using MY11/09 and GP5+/6+ consensus primers, followed by a further confirmation by DNA sequencing of the positive samples. As a result, two saliva samples (2/13; 15.4%) were found to harbour HPV 16 and one tissue sample (1/63; 1.6%) was shown to be positive for HPV 18. However, none of the blood samples were positive for high-risk HPV. Thus, HPV is more likely to be found in the saliva of OSCC patients as compared to blood and tissue samples. The detection of high-risk HPV in OSCC patients is useful in deciding how to manage the patient as HPV-associated OSCC has better prognosis.

19.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 65(2): 130-139, mayo-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-978669

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El virus de la leucosis bovina (VLB) es un retrovirus que afecta principalmente el ganado lechero, reduciendo la producción de leche entre el 2,5 y 5%. La raza criolla colombiana Blanco Orejinegro (BON) es una raza rustica, bien adaptada, que ha mostrado resistencia in vitro a las infecciones ocasionadas por los virus de la fiebre aftosa y la estomatitis vesicular, así como las originadas por la bacteria Brucella abortus. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar si la raza BON y su cruce con Holstein son resistentes a la infección por el VLB. Se tomaron 124 muestras de sangre (59 Holstein, 40 BON y 25 BON x HOL) del mismo hato, se extrajo el DNA y se realizó una PCR-anidada correspondiente a una región del gen env de VLB. Se obtuvo un fragmento de 444 pb en los animales positivos. La prevalencia molecular del hato fue 33% para VLB. Se encontró diferencia significativa para infección por VLB entre los tres grupos raciales (p < 0,05). El porcentaje de infección fue del 55,9% para la raza Holstien, 5% para las vacas BON y 24% para el cruce BON x HOL; este último presentó una reducción en el porcentaje de infección del 32% respecto a la raza Holstein, lo cual puede ser atribuido a la presencia de genes de resistencia en la raza BON. Se comprobó que el nivel de infección es menor en vacas lecheras del cruce BON x HOL que en la raza lechera Holstein.


ABSTRACT The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that primarily affects dairy cattle, reducing milk production between 2.5 and 5%. The Colombian Blanco Orejinegro (BON) is a well-adapted, rustic, creole breed resistant to in vitro infections of Foot-and-mouth disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, as well as to Brucella abortus. This study aimed to determine if the crossing of BON and Holstein breeds is resistant to infection by BLV. Blood samples of 124 individuals (59 Holstein, 40 BON, and 25 BON x HOL) of the same herd were taken. The DNA was extracted, and a nested PCR was performed related to a region of the env gene of BLV. A fragment of 444 bp was obtained for positives animals. The molecular in-herd prevalence was 33% for BLV. A significant difference for BLV infection was found among the groups (p<0.05). The infection rate for the Holstein group was 55.9%, for BON cattle 5%, and for BON x HOL cattle 24%. The latter showed a reduction in the infection rate of 32% to the Holstein breed, which can be attributed to the presence of resistance genes in the BON breed. It was found that the level of infection is lower in BON x HOL cattle in contrast with Holstein dairy cows.

20.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 23(2): 6660-6670, May-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957361

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective. In the present study the aim was to establish the efficacy of 30 mg/kg single dose secnidazol in calves naturally infected with Giardia duodenalis. Materials and methods. In an attempt to perform original study a total of 18 calves, from various breed, age and of both sexes were enrolled. Diagnosis was based on detection of trophozoit and/or cysts on fecal flotation among calves naturally infected with G. duodenalis, besides by use of rapid diagnostic test kits working with solid phase immunochromatographic principles and β-giardin nested- Polymerase Chain Reaction aplication. Cyst count per gram of feces were performed among days 0, 3, 7 and 10 in all cases. On days 0 and 10 hematological (WBC, RBC, HCT, MCHC, PLT) and serum biochemical (ALT, AST, creatinine, urea) values were determined. Results. Two different groups of calves composed of secnidazole group (n:9) and control group (n:9) were enrolled. Among calves enrolled in treatment group secnidazole was administered at a single dosage of 30 mg/kg perorally on day 0, whereas control group were left without any active ingredient. Cyst count per gram feces, hematological and serum biochemical values were analyzed among groups and intragroup comparisons. Giardia duodenalis assemblage A3 was detected in all 18 calves. On days 3, 7, and 10 there was significant (p˂0.001) reduction in cyst excretion; whereas evaluation of mean geometric cyst excretion revealed 100% reduction on days 7 and 10. Among two group statistical analysis of hematological and serumbiochemical variables revealed no statistical significance on days 0 and 10. Conclusions. In conclusion secnidazole at a single dose of 30 mg/kg might be practically appliable, reasonably priced, safety, completely effective and causing rapid recovery treatment protocole for therapy of calves with Giardiasis.


Resumen Objetivo. En el presente estudio se pretendía establecer la eficacia de 30 mg / kg de dosis única de secnidazol en terneros naturalmente infectados con Giardia duodenalis. Materiales y métodos. En un intento de realizar un estudio original, se matricularon 18 terneros, de distintas raza, edad y de ambos sexos. El diagnóstico se basó en la identificación de trofozoítos y /o quistes en la flotación fecal entre terneros naturalmente infectados con G. duodenalis, además de utilizar kits de diagnóstico rápido que funcionan con principios inmunocromatográficos en fase sólida y aplicación de Reacción en Cadena de Polimerasa anidada con β-giardina. El conteo de quistes por gramo de heces se realizó entre los días 0, 3, 7 y 10 en todos los casos. En los días 0 y 10 se determinaron los valores hematológicos (WBC, RBC, HCT, MCHC, PLT) y suero bioquímico (ALT, AST, creatinina, urea). Resultados. Se inscribieron dos grupos diferentes de terneros tratados con secnidazol (n: 9) y el grupo control (n: 9). Entre los becerros incluidos en el grupo de tratamiento se administró secnidazol en una dosis única de 30 mg/kg oralmente al día 0, mientras que el grupo de control se dejó sin ningún ingrediente activo. Se analizó el conteo de quistes por gramo de heces, valores hematológicos y bioquímicos de suero entre grupos y comparaciones intragrupo. Giardia duodenalis ensamblaje A3 se identificó en los 18 terneros. En los días 3, 7 y 10 hubo una reducción significativa (p˂0.001) en la excreción de quistes; Mientras que la evaluación de la excreción geométrica promedio de quistes reveló una reducción del 100% en los días 7 y 10. Entre los dos grupos de análisis estadístico de las variables hematológicas y sero-bioquímicas no reveló significación estadística en los días 0 y 10. Conclusión. En conclusión secnidazol en una dosis única de 30 mg/kg podría ser prácticamente aplicable, a un precio razonable, la seguridad, completamente eficaz y causando un tratamiento de recuperación rápida protocolo para la terapia de terneros con Giardiasis.


Subject(s)
Cattle , Giardia lamblia , Therapeutics
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