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1.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 472-485, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888731

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia conditioning could increase the survival of transplanted neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) in rats with cerebral ischemia but could also hinder neuronal differentiation partly by suppressing mitochondrial metabolism. In this work, the mitochondrial metabolism of hypoxia-conditioned NPCs (hcNPCs) was upregulated via the additional administration of resveratrol, an herbal compound, to resolve the limitation of hypoxia conditioning on neuronal differentiation. Resveratrol was first applied during the in vitro neuronal differentiation of hcNPCs and concurrently promoted the differentiation, synaptogenesis, and functional development of neurons derived from hcNPCs and restored the mitochondrial metabolism. Furthermore, this herbal compound was used as an adjuvant during hcNPC transplantation in a photothrombotic stroke rat model. Resveratrol promoted neuronal differentiation and increased the long-term survival of transplanted hcNPCs. 18-fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and rotarod test showed that resveratrol and hcNPC transplantation synergistically improved the neurological and metabolic recovery of stroke rats. In conclusion, resveratrol promoted the neuronal differentiation and therapeutic efficiency of hcNPCs in stroke rats via restoring mitochondrial metabolism. This work suggested a novel approach to promote the clinical translation of NPC transplantation therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Cell Differentiation , Hypoxia , Neurons , Rats , Resveratrol/pharmacology
2.
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20210296, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340101

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have been used to regenerate damaged nervous tissues. However, the methods of committing DPSCs into neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) or neurospheres are highly diverse, resulting in many neuronal differentiation outcomes. This study aims to validate an optimal protocol for inducing DPSCs into neurospheres and neurons. Methodology After isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cell identity, DPSCs were cultured in a NSPC induction medium and culture vessels. The durations of the culture, dissociation methods, and passage numbers of DPSCs were varied. Results Neurosphere formation requires a special surface that inhibits cell attachment. Five-days was the most appropriate duration for generating proliferative neurospheres and they strongly expressed Nestin, an NSPC marker. Neurosphere reformation after being dissociated by the Accutase enzyme was significantly higher than other methods. Passage number of DPSCs did not affect neurosphere formation, but did influence neuronal differentiation. We found that the cells expressing a neuronal marker, β-tubulin III, and exhibiting neuronal morphology were significantly higher in the early passage of the DPSCs. Conclusion These results suggest a guideline to obtain a high efficiency of neurospheres and neuronal differentiation from DPSCs for further study and neurodegeneration therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stem Cells , Dental Pulp , Cell Differentiation
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-847630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neuronal regeneration using stem cell differentiation has gained a lot of attentions from researchers. Although embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have good potential for neuronal differentiation, a high risk of tumor development in vivo limits the further study. OBJECTIVE: To establish a stable system for sorting, culture and neuronal differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells, and to explore the feasibility as seed cells for neuronal regeneration. METHODS: Amniotic fluid sample (10 mL) was obtained at 19-22 weeks of pregnancy under B-ultrasound guidance, and amniotic fluid stem cells were isolated by c-Kit magnetic beads. The markers Oct-4 and Sox2 of amniotic fluid stem cells were identified by immunofluorescence. The expression levels of c-Kit, Oct-4, Sox2 and Nestin in amniotic fluid stem cells after multiple passages were detected by RT-PCR. Then, the cells were cultured by hanging drop for 4 days to observe the embryoid bodies-like structures. Amniotic fluid stem cells were induced to differentiate into neurons using two-stage method. The expression levels of Neuro D and Tuj1 were observed by immunofluorescence. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) About 1% of amniotic fluid stem cells were positive for c-Kit. (2) (75.0±4.6)% of amniotic fluid stem cells expressed Oct-4 and (86.0±2.8)% of the cells expressed Sox2. (3) The expression levels of c-Kit, Oct-4, Sox2 and Nestin detected by RT-PCR did not change with passage times. (4) Embryoid bodies-like structures formed after hanging drop culture. (5) Immunofluorescence results showed that amniotic fluid stem cells expressed neuronal marker Tuj1, but without the typical morphological features. RT-PCR detected the expression of Tuj1 in different amniotic fluid stem cell specimens as well as in the same sample after several passages. (6) Amniotic fluid stem cells could have the characteristics of neuron-like cells after induction with basic fibroblast growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and neurotrophin factor 3 in two stages, and could express neural stem cell marker Neuro D and neuronal marker Tuj1.

4.
J Biosci ; 2019 Sep; 44(4): 1-16
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214432

ABSTRACT

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) play an important role in the process of bone repair. The present studyinvestigated the effect of 5-azacytidine (AZA) and trichostatin A (TSA) on BMSC behaviors in vitro. The role of WNTfamily member 5A (WNT5A)/WNT family member 5A (WNT7A)/b-catenin signaling was also investigated. BMSCs wereisolated from a steroid-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head (SANFH) rabbit model. The third-generation ofBMSCs was used after identification. The results revealed obvious degeneration and necrosis in the SANFH rabbit model.AZA, TSA and TSA ? AZA increased BMSC proliferation in a time-dependent fashion. AZA, TSA and TSA ? AZAinduced the cell cycle release from the G0/G1 phase and inhibited apoptosis in BMSCs. AZA, TSA and TSA ? AZAtreatment significantly decreased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities. The treatment obviously increased the activity andrelative mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase. The treatment also significantly up-regulated the proteins associatedwith osteogenic differentiation, including osteocalcin and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and Wnt/b-cateninsignal transduction pathway-related proteins b-catenin, WNT5A and WNT7A. The relative levels of Dickkopf-relatedprotein 1 (an inhibitor of the canonical Wnt pathway) decreased remarkably. Notably, TSA ? AZA treatment exhibited astronger adjustment ability than either single treatment. Collectively, the present studies suggest that AZA, TSA and TSA ?AZA promote cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in BMSCs, and these effects are potentially achieved via upregulation of WNT5A/WNT7A/b-catenin signaling.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-850674

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the effects of astragaloside IV (AST IV) combined with Panax Notoginseng saponins (PNS) on proliferation, apoptosis, migration and neuronal differentiation of oxygen glucosedeprivation/reoxygenation model rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Methods: BMSCs were isolated, cultured, amplified and purified by the whole bone marrow adherent method. The positive expression rates of BMSCs surface markers, CD29, CD90, CD34, and CD45 were detected by flow cytometry. The third generation of BMSCs was pretreated with AST IV and PNS doses of high (100 μmol/L + 60 μmol/L), medium (50 μmol/L + 30 μmol/L), and low (25 μmol/L + 15 μmol/L) for 24 h. The model of ischemia-reperfusion injury was established by OGD/R. Meanwhile, the normal group (BMSCs were cultured normally) and the model group (OGD/R was used to establish an ischemia reperfusion injury model) were established. The cell increment rate was detected by CCK-8 assay. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Transwell assay was used to detect the migration of BMSCs. The condition of BMSCs differentiation into neurons and astrocytes was observed by Nestin/NSE and Nestin/GFAP immunofluorescence double labeling. Results: BMSCs were successfully cultured and separated, and the positive rates of CD29 and CD90 detected by flow cytometry were 94.23% and 94.69%, while the positive rates of CD34 and CD45 were 5.76% and 5.31%. Compared with the normal group, the survival rate of the model group was reduced significantly and the apoptosis rate was increased significantly (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the combination of different doses of AST IV and PNS could promote the proliferation of BMSCs (P < 0.05, 0.01) and inhibit the apoptosis (P < 0.05, 0.01). Compared with the normal group, the model group and the AST IV and PNS group at different doses could promote the migration of BMSCs (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the number of migrated cells in the AST IV and PNS groups at different doses was increased significantly (P < 0.05). Compared with the normal group, the model group and the AST IV and PNS groups at different doses could promote the differentiation of BMSCs into neurons and astrocytes (P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, the positive expression rates of Nestin/NSE and Nestin/GFAP in the AST IV and PNS groups at different doses were increased significantly (P < 0.01). Conclusion: AST IV combined with PNS can promote the proliferation and migration of BMSCs of ischemia-reperfusion model in vitro, inhibit the apoptosis, and induce their directional differentiation into neurons and astrocytes.

6.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 112-119, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714115

ABSTRACT

Aucubin is a small compound naturally found in traditional medicinal herbs with primarily anti-inflammatory and protective effects. In the nervous system, aucubin is reported to be neuroprotective by enhancing neuronal survival and inhibiting apoptotic cell death in cultures and disease models. Our previous data, however, suggest that aucubin facilitates neurite elongation in cultured hippocampal neurons and axonal regrowth in regenerating sciatic nerves. Here, we investigated whether aucubin facilitates the differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) into specific types of neurons. In NPCs cultured primarily from the rat embryonic hippocampus, aucubin significantly elevated the number of GAD65/67 immunoreactive cells and the expression of GAD65/67 proteins was upregulated dramatically by more than three-fold at relatively low concentrations of aucubin (0.01 µM to 10 µM). The expression of both NeuN and vGluT1 of NPCs, the markers for neurons and glutamatergic cells, respectively, and the number of vGluT1 immunoreactive cells also increased with higher concentrations of aucubin (1 µM and 10 µM), but the ratio of the increases was largely lower than GAD expression and GAD immunoreactive cells. The GABAergic differentiation of pax6-expressing late NPCs into GABA-producing cells was further supported in cortical NPCs primarily cultured from transgenic mouse brains, which express recombinant GFP under the control of pax6 promoter. The results suggest that aucubin can be developed as a therapeutic candidate for neurodegenerative disorders caused by the loss of inhibitory GABAergic neurons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Axons , Brain , Cell Death , GABAergic Neurons , Hippocampus , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Nervous System , Neurites , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Plants, Medicinal , Rats , Sciatic Nerve
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713805

ABSTRACT

Urine-derived stem cells (USCs) are considered as a promising cell source capable of neuronal differentiation. In addition, specific growth factors and extracellular matrix are essential for enhancing their neuronal differentiation efficiency. In this study, we investigated the possibility of neuronal differentiation of USCs and the role of laminin and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) as promoting factors. USCs were isolated from fresh urine of healthy donors. Cultured USCs were adherent to the plate and their morphology was similar to the cobblestone. In addition, they showed chromosome stability, rapid proliferation rate, colony forming capacity, and mesenchymal stem cell characteristics. For inducing the neuronal differentiation, USCs were cultured for 14 days in neuronal differentiation media supplemented with/without laminin and/or PDGF-BB. To identify the expression of neuronal markers, RT-PCR, flow cytometry analysis and immunocytochemistry were used. After neuronal induction, the cells showed neuron-like morphological change and high expression level of neuronal markers. In addition, laminin and PDGF-BB respectively promoted the neuronal differentiation of USCs and the combination of laminin and PDGF-BB showed a synergistic effect for the neuronal differentiation of USCs. In conclusion, USCs are noteworthy cell source in the field of neuronal regeneration and laminin and PDGF-BB promote their neuronal differentiation efficiency.


Subject(s)
Chromosomal Instability , Extracellular Matrix , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Laminin , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Neurons , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor , Regeneration , Stem Cells , Tissue Donors
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30378

ABSTRACT

Microglia play a key role in the immune response and inflammatory reaction that occurs in response to ischemic stroke. Activated microglia promote neuronal damage or protection in injured brain tissue. Extracellular signals polarize the microglia towards the M1/M2 phenotype. The M1/M2 phenotype microglia released pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines which induce the activation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). In this study, we investigated how the cytokines released by microglia affect the activation of NSPCs. First, we treated BV2 cells with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 20 ng/ml) for M1 phenotype microglia and interleukin-4 (IL-4; 20 ng/ml) for M2 phenotype microglia in BV2 cells. Mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 1 h. In ex vivo, brain sections containing the subventricular zone (SVZ) were cultured in conditioned media of M1 and M2 phenotype-conditioned media for 3 d. We measured the expression of cytokines in the conditioned media by RT-PCR and ELISA. The M2 phenotype microglia-conditioned media led to the proliferation and neural differentiation of NSPCs in the ipsilateral SVZ after ischemic stroke. The RT-PCR and ELISA results showed that the expression of TGF-α mRNA was significantly higher in the M2 phenotype microglia-conditioned media. These data support that M2 phenotype microglia-derived TGF-α is one of the key factors to enhance proliferation and neural differntiation of NSPCs after ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Culture Media, Conditioned , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Interleukin-4 , Lateral Ventricles , Mice , Microglia , Neurons , Phenotype , RNA, Messenger , Stem Cells , Stroke
9.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 252-265, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18847

ABSTRACT

The valproic acid (VPA)-induced animal model is one of the most widely utilized environmental risk factor models of autism. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains an insurmountable challenge among neurodevelopmental disorders due to its heterogeneity, unresolved pathological pathways and lack of treatment. We previously reported that VPA-exposed rats and cultured rat primary neurons have increased Pax6 expression during post-midterm embryonic development which led to the sequential upregulation of glutamatergic neuronal markers. In this study, we provide experimental evidence that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), a protein component of ribonucleoproteins complex of telomerase, is involved in the abnormal components caused by VPA in addition to Pax6 and its downstream signals. In embryonic rat brains and cultured rat primary neural progenitor cells (NPCs), VPA induced the increased expression of TERT as revealed by Western blot, RT-PCR, and immunostainings. The HDAC inhibitor property of VPA is responsible for the TERT upregulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that VPA increased the histone acetylation but blocked the HDAC1 binding to both Pax6 and Tert genes. Interestingly, the VPA-induced TERT overexpression resulted to sequential upregulations of glutamatergic markers such as Ngn2 and NeuroD1, and inter-synaptic markers such as PSD-95, α-CaMKII, vGluT1 and synaptophysin. Transfection of Tert siRNA reversed the effects of VPA in cultured NPCs confirming the direct involvement of TERT in the expression of those markers. This study suggests the involvement of TERT in the VPA-induced autistic phenotypes and has important implications for the role of TERT as a modulator of balanced neuronal development and transmission in the brain.


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Animals , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Blotting, Western , Brain , Chromatin Immunoprecipitation , Embryonic Development , Female , Histones , Models, Animal , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Neurons , Phenotype , Population Characteristics , Pregnancy , Rats , Ribonucleoproteins , Risk Factors , RNA, Small Interfering , Stem Cells , Synaptophysin , Telomerase , Transfection , Up-Regulation , Valproic Acid
10.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 351-361, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757126

ABSTRACT

The methylcytosine dioxygenases TET proteins (TET1, TET2, and TET3) play important regulatory roles in neural function. In this study, we investigated the role of TET proteins in neuronal differentiation using Neuro2a cells as a model. We observed that knockdown of TET1, TET2 or TET3 promoted neuronal differentiation of Neuro2a cells, and their overexpression inhibited VPA (valproic acid)-induced neuronal differentiation, suggesting all three TET proteins negatively regulate neuronal differentiation of Neuro2a cells. Interestingly, the inducing activity of TET protein is independent of its enzymatic activity. Our previous studies have demonstrated that srGAP3 can negatively regulate neuronal differentiation of Neuro2a cells. Furthermore, we revealed that TET1 could positively regulate srGAP3 expression independent of its catalytic activity, and srGAP3 is required for TET-mediated neuronal differentiation of Neuro2a cells. The results presented here may facilitate better understanding of the role of TET proteins in neuronal differentiation, and provide a possible therapy target for neuroblastoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catalytic Domain , Cell Differentiation , Physiology , Cell Line, Tumor , DNA-Binding Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , GTPase-Activating Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Mice , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Neuroblastoma , Metabolism , Pathology , Protein Isoforms , Genetics , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , RNA Interference , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , Metabolism , Valproic Acid , Pharmacology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812505

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to establish a drug screening method for small molecules extracted from traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) that have neuronal differentiation promoting effects, using P19 embryonic carcinoma cell as a cell-based model. First, the constructed plasmid (pTα1-Luc) was transfected into P19 cells to establish a screening model. Second, several TCMs were screened using the established model and all-trans-retinoic acid as a positive control. Finally, the underlying molecular mechanism was explored using immunofluorescence staining, qT-PCR, and Western blot analysis. Our results indicated that the drug screen model was established successfully and that both honokiol and hyperoside induced P19 differentiation into neurons, with the possible molecular mechanism being modulating the Wnt signaling pathway. In conclusion, the drug screening model developed in the present study provides a rapid, cell-based screening platform for identifying natural compounds with neuronal differentiation effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biphenyl Compounds , Pharmacology , Cell Differentiation , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells , Lignans , Pharmacology , Mice , Neurons , Quercetin , Pharmacology , Tretinoin , Physiology , Wnt Signaling Pathway
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727819

ABSTRACT

NgR1, a Nogo receptor, is involved in inhibition of neurite outgrowth and axonal regeneration and regulation of synaptic plasticity. P19 embryonal carcinoma cells were induced to differentiate into neuron-like cells using all trans-retinoic acid and the presence and/or function of cellular molecules, such as NgR1, NMDA receptors and STAT3, were examined. Neuronally differentiated P19 cells expressed the mRNA and protein of NgR1, which could stimulate the phosphorylation of STAT3 when activated by Nogo-P4 peptide, an active segment of Nogo-66. During the whole period of differentiation, mRNAs of all of the NMDA receptor subtypes tested (NR1, NR2A-2D) were consistently expressed, which meant that neuronally differentiated P19 cells maintained some characteristics of neurons, especially central nervous system neurons. Our results suggests that neuronally differentiated P19 cells expressing NgR1 may be an efficient and convenient in vitro model for studying the molecular mechanism of cellular events that involve NgR1 and its binding partners, and for screening compounds that activate or inhibit NgR1.


Subject(s)
Axons , Central Nervous System , Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells , Mass Screening , N-Methylaspartate , Neurites , Neurons , Phosphorylation , Plastics , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Regeneration , RNA, Messenger , Tretinoin
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of Gastrodiae rhizoma, a dried root of Gastrodia elata Blume, on proliferation and differentiation of human NSCs derived from embryonic stem cells.@*METHODS@#A 70% ethanol extract of Gastrodiae rhizoma (EEGR) was estimated with 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol as a representative constituent by HPLC.@*RESULTS@#MTT assay showed that the treatment with EEGR increased the viability of NSCs in growth media. Compared to control, EEGR increased the number of dendrites and denritic spines extended from a differentiated NSC. Whereas EEGR decreased the mRNA expression of Nestin, it increased that of Tuj1 and MAP2 in NSCs grown in differentiation media. Immunocytochemical analysis using confocal microscopy also revealed the increased expression of MAP2 in dendrites of EEGR-treated NSCs. Furthermore, EEGR decreased mRNA expression of Sox2 in NSCs grown even in growth media.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In conclusion, our study demonstrates for the first time that EEGR induced proliferation and neuronal differentiation of NSCs, suggesting its potential benefits on NSC-based therapies and neuroregeneration in various neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries.

14.
J Biosci ; 2014 Mar; 39(1): 157-169
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-161921

ABSTRACT

Regenerative medicine is an evolving interdisciplinary topic of research involving numerous technological methods that utilize stem cells to repair damaged tissues. Particularly, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a great tool in regenerative medicine because of their lack of tumorogenicity, immunogenicity and ability to perform immunomodulatory as well as anti-inflammatory functions. Numerous studies have investigated the role of MSCs in tissue repair and modulation of allogeneic immune responses. MSCs derived from different sources hold unique regenerative potential as they are selfrenewing and can differentiate into chondrocytes, osteoblasts, adipocytes, cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes, endothelial and neuronal cells, among which neuronal-like cells have gained special interest. MSCs also have the ability to secrete multiple bioactive molecules capable of stimulating recovery of injured cells and inhibiting inflammation. In this review we focus on neural differentiation potential ofMSCs isolated from different sources and how certain growth factors/small molecules can be used to derive neuronal phenotypes from MSCs. We also discuss the efficacy of MSCs when transplanted in vivo and how they can generate certain neurons and lead to relief or recovery of the diseased condition. Furthermore, we have tried to evaluate the appropriatemerits of different sources ofMSCs with respect to their propensity towards neurological differentiation as well as their effectiveness in preclinical studies.

15.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2014. 141 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847164

ABSTRACT

Células tronco mesenquimais de tecido adiposo, são uma promissora ferramenta para aplicações clínicas em terapias celular e regenerativa, em vista da facilidade de sua extração e da maior quantidade de células por unidade de massa de tecido quando comparado a outras fontes clássicas de células mesenquimais como medula óssea. O protocolo clássico de extração e purificação dessas células, depende de sua adesão em plástico e xeno-materiais demandando muito tempo para ser utilizado por médicos para auxiliar pacientes em procedimentos de emergência. Estas células são capazes se diferenciar em diversos tipos celulares, o que as torna boas candidatas para terapia celular, embora sua capacidade de transdiferenciação para fenótipos neuronais seja ainda discutida. Neste trabalho demonstramos um novo processo para isolar essas células na base de epitopos específicos expressos (assinatura molecular de superfície) utilizando aptâmeros como ligantes de alta afinidade para estes sitios. Aptâmeros, moléculas de DNA simples fita identificadas a partir de uma biblioteca combinatória de sequencias de DNA simples-fita foram identificados por ciclos reiterativos de seleção in vitro (SELEX) utilizando células tronco do lipoaspirado como alvo. Dois aptâmeros isolados, denominados APT9 e APT11, foram capazes de identificar subpopulações (15,8 e 23,7% respectivamente) dentre as células tronco mesenquimais (classicamente CD29+/CD90+/CD45-) e separá-las usando nano-partículas magnéticas acopladas aos aptâmeros. Além disso, seguindo uma indução para diferenciação neuronal, as células tronco mesenquimais passam a apresentar morfologia neuronal e apresentam expressão e atividade de diversos receptores de neurotransmissores, avaliados por PCR real-time e imageamento de variações da concentração de cálcio intracelular ápos stimulação com vários agonistas de receptores metatrópicos e ionotrópicos. Ao longo da diferenciação, os níveis transcricionais de mRNA de receptores de cininas (B1 e B2), nicotínicos (alfa 7), muscarínicos (M1, M3 e M4), glutamatérgicos (AMPA2 e mGluR2), purinérgicos (P2Y1 e P2Y4) e GABAergicos (GABA-A, subunidade 3) e da óxido nítrico sintase neural aumentaram quando comparados aos níveis das células não diferenciadas, enquanto que os níveis de expressão de outros receptores incluindo purinérgicos P2X1, P3X4, P2X7 e P2Y6 e muscarínico M5 diminuíram. Os níveis de atividade das classes dos receptores estudados, por imageamento de variações da concentração de cálcio intrac, aumentaram para a maioria dos agonistas analisados durante a diferenciação neuronal com exceção para respostas induzidas por glutamato e NMDA. Células diferenciadas expressavam altos níveis de antígenos específicos de neurônios como ß3-tubulina, NF-H, NeuN e MAP-2 indicando uma diferenciação em fenótipo neuronal bem sucedida. Desta maneira, esta tese, ao identificar aptâmeros, prove uma inovadora solução para médicos usarem as células tronco mesenquimais dentro de uma sala de cirurgia, através de um método que é capaz de purificar essas células em um tempo clínico viável, com pureza e sem contato com contaminantes. Além disso, nós mostramos aqui que com um protocolo como o proposto para diferenciação neuronal, nós poderíamos induzir essas células para se diferenciar em neurônios, através da ativação de fatores de transcrição específicos, levando às células tronco mesenquimais a serem possivelmente utilizadas em terapias celulares de reparo neuronal


Adipose mesenchymal stem cells are promising tools for clinical applications in cellular and regeneration therapies, in view of easiness of extraction and higher amount of isolated stem cells per mass of tissue when compared to other classical mesenchymal stem cell sources including bone marrow. The classical protocol to extract and purify these cells, depending on plastic adherence and xeno-materials, is too time consuming to be used by physicians to help patients at emergency procedures. These cells are able to differentiate into various cell types, making them good candidates for cell therapy, however their capability for transdifferentiation into neural phenotypes is yet discussed. Here we show a novel process to isolate these cells using their surface molecular signature and aptamers, ssDNA molecules identified through the SELEX technique, denominated APT9 and APT11 that are able to identify subpopulations (15,8 and 23,7% respectively) within the mesenchymal stem cells (classically CD29+/CD90+/CD45-) and separate them using magnetic nano-particles attached to the aptamers. Moreover, following induction to neural differentiation, mesenchymal cells presents neuronal morphology and present expression and activity of several neurotransmitter receptors, as evaluated by real-time PCR and calcium imaging. During this process, mRNA transcription levels of bradykinin (B1 and B2), cholinergic (alpha 7), muscarinic (M1, M3 and M4), glutamatergic (AMPA2 and mGlu2), purinergic (P2Y1 and P2Y4) and GABAergic (GABA-A, subunit 3) receptors and neuronal nitric oxide synthase were augmented when compared to levels of undifferentiated cells, while the expression levels of other receptors including purinergic P2X1, P2X4, P2X7 and P2Y6 and muscarinic M5 receptors were down-regulated. Activity levels of the studied receptor classes, as studied by calcium imaging, increased for most of the agonists analyzed during the neuronal differentiation with the exception for glutamate- and NMDA-induced receptor responses. Differentiated cells expressed high levels of neuron-specific antigens such as ß3-tubulin, NF-H, NeuN and MAP-2, indicating a successful differentiation into neuronal phenotypes. This thesis, by identifying aptamers, provides a novel solution for physicians to use mesenchymal stem cells inside a surgery room, by using a method that are able to purify the cells in a clinical viable time, with purity and no contact with contaminats. Furthermore, we show here that with a protocol as provided for neuronal differentiation, we could induce these cells to differentiate into neurons, by activating specific transcription factors,making mesenchymal stem cells to possibly be used in neuronal repair cell therapies


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aptamers, Nucleotide/analysis , Stem Cells/cytology , DNA , Lipectomy/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/classification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Receptors, Neurotransmitter , SELEX Aptamer Technique/methods
16.
Chongqing Medicine ; (36): 4048-4050, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-441109

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the expression of Hes1 mRNA during neural stem cells(NSC) differentiation toward neurons . Methods To establish the model of cultivation NSC in the hippocampal of newborn (24 h) SD rats ,and then to observe the mor-phology of NSC in the course of proliferation and differentiation .Before and after cellular induction ,the expression of Nestin and NSE were respectively measured to detect cell types by immunochemistry method .And flow cytometry was used to determine cell cycle phases ,so as to detect proliferative activity of these cells .Meanwhile ,the expression of Hes1 mRNA in NSC was determined by reverse transcription-PCR(RT-PCR) .Results The results demonstrated that NSC isolated from hippocampal showed vigorously clonal proliferation in vitro ,and positive Nestin expression .In addition ,the differentiated cells demonstrated positive NSE expres-sion .Flow cytometry analysis showed that the percentage of NSC in S phase was obviously higher than that of induced differentia-tion of all time(P0 .05) .Conclusion The high level of Hes1 mRNA was probably involved proliferation of NSC .How-ever ,low level of Hes1 mRNA might contribute to neuronal differentiation .

17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 70(7): 540-546, July 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-642981

ABSTRACT

Cell therapies, based on transplantation of immature cells, are being considered as a promising tool in the treatment of neurological disorders. Many efforts are being concentrated on the development of safe and effective stem cell lines. Nevertheless, the neurogenic potential of some cell lines, i.e., the ability to generate mature neurons either in vitro or in vivo, is largely unknown. Recent evidence indicate that this potential might be distinct among different cell lines, therefore limiting their broad use as replacement cells in the central nervous system. Here, we have reviewed the latest advancements regarding the electrophysiological maturation of stem cells, focusing our attention on fetal-derived-, embryonic-, and induced pluripotent stem cells. In summary, a large body of evidence supports the biological safety, high neurogenic potential, and in some diseases probable clinical efficiency related to fetal-derived cells. By contrast, reliable data regarding embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are still missing.


Terapias celulares, baseadas no transplante de células imaturas, têm sido consideradas ferramentas promissoras no tratamento de doenças neurológicas. Muitos esforços têm sido concentrados no desenvolvimento de linhas de células-tronco seguras e eficazes. No entanto, o potencial neurogênico de algumas linhagens celulares, ou seja, a habilidade de gerar neurônios maduros, in vitro ou in vivo, ainda é altamente desconhecida. Dados recentes sugerem que esse potencial é distinto entre diversos tipos celulares, o que limitaria o largo emprego como células restauradoras no sistema nervoso central. Neste relato, revisaram-se os avanços recentes relacionados à maturação eletrofisiológica de células-tronco, com foco em células derivadas de tecido fetal, células embrionárias e células pluripotentes induzidas. Em resumo, há evidências que apontam para segurança biológica de células fetais, com alto potencial neurogênico e, em se tratando de algumas doenças, provável eficiência clínica. Ao contrário, ainda não há dados confiáveis acerca de células embrionárias e pluripotentes induzidas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology , Nervous System Diseases/surgery , Neural Stem Cells/cytology , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Embryonic Stem Cells/transplantation , Neural Stem Cells/transplantation , Pluripotent Stem Cells/transplantation
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202342

ABSTRACT

This research was performed to investigate the differences of the transplanted cells' survival and differentiation, and its efficacy according to the delivery routes following spinal cord injury. Allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were transplanted intravenously (IV group) or intralesionally (IL group) at post-injury 1 day in rats. Behavioral improvement, engraftment and differentiation of the transplanted cells and the expression of neurotrophic factors of the transplanted groups were analyzed and compared with those of the control group. At 6 weeks post-injury, the mean BBB motor scales in the control, IV and IL groups were 6.5 +/- 1.8, 11.1 +/- 2.1, and 8.5 +/- 2.8, respectively. Regardless of the delivery route, the MSCs transplantation following spinal cord injuries presented better behavioral improvement. The differentiations of the engrafted cells were different according to the delivery routes. The engrafted cells predominantly differentiated into astrocytes in the IV group and on the other hand, engrafted cells of the IL group demonstrated relatively even neural and glial differentiation. The expressions of neuronal growth factor were significantly higher in the IL group (mean relative optical density, 2.4 +/- 0.15) than those in the control (2.16 +/- 0.04) or IV group (1.7 +/- 0.23). Transplantation of MSCs in the early stage of spinal cord injury gives a significant clinical improvement. However, the fate of the transplanted MSCs and expression of neuronal growth factors are different along the transplantation route.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Drug Administration Routes , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy , Transplantation, Homologous
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158329

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This aim of this study was to effectively isolate mesenchymal stem cells (hSMSCs) from human submandibular skin tissues (termed hSMSCs) and evaluate their characteristics. These hSMSCs were then chemically induced to the neuronal lineage and analyzed for their neurogenic characteristics in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Submandibular skin tissues were harvested from four adult patients and cultured in stem cell media. Isolated hSMSCs were evaluated for their multipotency and other stem cell characteristics. These cells were differentiated into neuronal cells with a chemical induction protocol. During the neuronal induction of hSMSCs, morphological changes and the expression of neuron-specific proteins (by fluorescence-activated cell sorting [FACS]) were evaluated. RESULTS: The hSMSCs showed plate-adherence, fibroblast-like growth, expression of the stem-cell transcription factors Oct 4 and Nanog, and positive staining for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) marker proteins (CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, and vimentin) and a neural precursor marker (nestin). Moreover, the hSMSCs in this study were successfully differentiated into multiple mesenchymal lineages, including osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Neuron-like cell morphology and various neural markers were highly visible six hours after the neuronal induction of hSMSCs, but their neuron-like characteristics disappeared over time (24-48 hrs). Interestingly, when the chemical induction medium was changed to Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS), the differentiated cells returned to their hSMSC morphology, and their cell number increased. These results indicate that chemically induced neuron-like cells should not be considered true nerve cells. CONCLUSION: Isolated hSMSCs have MSC characteristics and express a neural precursor marker, suggesting that human skin is a source of stem cells. However, the in vitro chemical neuronal induction of hSMSC does not produce long-lasting nerve cells and more studies are required before their use in nerve-tissue transplants.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adult , Cell Count , Chondrocytes , Eagles , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Neurons , Osteocytes , Proteins , Skin , Stem Cells , Transcription Factors , Transplants
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69143

ABSTRACT

Isolation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fully differentiated somatic cells has revolutionized existing concepts of cell differentiation and stem cells. Importantly, iPSCs generated from somatic cells of patients can be used to model different types of human diseases. They may also serve as autologous cell sources that can be used in transplantation therapy. In this study, we investigated the neuronal properties of an iPSC line that is derived from human neonatal foreskin fibroblasts (FS-1). We initially examined the morphology and marker expression of FS-1 cells at undifferentiated stage. We then spontaneously differentiated FS-1 cells in suspension culture and examined the expression of markers representing three germ layers. We finally differentiated FS-1 cells into neuronal lineages by co-culturing them with PA6 stromal cells, and found that, under the conditions we used, they have a tendency to differentiate into more forebrain-type neurons, suggesting that FS-1 iPSC-derived neural cells will be useful to be used in cell therapy of stroke or Huntington's disease, among others. Taken together, FS-1 cells derived from human neonatal fibroblasts exhibit very similar properties with human ES cells, and can provide useful sources for cell therapy and various other applications.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Fibroblasts , Foreskin , Germ Layers , Humans , Huntington Disease , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Infant, Newborn , Neurons , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Stem Cells , Stroke , Stromal Cells , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Transplants
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