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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 86(1): 27-32, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403483

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between subfoveal choroidal thickness and plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level and the severity of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A total of 68 cases, including 15 patients without diabetic retinopathy, 17 patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, 16 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and 20 healthy patients (control group), were enrolled in this study. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured manually using the enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography scanning program, and plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level was measured using a commercial micro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: The subfoveal choroidal thickness values and plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine levels were significantly different between the four groups (p<0.001 and p<0.001). The subfoveal choroidal thickness values were significantly lower in the proliferative diabetic retinopathy group than in the other three groups (no diabetic retinopathy, nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, and control groups; p<0.001, p=0.045, and p<0.001, respectively). The plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine levels were significantly higher in the proliferative diabetic retinopathy group than in the other three groups (p<0.001, p<0.04, and p<0.001, respectively). In addition, a significant negative correlation was also found between plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level and subfoveal choroidal thickness (p<0.001, r=-0.479). Conclusion: Asymmetrical dimethylarginine is an important marker of endothelial dysfunction and endogenous endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. The severity of diabetic retinopathy was related to increased plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level and reduced subfoveal choroidal thickness in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic retinopathy.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a relação da espessura subfoveal da coroide e dos níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica com a gravidade da retinopatia diabética em pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Métodos: Foram incluídos 68 casos, compreendendo 15 pacientes sem retinopatia diabética, 17 pacientes com retinopatia diabética não proliferativa, 16 pacientes com retinopatia diabética proliferativa, e 20 casos saudáveis (grupo de controle). A espessura subfoveal da coroide foi medida manualmente, usando o programa de varredura com tomografia computadorizada óptica com imagem profunda aprimorada, e os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica foram medidos usando um kit microELISA comercial. Resultados: Os valores da espessura subfoveal da coroide e os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica foram significativamente diferentes nos quatro grupos (p<0,001 para ambos os parâmetros). Os valores da espessura subfoveal da coroide foram significativamente menores no grupo com retinopatia diabética proliferativa do que nos outros três grupos (sem retinopatia diabética, retinopatia diabética não proliferativa e grupo de controle, com p<0,001, p=0,045 e p<0,001, respectivamente). Já os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica foram significativamente maiores no grupo com retinopatia diabética proliferativa do que nos outros três grupos (p<0,001, p=0,04 e p<0,001, respectivamente). Além disso, também foi encontrada uma correlação negativa significativa entre os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica e a espessura subfoveal da coroide (p<0,001, r=-0,479). Conclusão: A dimetil-arginina assimétrica é um importante marcador de disfunção endotelial e um inibidor endógeno da óxido nítrico sintase. Foi encontrada uma relação da gravidade da retinopatia diabética e de níveis elevados de dimetil-arginina assimétrica no plasma com a redução da espessura subfoveal da coroide em pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 com retinopatia diabética.

2.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(4): 439-446, Jul.-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394715

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: A weak venous wall is one of the major reasons contributing to vein graft failure after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We investigated whether adventitial collagen cross-linking by glutaraldehyde reinforces venous wall, preserving the endothelium of veins during high-pressure distention. Methods: Human saphenous veins (SVs) were collected from 40 patients undergoing CABG, and adventitia cross-linking was performed with 0.3% glutaraldehyde for five minutes. The cross-linked SVs were accessed by biodegradation assay, immunofluorescent staining, and tensile test. Native SVs and cross-linked SVs from another 20 patients received the 200 mmHg pressure distention for two minutes. Pressure-induced injury of SVs were accessed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Results: Time to digestion was 97±13 minutes for native SVs and 720±0 minutes for cross-linked SVs (P<0.05). After adventitial cross-linking, the collagen I fibres of the vein remarkably presented with compact and nonporous arrangement. In the high-stretch region (stretch ratio 1.4-1.8), the Young's elastic modulus of stress-stretch ratio curve in cross-linked SVs was larger than that in native SVs (13.88 vs. 5.83, P<0.05). The cross-linked SVs had a lower extent of endothelial denudation without fibre fracture during high-pressure distension than native SVs. Comparing with the non-cross-linked SVs, the percentage of endothelial nitric oxide synthase staining length on the endothelium of cross-linked SVs was significantly preserved after high-pressure distension (85.2% vs. 64.7%, P<0.05). Conclusion: Adventitial collagen cross-linking by glutaraldehyde reinforced venous wall by increasing stiffness and decreasing extensibility of SVs and mitigated the endothelial damage under high-pressure distension.

3.
J. bras. nefrol ; 44(2): 147-154, June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386022

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia that leads to diabetic nephropathy (DN). We showed that P2X7, a purinergic receptor, was highly expressed in DM; however, when oxidative stress was controlled, renal NO recovered, and the activation of this receptor remained significantly reduced. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of NO on the P2X7 and apoptosis in mouse immortalized mesangial cells (MiMC) cultured in high glucose (HG) medium. Methods: MiMCs were cultured with DMEM and exposed to normal glucose (NG), mannitol (MA), or HG. Cell viability was assessed by an automated counter. Supernatants were collected for NO quantification, and proteins were extracted for analysis of NO synthases (iNOS and eNOS), caspase-3, and P2X7. Results: Cell viability remained above 90% in all groups. There was a significant increase in the proliferation of cells in HG compared to MA and NG. NO, iNOS, caspase-3, and P2X7 were significantly increased in HG compared to NG and MA, with no changes in eNOS. We observed that there was a strong and significant correlation between P2X7 and NO. Discussion: The main finding was that the production of NO by iNOS was positively correlated with the increase of P2X7 in MCs under HG conditions, showing that there is a common stimulus between them and that NO interacts with the P2X7 pathway, contributing to apoptosis in experimental DM. These findings could be relevant to studies of therapeutic targets for the prevention and/or treatment of hyperglycemia-induced kidney damage to delay DN progression.


Resumo Introdução: Diabetes mellitus (DM) é uma doença crônica caracterizada por hiperglicemia levando à nefropatia diabética (ND). Mostramos que P2X7, um receptor purinérgico, foi altamente expresso na DM; entretanto, quando o estresse oxidativo foi controlado, o NO renal recuperou-se, e a ativação deste receptor permaneceu significativamente reduzida. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a influência do NO no P2X7 e a apoptose em células mesangiais imortalizadas de camundongos (CMiC) cultivadas em meio de glicose elevada (GE). Métodos: CMiCs foram cultivadas em meio DMEM e expostas à glicose normal (GN), manitol (MA), ou GE. A viabilidade celular foi avaliada por contador automático. Sobrenadantes foram coletados para quantificação de NO, e foram extraídas proteínas para análise de NO sintases (iNOS e eNOS), caspase-3, e P2X7. Resultados: A viabilidade celular permaneceu acima de 90% em todos os grupos. Houve aumento significativo na proliferação de células na GE comparado com MA e GN. NO, iNOS, caspase-3 e P2X7 foram significativamente aumentados na GE comparados com GN e MA, sem alterações na eNOS. Observamos que houve correlação forte e significativa entre P2X7 e NO. Discussão: O principal achado foi que a produção de NO pela iNOS foi positivamente correlacionada com aumento de P2X7 em CMs sob condições de GE, mostrando que existe um estímulo comum entre eles e que o NO interage com a via do P2X7, contribuindo para apoptose na DM experimental. Estes achados podem ser relevantes para estudos de alvos terapêuticos para a prevenção e/ou tratamento de danos renais induzidos por hiperglicemia para retardar a progressão da ND.

4.
Medicina (Ribeirao Preto, Online) ; 55(1)maio 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410539

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The objective of this study was to review data from randomized controlled trials to assess whether or not the supplementation of L-Arginine (L-Arg) is effective in reducing the incidence of preeclampsia (PE) in pregnancies at risk of developing the disorder. Methods: We aimed to systematic review randomized controlled trials, including those which compared L-Arg supplementation with placebo in pregnant women at high risk of PE development, analyzing PE incidence as the main outcome. Data were collected from MEDLINE/ Pubmed, EMBASE/ Elsevier, LILACS/ BVS and Cochrane. Results: A total of 46 papers were identified in the primary search. After analysis of eligibility, inclusion and exclusion criteria, two articles (which respected in detail all the stages of evaluation) were included in the present review. A risk of bias assessment was performed. Data analysis revealed that the incidence of PE was significantly lower in both studies, and no major adverse effects were reported. The limitations of this study were the lack of standardization between the trials analyzed and the relative low number of studies included. Conclusions: The supplementation with L-Arg appears to reduce the incidence of PE in pregnant women with high risk for its developmen (AU)


Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar dados de ensaios clínicos randomizados para avaliar se a suplementação de L-Arginina é efetiva para reduzir a incidência de pré-eclâmpsia em gestantes com alto risco de desenvolver a doença. Métodos: Realizamos uma revisão sistemática de ensaios clínicos randomizados, incluindo aqueles que compararam a suplementação de L-Arginina com placebo em gestantes de alto risco de desenvolvimento de pré-eclâmpsia, analisando a incidência de pré-eclâmpsia como desfecho principal. Os estudos foram selecionados do MEDLINE/ Pubmed, EMBASE/ Elsevier, LILACS/ BVS e Cochrane. Resultados: Um total de 46 estudos foram identificados na busca primária. Após análise da elegibilidade, dos critérios de inclusão e de exclusão, dois artigos (que respeitaram em detalhes todas etapas de avaliação) foram incluídos na presente revisão. Foi realizada uma avaliação de risco de viés. A análise dos dados revelou que a incidência de pré-eclâmpsia foi significativamente menor em ambos os estudos, e nenhum efeito adverso importante foi relatado. As limitações deste estudo foram a falta de padronização entre os ensaios clínicos analisados e o número relativamente baixo de estudos incluídos. Conclusão: A suplementação com L-Arginina parece reduzir a incidência de pré-eclâmpsia em gestantes de alto risco para seu desenvolvimento (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Arginine/therapeutic use , Pre-Eclampsia/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use
5.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 29(2): 263-267, ene.-abr. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376889

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common hazard involved in many human diseases, such as cerebral stroke, myocardial infarction, solid organ transplant dysfunction or failure, and vascular diseases. Understanding the molecular bases of this injury is essential for the prevention and control of these life-threatening conditions. Ischemic and remote ischemic preconditioning techniques (IPC and RIPC, respectively) have gained increasing importance in the clinical practice to protect against the IRI; however, the exact mechanisms of these techniques are not fully understood, which renders their clinical application query. Possible effectors: Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported by multiple studies to be an important mediator of the protective effects of those techniques. While the physiological concentrations of NO and fibrinogen (FB) are known to antagonize each other, the circulating levels of both effectors increase in response to RIPC. Hypothesis: While NO has potential anti-inflammatory effects, non-soluble fibrinogen (sFB) shows pro- inflammatory effects. However, the sFB may have the potential to act synergistically rather than antagonistically with NO toward the attenuation of the IRI. Conclusion: While increased FB is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular and inflammatory conditions that is also able to decrease the efflux of NO, and increase the NO oxidative metabolits and S- nitroglutathione, the increased sFB during the acute phase reaction might have other protective aspects that should be carefully investigated.


Resumen Antecedentes: La lesión por isquemia-reperfusión (LIR) es un riesgo común involucrado en muchas enfermedades humanas tales como derrame cerebral, infarto del miocardio, disfunción o falla de trasplante de órgano sólido, y enfermedades vasculares. Una comprensión de la base molecular de esta lesión es fundamental para la prevención y el control de estas enfermedades potencialmente mortales. Las técnicas de preacondicionamiento isquémico y preacondicionamiento isquémico remoto (PIR) han cobrado una creciente importancia en la práctica clínica para la protección contra la LIR, sin embargo, los mecanismos precisos de estas técnicas no se entienden plenamente, lo cual pone en duda su aplicación clínica. Posibles efectores: El óxido nítrico (ON) ha sido reportado por varios estudios como un importante mediador de los efectos protectores de estas técnicas. Si bien se sabe que las concentraciones fisiológicas del ON y fibrinógeno son antagónicas, los niveles circulantes de ambos efectores aumentan en respuesta al PIR. Hipótesis: Aunque el ON tiene posibles efectos anti-inflamatorios, el fibrinógeno insoluble muestra efectos proinflamatorios. Sin embargo, el fibrinógeno soluble puede tener el potencial de actuar de manera sinérgica en lugar de antagónica con el ON hacia la atenuación de la LIR. Conclusión: Aunque el fibrinógeno elevado se considera un factor de riesgo para las enfermedades cardiovasculares e inflamatorias, que también puede disminuir la descarga de ON y aumentar los niveles de metabolitos oxidantes del ON y de S-nitrosoglutatión, el aumento de fibrinógeno soluble durante la reacción de fase aguda puede tener otros aspectos protectores que deben ser cuidadosamente investigados.

6.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(2): 169-176, Apr.-June 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385041

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Leg ulcers (LUs) are relatively common in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA). The role of inflammation and nitric oxide (NO) pathways in the pathophysiology of the LU is not understood. Objective The aim of this study was to verify the association between inflammatory molecules and nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) and the occurrence of the LU in patients with SCA. Method It was a cross-sectional study on adult participants with SCA followed at Fundação Hemominas, a public blood center in Brazil. Eligible participants were recruited and included in one of two groups: Group 1, comprised of cases with SCA (Hb SS) and at least one LU at the time of inclusion in the study and Group 2, comprised of controls with SCA without a history of LU, matched by sex and age to cases. Participants were interviewed to obtain sociodemographic data and blood samples were collected. Clinical and laboratory data were abstracted from medical records. Nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) and inflammatory molecules were quantified using an immunoassay and Multiplex xMAP® technology, respectively. Eighty-seven individuals were included, ranging in age from 17 to 61 years (mean 40 ± 10.7 years); 30 had LU and 57 were controls without LU. Results Participants with LU had significantly higher levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8), IL-10, IL-15, NOx and platelet and white blood cell (WBC) counts, when compared to those without LU. Participants with LU had a significantly higher risk of having a history of osteomyelitis and a higher use of antiseptic soap in bathing, when compared to those without LU. Conclusion In conclusion, our results showed that NOx, inflammatory molecules and hematological features were associated with LU in Brazilian adults with SCA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Leg Ulcer , Inflammation , Nitric Oxide
7.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 253-264, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364973

ABSTRACT

Abstract The regular practice of physical exercise as a non-pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension (AH) has been encouraged due to causing a series of physiological responses in the cardiovascular system, such as the production of vasoactive substances, including nitric oxide (NO). NO is a relaxation factor released by the endothelium, and the decrease in its bioavailability is related to coronary and arterial diseases, such as AH. This study aimed to perform an integrative literature review to elucidate the effect of physical training on NO levels in patients with AH and to establish a relationship between these levels and blood pressure (BP) control. A literature review was was performed by searching PubMed / MEDLINE, Lilacs, Scielo, Cinahl and Embase databases. The search string used was ("arterial hypertension" OR hypertension) AND (exercise OR "physical exercise" OR "aerobic exercise" OR "exercise training" or "physical activity") AND ("nitric oxide"). We included fully available controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials published in English and Portuguese languages in the last 10 years. The review consisted of 16 articles, of which 13 reported an increase in NO production after the physical training intervention, and three studies found no change. In addition, 15 studies observed a reduction in BP after the intervention. In conclusion, regular practice of physical exercises, advocating moderate intensity, can improve NO bioavailability in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive individuals, which seems to be one of the mechanisms responsible for BP reduction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Exercise/physiology , Hypertension/therapy , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/metabolism , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Physical Conditioning, Human/physiology , Hypertension/metabolism
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1)feb. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385582

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Skeletal muscle injury is an acute inflammatory condition caused by an inflammatory response. To reduce inflammatory cell infiltration and relieve skeletal muscle injury, efficient treatment is urgently needed. Nitric oxide is a free radical molecule reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we showed that NO could inhibit the inflammatory response of C2C12 cells in vitro and protect rat skeletal muscle injury from notexin in vivo. NO synthase inhibitor (L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Este?L-NAME) and NO donor (sodium nitroprusside dehydrate ?SNP) were used to explore the vital role of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in LPS-stimulated C2C12 myoblasts.The expression of IL-18 and IL-1b was upregulated by L-NAME and downregulated by SNP, as indicated by the ELISA results. NO can reduce ASC, Caspase-1, and NLRP3 mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, NO was detected in the rat model. The results of immunohistochemical staining showed that the production of DMD decreased. We conducted qRT-PCR and western blotting to detect the expression of Jo-1, Mi-2, TLR2, and TLR4 on day 6 post injury following treatment with L-NAME and SNP. The expression of Jo-1, Mi-2, TLR2, and TLR4 was upregulated by L-NAME and significantly reversed by SNP. NO can alleviate C2C12 cell inflammatory responses and protect rat skeletal muscle injury from notexin.


RESUMEN: La lesión del músculo esquelético es una afección inflamatoria aguda causada por una respuesta inflamatoria. Para reducir la infiltración de células inflamatorias y aliviar la lesión del músculo esquelético es necesario un tratamiento eficaz. El óxido nítrico es una molécula de radicales libres que tiene efectos antiinflamatorios. En este estudio, demostramos que el ON podría inhibir la respuesta inflamatoria de las células C2C12 in vitro y proteger la lesión del músculo esquelético de rata de la notexina in vivo. El inhibidor de ON sintasa (L-NG-nitroarginina metil este, L-NAME) y el donante de ON (nitroprusiato de sodio deshidratado, SNP) se utilizaron para explorar el papel vital de los lipopolisacáridos (LPS) en los mioblastos C2C12 estimulados por LPS. La expresión de IL- 18 e IL-1b fue regulada positivamente por L-NAME y regulada negativamente por SNP, como indican los resultados de ELISA. El ON puede reducir los niveles de proteína y ARNm de ASC, Caspasa-1 y NLRP3. Además, se detectó ON en el modelo de rata. Los resultados de la tinción inmunohistoquímica mostraron que disminuyó la producción de DMD. Realizamos qRT-PCR y transferencia Western para detectar la expresión de Jo-1, Mi-2, TLR2 y TLR4 el día 6 después de la lesión después del tratamiento con L-NAME y SNP. La expresión de Jo-1, Mi-2, TLR2 y TLR4 fue regulada positivamente por L- NAME y significativamente revertida por SNP. El ON puede aliviar las respuestas inflamatorias de las células C2C12 en ratas, y proteger la lesión del músculo esquelético de la notexina.

10.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(1): 20-28, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365538

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: There are many reasons to believe that the nitric oxide/guanosine 3'5' - cyclic monophosphate (or NO/cGMP) pathway on vasoplegic states is underestimated. To study indigo carmine (IC) as an alternative to methylene blue was the investigation rationale. Methods: The IC (3mg/kg intravenous infusion) study protocol included five experimental groups; 1) Control group — saline was injected at 0 and 10 minutes; 2) IC group — IC was injected at 0 and saline at 10 minutes; 3) compound 48/80 (C48/80) group — C48/80 was injected at 0 minute and saline at 10 minutes; 4) C48/80 + IC group — C48/80 was injected at 0 minute and IC at 10 minutes; and 5) IC + C48/80 group — IC was injected at 0 minute and C48/80 at 10 minutes. The studies were carried out by registering and measuring hemodynamic and blood gasometric parameters, including continuous cardiac output. Results: 1) The effects of the drugs (IC and C48/80) were more evident in the first 20 minutes of recording; 2) hypotensive responses were more pronounced in the C48/80 groups; 3) IC isolated or applied before C48/80 caused transient pulmonary hypertension; and 4) after the first 20 minutes, the pressure responses showed stability with apparent hypotension more pronounced in the C48/80 groups. Clinical observations showed significant hemodynamic instability and catastrophic anaphylactic reactions (agitation, pulmonary hypertension, severe bronchospasm, urticaria, high-intensity cyanosis, violent gastric hypersecretion, and ascites). Conclusion: A global results analysis showed differences between groups only in the first 20 minutes of the experiments.

11.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368946

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Objectives: The objective of this study was to review data from randomized controlled trials to assess whether or not the supplementation of L-Arginine (L-Arg) is effective in reducing the incidence of preeclampsia (PE) in pregnancies at risk of developing the disorder. Methods: We aimed to systematic review randomized controlled trials, including those which compared L-Arg supplementation with placebo in pregnant women at high risk of PE development, analyzing PE incidence as the main outcome. Data were collected from MEDLINE/ Pubmed, EMBASE/ Elsevier, LILACS/ BVS and Cochrane. Results: A total of 46 papers were identified in the primary search. After analysis of eligibility, inclusion and exclusion criteria, two articles (which respected in detail all the stages of evaluation) were included in the present review. A risk of bias assessment was performed. Data analysis revealed that the incidence of PE was significantly lower in both studies, and no major adverse effects were reported. The limitations of this study were the lack of standardization between the trials analyzed and the relative low number of studies included. Conclusions: The supplementation with L-Arg appears to reduce the incidence of PE in pregnant women with high risk for its development. (AU)


RESUMO: Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar dados de ensaios clínicos randomizados para avaliar se a suplementação de L-Arginina é efetiva para reduzir a incidência de pré-eclâmpsia em gestantes com alto risco de desenvolver a doença. Métodos: Realizamos uma revisão sistemática de ensaios clínicos randomizados, incluindo aqueles que compararam a suplementação de L-Arginina com placebo em gestantes de alto risco de desenvolvimento de pré-eclâmpsia, analisando a incidência de pré-eclâmpsia como desfecho principal. Os estudos foram selecionados do MEDLINE/ Pubmed, EMBASE/ Elsevier, LILACS/ BVS e Cochrane. Resultados: Um total de 46 estudos foram identificados na busca primária. Após análise da elegibilidade, dos critérios de inclusão e de exclusão, dois artigos (que respeitaram em detalhes todas etapas de avaliação) foram incluídos na presente revisão. Foi realizada uma avaliação de risco de viés. A análise dos dados revelou que a incidência de pré-eclâmpsia foi significativamente menor em ambos os estudos, e nenhum efeito adverso importante foi relatado. As limitações deste estudo foram a falta de padronização entre os ensaios clínicos analisados e o número relativamente baixo de estudos incluídos. Conclusão: A suplementação com L-Arginina parece reduzir a incidência de pré-eclâmpsia em gestantes de alto risco para seu desenvolvimento. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Arginine/therapeutic use , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930228

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the relationship between inducible carbon monoxide synthase (iNOS) and delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP), and explore its mechanism of action in DEACMP.Methods:This study was designed as prospective cohort study. Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning who met the diagnostic criteria and were admitted to Emergency Intensive Care Unit(EICU) of our hospital from June 2019 to June 2021 were selected as subjects. Patients were divided into the DEACMP group and non-DEACMP group according to the occurrence of DEACMP. Serum samples were collected on the first 24 h after admission and on day 7 and 14 after admission, and the serum nitric oxide (NO), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible carbon monoxide synthase (iNOS), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) level were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The generalized estimating equation was used to estimate the difference of NO, nNOS, iNOS and eNOS between DEACMP and non-DEACMP patients.Results:A total of 78 patients with carbon monoxide poisoning were included in our study finally, including 49 (62.82%) males and 29 (37.18%) females, with an average age of (53.96±14.95) years, 20 (25.64%) patients with DEACMP, and 1 (1.28%) death. Univariate analysis showed that patients with DEACMP had an average increase of 3 h (95% CI: 1.00, 5.00) in carbon monoxide exposure time and a 5-point decrease in GCS score (95% CI: 1.00, 6.00) than the patients without DEACMP, and the proportion of patients with severe carbon monoxide poisoning in the DEACMP group was higher than that of the non-DEACMP group (90.00% vs. 32.76%). According to the analysis of generalized estimation equation, on day 7 and 14 after admission, Compared with non-DEACMP patients, neither by performing unadjusted nor adjusted analysis with the iNOS of DEACMP patients was significantly higher than that in non-DEACMP patients regardless of whether exposure time, GCS score, coma time or severity of carbon monoxide poisoning were adjusted or not ( P <0.01 or P <0.05). Except for the level of nNOS in the GEE model adjusted with carbon monoxide exposure time, the levels of NO, nNOS and eNOS showed no significant difference between DEACMP and non-DEACMP patients ( P >0.05). Conclusions:The expression of iNOS level is increased in DEACMP patients, and its continuous expression may be involved in the pathogenesis of DEACMP.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930216

ABSTRACT

Objective:To determine the protective effect of fasudil on acute lung injury in septic mice.Methods:Forty-five 4-6-week-old male C57BL mice were randomly(random number) assigned to three groups ( n=15 each group): control group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group and Fasudil intervention group (FAS+LPS). Acute lung injury model of septic mice was established with an intraperitoneal injection and intratracheal infusion of LPS. The mice in the FAS+LPS group were injected with fasudil hydrochloride intraperitoneally 30 min before intraperitoneal LPS injection and 1 h after intratracheal LPS infusion, respectively. All mice were sacrificed at 4 h after modeling, and lung tissues were collected. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was preformed to observe the morphological changes in the lung tissue. The wet /dry weight (W/D) ratio, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the lung tissues were detected. Caspase-3 expression was examined by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Western blot was employed to detect the expression of RhoA, ROCK1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and p-eNOS. Results:Inflammatory cell infiltration and erythrocyte exudation were significantly reduced, and the degree of interstitial oedema and derangement of alveolar structure appeared in a decreasing degree after FAS intervention. Compared with the LPS group, the W/D ratio, MDA content, MPO activity and the expression of Caspase-3 in the FAS+LPS group were significantly reduced (all P<0.01). Meanwhile, the expression of RhoA and ROCK1 of the LPS group were obviously higher than those in the control group ( P<0.05), and p-eNOS was obviously lower than that in the control group ( P<0.05). Furthermore, the expression of RhoA and ROCK1 of the FAS+LPS group were obviously lower than those in the LPS group, and p-eNOS was obviously higher than that in the LPS group. There was no significant difference on the expression of eNOS among the three groups. Conclusions:Fasudil can alleviate the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration, reduce apoptosis in lung tissue, inhibit the RhoA/ROCK1 signaling activity, and promote the phosphorylation expression of eNOS in septic mice.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929848

ABSTRACT

As a biomarker of airway inflammation, alveolar exhaled nitric oxide(CaNO), which represents small airway inflammation, is increasingly used in respiratory diseases.CaNO not only can be applied to children bronchial asthma severity evaluation, the selection of treatment and treatment effect of the dynamic monitoring, can also be applied to the early diagnosis of interstitial lung disease and assessment of the severity of lung damage for other diseases such as tuberculosis, pulmonary hypertension diagnosis.This paper reviews the diagnostic and therapeutic value of CaNO in pediatric respiratory diseases, and discusses the role of CaNO in the diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation in pediatric lung diseases.

15.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 653-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941488

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplantation is more efficacious compared with other organ transplantations. Nevertheless, postoperative complications, such as renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), severely affect the survival rate and quality of life of recipients. How to mitigate the IRI of renal allografts has become one of the key topics in the field of kidney transplantation. At present, ischemic preconditioning enables renal allografts to adapt to ischemia, which is one of the effective methods to prevent the progression of IRI. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this article, the application of ischemic preconditioning in IRI, the regulation mechanism of ischemic preconditioning on the IRI of renal allografts at the cellular level and intracellular signaling pathway, and clinical application value and prospect of ischemic preconditioning were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for alleviating the IRI of renal allografts, enhancing the survival rate of the recipients and renal allografts and improving the quality of life of recipients.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940210

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo observe the therapeutic effect of Yiyuan Qiwei pills (YYQW) on diabetes mellitus-induced induced erectile dysfunction (DMED) in rats and explore its regulation on the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway. MethodFifty-five healthy SD male rats of clean grade aged 2-3 months underwent intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) to induce the DMED model, and another 10 healthy SD male rats of clean grade aged 2-3 months were assigned to the control group. The model rats were randomly divided into a model group, a sildenafil group (5 mg·kg-1, ig), and low-, medium-, and high-dose YYQW groups (1.5, 3.0, 6.0 g·kg-1, ig). The rats in the model group and the control group were given normal saline by gavage at 10 mL·kg-1, once a day for two months. After intervention, the penile erectile function of rats in each group was measured by a pressure detection system. The pathological changes and ultrastructure of penile corpus cavernosum were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The level of NO in the corpus cavernosum was detected by nitrate reductase. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the levels of cGMP and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), neurogenic nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), total nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and phosphodiesterase type5 (PDE5) in rat penile tissues. The expression of above proteins was detected by Western blot. ResultCompared with the control group, the model group showed decreased intracavernous pressure (ICP), NO, and cGMP levels, reduced mRNA and protein expression of nNOS and NOS, and increased PDE5 mRNA and protein expression (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the sildenafil group and the YYQW groups displayed increased ICP, NO, and cGMP levels, elevated mRNA and protein expression levels of nNOS and NOS, and reduced PDE5 mRNA and protein expression levels (P<0.05). There were no pathological changes in the tissues and cell ultrastructure of the corpus cavernosum in the control group, while serious pathological changes were observed in the model group. Additionally, the sildenafil group and the YYQW groups were superior to the model group, the optimal effect was observed in the high-dose YYQW group. ConclusionYYQW can improve the penile erectile function of DMED rats and reduce the pathological damage of corpus cavernosum. The mechanism may be related to the promotion of nNOS and NOS expression, the inhibition of PDE5 expression, and the activation of the NO/cGMP signaling pathway.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940113

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo observe the therapeutic effect of Yiyuan Qiwei pills (YYQW) on diabetes mellitus-induced induced erectile dysfunction (DMED) in rats and explore its regulation on the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway. MethodFifty-five healthy SD male rats of clean grade aged 2-3 months underwent intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) to induce the DMED model, and another 10 healthy SD male rats of clean grade aged 2-3 months were assigned to the control group. The model rats were randomly divided into a model group, a sildenafil group (5 mg·kg-1, ig), and low-, medium-, and high-dose YYQW groups (1.5, 3.0, 6.0 g·kg-1, ig). The rats in the model group and the control group were given normal saline by gavage at 10 mL·kg-1, once a day for two months. After intervention, the penile erectile function of rats in each group was measured by a pressure detection system. The pathological changes and ultrastructure of penile corpus cavernosum were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The level of NO in the corpus cavernosum was detected by nitrate reductase. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the levels of cGMP and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), neurogenic nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), total nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and phosphodiesterase type5 (PDE5) in rat penile tissues. The expression of above proteins was detected by Western blot. ResultCompared with the control group, the model group showed decreased intracavernous pressure (ICP), NO, and cGMP levels, reduced mRNA and protein expression of nNOS and NOS, and increased PDE5 mRNA and protein expression (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the sildenafil group and the YYQW groups displayed increased ICP, NO, and cGMP levels, elevated mRNA and protein expression levels of nNOS and NOS, and reduced PDE5 mRNA and protein expression levels (P<0.05). There were no pathological changes in the tissues and cell ultrastructure of the corpus cavernosum in the control group, while serious pathological changes were observed in the model group. Additionally, the sildenafil group and the YYQW groups were superior to the model group, the optimal effect was observed in the high-dose YYQW group. ConclusionYYQW can improve the penile erectile function of DMED rats and reduce the pathological damage of corpus cavernosum. The mechanism may be related to the promotion of nNOS and NOS expression, the inhibition of PDE5 expression, and the activation of the NO/cGMP signaling pathway.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939509

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Neiguan" (PC 6) on cardiac function of ventriculus sinister in rats with spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and to explore the mediation effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1)/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS).@*METHODS@#Six 12-week-old male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were taken as the normal group. Eighteen 12-week-old SHR were randomly divided into a model group, an EA group and a sham EA group, 6 rats in each group. The rats in the EA group were treated with EA (disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/15 Hz in frequency, 1 mA in current intensity) at "Neiguan" (PC 6), 30 min each time, once a day for 8 weeks. The rats in the sham EA group were treated with superficial needling at "Neiguan" (PC 6) with no electrical stimulation applied. After treatment, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) were tested by echocardiographic analysis. The left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), heart rate (HR), the maximum rate of increase/decrease of left ventricular pressure (±dp/dtmax) were detected. The serum content of ET-1 was detected by ELISA. Western blot was used to evaluate the expression of ETAR, eNOS in myocardial tissue of left ventricular.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal group, LVEF, LVFS, +dp/dtmax/LVSP and -dp/dtmax/LVSP were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05), while LVSP, LVEDP, +dp/dtmax and -dp/dtmax were increased (P<0.01) in the model group. Compared with the model group, LVEF, LVFS, +dp/dtmax/LVSP and -dp/dtmax/LVSP were increased (P<0.01, P<0.05), and LVSP and LVEDP were decreased (P<0.01) in the EA group. Compared with the normal group, the serum content of ET-1 and the expression of ETAR in myocardial tissue were increased (P<0.01), whereas expression of eNOS was decreased (P<0.01) in the model group. Compared with the model group, the serum content of ET-1 and the expression of ETAR in myocardial tissue were decreased (P<0.05), whereas expression of eNOS was increased (P<0.05) in the EA group.@*CONCLUSION@#EA intervention may alleviate hypertensive cardiac function damage by up-regulating the expression of eNOS protein in myocardial tissue, down-regulating the serum content of ET-1 and the expression of ETAR protein in myocardial tissue.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electroacupuncture , Endothelin-1/genetics , Heart Diseases , Hypertension/therapy , Male , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/genetics , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939474

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Endophthalmitis is an uncommon but serious ocular infection often resulting in probable visual loss. Bacteroides fragilis is a rare cause of endophthalmitis. Patient concerns: A 46-year-old male patient complained of eye pain and low vision after pars plana vitrectomy. Diagnosis: Bacteroides fragilis endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy was diagnosed. Interventions: Pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil implantation were performed. Outcomes: Early treatment and choice of tamponade in endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy may possibly prevent evisceration and progression of endophthalmitis. Lessons: Bacteroides fragilis can be seen in cases of endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939473

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify unique immunogenic epitopes of Zika virus non-structural 1 (NS1) antigen and produce immunoglobulin Y (IgY) for potential use in he diagnosis of of Zika virus infection. Methods: Immunogenic epitopes were identified using in silico B-cell epitope prediction. A synthetic peptide analog of the predicted epitope was used to induce antipeptide IgY production in hens which was purified using affinity chromatography. Presence of purified IgY and its binding specificity were performed by gel electrophoresis and ELISA, respectively. Results: Out of the nine continuous epitopes identified, the sequence at position 193-208 (LKVREDYSLECDPAVI) was selected and used to produce anti-peptide IgY. The produced IgY was found to bind to the synthetic analog of the Zika virus NS1 immunogenic epitope but not to other flaviviruses and random peptides from other pathogens. Conclusions: In this study, we identified an immunogenic epitope unique to Zika virus that can be used to develop a serodiagnostic tool that specifically detect Zika virus infection.

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