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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 516-522, jul. 2024. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538029

ABSTRACT

This article aimed to discuss the protection of trans - nerolidol on vascular endothelial cells (ECs) injured by lipopolysac charides. ECs were divided into four groups: normal, model, low and high dose trans - nerolidol treatment groups. The cell survival rate and the contents of NO in the cell culture supernatant were determined. The protein expression and transcript level of pe roxisome proliferator - activated receptor - γ (PPARγ), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were determined by western blotting and RT - PCR respectively. Compared with the normal group, cell livability, protein e xpression and mRNA transcript level of PPARγ and eNOS decreased, NO contents, protein expression and mRNA transcript tlevel of iNOS increased in model group significantly. Compared with model group, all the changes recovered in different degree in treatmen t groups. Hence, it was concluded that trans - nerolidol can alleviate the ECs injuryby the regulation of iNOS/eNOS through activating PPARγ in a dose - dependent manner


Este artículo tiene como objetivo discutir la protección del trans - nerolidol en las células endoteliales vasculares (CE) dañadas por lipopolisacáridos. Las CE se di vidieron en cuatro grupos: normal, modelo, grupos de tratamiento con trans - nerolidol de baja y alta dosis. Se determinó la tasa de supervivencia de las células y los contenidos de óxido nítrico (NO) en el sobrenadante del cultivo celular. La expresión de p roteínas y el nivel de transcripción del receptor activado por proliferadores de peroxisomas - γ (PPARγ), el óxido nítrico sint et asa endotelial (eNOS) y el óxido nítrico sint et asa inducible (iNOS) se determinaron mediante western blot y RT - PCR, respectivamen te. En comparación con el grupo normal, la viabilidad celular, la expresión de proteínas y el nivel de transcripción de PPARγ y eNOS disminuyeron, los contenidos de NO, la expresión de proteínas y el nivel de transcripción de iNOS aumentaron significativam ente en el grupo modelo. En comparación con el grupo modelo, todos los cambios se recuperaron en diferentes grados en los grupos de tratamiento. Por lo tanto, se concluyó que el trans - nerolidol puede aliviar el daño en las CE regulando iNOS/eNOS a través d e la activación de PPARγ de manera dependiente de la dosis.


Subject(s)
Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects
2.
An. Fac. Med. (Perú) ; 85(1): 51-56, ene.-mar. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1556800

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción. El receptor de tipo Toll (TLR) que interactúe con el promastigote de Leishmania spp. determina la vía de activación celular. Objetivo. Identificar la expresión transcripcional de TLR-3, TLR-4, TLR-9, IL-12 y TNF-α en macrófagos infectados con una cepa nativa de L. braziliensis (Lbn). Métodos. La identificación de Lbn se hizo empleando qPCR para secuencias del DNA del cinetoplasto. Los macrófagos peritoneales de ratones fueron infectados con promastigotes y se midieron la producción de óxido nítrico (ON). Se cuantificaron los niveles transcripcionales para TLRs y citoquinas empleando qRT-PCR. Resultados. Lbn presentó 96% de homología con L. braziliensis. En los infectados con promastigotes se observó elevada producción de ON a las 2 h; significativa expresión transcripcional especialmente de TLR-3 y TLR-9 que se correspondió con la expresión para citoquinas. Conclusión. Lbn activó fuertemente a los macrófagos mediante los TLRs endosomales lo cual puede ser aplicado en el diseño de agonistas para tratar la enfermedad.


ABSTRACT Introduction. The Toll-like receptor (TLR) interacting with the promastigote of Leishmania spp. determines the cellular activation pathway. Objective. To determine the transcriptional expression of TLR-3, TLR-4, TLR-9, IL-12 and TNF-α in macrophages infected with a native strain of L. braziliensis (Lbn). Materials and Methods. Identification of Lbn was performed by qPCR for kinetoplast DNA sequences. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were infected with promastigotes (MI) and nitric oxide (NO) production was measured; transcript levels for TLRs and cytokines were quantified by qRT-PCR. Results. Lbn showed 96% homology to L. braziliensis. High ON production was observed in IMs at 2 h; significant transcriptional expression especially of TLR-3 and TLR-9, which corresponded with expression for cytokines. Conclusions. Lbn strongly activated macrophages via endosomal TLRs, which can be applied in the design of agonists to treat the disease.

3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 57: e13304, fev.2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557318

ABSTRACT

Arthritis has important cardiovascular repercussions. Phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction is impaired in rat aortas in the early phase of the adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA), around the 15th day post-induction. Therefore, the present study aimed to verify the effects of AIA on hyporesponsiveness to phenylephrine in rat aortas. AIA was induced by intradermal injection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (3.8 mg/dL) in the right hind paw of male Wistar rats (n=27). Functional experiments in isolated aortas were carried out 15 days after AIA induction. Morphometric and stereological analyses of the aortas were also performed 36 days after the induction of AIA. AIA did not promote structural modifications in the aortas at any of the time points studied. AIA reduced phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas, but not in endothelium-denuded aortas. However, AIA did not change KCl-induced contraction in either endothelium-intact or denuded aortas. L-NAME (non-selective NOS inhibitor), 1400W (selective iNOS inhibitor), and ODQ (guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) reversed AIA-induced hyporesponsiveness to phenylephrine in intact aortas. 7-NI (selective nNOS inhibitor) increased the contraction induced by phenylephrine in aortas from AIA rats. In summary, the hyporesponsiveness to phenylephrine induced by AIA was endothelium-dependent and mediated by iNOS-derived NO through activation of the NO-guanylyl cyclase pathway.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 225-231, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005429

ABSTRACT

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) has a short half-life, low bioavailability, poor tumor targeting and systemic adverse reactions in the physiological environment. In this study, phacoemulsification and nano-precipitation were used to synthesize didecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB)/polylactic acid nanoparticles (PLA), then L-arginine (L-Arg) and glucose oxidase (GOx)-loaded nanoparticles (GADP) were prepared, and the in vitro antitumor activity was investigated.The particle size, potential, embedding rate and the ability to produce H2O2/NO of the nanoparticles were investigated. Meanwhile, in vitro cell cytotoxicity against human hepatoma cells (HepG2) was evaluated.The results showed that the prepared L-Arg-DDAB/PLA (ADP) nanoparticles were spherical particles. And the particle size and zeta potential were (225.7 ± 6.33) nm and (+23.5 ± 0.12) mV, respectively. The adsorption rate of GOx was 87.23% ± 0.02%. The drug loading of L-Arg was 15.6% ± 0.22%. The pH value of glucose solution and the amount of H2O2 showed that GADP had good catalytic activity. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments showed that blank nanoparticles were nontoxic, while the drug-loaded nanoparticles presented enhanced antitumor effect on HepG2 cells. And can inhibit tumor cell migration. The low dose nano-scale NO delivery system GADP can effectively inhibit the migration of tumor cells and kill tumor cells, thus producing therapeutic benefits.

5.
Hansen. int ; 49: 39344, 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, HANSEN, CONASS, HANSENIASE, SESSP-ILSLPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1553924

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a hanseníase é uma do-ença infecciosa crônica causada pelo Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), um para-sita intracelular obrigatório. Assim, a resis-tência do hospedeiro a esse patógeno depen-de da imunidade celular. O uso de modelos experimentais tem permitido o estudo da hanseníase do ponto de vista imunológico, microbiológico e terapêutico, entretanto, as diferenças na progressão da infecção entre os modelos mais empregados (camundongos imunocompetentes, BALB/c, e camundongos congenitamente atímicos, nude) são pouco estudadas. Objetivo: comparar a evolução da infecção pelo M. leprae em camundongos BALB/c e nude quanto à multi-plicação bacilar e avaliação do perfil inflamatório sistêmico pela quantificação sérica de citocinas e óxido nítrico (NO). Métodos: os camundongos foram inoculados com M. leprae nos coxins plantares e avaliados aos 3, 5 e 8 meses após a infecção. Resultados: camundongos nude apresentaram multiplicação bacilar progressiva nos coxins plantares. Em camundongos BALB/c, o número de bacilos foi maior aos 5 meses. Em relação à quantificação de citocinas, nos camundongos BALB/c houve aumento de IL-2 e IL-17A e diminuição de IL-6 e NO aos 8 meses de inoculação. Nos camundongos nude, verificou-se o aumento do TNF aos 8 meses de inoculação e manutenção dos níveis de NO. Conclusão: os resultados encontrados sugerem que em camundongos BALB/c ocorre a ativação de uma resposta imune capaz de controlar a multiplicação do M. leprae, em contrapartida em camundongos nude a infecção é progressiva a despeito de altos níveis de TNF. (AU)


Introduction: leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), an obligate intracellular parasite. Thus, host resistance to this pathogen depends on cellular immunity. The use of experimental models has made it possible to study leprosy from an immunological, microbiological, and therapeutic point of view. However, the differences in the progression of the infection between the most used models (immunocompetent mice, BALB/c, and congenitally athymic mice, nude) have been little studied. Objective: to compare the evolution of M. leprae infection in BALB/c and nude mice in terms of bacillary multiplication and evaluation of the systemic inflammatory profile by quantifying serum cytokines and nitric oxide (NO). Methods: the mice were inoculated with M. leprae in the footpads and evaluated at 3, 5, and 8 months after infection. Results: nude mice showed progressive bacillary multiplication in the footpads. In BALB/c mice, the number of bacilli was higher at 5 months. In terms of cytokine quantification, BALB/c mice showed an increase in IL-2 and IL-17A and a decrease in IL-6 and NO at 8 months of inoculation. In the nude mice, there was an increase in TNF at 8 months of inoculation and maintenance of NO levels. Conclusion: the results suggest that BALB/c mice activate an immune response capable of controlling the multiplication of M. leprae, whereas in nude mice the infection is progressive despite high levels of TNF. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Leprosy/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Animals, Laboratory
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e23484, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533984

ABSTRACT

Abstract We investigated the vasodilatory effects of Hymenaea rubriflora Ducke stem bark extract (HRHAc). Vascular reactivity of the aortic rings of Wistar rats was tested by in vitro cumulative doses (0.1 - 729 µg/mL). Rats (n=5) were treated with 25 (G25), 50 (G50) and 100 (G100) mg/ kg of HR-HAc or saline (control group - CG) for four weeks. An in vitro assay resulted in dose-dependent relaxation of the aortic rings with functional endothelium, which was inhibited in the presence of L-NAME. Rings of the treated animals increased acetylcholine relaxing potency at all doses, with a greater effect on G50 (pD2 = 7.8±0.1, Emax = 95.6±1.1) and a decreased contractile potency to phenylephrine in G25 (pD2 = 6.9±0.06, Emax = 61.5±6.0%) and G50 (pD2= 6.6±0.06, Emax = 71.0±8.5%) when compared to the CG in the presence and absence of endothelium (pD2= 6.4± 0.1, 6.4±0.1 and 6.9±0.1, respectively). Cumulative doses of nitroprusside resulted in increased relaxing potency in all treated groups and maintained Emax at 100%. It is concluded that HR-HAc has vasorelaxant capacity and inhibitory vascular contraction activity applied either directly to aortic rings or after treatment with in vivo supplementation, which places this extract as a potential nutraceutical or pharmacological agent for treating diseases associated with vascular dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Acetylcholine/agonists , Aftercare/ethics , Hymenaea/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission/instrumentation , Dietary Supplements/classification
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 39: e392024, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1556660

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate morphological aspects and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene and protein expression in a model of acute inflammation. Methods: Thirty-six female Wistar rats were assigned into three groups: control (saline, n = 12), sham (arthritis, n = 12), and PBM (arthritis and photobiomodulation, n = 12). Arthritis induction was performed with 200 μg of intra-articular Zymosan in sham and PBM animals. PBM was performed 24 h after induction with a laser device (λ = 808 nm, 25 mW of nominal power, fluence of 20 J/cm2, beam area of 0.02 mm2, time of 33 s, total energy of 0.825 J) with punctual and single dose application. Morphological analysis of joint structure (HE) and immunohistochemistry (anti-iNOS antibody) were performed on knee samples, and synovial tissue was submitted to RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and gene expression analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Statistical analyses were performed with p < 0.05. Results: It was observed an increase in the thickness of the synovial lining epithelium and inflammatory infiltrate in sham compared to PBM. Gene expression analysis showed higher iNOS expression in PBM, and iNOS protein expression decreased in PBM compared to sham. Conclusions: Photobiomodulation decreased inflammation in PBM animals, upregulated iNOS gene expression, however down egulated protein expression compared to sham.

8.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 46: e, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559581

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To examine whether the DDAH2 promoter polymorphisms -1415G/A (rs2272592), -1151A/C (rs805304) and -449G/C (rs805305), and their haplotypes, are associated with PE compared with normotensive pregnant women, and whether they affect ADMA levels in these groups. Methods: A total of 208 pregnant women were included in the study and classified as early-onset (N=57) or late-onset PE (N =49), and as normotensive pregnant women (N = 102). Results: Pregnant with early-onset PE carrying the GC and GG genotypes for the DDAH2 -449G/C polymorphism had increased ADMA levels (P=0.01). No association of DDAH2 polymorphisms with PE in single-locus analysis was found. However, the G-C-G haplotype was associated with the risk for late-onset PE. Conclusion: It is suggested that DDAH2 polymorphisms could affect ADMA levels in PE, and that DDAH2 haplotypes may affect the risk for PE.

9.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 37: eAPE00512, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1533322

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Mapear as evidências disponíveis sobre as ações do óxido nítrico na fisiopatologia da sepse e sua relação com a gravidade de pacientes sépticos. Método Revisão de escopo de acordo com a metodologia do Joanna Briggs Institute. Realizou-se busca por estudos que evidenciaram as ações do óxido nítrico na sepse e se o seu aumento está associado à gravidade de pacientes sépticos. Dois revisores independentes fizeram o mapeamento das informações utilizando um instrumento de extração de dados previamente elaborado. Os dados foram analisados quanto à sua relevância, sendo posteriormente extraídos e sintetizados. Resultados De 1342 estudos, 11 foram incluídos na revisão. O primeiro foi publicado em 2017 e o último, em 2022. A maioria foi desenvolvida nos Estados Unidos, na China e na Alemanha. Os estudos apresentaram informações referentes as ações do óxido nítrico, sintetizando sua biodisponibilidade e os inibidores endógenos relacionados a sua produção, além de abordarem a relação do óxido nítrico com a gravidade da sepse. Conclusão A produção de óxido nítrico fisiológico durante a sepse atua como protetor vascular, principalmente na microcirculação, porém, em altas concentrações, contribui para a disfunção vascular, que subverte a fisiologia da regulação da pressão arterial, causando profunda vasodilatação e hipotensão refratária e aumentando a gravidade de pacientes sépticos.


Resumen Objetivo Mapear las evidencias disponibles sobre las acciones del óxido nítrico en la fisiopatología de la sepsis y su relación con la gravedad de pacientes sépticos. Métodos Revisión de alcance de acuerdo con la metodología del Joanna Briggs Institute. Se realizó una búsqueda de estudios que evidenciaron las acciones del óxido nítrico en la sepsis y si su aumento estaba asociado a la gravedad de pacientes sépticos. Dos revisores independientes hicieron el mapeo de la información utilizando un instrumento de extracción de datos previamente elaborado. Los datos se analizaron respecto a su relevancia, para luego extraerlos y sintetizarlos. Resultados De 1342 estudios, se incluyeron 11 en la revisión. El primero fue publicado en 2017 y el último en 2022. La mayoría se realizó en Estados Unidos, China y Alemania. Los estudios presentaron información referente a las acciones del óxido nítrico, sintetizando su biodisponibilidad y los inhibidores endógenos relacionados con su producción, además de abordar la relación del óxido nítrico con la gravedad de la sepsis. Conclusión La producción de óxido nítrico fisiológico durante la sepsis actúa como protector vascular, principalmente en la microcirculación. Sin embargo, en altas concentraciones, contribuye a la disfunción vascular, que subvierte la fisiología de la regulación de la presión arterial, causa una profunda vasodilatación e hipotensión refractaria y aumenta la gravedad de pacientes sépticos. Registro da revisão de escopo no Open Science Framework: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/MXDK2


Abstract Objective Map the available evidence on the actions of nitric oxide in the pathophysiology of sepsis and its relationship with the severity of sepsis in patients. Method Scoping review following the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. A search was carried out for studies that highlighted the actions of nitric oxide in sepsis, informing whether its increase is associated with the severity of sepsis in patients. Two independent reviewers mapped the information using a previously designed data extraction instrument. The data was analyzed for its relevance and then extracted and synthesized. Results Eleven of 1342 studies were included in the review. The first of them was published in 2017 and the last in 2022. Most of them were developed in the USA, China, and Germany. Studies have reported the actions and bioavailability of nitric oxide and endogenous inhibitors related to its production, and related nitric oxide to the severity of sepsis. Conclusion The physiological production of nitric oxide during sepsis acts as a vascular protector, mainly in the microcirculation but contributes to vascular dysfunction in high concentrations, subverting the regulation of blood pressure, causing deep vasodilation and refractory hypotension, and increasing the severity of sepsis in patients. Registration of the scoping review in the Open Science Framework: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/MXDK2

10.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 100(1): 81-87, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528966

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To investigate the diagnostic efficacy of serum IL-33 single indicator and combined indicators for asthma in children. Methods 132 children were initially diagnosed with asthma during acute exacerbation and 100 healthy children were included. Serum IL-33 concentration differences were compared between asthmatic and normal children. Correlations between IL-33 with pulmonary function parameters, FeNO, peripheral blood EOS counts and serum total IgE were analyzed in asthmatic children. ROC curves were used to assess IL-33 diagnostic efficacy and its combined indicators. To prevent overfitting of the predictive model, the hold-out cross-validation method was used. Results (1) Serum IL-33 concentrations were significantly higher in children with asthma than in normal children (p < 0.001). (2) IL-33 concentration was negatively correlated with FVC z-score, FEV1 z-score and FEF75% z-score in asthmatic children (p < 0.05). (3) The area under the ROC curve of IL-33 was 0.821, which was higher than those of FeNO, FVC z-score, and FEV1 z-score. (4) Cross-validation of the combined indicators showed that IL-33 significantly improved asthma diagnostic efficacy. The combination of IL-33, FEF75% z-score, and FeNO showed the highest diagnostic efficacy, with the AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of the combined indicator being 0.954, 90.1%, and 89. 0%, respectively, and good extrapolation of the predictive model. Conclusion Serum IL-33 is higher in children with asthma and increases with the severity of pulmonary ventilation obstruction. A single indicator of serum IL-33 demonstrates moderate diagnostic accuracy, and its combination with FEF75% z-score and FeNO significantly improves the diagnostic accuracy in childhood asthma.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-219292

ABSTRACT

Background: Obstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) typically present with severe cardiovascular decompensation and requires urgent surgical management. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a major risk factor affecting mortality. Perioperative management focuses on providing inotropic support and managing potential pulmonary hypertensive episodes. Milrinone and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) efficiently reduce pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and help to improve the outcome. The aim was to determine the outcome of patients with high PAP with milrinone alone and a combination of iNO and milrinone. Material and Method: After ethical committee approval, the study was conducted over a period of 3 years in 80 patients with obstructed TAPVC repair. A total of 80 patients having severe PAH (supra systemic arterial pressure) randomly divided into two groups with 40 patients in each (M & MN). Group M (milrinone) patients received milrinone and Group MN (milrinone & iNO) patients received both milrinone (after opening aortic cross clamp) and iNO (post operative ICU). Ventilation time, hospital stay, ICU stay, complications, in hospital mortality were compared between both groups. Result: Ventilation time, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, hospital stay for group M was 8.02 � 5.74 days, 11.25 � 7.33 day, 14.92 � 8.55 days, respectively, and for group MN was 5.02 � 1.78 days, 8.27 � 3.24 days, 10.3 � 3.18 days, respectively. In hospital mortality for group M and MN was 10% and 2.5%, respectively. P value for each variable was significant < 0.05 (except mortality). Conclusion: Most of the patients with obstructed TAPVC had severe PAH. Management of severe PAH with a combination of milrinone with iNO had a better outcome than milrinone alone.

12.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223540

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Striatin is a multi-domain scaffolding protein essential for activating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). However, its role in pre-eclampsia remains use explored. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the association between striatin and eNOS in regulating nitric oxide (NO) production in the placenta of women with and without pre-eclampsia. Methods: Forty pregnant women each without (controls) and with pre-eclampsia (cases) were enrolled in the study. Blood striatin and NO concentrations were detected by the ELISA. Protein expression of striatin, phosphorylated eNOS (peNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) and phosphorylated NF-?B were measured in the placental tissues by Western blot. Twenty four hour urinary protein and serum urea, uric acid and creatinine were analyzed as an autoanalyzer. Placental histology was analyzed by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: Compared to normotensive pregnant women, the levels of serum NO and striatin were decreased in pre-eclamptic women. The protein expression of striatin and peNOS was significantly reduced (P<0.05) while p65NF-?B and iNOS were upregulated considerably (P<0.05) in the placenta of cases compared to controls. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results show for the first time that decreased striatin expression was associated with decreased peNOS protein expression in the placental tissue of pre-eclamptic women. Interestingly, no significant difference was found in blood striatin or NO levels between controls and cases. Thus, therapies that improve placental striatin expression are attractive possibilities, both for prevention as well as treatment of endothelial dysfunction in pre-eclampsia.

13.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 81(3): 233-239, Mar. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439446

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Neuropathic pain typically refers to the pain caused by somatosensory system injury or diseases, which is usually characterized by ambulatory pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia. Nitric oxide produced by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the spinal dorsal cord might serve a predominant role in regulating the algesia of neuropathic pain. The high efficacy and safety, as well as the plausible ability in providing comfort, entitle dexmedetomidine (DEX) to an effective anesthetic adjuvant. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of DEX on the expression of nNOS in spinal dorsal cord in a rat model with chronic neuropathic pain. Methods Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into three groups: sham operation group (sham), (of the sciatic nerve) operation (CCI) group, and dexmedetomidine (DEX) group. Chronic neuropathic pain models in the CCI and DEX groups were established by sciatic nerve ligation. The thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) was measured on day 1 before operation and on day 1, 3, 7 and 14 after operation. Six animals were sacrificed after TWL measurement on day 7, and 14 days after operation, in each group, the L4-6 segment of the spinal cords was extracted for determination of nNOS expression by immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with the sham group, the TWL threshold was significantly decreased and the expression of nNOS was up-regulated after operation in the CCI and DEX groups. Compared with the CCI grou[, the TWL threshold was significantly increased and the expression of nNOS was significantly down-regulated on day 7 and 14 days after operation in the DEX group. Conclusion Down-regulated nNOS in the spinal dorsal cord is involved in the attenuation of neuropathic pain by DEX.


Resumo Antecedentes A dor neuropática refere-se tipicamente à dor causada por lesões ou doenças do sistema somatossensorial. De modo geral, é caracterizada por dor à ambulação, alodinia e hiperalgesia. O óxido nítrico produzido pela enzima óxido nítrico sintase neuronal (nNOS) na medula espinhal dorsal pode ter um papel predominante na regulação da dor neuropática. A alta eficácia e segurança, bem como a plausível capacidade de proporcionar conforto, faz com que a dexmedetomidina (DEX) seja um adjuvante anestésico eficaz. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito da DEX na expressão de nNOS na medula espinhal dorsal em um modelo de ratos com dor neuropática crônica. Métodos Ratos Sprague Dawley (SD) machos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos: grupo de cirurgia simulada (sham), grupo de cirurgia (do nervo ciático; CCI) e grupo dexmedetomidina (DEX). Os modelos de dor neuropática crônica nos grupos CCI e DEX foram estabelecidos por ligadura do nervo ciático. A latência de retirada térmica (TWL) foi medida no dia 1 antes da cirurgia e nos dias 1, 3, 7 e 14 após o procedimento. Seis animais de cada grupo foram eutanasiados após a medida de TWL nos dias 7 e 14 após a cirurgia e o segmento L4-6 da medula espinhal foi extraído para determinação da expressão de nNOS por imuno-histoquímica. Resultados Em comparação ao grupo sham, o limiar de TWL diminuiu significativamente e a expressão de nNOS foi regulada de maneira positiva após a cirurgia nos grupos CCI e DEX. Comparado ao grupo CCI, o limiar de TWL aumentou de forma significativa e a expressão de nNOS caiu significativamente diminuída nos dia 7 e 14 após a cirurgia no grupo DEX. Conclusão A regulação negativa de nNOS na medula espinhal dorsal está envolvida na atenuação da dor neuropática pela DEX.

14.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(1): 61-68, mar. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533920

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the supporting tissues of teeth, the effects of excess of nitric oxide, may contribute to the symptoms of periodontitis. Objective: To determine the serum nitric oxide concentration in generalized chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients and to compare it with a healthy subject group from the Mexican population. Materials and methods: A case and control study was performed. Sixty-nine individuals were recruited from the Clínica de Posgrado de Periodoncia of the Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, México. Patients with clinical features of generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP group, n=19), generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP group, n=11), and a group of healthy subjects (HS group, n=39) were included in the study. Informed consent was obtained from each subject, and serum nitric oxide concentration was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Nitric oxide concentration in the study groups was greater in the GCP group (462.57 ± 16.57 µmol/L) than in the GAP group (433.84 ± 18.61 µmol/L) and the HS group (422.46 ± 12.07 µmol/L). A comparison using Student's t-test (one-tailed) between healthy subjects and generalized chronic periodontitis showed borderline significance (p<0.04), whereas no significant differences were observed in HS and GAP groups, with a p-value of 0.64, and the GAP vs. GCP p-value was 0.33. Conclusion: The serum nitric oxide concentration observed in the present study suggests that nitric oxide plays a major role in the inflammatory process, which cannot necessarily be linked to the severity of the disease and periodontal tissue destruction.


Introducción. La periodontitis es una enfermedad inflamatoria que afecta los tejidos de soporte dental; los efectos del exceso de óxido nítrico pueden contribuir a los síntomas de la periodontitis. Objetivo. Determinar la concentración de óxido nítrico en el suero de los pacientes con periodontitis agresiva y crónica generalizada, y compararla con la de individuos sanos de población mexicana. Materiales y métodos. Se trata de un estudio de casos y controles. Se incluyeron 69 individuos de la Clínica de Posgrado de Periodoncia del Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad de Guadalajara. Se dividieron en tres grupos: pacientes con periodontitis crónica generalizada (GCP, n=19), pacientes con periodontitis agresiva generalizada (GAP, n=11) e individuos sanos periodontalmente (HS, n=39). Se obtuvo el consentimiento informado de todos los participantes. Se utililizó la prueba ELISA para medir la concentración de óxido nítrico en suero. Resultados. Las concentraciones de óxido nítrico observadas fueron mayores en el grupo GCP (462,57 ± 16,57 µmol/L) que en los grupos GAP (433,84 ± 18,61 µmol/L) y HS (422,46 ± 12,07 µmol/L). La comparación entre HS y GCP mediante la prueba estadística t de Student (una cola), mostró diferencias significativas (p<0,04), y no se observaron diferencias entre los grupos HS y GAP (p=0,64), ni entre GAP y GCP (p=0,33). Conclusiones. La concentración de óxido nítrico en suero, observada en el presente estudio, sugiere que el óxido nítrico desempeña un importante papel en el proceso inflamatorio, lo que no necesariamente está ligado a la gravedad de la enfermedad ni a la destrucción del tejido periodontal.


Subject(s)
Periodontitis , Nitric Oxide , Aggressive Periodontitis , Alveolar Bone Loss , Chronic Periodontitis
15.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 86(1): 27-32, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403483

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between subfoveal choroidal thickness and plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level and the severity of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A total of 68 cases, including 15 patients without diabetic retinopathy, 17 patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, 16 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and 20 healthy patients (control group), were enrolled in this study. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured manually using the enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography scanning program, and plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level was measured using a commercial micro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: The subfoveal choroidal thickness values and plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine levels were significantly different between the four groups (p<0.001 and p<0.001). The subfoveal choroidal thickness values were significantly lower in the proliferative diabetic retinopathy group than in the other three groups (no diabetic retinopathy, nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, and control groups; p<0.001, p=0.045, and p<0.001, respectively). The plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine levels were significantly higher in the proliferative diabetic retinopathy group than in the other three groups (p<0.001, p<0.04, and p<0.001, respectively). In addition, a significant negative correlation was also found between plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level and subfoveal choroidal thickness (p<0.001, r=-0.479). Conclusion: Asymmetrical dimethylarginine is an important marker of endothelial dysfunction and endogenous endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. The severity of diabetic retinopathy was related to increased plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level and reduced subfoveal choroidal thickness in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic retinopathy.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a relação da espessura subfoveal da coroide e dos níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica com a gravidade da retinopatia diabética em pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Métodos: Foram incluídos 68 casos, compreendendo 15 pacientes sem retinopatia diabética, 17 pacientes com retinopatia diabética não proliferativa, 16 pacientes com retinopatia diabética proliferativa, e 20 casos saudáveis (grupo de controle). A espessura subfoveal da coroide foi medida manualmente, usando o programa de varredura com tomografia computadorizada óptica com imagem profunda aprimorada, e os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica foram medidos usando um kit microELISA comercial. Resultados: Os valores da espessura subfoveal da coroide e os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica foram significativamente diferentes nos quatro grupos (p<0,001 para ambos os parâmetros). Os valores da espessura subfoveal da coroide foram significativamente menores no grupo com retinopatia diabética proliferativa do que nos outros três grupos (sem retinopatia diabética, retinopatia diabética não proliferativa e grupo de controle, com p<0,001, p=0,045 e p<0,001, respectivamente). Já os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica foram significativamente maiores no grupo com retinopatia diabética proliferativa do que nos outros três grupos (p<0,001, p=0,04 e p<0,001, respectivamente). Além disso, também foi encontrada uma correlação negativa significativa entre os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica e a espessura subfoveal da coroide (p<0,001, r=-0,479). Conclusão: A dimetil-arginina assimétrica é um importante marcador de disfunção endotelial e um inibidor endógeno da óxido nítrico sintase. Foi encontrada uma relação da gravidade da retinopatia diabética e de níveis elevados de dimetil-arginina assimétrica no plasma com a redução da espessura subfoveal da coroide em pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 com retinopatia diabética.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arginine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Retinopathy , Arginine/blood , Arginine/analogs & derivatives , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis
16.
Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine ; (12): 107-110, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964657

ABSTRACT

Manganese plays an important physiological role in the organism, and excessive manganese exposure can cause impairment of neurological and reproductive functions. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone secreted by the hypothalamus acts as an initiator to regulate reproductive functions, such as gonadal development, onset of puberty, and gonadal hormone release. But the mechanism by which manganese damages the hypothalamus leading to abnormal gonadotropin-releasing hormone release is still unclear yet. Kisspeptin, prostaglandin E2, and nitric oxide may act as stimulators to increase the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, while the stimulatory or inhibitory effect of γ-aminobutyric acid on the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone is controversial. Based on current research, manganese has been less studied with Kisspeptin, and studies with prostaglandin E2, nitric oxide, and γ-aminobutyric acid mainly focused on inflammation, oxidative stress, and neurotransmitter transmission. Therefore, taking Kisspeptin, prostaglandin E2, γ-aminobutyric acid, and nitric oxide as the breakthrough points, this paper introduced the mechanism of manganese affecting the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus through the above four pathways, and proposed that the abnormal release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus may be one of the mechanisms by which manganese regulates reproductive function, providing a new direction for the prevention and treatment of manganese-induced reproductive damage in the future.

17.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 27-31, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958996

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the effect of Xileisan temperature-sensitive gels on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression in rats with bleeding internal hemorrhoids, so as to provide insights into the illustration of the pathogenesis of internal hemorrhoid hemorrhage. @*Methods@#Thirty six-week-old SPF-graded rats of the SD strain were randomly divided into the normal group, model group and Xileisan temperature-sensitive gel group, of 10 rats in each group (half male and half female). Cotton balls were soaked with 0.16 mL of croton oil mixture and then inserted into the anus of rats in the model group and Xileisan temperature-sensitive gel group for 10 s. After 6 h when the rectal mucosa tissues presented remarkable swelling, the perianal mucosa was rubbed repeatedly with a rough glass rod until the glass rod was bloody. Following successful modeling, rats in the Xileisan temperature-sensitive gel group was given rectal administration of Xileisan temperature-sensitive gel at a dose of 0.5 mL/d, while animals in the normal group and model group were given rectal administration of the blank gel at the same dose. Following administration for 7 successive days, rats were sacrificed, and the hemorrhoids tissues were collected for pathological examinations. The eNOS, VEGF-A and TNF-α expression was determined using immunohistochemistry and compared among groups.@*Results@#Compared with the normal group, the rat hemorrhoids mucosa showed inflammatory changes in the model group, with submucosal congestion and edema, blood vessel congestion and dilation, and visible new blood vessels, and remarkable improvements were seen in the hemorrhoid mucosal inflammation in the Xileisan temperature-sensitive gel group. There were significant differences in the integrated option density (IOD) of eNOS and VEGF-A expression in rat hemorrhoids tissues among the three groups (P<0.05), and no gender-specific differences were seen (P>0.05). The IOD values of eNOS (45.84±13.66) and VEGF-A expression (45.89±9.06) were higher in rat hemorrhoids tissues in the model group than in the normal group (23.11±5.64 and 27.91±11.65) and the Xileisan temperature-sensitive gel group (27.41±8.89 and 33.44±6.20) (P<0.05), while no significant differences were detected in the IOD of TNF-α expression in rat hemorrhoids tissues among the three groups (P>0.05).@*Conclusion@#Xileisan temperature-sensitive gel may alleviate inflammation and internal hemorrhoids hemorrhage through inhibiting eNOS and VEGF-A expression in rat hemorrhoids tissues.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1498-1521, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982800

ABSTRACT

Gas therapy has been proven to be a promising and advantageous treatment option for cancers. Studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) is one of the smallest structurally significant gas molecules with great potential to suppress cancer. However, there is controversy and concern about its use as it exhibits the opposite physiological effects based on its levels in the tumor. Therefore, the anti-cancer mechanism of NO is the key to cancer treatment, and rationally designed NO delivery systems are crucial to the success of NO biomedical applications. This review summarizes the endogenous production of NO, its physiological mechanisms of action, the application of NO in cancer treatment, and nano-delivery systems for delivering NO donors. Moreover, it briefly reviews challenges in delivering NO from different nanoparticles and the issues associated with its combination treatment strategies. The advantages and challenges of various NO delivery platforms are recapitulated for possible transformation into clinical applications.

19.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 663-670, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Endothelium-dependent vasodilation dysfunction is the pathological basis of diabetic macroangiopathy. The utilization and adaptation of endothelial cells to high glucose determine the functional status of endothelial cells. Glycolysis pathway is the major energy source for endothelial cells. Abnormal glycolysis plays an important role in endothelium-dependent vasodilation dysfunction induced by high glucose. Pyruvate kinase isozyme type M2 (PKM2) is one of key enzymes in glycolysis pathway, phosphorylation of PKM2 can reduce the activity of pyruvate kinase and affect the glycolysis process of glucose. TEPP-46 can stabilize PKM2 in its tetramer form, reducing its dimer formation and phosphorylation. Using TEPP-46 as a tool drug to inhibit PKM2 phosphorylation, this study aims to explore the impact and potential mechanism of phosphorylated PKM2 (p-PKM2) on endothelial dependent vasodilation function in high glucose, and to provide a theoretical basis for finding new intervention targets for diabetic macroangiopathy.@*METHODS@#The mice were divided into 3 groups: a wild-type (WT) group (a control group, C57BL/6 mice) and a db/db group (a diabetic group, db/db mice), which were treated with the sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution (solvent) by gavage once a day, and a TEPP-46 group (a treatment group, db/db mice+TEPP-46), which was gavaged with TEPP-46 (30 mg/kg) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution once a day. After 12 weeks of treatment, the levels of p-PKM2 and PKM2 protein in thoracic aortas, plasma nitric oxide (NO) level and endothelium-dependent vasodilation function of thoracic aortas were detected. High glucose (30 mmol/L) with or without TEPP-46 (10 μmol/L), mannitol incubating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) for 72 hours, respectively. The level of NO in supernatant, the content of NO in cells, and the levels of p-PKM2 and PKM2 protein were detected. Finally, the effect of TEPP-46 on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation was detected at the cellular and animal levels.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the levels of p-PKM2 in thoracic aortas of the diabetic group increased (P<0.05). The responsiveness of thoracic aortas in the diabetic group to acetylcholine (ACh) was 47% lower than that in the control group (P<0.05), and that in TEPP-46 treatment group was 28% higher than that in the diabetic group (P<0.05), while there was no statistically significant difference in the responsiveness of thoracic aortas to sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Compared with the control group, the plasma NO level of mice decreased in the diabetic group, while compared with the diabetic group, the phosphorylation of PKM2 in thoracic aortas decreased and the plasma NO level increased in the TEPP-46 group (both P<0.05). High glucose instead of mannitol induced the increase of PKM2 phosphorylation in HUVECs and reduced the level of NO in supernatant (both P<0.05). HUVECs incubated with TEPP-46 and high glucose reversed the reduction of NO production and secretion induced by high glucose while inhibiting PKM2 phosphorylation (both P<0.05). At the cellular and animal levels, TEPP-46 reversed the decrease of eNOS (ser1177) phosphorylation induced by high glucose (both P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#p-PKM2 may be involved in the process of endothelium-dependent vasodilation dysfunction in Type 2 diabetes by inhibiting p-eNOS (ser1177)/NO pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Pyruvate Kinase/metabolism , Vasodilation
20.
International Eye Science ; (12): 1816-1820, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-996890

ABSTRACT

With complex pathogenesis, myopia is a common ophthalmology disease and a major causation for visual impairment in children. For years, studies found that neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, nitric oxide, acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine, insulin and prostaglandins, are associated with children's refractive development and axial length growth. However, there are still many disagreements in their mechanisms of action. This article makes a systematic review on the roles of neurotransmitters in the pathogenesis of myopia including neurotransmitter receptors and antagonists to clarify the influence of different neurotransmitters on the occurrence and development of myopia, thus giving a comprehensive insight into its pathogenesis, building a basis for further research on the changes of neurotransmitters and providing new ideas and directions for the prevention and treatment of myopia.

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