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J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 99(2): 174-180, Mar.-Apr. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430708


Abstract Objective: This study aimed to investigate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) occurrence and factors associated with the disease in phenylketonuria (PKU) patients undergoing exclusive dietary treatment. Method: This cross-sectional study included 101 adolescents 10 to < 20 years of age with PKU, who were undergoing exclusive dietary treatment and monitored since early diagnosis at a single reference service. Anthropometric and biochemical assessments were performed and food intake was documented, and an ultrasound diagnosis of NAFLD was established. Data were evaluated using the Student's t-test for continuous variables, the chi-square for categorical variables, and logistic regression using the Wald chi-squared test; differences with p < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: NAFLD was detected in 26 (25.7%) teenagers. There was no difference in prevalence between the sexes or nutritional status. The final logistic regression model revealed low sensitivity (26.1%) and high specificity (94.7%). The specificity suggested a lower likelihood of NAFLD in older adolescents, in the presence of normal or high levels of alkaline phosphatase, lower carbohydrate intake, and adequate protein and lipid intake. Conclusions: The prevalence of NAFLD in adolescents with PKU was higher than that found in healthy Brazilian adolescents and similar to that found in obese Brazilian children, suggesting a higher risk for NAFLD in patients with PKU treated exclusively by dietary modification.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953949


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease with complex and diverse pathogenesis, and there is no effective treatment or specific drugs for its clinical treatment. In recent years, its incidence has been on the rise, and it has become the earnest expectation of medical researchers in China and abroad that related patients could be treated. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions to regulate cellular energy homeostasis and mitochondrial homeostasis. When activated, it has a good intervention effect on NAFLD progression with lipid metabolism disorders and mitochondrial homeostasis disorders. For NAFLD, the activation of AMPK can inhibit the production of new lipogenesis in the liver, promote the oxidation of fatty acids in the liver, and enhance the mitochondrial function of adipose tissues. As a key target of metabolic diseases, AMPK can also improve apoptosis, liver fibrosis, autophagy, and inflammation. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is good at treating diseases from multiple targets and multiple pathways and is also commonly used in the treatment of chronic liver disease in clinical practice. A large number of in vitro and in vivo experimental studies on NAFLD have shown that TCM monomers have good prospects for the treatment of NAFLD through the AMPK signaling pathway, including glycosides, phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, quinones, terpenoids, and lignans, which are natural activators of AMPK. This study reviewed the research progress on TCM monomers in regulating the AMPK pathway to prevent and treat NAFLD, providing a broader perspective for TCM treatment of NAFLD.

Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 39(3): e00090522, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430074


Increasing epidemiological evidence suggests a bidirectional relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes, and that NAFLD may precede and/or promote the development of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate whether liver steatosis is associated with the incidence of diabetes in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ELSA-Brasil is an occupational cohort study of active or retired civil servants, aged 35-74 years, in six capital cities in Brazil. We excluded participants with diabetes at baseline, those who reported excessive alcohol consumption or with missing information on relevant covariates, and those with self-referred hepatitis or cirrhosis. In total, 8,166 individuals participated, and the mean duration of follow-up was 3.8 years. The Cox proportional regression model was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for the associations. Abdominal ultrasonography was used to detect liver steatosis. In the follow-up period, the cumulative incidence of diabetes was 5.25% in the whole sample, 7.83% and 3.88% in the groups with and without hepatic steatosis, respectively (p < 0.001). Compared to those without steatosis, individuals with hepatic steatosis had an increased risk of developing diabetes (HR = 1.31; 95%CI: 1.09-1.56) after adjustment for potential confounders, including body mass index (BMI). Hepatic steatosis was an independent predictor of incident diabetes in the ELSA-Brasil cohort study. Physicians should encourage changes in lifestyle and screen for diabetes in patients with fatty liver.

Evidências epidemiológicas crescentes sugerem uma relação bidirecional entre a doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) e o diabetes tipo 2 e que a DHGNA pode preceder e/ou promover o desenvolvimento de diabetes. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar se a esteatose hepática está associada à incidência de diabetes no Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). O ELSA-Brasil é um estudo de coorte ocupacional com servidores públicos ativos ou aposentados, com idades entre 35 e 74 anos, de seis capitais do Brasil. Foram excluídos os participantes com diabetes no início do estudo, aqueles que relataram consumo excessivo de álcool ou com falta de informações sobre covariáveis relevantes e indivíduos com hepatite ou cirrose autorreferida. No total, 8.166 indivíduos participaram e o tempo médio de seguimento foi de 3,8 anos. O modelo de regressão proporcional de Cox foi utilizado para estimar a razão de risco (HR) ajustada para as associações. A ultrassonografia abdominal foi utilizada para detectar esteatose hepática. No período de seguimento, a incidência cumulativa de diabetes foi de 5,25% em todo o grupo de participantes e de 7,83% e 3,88% nos grupos com e sem esteatose hepática, respectivamente (p < 0,001). Em comparação com aqueles sem esteatose, os indivíduos com esteatose hepática apresentaram um risco elevado de desenvolver diabetes (HR = 1,31; IC95%: 1,09-1,56) após o ajuste para potenciais fatores de confusão, incluindo o índice de massa corporal (IMC). A esteatose hepática foi um preditor independente de diabetes incidente no ELSA-Brasil. Os médicos devem incentivar mudanças no estilo de vida e a triagem para diabetes para pacientes com fígado gorduroso.

La creciente evidencia epidemiológica sugiere una relación bidireccional entre la enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólica (EHGNA) y la diabetes tipo 2 y que la EHGNA puede preceder y/o desarrollar la diabetes. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar si la esteatosis hepática está asociada con la incidencia de diabetes en el Estudio Longitudinal de Salud del Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). ELSA-Brasil es un estudio de cohorte ocupacional, realizado con funcionarios públicos activos o jubilados, con edades entre 35 y 74 años, de seis capitales en Brasil. Se excluyeron a los participantes con diabetes al inicio del estudio, aquellos que informaron consumir excesivamente alcohol o que carecían de información sobre las covariables relevantes, y los individuos con hepatitis o cirrosis autorreportada. En total participaron 8.166 sujetos, y el tiempo medio de seguimiento fue de 3,8 años. Se utilizó el modelo de regresión proporcional de Cox para estimar la razón de riesgo ajustada (HR) en las asociaciones. Se realizó ecografía abdominal para detectar esteatosis hepática. En el periodo de seguimiento, el grupo de participantes tuvo incidencia acumulada de diabetes del 5,25%, y en los grupos con y sin esteatosis hepática fueron del 7,83% y el 3,88%, respectivamente (p < 0,001). Los individuos con enfermedad de hígado graso tuvieron mayor riesgo de desarrollar diabetes (HR = 1,31; IC95%: 1,09-1,56) después de ajustar los posibles factores de confusión, incluido el índice de masa corporal (IMC), en comparación con aquellos sin esteatosis. La esteatosis hepática fue un predictor independiente de diabetes incidente en ELSA-Brasil. Los médicos deben alentar cambios en el estilo de vida y la detección de diabetes a los pacientes con hígado graso.

Säo Paulo med. j ; 141(5): e2022517, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1432463


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: A possible direct link between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has recently emerged. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze associations between the presence of histologically demonstrated NAFLD aspects with H. pylori infection in individuals with obesity undergoing bariatric surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: An observational analytical cross-sectional study was conducted based on data collected from the medical records of individuals undergoing bariatric surgery at a tertiary university hospital in 2019. METHODS: NAFLD was assessed through histological examination of wedge liver biopsies collected during the proceedings. H. pylori infection was analyzed through the association of the urease test and histological examination performed in biopsies routinely collected during preoperative esophagogastroduodenoscopy. RESULTS: Of the 88 participants, 85% were female, and the average age was 39.1 ± 8.4 years. H. pylori infection was present in 61.4% of the patients. The mean body mass index was 36.6 ± 3.4 kg/m2. The most prevalent histopathological aspects of NAFLD were macrovesicular steatosis (92%), hepatocellular ballooning (92%), lobular inflammation (93.2%), portal inflammation (96.6%), and fibrosis (93.2%). No histopathological aspect of NAFLD was found to be significantly associated with H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: In this study population, H. pylori infection was not significantly associated with the histopathological aspects of NAFLD in individuals with obesity undergoing bariatric surgery.

Hepatología ; 4(1): 60-74, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1415977


Introducción. El objetivo de esta investigación fue comparar el perfil bioquímico y clínico de los pacientes con hiperferritinemia secundaria a hemocromatosis hereditaria (HH), frente a aquellos con hiperferritinemia por causas sospechosas de sobrecarga de hierro (Fe) diferentes a la HH. Metodología. Se estudiaron 92 pacientes (61 hombres y 31 mujeres), remitidos tras la detección de valores de ferritina >300 µg/L en hombres y >200 µg/L en mujeres. En todos se analizaron datos demográficos generales, comorbilidades, motivo de remisión para estudios de hiperferritinemia, manifestaciones clínicas, antecedente familiar de HH y tratamiento reci-bido. Los resultados de las pruebas de laboratorio, imagenología, hallazgos histopatológicos y estudios genéticos, se describieron según la disponibilidad. Resultados. El 96,74 % de los pacientes fueron evaluados en consulta externa, 86,96 % procedían de Medellín o de otros municipios de Antioquia, Colombia. La edad promedio de los participantes fue de 52 años, la principal razón para ser derivados para estudios fue la elevación de los marcadores de Fe sérico, la causa más frecuente de hiperferritinemia fueron los diagnósticos diferentes a la HH (64,13 %) y entre quienes no tenían HH, la etiología metabólica fue la más común (59,32 %). Los pacientes con HH tuvieron niveles más elevados de ferritina y Fe sérico, mientras que en el grupo sin HH se presentaron mayores elevaciones en la saturación de transferrina, transfe-rrina y transaminasas. En pacientes con sobrecarga de Fe, la mutación más frecuentemente encontrada fue la homocigota H63D (36,67 %). Finalmente, 93,94 % de los pacientes con HH recibieron tratamiento con flebotomías, mientras que los cambios en el estilo de vida fueron indicados en el 55,93 % de los pacientes sin HH. Conclusiones. La hiperferritinemia es una presentación clínica frecuente y es importante hacer un abordaje sistemático para identificar sus causas. Aunque la HH es una causa importante de elevación persistente de ferritina, en el enfoque de los pacientes con esta condición, se deben descartar etiologías más frecuentes como la hiperferritinemia de etiología metabólica.

Introduction. The aim of this investigation was to compare the biochemical and clinical profile of patients with secondary hyperferritinemia caused by hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), versus those with hyperferritinemia due to suspected causes of iron (Fe) overload other than HH. Methodology. A total of 92 patients (61 men and 31 women) referred after the detection of ferritin values >300 µg/L in men and >200 µg/L in women were studied. General demographic data, comorbidities, referral reasons for hyperferritinemia studies, clinical manifestations, family history of HH, and treatment received were analyzed in all patients. The results of laboratory tests, medical imaging, histopatho-logical findings, and genetic studies were described based on availability. Results. Of all patients, 96.74% were evaluated as outpatients, 86,96% from the municipality of Medellin in Antioquia, Colombia. The average age of the participants was 52 years, the main reason for being referred for studies was the elevation of serum Fe markers, the most frequent cause of hyperferritinemia in the population studied were conditions other than HH (64.13%), and among those who did not have HH, the metabolic etiology was the most common cause (60%). Patients with HH had higher levels of ferritin and serum Fe, while in the group without HH there were greater elevations of transferrin saturation, transferrin and transaminases. In patients with iron overload, the most frequently found mutation was the homozygous H63D (36.67%). Finally, 93.94% of the patients with HH received phlebotomy treatment, while changes in lifestyle were indicated in 55.93% of patients without HH. Conclusions. Hyperferritinemia is a frequent clinical presentation and it is important to make a systematic approach to identify its causes. Although HH is an important cause of persistent ferritin elevation, in the approach to patients with this condition, more frequent etiologies such as hyperfe-rritinemia of metabolic etiology should be ruled out.

Humans , Hyperferritinemia , Hemochromatosis , Phlebotomy , Iron Overload , Ferritins , Transaminases
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965650


ObjectiveThis study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of Tangbikang granules(TBK) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) complicated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. MethodT2DM and NAFLD were induced in ZDF rats, which were then respectively treated (ig) with low-dose (0.625 g·kg-1), medium-dose (1.25 g·kg-1), and high-dose (2.5 g·kg-1) TBK for 12 weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and body mass were recorded every 4 weeks during the treatment. One week before sampling, the feed intake of rats was detected, and after 12 h night fasting, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. The area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate glucose tolerance, and the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Blood in abdominal aorta and liver were collected for determination of blood glucose and lipid metabolism indexes: Fasting serum insulin (FINS), serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). The liver was weighed to calculate the liver index, and the liver tissue morphology was observed and analyzed based on hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. The protein levels of insulin receptor substrate (IRS), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphorylated IRS and Akt were detected by Western blotting. All data were analyzed by SPSS 20.0. ResultThe feed intake of the model group was higher than that in the normal group (P<0.01), and the feed intake the administration groups was lower than that in the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01). At the 8th and 12th week, the body mass in the model group was lower than that in the normal group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, TBK reduced FBG in a concentration-dependent manner. The blood glucose level in OGTT and AUC in the model group were higher/larger than those in the normal group (P<0.01). The blood glucose value in OGTT was decreased in TBK groups and the metformin group compared with that in the model group, and AUC in the administration groups was significantly different from that in the model group (P<0.01). The serum level of FINS and HOMA-IR in the model group were higher than those in the normal group (P<0.01), and they were lower in the TBK groups than in the model group (P<0.01). Serum levels of TG, TC, HDL-C, NEFA (P<0.05, P<0.01), and LDL-C were higher in the model group than in the normal group. Serum levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, and NEFA in the TBK groups were lower than those in the model group, and the levels of TG, LDL-C, and NEFA in TBK groups were concentration-dependent (lowest levels in high-dose TBK group). Compared with the model group, high-dose TBK significantly increased the level of HDL-C (P<0.05). Liver index of the model group was higher than that in the normal group (P<0.01). The liver index of the administration groups showed a decreasing trend with no significant difference from that in the model group. As for the HE staining result of liver, the model group had unclear structure of liver lobule, enlarged cells of different sizes, and obvious steatosis of hepatocytes. TBK of all doses alleviated liver injury, particularly the high dose. For the PAS staining, compared with the normal group, the model group demonstrated significant fat vacuoles and significant reduction in purplish red glycogen granules in the cytoplasm. The staining results of high- and medium-dose groups of TBK were more similar to the normal group. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of liver tissue. The expression of PI3K protein, p-IRS1/IRS1, and p-Akt/Akt in the model group were lower than those in the normal group (P<0.01), and they were higher in the high-dose TBK group than in the model group (P<0.01). ConclusionTBK exerts therapeutic effect on T2DM combined with NAFLD in ZDF rats by activating the typical PI3K signaling pathway.

Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 408-412, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964806


Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common chronic liver disease, and liver fibrosis is closely associated with the prognosis in NAFLD; therefore, accurate assessment of liver fibrosis is of great importance. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of NAFLD, but its clinical application is limited by invasiveness. Elastography technique based on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging has gradually been applied in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis associated with NAFLD. This article elaborates on the principles of the two techniques, compares their respective advantages and disadvantages, and introduces the advances in application in combination with artificial intelligence.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960711


Objective To investigate the role of glutathione transferase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by high-fat diet using the RNA-Seq technique in combination with gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses of differentially expressed genes. Methods A total of 14 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into control group with 6 mice and model group with 8 mice by random sampling. The mice in the control group were fed with normal diet, and those in the model group were fed with high-fat diet for 7 consecutive weeks to establish a model of NAFLD. Kits were used to measure the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the level of triglyceride (TG), and HE staining and oil red staining were used to observe liver pathology and deposition of lipid droplets. Liver tissue RNA was extracted for RNA-Seq, and genes with a fold change of ≥2.0 and a P value of 0.05). Compared with the control group, the model group had a significantly higher serum level of TG (2.02±0.50 mmol/L vs 1.00±0.29 mmol/L, t =-4.45, P =0.001). HE staining showed diffuse steatosis and ballooning degeneration in the model group, and oil red staining showed that the model group had a significant increase in orange-red lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and a significantly higher grade of hepatocyte steatosis than the control group (1.88±0.64 vs 1.00±0.00, t =-3.86, P =0.006). RNA-seq results showed a total of 1367 differentially expressed genes between the two groups, among which there were 608 upregulated genes and 759 downregulated genes, and there were 17 differentially expressed GST genes between the two groups. The top 10 GST genes in terms of fold change were validated, and compared with the control group, the model group had downregulated expression of GSTa2, GSTa3, GSTa4, GSTm1, GSTm2, GSTm3, GSTm4, GSTp1, and GSTo1 and upregulated expression of GSTk1. The results of qRT-PCR were consistent with the results of sequencing. Conclusion GST affects lipid metabolism by participating in various biological processes such as steroid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and cholesterol metabolism and is closely associated with the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960710


Objective To investigate the association between serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods A total of 599 patients with T2DM who were hospitalized in Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, from July 2016 to December 2018 were enrolled as subjects. According to the presence or absence of NAFLD, the patients were divided into NAFLD group with 286 patients and non-NAFLD group with 313 patients, and according to the results of abdominal ultrasound, the patients with NAFLD were divided into mild group with 111 patients, moderate group with 105 patients, and severe group with 70 patients. General clinical data were compared between groups. The independent samples t - test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between two groups, and an analysis of variance was used for comparison between three groups; the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between two groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for comparison between three groups; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Pearson correlation analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were used to investigate the correlation between ALP and clinical indices, and a logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the influencing factors for NAFLD. Results Compared with the non-NAFLD group, the NAFLD group had significantly higher proportion of patients with history of hypertension ( χ 2 =7.864, P < 0.05), systolic blood pressure ( t =-2.226, P < 0.05), diastolic blood pressure ( t =-3.800, P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI) ( t =-11.842, P < 0.05), waist circumference (WC) ( t =-9.150, P < 0.05), fasting insulin (FINS) ( Z =-6.173, P < 0.05), fasting C-peptide ( t =-5.419, P < 0.05), serum uric acid ( t =-4.957, P < 0.05), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( t =-2.702, P < 0.05), triglyceride ( Z =-9.376, P < 0.05), total cholesterol (TC) ( t =-3.016, P < 0.05), Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) ( Z =-5.794, P < 0.05), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ( Z =-6.737, P < 0.05), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ( Z =-4.389, P < 0.05), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) ( Z =-7.764, P < 0.05), and ALP ( t =-2.833, P < 0.05), as well as significantly lower age ( t =2.184, P < 0.05) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( Z =-5.273, P < 0.05). The severity of NAFLD (mild, moderate or severe) was positively correlated with age ( r s =0.140, P < 0.05), BMI ( r s =0.239, P < 0.05), WC ( r s =0.222, P < 0.05), FINS ( r s =0.191, P < 0.05), HOMA-IR ( r s =0.218, P < 0.05), ALT ( r s =0.188, P < 0.05), AST ( r s =0.279, P < 0.05), GGT ( r s =0.202, P < 0.05), and ALP ( r s =0.361, P < 0.05). In the patients with T2DM and NAFLD, ALP was positively correlated with HbAlc ( r =0.149, P < 0.05), fasting plasma glucose ( r =0.146, P < 0.05), HOMA-IR ( r s =0.132, P < 0.05), TC ( r =0.151, P < 0.05), ALT ( r s =0.210, P < 0.05), AST ( r s =0.192, P < 0.05), and GGT ( r s =0.297, P < 0.05). The logistic regression analysis showed that ALP was an influencing factor for NAFLD in patients with T2DM (odds ratio=1.013, 95% confidence interval: 1.004-1.023, P < 0.05). Conclusion Elevated serum ALP is a risk factor for T2DM with NAFLD and is closely associated with hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hyperlipemia, and ALP may play a role in the development and progression of T2DM and NAFLD.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960706


Objective To investigate the changes of clinical indices in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with concomitant minimal hepatic steatosis and related factors for minimal hepatic steatosis. Methods A total of 179 CHB patients who underwent liver biopsy in Department of Infectious Diseases, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, from July 2018 to March 2022 were enrolled, and according to the degree of steatosis, they were divided into non-steatosis group with 98 patients and minimal hepatic steatosis group with 81 patients. Demographic information, clinical data, and liver histopathology data were collected, and related observation indices were compared between the two groups. The independent samples t -test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between two groups, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between two groups; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. A Spearman correlation analysis was performed, and a Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the risk factors for minimal hepatic steatosis. Results Compared with the non-steatosis group, the minimal hepatic steatosis group had a significantly higher proportion of male patients (69.1% vs 52.0%, χ 2 =5.390, P < 0.05) and a significantly higher proportion of patients with significant liver fibrosis (43.2% vs 25.5%, χ 2 =6.234, P < 0.05). Compared with the non-steatosis group, the minimal hepatic steatosis group had significantly higher levels of body mass index (BMI) (23.61±2.95 kg/m 2 vs 22.13±2.67 kg/m 2 , t =-4.150, P < 0.05), uric acid (UA) [333.0(291.0-375.5) μmol/L vs 287.5(244.8-345.3) μmol/L, Z =-3.620, P < 0.05], triglyceride [0.92 (0.66-1.14) μmol/L vs 0.77 (0.62-1.02) μmol/L, Z =-2.224, P < 0.05], and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) [234 (214-258) dB/m vs 218 (201-237) dB/m, Z =-2.867, P < 0.05]. In the group with normal body weight, the patients with minimal hepatic steatosis had significantly higher levels of UA (333.0±63.9 μmol/L vs 291.0±72.8 μmol/L, t =-2.395, P < 0.05) a nd HBV DNA [4.44 (3.51-6.79) log 10 IU/mL vs 3.42 (3.00-5.03) log 10 IU/mL, Z =-2.474, P < 0.05]. BMI (odds ratio [ OR ]=1.223, 95% confidence interval [ CI ] : 1.086-1.378, P =0.001) and UA ( OR =1.006, 95% CI : 1.002-1.010, P =0.008) were risk factors for minimal hepatic steatosis in CHB patients, and UA ( OR =1.007, 95% CI : 1.001-1.013, P =0.022) was a risk factors for minimal hepatic steatosis in CHB patients with normal body weight. Conclusion Compared with the non-steatosis CHB patients, the CHB patients with minimal hepatic steatosis have a significantly higher proportion of patients with significant liver fibrosis and a significantly higher level of CAP. BMI and UA are independent risk factors for minimal hepatic steatosis in CHB patients, and for the CHB patients with normal body weight, elevated UA is closely associated with the onset of minimal hepatic steatosis.

Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 181-187, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960689


In addition to its own specific functions, an organelle can also interact with other organelles to complete important physiological functions. The disorders of organelle interactions are closely associated the development and progression of various diseases. In recent years, the role of organelle interactions has attracted more attention in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, especially the interactions between mitochondria, lipid droplets, and other organelles.

Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 175-180, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960688


As a novel mode of cell death, pyroptosis plays an important role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and the research on pyroptosis may help to explore new therapeutic targets for NAFLD. This article reviews the advances in pyroptosis from the research background and mechanism of pyroptosis and the role of pyroptosis in NAFLD and elaborates on the pyroptosis execution molecules such as GSDME and caspase-11 and the function of inflammasomes including AIM2.

Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 168-174, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960687


Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been renamed as metabolic-associated fatty liver disease, and systemic metabolic dysfunction has become one of the concerns of this disease. NAFLD is a metabolic disease based on dyslipidemia in the liver, which is closely associated with adipose tissue. Hepatokines and adipokines secreted by the liver and adipose tissue play an important role in regulating liver lipid metabolism. This article summarizes the hepatokines and adipokines that can promote or inhibit lipid metabolism, focusing on the mechanism of lipid metabolism mediated by hepatokines and adipokines in NAFLD, so as to provides ideas and a theoretical basis for clinical prevention and treatment.

Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 162-167, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960686


Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has gradually become a prominent cause affecting human liver health, and the development and progression of NAFLD are associated with metabolic dysfunction, with glucose and lipid metabolism disorder as the key link in this process. Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) is one of the main receptors of bile acid and is extensively expressed in the body, and glucose and lipid metabolism mediated by TGR5 plays an important role in the human body. This article summarizes the role and mechanism of TGR5 in glucose and lipid metabolism and the research findings of the treatment of NAFLD based on TGR5, in order to provide a reference for basic and clinical research.

Arq. gastroenterol ; 59(4): 540-548, Out,-Dec. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420205


ABSTRACT Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is growing in worldwide prevalence and thus, is expected to have a higher number of NAFLD-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the following years. This review describes the risk factors associated with HCC in NAFLD-patients. The presence of liver cirrhosis is the preponderant one. Male gender, PNPLA3 variants, diabetes, and obesity also appear to predispose to the development of HCC, even in non-cirrhotic subjects. Thus far, intensive lifestyle modifications, including glycemic control, and obesity treatment, are effective therapies for NAFLD/ non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and, therefore, probably, also for HCC. Some drugs that aimed at decreasing inflammatory activity and fibrosis, as well as obesity, were studied. Other data have suggested the possibility of HCC chemoprevention. So far, however, there is no definitive evidence for the routine utilization of these drugs. We hope, in the future, to be able to profile patients at higher risk of NAFLD-HCC and outline strategies for early diagnosis and prevention.

RESUMO A doença metabólica e doença hepática gordurosa metabólica estão aumentando a prevalência mundial e, portanto, espera-se um número maior de carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC) relacionado à doença hepática gordurosa não alcóolica (DHGNA) nos próximos anos. Esta revisão descreve os fatores de risco associados ao CHC em pacientes com DHGNA. A presença de cirrose hepática é a preponderante. Sexo masculino, variantes do gene PNPLA3, diabetes e obesidade também parecem predispor ao desenvolvimento de CHC, mesmo em indivíduos não cirróticos. Até agora, modificações significativas no estilo de vida, incluindo controle glicêmico e tratamento da obesidade, são terapias eficazes para DHGNA/ Esteatohepatite não-alcoolica e, portanto, provavelmente, também para CHC. Alguns medicamentos que propunham-se diminuir a atividade inflamatória e fibrose, bem como a obesidade, foram estudados. Outros dados sugeriram a possibilidade de quimioprevenção do CHC. Até o momento, no entanto, não há evidências definitivas para o uso rotineiro desses medicamentos. Esperamos, no futuro, poder traçar o perfil de pacientes com maior risco de DHGNA-CHC e traçar estratégias para diagnóstico precoce e prevenção.

Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 37(4): 420-433, oct.-dic. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423838


Resumen El hígado graso no alcohólico (NAFLD) se define por la presencia de grasa o esteatosis en los hepatocitos y abarca un espectro que va desde la esteatosis simple, pasa por la esteatohepatitis no alcohólica (NASH) con inflamación y fibrosis, y finaliza en la cirrosis. Se considera una prevalencia mundial global cercana al 25% en la población general y se diagnóstica entre los 40 y 50 años, con variaciones respecto al sexo predominante y con diferencias étnicas (la población hispana es la más afectada). El hígado graso está asociado al síndrome metabólico (SM), y la obesidad se considera el principal factor de riesgo con su presencia y con su progresión. El hígado graso es un trastorno complejo y muy heterogéneo en su fisiopatología, que resulta de la interacción de múltiples elementos: factores genéticos, epigenéticos, ambientales, culturales, entre otros. Todo ello en conjunto lleva a incremento paulatino de grasa hepática, resistencia a la insulina y alteraciones hormonales y de la microbiota intestinal, lo que genera un daño hepatocelular a través de la formación de radicales libres de oxígeno y activación de la fibrogénesis hepática. La historia natural del hígado graso es dinámica: los pacientes con esteatosis simple tienen bajo riesgo de progresión a cirrosis, mientras que en los pacientes con NASH este riesgo se aumenta; sin embargo, el proceso puede ser reversible y algunas personas tendrán una mejoría espontánea. La fibrosis parece ser el determinante de la mortalidad global y de los desenlaces asociados a la enfermedad hepática; se considera que en todos los pacientes la fibrosis empeora una etapa cada 14 años y en NASH empeora en una etapa cada 7 años. Estudios previos concluyen que aproximadamente 20% de los casos de esteatosis simple progresan a NASH y que, de ellos, aproximadamente el 20% progresan a cirrosis, con presencia de hepatocarcinoma (HCC) en el 5% a 10% de ellos.

Abstract Fatty liver or NAFLD is defined by the presence of fat or steatosis in hepatocytes and covers a spectrum that goes from simple steatosis, through steatohepatitis (NASH), with inflammation and fibrosis and ending in cirrhosis. It is considered a global world prevalence close to 25% in the general population and is diagnosed between 40 and 50 years, with variations regarding the predominant sex and with ethnic differences, affecting more the Hispanic population. Fatty liver is associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), and obesity is considered the main risk factor for its presence and progression. Fatty liver is a complex and very heterogeneous disorder in its pathophysiology, resulting from the interaction of multiple elements, genetic, epigenetic, environmental, cultural factors, etc. All this together leads to an accumulation of hepatic fat, insulin resistance, hormonal and intestinal microbiota alterations, generating hepatocellular damage through the formation of free oxygen radicals and activation of hepatic fibrogenesis. The natural history of fatty liver is dynamic, patients with simple steatosis have a low risk of progression to cirrhosis, in patients with NASH this risk is increased, however, the process may be reversible, and some people will have spontaneous improvement. Fibrosis seems to be the determinant of overall mortality and outcomes associated with liver disease, it is considered that in all patients fibrosis worsens one stage every 14 years, in NASH it worsens one stage every seven years. Previous studies conclude that approximately 20% of cases of simple steatosis progress to NASH and that approximately 20% of them progress to cirrhosis, with the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in 5 to 10% of them.

Arq. gastroenterol ; 59(3): 402-407, July-Sept. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403501


ABSTRACT Background Insulin resistance (IR), assessed by different criteria, is an important factor in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). More recently with the characterization of this metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), one of the proposed criteria for this diagnosis has been the determination of the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of HOMA-IR>2.5 with clinical, metabolic, biochemical and histological data obtained in non-diabetic patients diagnosed with NAFLD by liver biopsy. Methods: Cross-sectional, retrospective study was carried out with data from 174 adult individuals of both genders with non-diabetics NAFLD, without obvious signs of portal hypertension. The body mass index (BMI) was classified according to the World Health Organization (1998), and the metabolic syndrome by the criteria of NCEP-ATP-III. Biochemical tests were evaluated using an automated method and insulinemia through immunofluorometric assay. Histological findings were classified according to Kleiner et al. (2005). Results: The mean age of the studied population was 53.6±11.2 years, with 60.3% being female. The average BMI was 30.3 kg/m2 and 75.9% of the patients had increased waist circumference. Among evaluated metabolic parameters, there was a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients with HOMA-IR>2.5, with no statistical difference in relation to BMI between studied groups. Values of liver enzymes and serum ferritin were significantly higher in patients with this marker of IR, who had a higher prevalence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced liver fibrosis. In the multivariate analysis, the clinical diagnosis of MS, hyperferritinemia and the presence of NASH in the liver biopsy were the factors independently associated with the presence of altered HOMA-IR. Conclusion: HOMA-IR values >2.5 identify patients with NAFLD with distinct clinical and metabolic characteristics and with a greater potential for disease progression, which validates this parameter in the identification of patients with MAFLD.

RESUMO Contexto A resistência à insulina (RI), avaliada por diferentes critérios, é um fator importante na patogênese da doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA). Mas, recentemente, com a caracterização desta disfunção metabólica associada com a doença hepática gordurosa (DGH), um dos critérios propostos para este diagnóstico tem sido a determinação do modelo de avaliação da homeostase-resistência à insulina (HOMA-IR). Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relação do HOMA-IR> 2,5 com dados clínicos, metabólicos, bioquímicos e histológicos obtidos em pacientes não diabéticos diagnosticados com DHGNA por biópsia hepática. Métodos Estudo transversal, retrospectivo, com dados de 174 indivíduos adultos de ambos os sexos com DHGNA não-diabética, sem sinais evidentes de hipertensão portal. O índice de massa corporal (IMC) foi classificado de acordo com a Organização Mundial da Saúde (1998) e a síndrome metabólica pelos critérios do NCEP-ATP-III. Os exames bioquímicos foram avaliados pelo método automatizado e a insulinemia por imunofluorometria. Os achados histológicos foram classificados de acordo com Kleiner et al. (2005). Resultados: A média de idade da população estudada foi de 53,6±11,2 anos, sendo 60,3% do sexo feminino. O IMC médio foi de 30,3 kg/m2 e 75,9% dos pacientes apresentaram circunferência da cintura aumentada. Entre os parâmetros metabólicos avaliados, houve maior prevalência de síndrome metabólica (SM) em pacientes com HOMA-IR >2,5, sem diferença estatística em relação ao IMC entre os grupos estudados. Os valores das enzimas hepáticas e da ferritina sérica foram significativamente maiores nos pacientes com este marcador de RI, que apresentaram maior prevalência de esteato-hepatite não alcoólica (EHNA) e fibrose hepática avançada. Na análise multivariada, o diagnóstico clínico de SM, hiperferritinemia e a presença de EHNA na biópsia hepática foram os fatores independentemente associados à presença de HOMA-IR alterado. Conclusão: Valores de HOMA-IR >2,5 identificam pacientes com DHGNA com características clínicas e metabólicas distintas e com maior potencial de progressão da doença, o que valida esse parâmetro na identificação de pacientes com DHG.

Arq. gastroenterol ; 59(1): 123-128, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374445


ABSTRACT Background Supplementation with probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics has shown positive effects on clinical markers and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Objective To evaluate the effect of supplementation with probiotic, prebiotic or symbiotic on intestinal microbiota in NAFLD patients. Methods Two investigators conducted independently search for articles in the Medline databases, via PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, Lilacs, Central Cochrane Library, Clinical and on the Ovid platform for the gray literature search. Results A total of 3,423 papers were identified by searching the electronic databases; 1,560 of them were duplicate and they were excluded; 1,825 articles were excluded after reading the title and abstract. A total of 39 articles were select to reading, however only four articles met the eligibility criteria to include in this systematic review. Three of the included studies that used prebiotic or symbiotic supplementation showed that after the intervention there were changes in the intestinal microbiota pattern. Only in one study such changes were not observed. A high risk of bias was observed in most assessments. Conclusion Although there is a possible change in the gut microbiota of individuals with NAFLD after supplementation with symbiotics or prebiotics, a clinical indication as part of NAFLD treatment is not yet possible.

RESUMO Contexto A suplementação com probióticos, prebióticos e simbióticos mostrou efeitos positivos sobre marcadores clínicos e fatores de risco para doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA). Objetivo Avaliar o efeito da suplementação com probióticos, prebióticos ou simbióticos na microbiota intestinal em pacientes com DHGNA. Métodos Dois pesquisadores realizaram buscas independentes de artigos nas bases de dados Medline, via PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, Lilacs, Biblioteca Central Cochrane, Clinical e na plataforma Ovid para busca de literatura cinza. Os títulos e resumos foram lidos para excluir artigos irrelevantes. Em seguida, os artigos selecionados foram lidos na íntegra e avaliados de acordo com os critérios de elegibilidade. O risco de viés foi avaliado de acordo com a Cochrane. Resultados Um total de 3.423 artigos foram identificado por meio de busca nas bases de dados eletrônicas; 1.560 deles eram duplicados e foram excluídos; 1.825 artigos foram excluídos após a leitura do título e do resumo. Um total de 39 artigos foram selecionado para leitura, porém apenas quatro artigos atenderam aos critérios de elegibilidade para inclusão nesta revisão sistemática. Três dos estudos incluídos que utilizaram suplementação de prebióticos ou simbióticos mostraram que após a intervenção ocorreram mudanças no padrão da microbiota intestinal. Apenas em um estudo tais mudanças não foram observadas. Um elevado risco de viés foi observado na maioria das avaliações. Conclusão Embora haja uma possível alteração na microbiota intestinal de indivíduos com DHGNA após a suplementação com simbióticos ou prebióticos, uma indicação clínica como parte do tratamento da DHGNA ainda não é possível.

Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 16(1): 39-49, 20220111.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352995


La hepatopatía crónica más prevalente en el mundo es la esteatosis hepática no alcohólica. Así, se realizó una investigación con el objetivo de determinar los factores asociados a esa patología en pacientes atendidos en el Centro de salud tipo B Chambo, Ecuador, durante 2020. Se realizó un estudio con enfoque cuantitativo, de tipo no experimental, correlacional y retrospectivo. Las historias clínicas seleccionadas aportaron los datos de las variables de interés. La media de la edad de los involucrados fue de 54,43 ± 8,10 años. El 60,38% tenía hipertensión arterial, el 52,83% diabetes mellitus, el 62,26% sobrepeso u obesidad y el 49,06% dislipidemia, determi-nando que estas comorbilidades tuvieron una relación significativa con la enfermedad objeto de estudio, la que resultó más incidente en edades mayores de 50 años. Las personas sedentarias o con bajos niveles de actividad física mostraron de ALT y AST.

The most prevalent chronic liver disease in the world is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Thus, research aimed to determine the factors associated with this pathology in patients treated at the Type B Chambo Health Center, Ecuador, during 2020. A study was carried out with a quantitati-ve, non-experimental, correlational, and retrospective approach. The selected medical records provided the information for the variables of interest. The mean age of the population was 54.43 ± 8.10 years of age. 60.38% had arterial hypertension, 52.83% diabetes mellitus, 62.26% overweight or obesity and 49.06% dyslipidemia. It was determined that these comorbidities had a significant relationship with the disease under study, which was more incident in ages older than 50. Sedentary people or those ones with low levels of physical activity showed ALT and AST.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Comorbidity , Abiotic Factors , Liver Diseases , Exercise , Cholesterol , Overweight
Clinics ; 77: 100097, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404297


Abstract Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical features, Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) screening, treatment modalities, and Overall Survival (OS) in a series of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma (NAFLD-HCC) Brazilian patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study at the Instituto do Cancer do Estado de São Paulo, at the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo with the approval of the local research ethics committee. NAFLD patients with HCC diagnosed, from May 2010 to May 2019, were included. Results: A total of 131 patients were included. Risk factors for NAFLD were present in 94.7% of the patients. Only 29% of patients were in the HCC screening program before diagnosis. HCC treatment was performed in 84.7% of patients. Cumulative survival at the end of the first year was 72%, second-year 52%, and fifth-year 32%. HCC screening before diagnosis was not significantly associated with higher cumulative survival. The independent factors associated with shorter general survival were BCLC C-D, p < 0.001, and the size of the largest nodule > 42 mm, p = 0.039. Conclusions: Although the efficacy of screening in our population regarding overall survival was hampered due to the sample size (29% had screening), BCLC stages C‒D and the size of the largest nodule larger than 42 mm were identified as independent factors of worse prognosis.