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1.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 100(3): 242-249, May-June 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558323

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of linezolid and vancomycin for the treatment of nosocomial infections in children under 12 years old. Data sources: This is a systematic review in which five randomized clinical trials about the effectiveness of linezolid and vancomycin, involving a total of 429 children with nosocomial infections, were evaluated. They were searched in scientific databases: PubMed, Bvs, and SciELO. Summary of findings: The main nosocomial infections that affected children were bacteremia, skin, and soft tissue infections followed by nosocomial pneumonia. Most infections were caused by Gram-positive bacteria, which all studies showed infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci strains being isolated. Both linezolid and vancomycin showed high therapeutic efficacy against different types of nosocomial infections, ranging from 84.4% to 94% for linezolid and 76.9% to 90% for vancomycin. Patients receiving linezolid had lower rates of rash and red man syndrome compared to those receiving vancomycin. However, despite the adverse reactions, antimicrobials can be safely administered to children to treat nosocomial infections caused by resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Conclusion: Both linezolid and vancomycin showed good efficacy in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by resistant Gram-positive bacteria in hospitalized children. However, linezolid stands out regarding its pharmacological safety. Importantly, to strengthen this conclusion, further clinical trials are needed to provide additional evidence.

2.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 10 (1) 2024;10(1): 34416, 2024 abr. 30. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1553426

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Infecções nosocomiais, adquiridas após a internação hospitalar, são o evento adverso mais comum que ameaça a saúde dos pacientes hospitalizados, sendo a pneumonia, incluindo a causada pelo SARS-Cov-2, responsável por mais de 80% das infecções nosocomiais. A pandemia declarada pela OMS em março de 2020 reflete o rápido aumento de casos, impulsionado pela disseminação do vírus através de gotículas e aerossóis. A transmissão nosocomial do SARS-Cov-2 foi observada desde o início do surto em Wuhan, representando um desafio adicional na qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Estudos internacionais em hospitais reportam incidências de infecção nosocomial por COVID-19 entre 11% e 44%.Objetivo: Identificar a proporção de infecção nosocomial por SARS-COV-2 no Brasil entre março de 2020 até dezembro de 2022.Metodologia:Trata-se de um estudo analítico, retrospectivo, de corte transversal, sobre a proporção de infecção nosocomial por Sars-Cov-2 no Brasil, através de dados secundários oriundos do Sistema de Informação da Vigilância Epidemiológica da Gripe. No presente estudo a variável dependente analisada foi a proporção de infecção nosocomial por Sars-cov-2. Como variáveis independentes exploratórias foram utilizadas: faixa etária, sexo, comorbidades e macrorregião de residência. Resultados: O estudo identificou uma proporção de casos nosocomiais de 2,58%, sendo maior no terceiro ano da pandemia 2022 (5,5%) na região Norte (7,57%), entre os indivíduos de 18-59 anos de idade (6,93%)Conclusões: Este estudo sobre casos nosocomiais de COVID-19 no Brasil revela uma proporção de 2,58% entre 2020 e 2022, com associações identificadas em relação à região, idade e comorbidades. Diferenças em relação a estudos internacionais sugerem questões metodológicas específicas. Essa pesquisa é de importância crítica, visto ser de abrangência nacional com grande amplitude, e estabelece uma base sólida para futuros estudos epidemiológicos (AU).


Introduction: Nosocomial infections, acquired after hospital admission, are the most common adverse events threatening patient health, with pneumonia, including that caused by SARS-CoV-2, responsible for over 80% of nosocomial infections. The pandemic declared by the WHO in March 2020 reflects the rapid rise in cases driven by the virus's spread through droplets and aerosols. Nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been observed since the outbreak's onset in Wuhan, posing an additional challenge to patient quality of life. International hospital studies report nosocomial COVID-19 infection rates between 11% and 44%. Objective: Identifying the proportion of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection in Brazil between March 2020 and December 2022.Methodology:This is an analytical, retrospective, cross-sectional study on the proportion of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection in Brazil, using secondary data from the Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance Information System. In this study, the analyzed dependent variable was the proportionof nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection. The exploratory independent variables included: age group, gender, comorbidities, and macro-region of residence.Results:The study identified a proportion of nosocomial cases of 2.58%, with a higher proportion in the third year of the pandemic, 2022 (5.5%) in the North region (7.57%), among individuals aged 18-59 years (6.93%). Conclusions: This study on nosocomial cases of COVID-19 in Brazil reveals a proportion of 2.58% between 2020 and 2022, with associations identified regarding region, age, and comorbidities. Differences compared to international studies suggest specific methodological issues. This research is of critical importance, given its national scope and broad coverage, and establishes a solid foundation for future epidemiological studies (AU).


Introducción: Las infecciones nosocomiales, adquiridas tras la hospitalización, son el evento adverso más común que amenaza la salud de los pacientes hospitalizados, siendo la neumonía, incluida la causada por el SARS-Cov-2, la responsable de más del 80% de las infecciones. La pandemia declarada por la OMS en marzo de 2020 refleja el rápido aumento de casos, impulsado por la propagación del virus a través de gotitas y aerosoles. La transmisión nosocomial del SRAS-Cov-2 se ha observado desde el inicio del brote en Wuhan, lo que supone un reto adicional para la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Estudios internacionales realizados en hospitales informan de incidencias de infecciones nosocomiales por COVID-19 de entre el 11% y el 44%. Objetivo: Identificar la proporción de infección nosocomial por SARS-CoV-2 en Brasil entre marzo de 2020 y diciembre de 2022. Metodología: Se trata de un estudio analítico, retrospectivo y transversal sobre la proporción de infección nosocomial por SARS-CoV -2 en Brasil, utilizando datos secundarios del Sistema de Información de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Influenza. La variable dependiente analizada fue la proporción de infección nosocomial por SARS-CoV-2. Como variables independientes exploratorias se utilizaron: grupo de edad, sexo, comorbilidades y macrorregión de residencia. Resultados:El estudio identificó una proporción de casos nosocomiales del 2,58%, siendo mayor en el tercer año de la pandemia de 2022 (5,5%) en la región Norte (7,57%), entre individuos de 18 a 59 años (6,93%). Conclusiones:Este estudio de casos de COVID-19 hospitalizados en Brasil revela una proporción de 2,58% entre 2020 y 2022, con asociaciones identificadas en relación a la región, edad y comorbilidades. Las disparidades en relación a estudios internacionales sugieren la presencia de cuestiones metodológicas específicas. Esta investigación es de extrema importancia para orientar estrategias preventivas y mejorar el control de las infecciones hospitalarias (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross Infection/transmission , Electronic Health Records/instrumentation , Health Information Systems , COVID-19/transmission , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/etiology
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 41(2): 199-204, abr. 2024. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559685

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La higiene de manos es la medida más eficaz para prevenir las infecciones asociadas al cuidado de la salud. Las actitudes hacia esta práctica tan sencilla, influyen en el grado de adherencia. OBJETIVO: Desarrollar y validar un instrumento para evaluar las actitudes hacia la higiene de manos en estudiantes de Licenciatura en Enfermería. MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio observacional y de corte transversal. Una vez construido el instrumento se realizó la validez de contenido mediante el juicio de expertos. Para la validez de constructo se realizó análisis factorial exploratorio. Posteriormente se calculó la confiabilidad, que incluyó la consistencia interna y la estabilidad del cuestionario. RESULTADOS: Participaron 313 estudiantes de Licenciatura en Enfermería de ocho universidades de Argentina. Se calculó el Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO = 0,720) y se obtuvo una prueba de esfericidad de Bartlett significativa (x2 = 831,2; = 0,000). El análisis factorial exploratorio determinó la existencia de un único factor. El modelo explicó el 54% de la varianza. Se utilizó la implementación mejorada de la estimación Bayesiana EAP integrada en el programa FACTOR, que fue de 0,85 y se realizó test-retest utilizando análisis de correlación que arrojó un r = 0,64 (p ≤ 0,001). CONCLUSIONES: El cuestionario sobre actitudes hacia la higiene de manos (CAHM) presenta una adecuada validez y confiablidad, por lo que puede ser utilizado para indagar sobre este factor predisponente de adherencia hacia la higiene de manos.


BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is the most effective measure to prevent health care-associated infections. Attitudes towards this simple practice influence the level of adherence. AIM: To develop and validate an instrument for the evaluation of attitudes towards hand hygiene in nursing students. METHOD: An observational and cross-sectional study was carried out. Once the instrument was constructed, content validity was carried out through expert judgment. For construct validity, exploratory factor analysis was performed. Subsequently, the analysis of construct validity and reliability was calculated, which included the internal consistency and stability of the questionnaire. RESULTS: 313 Nursing undergraduate students from 8 universities in Argentina participated. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO = 0.720) was calculated, and a significant Bartlett sphericity test was obtained (x2 = 831.2; = 0.000). The exploratory factor analysis determined the existence of a single factor. The model explained 54% of the variance. The improved implementation of the Bayesian EAP estimation integrated in the FACTOR program was used, which was 0.85; and test-retest was also performed using correlation analysis that yielded r = 0.64 (p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The Questionnaire on attitudes towards hand hygiene (CAHM) has adequate validity and reliability, so it can be used to investigate this predisposing factor of adherence to hand hygiene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Students, Nursing/psychology , Attitude of Health Personnel , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Hand Hygiene , Psychometrics , Attitude to Health , Hand Disinfection , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Factor Analysis, Statistical
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 70(5): e20231282, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558923

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the implementation of a bundle of interventions through a "Program for Antibiotic Management and Nosocomial Infection Prevention" in the intensive care unit on antibiotic and devices use and healthcare-associated infections. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study of consecutive series of cases in periods before and after the establishment of protocols and checklists for the use of antibiotics as well as other measures to prevent healthcare-associated infection as part of a quality improvement program. Antimicrobial consumption was assessed by the defined daily dose. RESULTS: A total of 1,056 and 1,323 admissions in the pre-intervention and post-intervention phases, respectively, were evaluated. The defined daily dose per 100 patient-day decreased from 89±8 to 77±11 (p=0.100), with a decrease in carbapenems, glycopeptides, polymyxins, penicillins, and cephalosporins. The rates of ventilator and central venous catheter use decreased from 52.8 to 44.1% and from 76 to 70%, respectively. The rates of healthcare-associated infection decreased from 19.2 to 15.5%. CONCLUSION: Quality improvement actions focused primarily on antimicrobial management and prevention of healthcare-associated infection are feasible and have the potential to decrease antibiotic use and healthcare-associated infection rates.

5.
Journal of Public Health and Preventive Medicine ; (6): 113-115, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005919

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the risk of nosocomial infection in patients with multiple myeloma during their first hospitalization. Methods Totally 480 patients with multiple myeloma who were hospitalized for the first time in department of hematology of West China Hospital, Sichuan University from August 2021 to August 2022 were included, and the nosocomial infection during treatment was statistically analyzed. The patients were divided into infected group and uninfected group. The independent influencing factors of nosocomial infection were analyzed and a prediction model was established. The reliability of the prediction model was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Results The incidence rate of nosocomial infection was 31.2% among 480 patients hospitalized for the first time. There were statistically significant differences in age, ISS staging, controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score, agranulocytosis, hemoglobin, and albumin between the infected group and the uninfected group (P<0.05). Logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that age, ISS staging, CONUT score, agranulocytosis, hemoglobin level, and albumin level were all independent correlated factors of nosocomial infection in patients with multiple myeloma hospitalized for the first time (P<0.05). The area under the ROC curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity of multivariate logistic regression prediction model were 0.88 (95%CI: 0.840-0.920), 85.00% and 76.36%, respectively. Conclusion The incidence rate of nosocomial infection is high among patients with multiple myeloma in the first hospitalization. The prediction model established according to independent correlated factors of nosocomial infection has high predictive value on the occurrence of nosocomial infection.

6.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 13(4): 216-222, out.-dez. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532318

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: inanimate surfaces and equipment in the hospital environment are considered reservoirs of resistant and pathogenic microorganisms. In Pediatric Intensive Care Units, the risk of infection is also related to the severity of pathologies associated with the immaturity of the immune system of this population. This study aimed to investigate microbiological environmental contamination in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Method: this is an exploratory cross-sectional study, carried out in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of a highly complex university hospital, located in southern Brazil. To assess environmental contamination, sterile swabs were rubbed on surfaces corresponding to the patient unit and in the common area. Results: twenty-eight surfaces were analyzed, 12 of which were located in units occupied by patients at the time of collection and 16 surfaces in the common use area. In the total number of surfaces analyzed by microbiological cultures, the patient unit showed 66.67% contamination by microorganisms, while surfaces in the common area showed 56.25%. Regarding the microbiological profile, all isolated microorganisms were Gram-positive and showed resistance, namely Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Conclusion: there was evidence of a high frequency of contamination on inanimate surfaces and equipment near and far from patients, essentially by pathogenic and multi-resistant microorganisms to antimicrobials.(AU)


Justificativa e objetivos: superfícies e equipamentos inanimados no ambiente hospitalar são considerados reservatórios de microrganismos resistentes e patogênicos. Nas Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos, o risco de infeção também está relacionado com a gravidade das patologias associadas à imaturidade do sistema imunitário desta população. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a contaminação microbiológica ambiental em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica. Método: trata-se de um estudo exploratório transversal, realizado em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica de um hospital universitário de alta complexidade, localizado no Sul do Brasil. Para avaliar a contaminação ambiental, foram esfregados swabs estéreis nas superfícies correspondentes à unidade do paciente e na área comum. Resultados: foram analisadas vinte e oito superfícies, sendo 12 localizadas em unidades ocupadas por pacientes no momento da coleta e 16 superfícies em área de uso comum. No total de superfícies analisadas por culturas microbiológicas, a unidade paciente apresentou 66,67% de contaminação por microrganismos, enquanto as superfícies da área comum apresentaram 56,25%. Quanto ao perfil microbiológico, todos os microrganismos isolados eram Gram-positivos e apresentavam resistência, nomeadamente Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus coagulase-negativa. Conclusão: houve evidência de elevada frequência de contaminação em superfícies inanimadas e equipamentos próximos e distantes dos pacientes, essencialmente por microrganismos patogênicos e multirresistentes aos antimicrobianos.(AU)


Fundamento y objetivos: las superficies y equipos inanimados del ambiente hospitalario son considerados reservorios de microorganismos resistentes y patógenos. En las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos el riesgo de infección también se relaciona con la gravedad de patologías asociadas a la inmadurez del sistema inmunológico de esta población. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la contaminación ambiental microbiológica en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos. Método: se trata de un estudio exploratorio transversal, realizado en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos de un hospital universitario de alta complejidad, ubicado en el sur de Brasil. Para evaluar la contaminación ambiental se frotaron hisopos estériles en las superficies correspondientes a la unidad de pacientes y en el área común. Resultados: se analizaron veintiocho superficies, 12 de las cuales estaban ubicadas en unidades ocupadas por los pacientes en el momento de la recogida y 16 superficies en el área de uso común. Del total de superficies analizadas por cultivos microbiológicos, la unidad de pacientes presentó un 66,67% de contaminación por microorganismos, mientras que las superficies del área común presentaron un 56,25%. En cuanto al perfil microbiológico, todos los microorganismos aislados fueron Gram positivos y presentaron resistencia, concretamente Staphylococcus aureus y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo. Conclusión: se evidenció alta frecuencia de contaminación en superficies inanimadas y equipos cercanos y lejanos de los pacientes, esencialmente por microorganismos patógenos y multirresistentes a los antimicrobianos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Cross Infection , Equipment Contamination , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
7.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 55(3): 9-9, Oct. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529624

ABSTRACT

Abstract Carbapenemase-producing-Serratia marcescens isolates, although infrequent, are considered important nosocomial pathogens due to their intrinsic resistance to polymyxins, which limits therapeutic options. We describe a nosocomial outbreak of SME-4-producing S. marcescens in Buenos Aires city which, in our knowledge, represents the first one in South America.


Resumen Los aislamientos de origen nosocomial de Serratia marcescens productores de car-bapenemasa, si bien son infrecuentes, son considerados importantes patógenos debido a su resistencia intrínseca a las polimixinas, lo cual limita aún más las opciones terapéuticas. En este trabajo se describe un brote nosocomial causado por S. marcescens portadora de car-bapenemasa de tipo SME-4 en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, el cual representaría el primero en Sudamérica.

8.
Medicina (Ribeirao Preto, Online) ; 56(1)abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442360

ABSTRACT

Objective: Describe the epidemiology of COVID-19 deaths within a hospital in the Amazon region in a period of 64 days, which corresponds to the growth curve of the COVID-19 first-wave pandemic in 2020. Methods: The data were obtained from medical records of 152 deaths registered for adults and elderly hospitalized. The data were also compared with the number of deaths in previous years during the same period studied to assess the impact of the pandemic on this hospital. The study also assesses the impact of intra-hospital transfers, accounting for the number of times patients who died performed transfers between sectors of the hospital. Results: During the period analyzed, there was an increase in deaths compared to the previous years. The majority of dead patients were male, aged between 34 and 96 years. The deaths were associated comorbidities such as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and kidney disease. The SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in 91 cases. Among them, 15 individuals were admitted without conditions related to SARS-CoV-2 infection; they had a three-fold higher number of hospital transfers than those admitted with SARS-CoV-2 infection symptoms. Sixteen patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection developed respiratory symptoms just after hospitalization. The diagnostic exam for SARS-CoV-2 infection was performed on average 4 (± 6) days after the onset of symptoms and 6 (± 6) days after admission, and the average time from the onset of respiratory symptoms to death was 4 (± 6) days. Conclusions: These data suggest the high presence of hospital infection by SARS-CoV-2 in the Brazilian Amazon region, which may be related to the number of sectorial transfers, delay in confirming the diagnosis, and lack of management. We report a serious public health problem, as it demonstrates the fragility of healthcare institutions in the hospital environmen (AU).


Objetivo: Descrever a epidemiologia de mortes por COVID-19 em um hospital na região da Amazônia em um período de 64 dias, que corresponde à curva de crescimento da primeira onda da pandemia de COVID-19 em 2020. Métodos: Os dados foram obtidos de 152 óbitos registrados em prontuários de adultos e idosos hospitalizados. Os dados foram também comparados com o número de óbitos em anos anteriores, no mesmo período estudado, de forma a avaliar o impacto da pandemia neste hospital. O estudo também avalia o impacto das transferências intra-hospitalares, contabilizando o número de vezes que os pacientes que faleceram realizaram transferências entre setores do hospital. Resultados: No período analisado, houve aumento de óbitos em relação aos anos anteriores. A maioria dos pacientes mortos era do sexo masculino, com idade entre 34 e 96 anos. Os óbitos foram associados a comorbidades como hipertensão arterial, diabetes mellitus e doença renal. A infecção por SARS-CoV-2 foi confirmada em 91 casos. Entre eles, 15 indivíduos foram internados sem condições relacionadas à infecção por SARS-CoV-2; eles tiveram um número três vezes maior de transferências hospitalares do que aqueles admitidos com sintomas de infecção por SARS-CoV-2. Dezesseis pacientes com infecção por SARS-CoV-2 desenvolveram sintomas respiratórios logo após a hospitalização. O exame diagnóstico para infecção por SARS-CoV-2 foi realizado em média 4 (± 6) dias após o início dos sintomas e 6 (± 6) dias após a admissão, e o tempo médio do início dos sintomas respiratórios até o óbito foi de 4 ( ± 6) dias. Conclusões: Esses dados sugerem alta presença de infecção hospitalar por SARS-CoV-2 na região amazônica brasileira, o que pode estar relacionado ao número de transferências setoriais, demora na confirmação do diagnóstico e falta de manejo. Relatamos um grave problema de saúde pública, pois demonstra a fragilidade das instituições de saúde no ambiente hospitalar (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross Infection , Amazonian Ecosystem , COVID-19/epidemiology
9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217991

ABSTRACT

Background: Mostly intensive care unit (ICU) patients are more susceptible to nosocomial infections caused by hospital-based various strains of bacteria and other opportunistic pathogens. Due to the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, these strains of pathogens are often multi-drug resistant. To prevent resistance against the antimicrobial agent various departments of the health care system have to work together, so we can use the antimicrobial agents as effectively as we can to treat illnesses. Aim and Objectives: The objective of this study was to know the prevalence of different micro-organisms causing infections in ICU and their sensitivity and resistance pattern and to determine the overall microbiological and resistance profile which helps formulate therapeutic guidelines in ICU. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Ahmedabad to assess the culture and sensitivity pattern of clinical samples such as blood, urine, sputum, wound, and endotracheal aspiration for a 1-year duration (August 2019 - August 2020). Results: A total of 941 samples were received for microbiological investigation from ICU, out of which 322 were positive. The Utmost isolated organism was - Klebsiella (37.26%) followed by Escherichia coli (16.45%), Pseudomonas (12.42%), and Staphylococcus aureus (7.45%). The Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) were most sensitive to drugs like colistin (96.26% %) and tigecycline (83.40%) followed by carbapenems (71.79%), aminoglycosides (71.36%), and fluoroquinolones (67.21%). More sensitive drugs for isolated Gram-positive organisms were linezolid (100%) followed by teicoplanin (98.41%) and vancomycin (98.41%). Conclusion: High prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and GNB producing Extended-spectrum Beta-lactamase, AmpC, or carbapenem-resistant GNB in our study, raise serious concerns about antibiotic resistance. The main reason for increasing antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is poor infection control practices and inappropriate use of antibiotics. Hence, research regarding antibiotic sensitivity and resistance will be very helpful for doctors to initiate appropriate empirical antibiotics in treating critical illnesses.

10.
Indian Pediatr ; 2023 Jan; 60(1): 41-44
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225425

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We studied the profile of bloodstream infections (BSI) in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and identified predictors of mortality. Methods: The study collected data from hospital records for children younger than 18-years who developed BSI during their PICU stay between 2014 and 2019. Results: In 114 patients, 136 PICU-acquired BSIs with 152 pathogens were documented. The incidence of BSI was 47.12/1000 PICU admissions and 7.95/1000 PICU hospital days. Gram-negative rods accounted for 75% of isolates, Gram-positive cocci accounted for 21.7% of isolates, and fungi accounted for 3.3% of isolated pathogens. ICU mortality was observed in 25 (21.9%) patients with a BSI compared to 94 (3.1%) patients without a BSI (P<0.001). Hemodynamic instability (P=0.014, OR 4.10, 95%CI 1.33-12.66), higher blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (P=0.044), and lower albumin levels (P=0.029) were associated with increased risk of ICU mortality. Conclusion: BSI in the PICU is associated with increased mortality. Early identification and management of risk factors independently associated with poor clinical outcomes in these patients should be aimed to ensure improved survival.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217099

ABSTRACT

Background: Achromobacter spp. is a rare nosocomial pathogen known to cause many serious infections like bloodstream infection, osteomyelitis, meningitis, urinary tract infections, corneal ulceration, peritonitis, and endocarditis. Materials and Methods: In this study, we retrospectively analyzed all the bacteriological sample records from the bacteriology database from January 2021 to December 2021 to determine the prevalence of Achromobacter spp. Result: Nine patients with Achromobacter xylosoxidans causing bacterial infection were identified, from whom five blood samples, two pus, one respiratory sample, one central venous pressure (CVP), and one cerebrospinal fluid were found positive for Achromobacter spp., among whom one was a 6-year-old patient having the same organism from two different body sites—CVP line and cerebrospinal fluid. Five patients had coinfection with another organism, whereas acute kidney injury was the most common comorbidity. Conclusion: In our single-center experience, approximately 50% of the cases with Achromobacter denitrificans bacteremia suffered from chronic kidney disease and had a history of antibiotic therapy, hospitalization, and the presence of devices. Active research on rising trends of Achromobacter spp. needs to be promoted.

12.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 27(4): 102791, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513865

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are often submitted to invasive procedures and they are at risk for hospital-associated adverse events. Objectives: To evaluate the epidemiological and clinical aspects of patients hospitalized with COVID-19; the occurrence of adverse events and the risk factors for mortality. Method: Cohort study that included adult patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of SAR-SCoV-2 infection, at the tertiary University Hospital of UNICAMP from March 2020 to March 2021. Patients were identified through the hospital epidemiological surveillance system and followed until discharge or death. Descriptive, comparative, and logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: 650 adult patients were included. The main adverse events identified were nosocomial infections (31.5%), renal failure (33.8%), thromboembolic and vascular events (12.6%). Mortality was higher among those with bloodstream infections (30.2% vs. 8.6%; p < 0.0001), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP, 52.5% vs. 12.3%; p < 0.0001), catheter associated urinary infection (27.3% vs. 7.2%; p < 0.0001); thromboembolic and vascular events (23.0% vs. 9.9%; p < 0.0001) and renal failure (81.3% vs. 20.9%; p < 0.0001). Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.4%), Enterococcus faecalis (8.6%) were the most isolated bacteria. Logistic regression analysis identified age, (RR = 1.03; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.05); ICU admission (RR = 3.06; 95% CI 1.59 to 5.87), vasoactive drug use (RR = 3.1; 95% CI 1.79 to 4.82); renal failure (RR = 7.76; 95% CI 4.54 to 13.26); and VAP (RR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.23 to 3.96), independently associated with mortality. Conclusion: adverse events have an important impact on the evolution of patients with COVID-19, reinforcing the need for optimized prevention and control measures as an essential part of care for these patients.

13.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(10): 5572-5587, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1511777

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar o impacto da mudança assistencial na prevenção de IRAS em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Adulto de um Hospital Universitário do Paraná. Métodos: estudo epidemiológico, quantitativo, realizado em uma UTI do Paraná. Coleta de dados ocorreu em 2020. Para a intervenção, foi realizado e validado um Fast Checklist. Resultados: A média de entradas no triênio foi de 40,83, média de dias de uso de dispositivos de 256 e a média de permanência de 6,3 dias. No biênio, foi respectivamente, 42,33 (p=0,504), 284,12 (p=0,005), 6,90 (p=0,130). A incidência de infecções, no triênio obteve-se uma média de 8, com taxa 20,42 e densidade de incidência de 32,54. Após, média de 4,91 (p=0,000), taxa de 13,15 (p=0,003) e densidade de incidência de 18,41 (p=0,000). Conclusão: as mudanças propostas e validadas tiveram grande impacto na assistência na UTI estudada, reduzindo as infecções, custos, óbitos e salvando vidas.


Objective: To analyze the impact of care changes on the prevention of HAI in an Adult Intensive Care Unit of a University Hospital in Paraná. Methods: epidemiological, quantitative study, carried out in an ICU in Paraná. Data collection took place in 2020. For the intervention, a Fast Checklist was performed and validated. Results: The average number of entries in the triennium was 40.83, the average number of days of device use was 256 and the average stay was 6.3 days. In the biennium, it was, respectively, 42.33 (p=0.504), 284.12 (p=0.005), 6.90 (p=0.130). The incidence of infections in the three-year period was an average of 8, with a rate of 20.42 and an incidence density of 32.54. Afterwards, mean of 4.91 (p=0.000), rate of 13.15 (p=0.003) and incidence density of 18.41 (p=0.000). Conclusion: the proposed and validated changes had a great impact on care in the studied ICU, reducing infections, costs, deaths and saving lives.


Objetivo: Analizar el impacto de los cambios asistenciales en la prevención de las IRAS en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos de Adultos de un Hospital Universitario de Paraná. Métodos: estudio epidemiológico, cuantitativo, realizado en una UTI de Paraná. La recolección de datos ocurrió en 2020. Para la intervención, se realizó y validó una Lista de Verificación Rápida. Resultados: El promedio de ingresos en el trienio fue de 40,83, el promedio de días de uso del dispositivo fue de 256 y la estadía promedio de 6,3 días. En el bienio fue, respectivamente, 42,33 (p=0,504), 284,12 (p=0,005), 6,90 (p=0,130). La incidencia de contagios en el trienio fue de media 8, con una tasa de 20,42 y una densidad de incidencia de 32,54. Posteriormente, media de 4,91 (p=0,000), tasa de 13,15 (p=0,003) y densidad de incidencia de 18,41 (p=0,000). Conclusión: los cambios propuestos y validados tuvieron gran impacto en la atención en la UTI estudiada, reduciendo infecciones, costos, muertes y salvando vidas.

14.
REVISA (Online) ; 12(4): 800-810, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530697

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: demonstrar a importância da aplicação dos procedimentos de biossegurança para que se evite o contágio por infecção cruzada nas unidades de terapia intensiva. Método:trata-se uma revisão integrativa da literatura em que se buscou artigos científicos sobre a temática da infecção cruzada pela equipe multiprofissional nas UTI's em algumas bases de dados de Ciências e Saúde. Resultados:foram selecionados 10 artigos publicados entre os anos de 2016e2023.Conclusão:foi possível compreender, então, que o enfermeiro deve estar apto a desenvolver ações de vigilância das infecções relacionadas à assistência em saúde (IRAS) e atuar como multiplicador das ações de prevenção, pois é necessário que existam atitudes responsáveis por parte da equipe multidisciplinar de saúde e que novas pesquisas nessa área devem ser desenvolvidas, visto que o tema da infecção cruzada não se esgotano que foi exposto pelo estudo ora apresentado.Descritores: Infecções Relacionadas à Saúde;Infecção Hospitalar;Enfermagem;Equipe Multiprofissional de Saúde.


Objective:to demonstrate the importance of applying biosafety procedures to avoid cross-infection contagion in intensive care units. Method: this is an integrative literature review in which scientific articles were sought on the subject of cross-infection by the multidisciplinary team in ICUs in some Science and Health databases. Results: 10 articles published between 2016 and 2023 were selected. Conclusion: it was possible to understand, then, that the nurse must be able to develop surveillance actions for infections related to health care (HAI) and act as a multiplier of actions of prevention, as it is necessary that there are responsible attitudes on the part of the multidisciplinary health team and that new research in this area must be developed, since the theme of cross-infection does not end with what was exposed by the study presented here.


Objetivo: demostrar la importancia de aplicar procedimientos de bioseguridad para evitar la infección cruzada en unidades de cuidados intensivos. Método:se trata de una revisión integradora de la literatura en la que se buscaron artículos científicos sobre el tema de infección cruzada realizados por el equipo multidisciplinario en las UCI en algunas bases de datos de Ciencia y Salud. Resultados: se seleccionaron 10 artículos publicados entre 2016 y 2023. Conclusión:fue posible comprender, entonces, que elenfermero debe ser capaz de desarrollar acciones de vigilancia de infecciones relacionadas con la atención a la salud (IRAS) y actuar como multiplicador de acciones de prevención, porque es necesario que haya actitudes responsables por parte del equipo multidisciplinario de salud y que se desarrollen nuevas investigaciones en esta área, ya que el tema de la infección cruzada no difiere en lo expuesto por el estudio aquí presentado.


Subject(s)
Infections , Cross Infection , Nurse's Role , Intensive Care Units
15.
J. Public Health Africa (Online) ; 14(11): 1-13, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1530611

ABSTRACT

Healthcare-associated infections (HAI), also referred to as nosocomial infections, is defined as an infection acquired in a hospital setting. This infection is considered a HAI if it was not present or incubating at the time of admission. This includes infections acquired in the hospital but appearing after discharge, and also occupational infections among staff of the facility. HAI are a major patient safety measure to be considered in hospitals.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Surgical Wound Infection , Urinary Tract Infections , Delivery of Health Care , Cross Infection , Prevalence , Meta-Analysis , Systematic Review , Morocco
16.
Mali méd. (En ligne) ; 38(1): 12-15, 2023. tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1427383

ABSTRACT

Objectifs : Identifier les facteurs de mauvais pronostic des pneumopathies acquises sous ventilation mécanique(PAVM) afin d'améliorer leur prise en charge.Patients et methode : Etude prospective, descriptive et analytique portant sur les patients admis en réanimation du CHU d'Angré du 1er novembre 2019 au 31 juillet 2021 et ayant présenté une PAVM.Resultats : Nous avons colligé 43 patients sur 625 admissions soit 6,88%. L'âge moyen était de 49,06 ans. Le sex ratio était de 0,38. Le principal motif d'admission était le coma avec 88,37%. L'HTA et le diabète étaient les principaux antécédents .Les PAVM précoces représentaient 53,49%. Le Klebsiella pneumoniae était le principal germe. Les patients intubés à l'admission représentaient 79,07%. La durée moyenne de ventilation était de 26,95 jours et la durée moyenne d'hospitalisation était de 30,8140 jours. Une antibiothérapie probabiliste a été réalisée chez 75,76% des patients. La mortalité était de 76,74%. Les facteurs de mortalité étaient une durée de ventilation mécanique supérieure à 15 jours et l'âge supérieur à 50 ans.Conclusion :La mortalité secondaire au PAVM demeure élevée. L'identification des deux facteurs pronostiques devrait améliorer la prise en charge ultérieure de tous nouveaux cas


Objectives: To identify the factors of poor prognosis of ventilator-associated lung disease (VAP) in order to improve their management. Patients and method: Prospective, descriptive and analytical study of patients admitted to intensive care at the Angré University Hospital from November 1, 2019 to July 31, 2021 and having presented VAP.Results: We collected 43 patients out of 625 admissions, i.e. 6.88%. The average age was 49.06 years. The sex ratio was 0.38. The main reason for admission was coma with 88.37%. Hypertension and diabetes were the main antecedents. Early VAP accounted for 53.49%. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the main germ. Patients intubated on admission accounted for 79.07%. The average duration of ventilation was 26.95 days and the average duration of hospitalization was 30.8140 days. Probabilistic antibiotic therapy was performed in 75.76% of patients. Mortality was 76.74%. The mortality factors were duration of mechanical ventilation greater than 15 days and age greater than 50 years.Conclusion:Secondary mortality from VAP remains high. The identification of the two prognostic factors should improve the subsequent management of all new cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Respiration, Artificial , Ventilators, Mechanical , Mortality , Critical Care , Diabetes Mellitus , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pneumonia , Prognosis , Coma , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated
17.
Journal of Sun Yat-sen University(Medical Sciences) ; (6): 697-703, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979225

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo understand the situation of nosocomial infection in cancer hospitals and its changing trend, so as to provide a basis for adjusting the focus of nosocomial infection prevention and control in cancer hospitals. MethodsData of nosocomial infection quality control indices of Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from 2019 to 2021 were obtained through the nosocomial infection monitoring system, and the changes of these indices across the three years were analyzed by Chi-square test and Cochran-Armitage trend test. ResultsFrom 2019 to 2021, the incidence rates of nosocomial infection in this hospital were 0.80%, 0.78% and 0.57%, which decreased significantly year by year (P<0.001). Among them, surgical site and respiratory system infection were more common, accounting for 35.75% and 31.08%, respectively. Gram-negative bacteria and fungi were the main pathogens. The incidence rate of multidrug-resistant bacteria in hospital increased year by year, from 0.08‰ to 0.14‰ (P<0.001), among which methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter and bacteria producing ultra-broad spectrum β-lactamase (ESBLs) bacteria increased significantly. The incidence rates of three-tube associated infections were no different across 3 years (P>0.05), which were still at high levels. ConclusionFrom 2019 to 2021, the prevention and control of nonsocomial infection in the cancer hospital has been improved overall. Meanwhile, the infections of respiratory system and surgical sites, ESBLs related multidrug-resistant bacteria and three-tube are weak links in cancer specialized hospitals, which need to be emphasized and improved.

18.
Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine ; (12): 823-829, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979199

ABSTRACT

Background The incidence of Legionnaires' disease is increasing globally and artificial water environment is becoming a common source of outbreaks. Molecular typing techniques can help prevent and control Legionella. Objective To understand the molecular epidemiological characteristics of Legionella pneumophila in artificial water environment of Shanghai hospitals, and provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of Legionnaires' disease. Methods Water samples were collected from artificial water environment in 14 hospitals from May to October each year from 2019 to 2020 in Shanghai. A total of 984 water samples were collected from 8 Grade-A tertiary hospitals and 6 non-Grade-A tertiary hospitals, including 312 samples of cooling water, 72 samples of chilled water, and 600 samples of tap water. The water samples were isolated and serotyped for Legionella pneumophila and preserved, and the positive rate of Legionella pneumophila in the samples was used as an indicator of contamination. The preserved strains were resuscitated and 81 surviving strains were obtained for pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing analysis. Results A total of 124 Legionella pneumophila positive water samples were detected, with a positive rate of 12.60%. The positive rate was higher in the Grade-A tertiary hospitals (16.54%, 87/526) than in the non-Grade-A tertiary hospitals (8.08%, 37/458) (χ2=15.91, P<0.001). The positive rate of cooling water (23.40%) was the highest among different types of water samples, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2=61.19, P<0.001). The difference in positive rate of tap water was statistically significant among different hospital departments (χ2=11.37, P<0.05). The positive rate in 2019 (15.06%) was higher than that in 2020 (9.84%) (χ2=6.23, P<0.05). From May to October, August had the highest annual average positive rate (16.46%) and October had the lowest (8.54%), but the difference in positive rates among months was not statistically significant (χ2=5.39, P=0.37). The difference in positive rate among districts was statistically significant (χ2=24.88, P<0.001). A total of 131 strains of Legionella pneumophila were isolated, with serotype 1 (80.15%, 105/131) predominating. Among the 81 surviving strains of Legionella pneumophila subjected to PFGE typing, the band-based similarity coefficients ranged from 41.30% to 100%. Among the 29 PFGE band types (S1-S29) recorded, each band type included 1-10 strains, and S28 was the dominant band type. Four clusters (I-IV) of PFGE band types were identified, accounting for 66.67% (54/81) of all strains and containing 13 band types. Conclusion Legionella pneumophila contamination is present in the artificial water environment of hospitals in Shanghai from 2019 to 2020, and the contamination in tap water deserves attention. The detected serotype of Legionella pneumophila is predominantly type 1, and PFGE typing reveals the presence of genetic polymorphism. Therefore, the monitoring and control of Legionella pneumophila in hospital artificial water environment should be strengthened.

19.
Journal of Sun Yat-sen University(Medical Sciences) ; (6): 878-885, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988737

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveAt the end of November 2022, Guangzhou implemented the latest Covid-19 epidemic prevention policy and began to gradually lift the lockdown. However, under the new epidemic prevention situation, the situation of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalized patients in China is still unclear. Accordingly, this paper aims to study the SARS-CoV-2 infection of hospitalized patients in Guangzhou under the new epidemic prevention and control situation. MethodsThe results of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests in our hospital from the end of November 2022 to the beginning of February 2023 were retrospectively analyzed. The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests in outpatients and inpatients under the new epidemic prevention situation, and the nosocomial infection of SARS-CoV-2 in inpatients were statistically analyzed. ResultsThis study retrospectively analyzed the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test results of 13 959 patients, including 6 966 outpatients and 6 993 inpatients. On November 30, 2022, the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test results of outpatients began to be positive, indicating that the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 infection had begun. On December 7, one case of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test results of hospitalized patients was positive, and nosocomial infections began to break out. On December 15, the positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test among patients exceeded 40 %, and the epidemic entered its peak period. After the end of December, the test positive rate gradually decreased, but the positive rate of inpatients was always higher than that of outpatients. Compared with December 2022, the positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test of patients in many departments in January 2023 decreased, but the positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test of inpatients in the oncology department increased significantly (P < 0.001). Further analysis found that the nosocomial infection rate of SARS-CoV-2 in inpatients was 86.57 % (329/380). However, the nosocomial infection rate in lymphoma patients [58.33 % (14/24)] was significantly lower than that of the hospitalized patients with other disease types (P < 0.001). ConclusionThe positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing among patients reached its peak in mid-December 2022. In January 2023, the positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing gradually decreased, while the number or positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing positive patients in some departments increased. The nosocomial infection rate among hospitalized patients is as high as 90 %. There are differences in the nosocomial infection rate of SARS-CoV-2 among inpatients with different disease types. In summary, this study provides preliminary data on the epidemiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection among hospitalized patients in Guangzhou, as well as the protection against infection among hospitalized patients and cross-infection between medical staffs and patients.

20.
Journal of Public Health and Preventive Medicine ; (6): 148-151, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-973380

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of nosocomial Escherichia coli infection and risk factors of ESBLs-producing Escherichia coli infection in children, and to provide scientific basis for better prevention of nosocomial Escherichia coli infection in children. Methods A total of 169 children with nosocomial infection hospitalized in Handan Regional Children's Hospital from January 2020 to December 2020 were selected by random sampling method. After specimen collection, bacteria were identified by VitEK-32 identification system , and drug sensitivity of isolated pure Escherichia coli colony was identified by automatic drug sensitivity analyzer Phoenix 100. Statistical analysis of drug resistance of Escherichia coli. The clinical data of the children were retrieved from the case system by uniformly trained professionals, and the department distribution, underlying diseases, clinical characteristics, antibiotic resistance, length of hospital stay, surgery, invasive exercises and other clinical data of all the children were counted. Factor logistic regression analysis of the risk factors of nosocomial infection of ESBLs Escherichia coli in children in the hospital. Results A among of 39 strains of Escherichia coli were detected in children with nosocomial infection in children's hospital. The main specimens were 22 strains (56.41%) in sputum, 11 strains (28.21%) in urine and 6 strains (15.38%) in blood.Twenty-one strains of ESBLs Escherichia coli were detected, with a positive rate of 53.85%. Fever was the most common first symptom in 37 cases (94.87%). Children with ESBLs (+) Escherichia coli infection were significantly higher than those with ESBLs (-) Escherichia coli in age, length of hospitalization, neonates/recent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, complicated underlying diseases, and invasive operation (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that recent use of antibiotics, combined with underlying diseases, and invasive operation were independent risk factors for ESBLs infection in children in hospital (P<0.05). Conclusion The incidence of nosocomial Escherichia coli infection in children is high, and active intervention should be carried out for children who have recently used antibiotics, complicated with underlying diseases, and invasive operations to reduce the risk of ESBLs Escherichia coli infection.

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