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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195802

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Bacterial biofilms a multi-layered defence, comprise extracellular DNA (eDNA) and proteins, protect bacteria from harmful environment and nutrient limitation and utilize the mutual benefits within a community. Bacterial biofilms also defend bacteria from harsh environments such as antibiotic treatment. This leads to poor antibiotic penetration, slow growth, adaptive stress responses, and formation of persister cells. This study was done to determine the relation of antibiotic resistance deciphered by the biofilms in Lactobacillus plantarum, a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic significance. Methods: The gentamicin-resistant L. plantarum isolates were allowed to form biofilms and subjected to DNase I and proteinase K treatment. The optical density (OD) values were recorded for the biofilm assay and the cell count for the number of viable cells was taken for the control and the test samples. Percentage reduction was calculated based on the difference between the initial and final OD for both the parameters. Results: The biofilm assay revealed that the native L. plantarum isolates which were phenotypically susceptible, possessed the ability to form biofilms. The OD values were significantly decreased in comparison to the biofilm-forming control culture when these were treated with DNase I and proteinase K. Interpretation & conclusions: The study revealed that the biofilms formed by L. plantarum comprised of eDNA and proteins which was evidenced by the reduction in OD values and percentage in comparison to the control upon DNase I and proteinase K treatment. This indicates that the eDNA and biofilm matrix proteins are vital constituents of biofilms and may carry significant risk when coupled with antibiotic resistance.

2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 57(1): 55-61, Jan.-Feb. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-702570

ABSTRACT

The study identified the innate enzymatic potential (amylase) of the PHB producing strain B.thuringiensis IAM 12077 and explored the same for cost-effective production of PHB using agrowastes, eliminating the need for pretreatment (acid hydrolysis and/or commercial enzyme). Comparative polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by B. thuringiensis IAM 12077 in biphasic growth conditions using glucose and starch showed appreciable levels of growth (5.7 and 6.8 g/L) and PHA production (58.5 and 41.5%) with a PHA yield of 3.3 and 2.8 g/L, respectively. Nitrogen deficiency supported maximum PHA yield (2.46 g/L) and accumulation (53.3%). Maximum growth (3.6 g/L), PHB yield (2.6 g/L) and PHA accumulation (72.8%) was obtained with C:N ratio of 8:1 using starch as the carbon source (10 g/L). Nine substrates (agro and food wastes) viz. rice husk, wheat bran, ragi husk, jowar husk, jackfruit seed powder, mango peel, potato peel, bagasse and straw were subjected to two treatments- acid hydrolysis and hydrolysis by innate enzymes, and the reducing sugars released thereby were utilized for polymer production. All the substrates tested supported comparable PHB production with acid hydrolysis (0.96 g/L-8.03 g/L) and enzyme hydrolysis (0.96 g/L -5.16 g/L). Mango peel yielded the highest PHB (4.03 g/L; 51.3%), followed by jackfruit seed powder (3.93 g/L; 29.32%). Varied levels of amylase activity (0.25U-10U) in all the substrates suggested the enzymatic hydrolysis of agrowastes.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 68(2): 279-285, May 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-486752

ABSTRACT

Studies of grasslands on specific soil types suggest that different nutrients can limit biomass production and, hence, species composition and number. The Brazilian cerrado is the major savanna region in America and once covered about 2 million km², mainly in the Brazilian Central Plateau, under seasonal climate, with wet summer and dry winter. In view of the importance of soil chemical factors in the distribution of the vegetation forms within the Cerrado domain and which may influence the number of species, we analyzed some soil characteristics in three herbaceous vegetation forms - hyperseasonal cerrado, seasonal cerrado, and wet grassland - in Emas National Park, a core cerrado site, to investigate the relationship between number of species and soil characteristics. We collected vegetation and soil samples in these three vegetation forms and submitted the obtained data to multiple linear regression. We found out that aluminum and pH were the best predictors of species density, the former positively related to species density and the latter negatively related. Since the predictable variation in species density is important in determining areas of conservation, we can postulate that these two soil factors are indicators of high species density areas in tropical grasslands, which could be used in selecting priority sites for conservation.


Estudos em comunidades herbáceas em tipos específicos de solos sugerem que diferentes nutrientes podem limitar a produção de biomassa e, também, a composição e o número de espécies. O cerrado brasileiro é a maior região de savana na América e ocupava, originalmente, cerca de 2 milhões de km², principalmente no Planalto Central Brasileiro. Encontra-se sob clima estacional, com verão chuvoso e inverno seco. Como as variáveis químicas do solo são importantes na distribuição das formas de vegetação no domínio do Cerrado e podem influenciar no número de espécies, analisamos algumas variáveis edáficas em três formas vegetacionais herbáceas - cerrado hiperestacional, cerrado estacional e campo úmido - no Parque Nacional das Emas, uma região nuclear de cerrado, para investigar quais seriam as relações entre o número de espécies e as características do solo. Coletamos amostras de solo e vegetação nesses três ambientes e submetemos os dados obtidos a uma análise de regressão múltipla linear. Encontramos que o alumínio e o pH foram os melhores previsores da densidade de espécies, sendo o primeiro relacionado positivamente com a densidade de espécies, e o último, negativamente. Já que a variação previsível na densidade de espécies é importante para se determinar áreas de conservação, podemos postular que esses dois fatores do solo podem ser indicadores de áreas com alta densidade de espécies em comunidades herbáceas tropicais, que poderiam ser usados para a escolha de locais prioritários para conservação.


Subject(s)
Poaceae/classification , Soil/analysis , Biomass , Brazil , Chemistry, Physical , Population Density , Poaceae/physiology
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