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1.
J. bras. nefrol ; 46(3): e20230134, July-Sept. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550505

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Living donor kidney transplantation is considered the ideal renal replacement therapy because it has a lower complication rate and allows an efficient response to the high demand for grafts in the healthcare system. Careful selection and adequate monitoring of donors is a key element in transplantation. Individuals at greater risk of developing kidney dysfunction after nephrectomy must be identified. Objective: To identify risk factors associated with a renal compensation rate (CR) below 70% 12 months after nephrectomy. Methods: This observational retrospective longitudinal study included living kidney donors followed up at the Lower Amazon Regional Hospital between 2016 and 2022. Data related to sociodemographic variables, comorbid conditions and kidney function parameters were collected. Results: The study enrolled 32 patients. Fourteen (43.75%) had a CR < 70% 12 months after kidney donation. Logistic regression found obesity (Odds Ratio [95%CI]: 10.6 [1.7-65.2]), albuminuria (Odds Ratio [95%CI]: 2.41 [1.2-4.84]) and proteinuria (Odds Ratio [95%CI]: 1.14 [1.03-1.25]) as risk factors. Glomerular filtration rate was a protective factor (Odds Ratio [95% CI]: 0.92 [0.85-0.99]). Conclusion: Obesity, albuminuria and proteinuria adversely affected short-term renal compensation rate. Further studies are needed to uncover the prognostic implications tied to these risk factors. Our findings also supported the need for careful individualized assessment of potential donors and closer monitoring of individuals at higher risk.


Resumo Introdução: O transplante de rim de doador vivo é considerado a terapia renal substitutiva ideal por oferecer menor taxa de complicações e possibilitar uma resposta eficiente à grande demanda por enxertos no sistema de saúde. A seleção criteriosa e o acompanhamento adequado dos doadores constituem um pilar fundamental dessa modalidade terapêutica, sendo essencial a identificação dos indivíduos em maior risco de disfunção renal pós-nefrectomia. Objetivo: Identificar fatores de risco para uma Taxa de Compensação (TC) da função renal inferior a 70% 12 meses após a nefrectomia. Métodos: Estudo observacional, retrospectivo e longitudinal conduzido com doadores de rim vivo acompanhados no Hospital Regional do Baixo Amazonas entre 2016 e 2022. Foram coletados dados correspondentes a variáveis sociodemográficas, comorbidades e parâmetros de função renal. Resultados: Foram incluídos 32 pacientes na amostra final. Destes, 14 (43,75%) obtiveram TC < 70% 12 meses após a doação. A regressão logística identificou a obesidade (Odds Ratio [IC95%]: 10.6 [1.7-65.2]), albuminúria (Odds Ratio [IC95%]: 2.41 [1.2-4.84]) e proteinúria (Odds Ratio [IC95%]: 1.14 [1.03-1.25]) como fatores de risco. A taxa de filtração glomerular atuou como fator de proteção (Odds Ratio [IC95%]: 0.92 [0.85-0.99]). Conclusão: Obesidade, albuminúria e proteinúria demonstraram impacto negativo na taxa de compensação renal em curto prazo, o que reitera a necessidade de estudos acerca das implicações prognósticas desses fatores. Além disso, reforça-se a necessidade de avaliação cuidadosa e individualizada dos possíveis doadores, com acompanhamento rigoroso, especialmente para indivíduos de maior risco.

2.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 100(3): 305-310, May-June 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558317

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To build a model based on cardiometabolic indicators that allow the identification of overweight adolescents at higher risk of subclinical atherosclerotic disease (SAD). Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 161 adolescents with a body mass index ≥ + 1 z-Score, aged 10 to 19 years. Carotid intima-media complex thickness (IMT) was evaluated using ultrasound to assess subclinical atherosclerotic disease. Cardiometabolic indicators evaluated included nutritional status, central adiposity, blood pressure, lipidic profile, glycemic profile, as well as age and sex. Data was presented using measures of central tendency and dispersion, as well as absolute and relative frequency. The relationship between IMT measurement (outcome variable) and other variables (independent variables) was assessed using Pearson or Spearman correlation, followed by multiple regression modeling with Gamma distribution to analyze predictors of IMT. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS and R software, considering a significance level of 5 %. Results: It was observed that 23.7 % had Carotid thickening, and the prevalence of abnormal fasting glucose was the lowest. Age and fasting glucose were identified as predictors of IMT increase, with IMT decreasing with age by approximately 1 % per year and increasing with glucose by around 0.24 % per mg/dL. Conclusion: The adolescent at higher risk is younger with higher fasting glycemia levels.

3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 29(6): e05162023, Jun. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557531

ABSTRACT

Abstract This article aims to analyse the relationship between physical activity (PA) environment at schools, sex, age, and obesity in children, using a network approach. This is a cross-sectional study, with 1,200 children (8.1±1.0 years old) from eight public schools in the same municipality. Weight and height measurements were assessed to calculate the Body Mass Index (BMI) and classified as healthier weight or overweight. To assess the PA environment at school, a interview with the school´s manager was conducted. The association between the PA environment at school and obesity was tested using a Network Analysis performed on the Jasp software. Positive associations between BMI and Physical Education classes (0.847), physical education teacher (0.349), break duration (0.564), and indoor sports court (0.662) were observed. Negative associations were seen with sex (-0.212) age (-0.387), extracurricular PA (-0.492), and playground (-0.557). Additionally, the centrality indicators highlighted extracurricular PA (1.789) as the variables with the highest betweenness values, and BMI with the highest closeness (2.239) and strength (1.230) values. Extracurricular PA and the presence of playgrounds in school´s environment are associated with healthier weight in low-income children.


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a relação entre ambiente de atividade física (AF) nas escolas, sexo, idade e obesidade em crianças, usando uma abordagem de rede. Trata-se de um estudo transversal com 1.200 crianças (8,1±1,0 anos) de oito escolas públicas do mesmo município. Peso e estatura foram avaliadas para cálculo do Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) e classificadas como peso saudável ou sobrepeso. Para avaliar o ambiente de AF na escola, foi aplicado um questionário por meio de entrevista com o gestor da escola. A associação entre o ambiente de AF na escola e a obesidade foi testada por meio Análise de Redes realizada no software Jasp. Foram observadas associações positivas entre o IMC e as aulas de Educação Física (0,847), professor de educação física (0,349), duração do intervalo (0,564) e quadra poliesportiva (0,662). Associações negativas foram observadas com sexo (-0,212), idade (-0,387), AF extracurricular (-0,492) e playground (-0,557). Adicionalmente, os indicadores de centralidade destacaram a AF extracurricular (1,789) como a variável com o maior valor de intermediação, e o IMC com o maior valor de proximidade (2,239) e força (1,230). A AF extracurricular e a presença de playgrounds no ambiente escolar estão associadas a um peso mais saudável em crianças de baixa renda.

4.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 74(2): 97-106, jun. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1561533

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La malnutrición por exceso causa sobrepeso y obesidad, siendo un problema de salud pública, que se ha presentado en los primeros años de vida. Investigaciones realizadas han informado la existencia de insatisfacción corporal relacionada con el peso, debido a los estándares de belleza establecidos en la sociedad. Objetivo: asociar el índice de masa corporal con la insatisfacción corporal y percepción de la imagen corporal de los escolares. Materiales y métodos: estudio transversal con 610 escolares. El estado nutricional se clasificó según el puntaje z del IMC. Para determinar la insatisfacción corporal y la percepción de la imagen corporal, se aplicó una escala de imagen corporal infantil de siete fotografías, con un valor del 1 al 7 de acuerdo con el tamaño creciente, y el rango final del IMC. Se calculó la diferencia entre la figura que los participantes consideraron ideal y la forma corporal percibida. Resultados: el 47,3% presentaron sobrepeso y obesidad. La insatisfacción corporal fue mayor en las niñas con sobrepeso y obesidad (p = 0,013). El IMC correlacionó con la insatisfacción corporal (rho(608) = 0,480; p < 0,001) y la percepción de la imagen corporal (rho(608) = 0,433; p < 0,001). Conclusiones: El IMC se relacionó positivamente con la insatisfacción corporal y la percepción de la imagen corporal; esto podría elevar el riesgo de presentar trastornos alimentarios, contribuir al mantenimiento del exceso de peso corporal, al no percibirse con exceso de peso, es menos probable que realicen acciones para controlarlo(AU)


Introduction: Excessive malnutrition causes overweight and obesity, being a public health problem, which has occurred in the first years of life. Research has reported the existence of body dissatisfaction related to weight, due to beauty standards established in society. Objective: to associate the BMI with body dissatisfaction and body image perception of schoolchildren. Materials and methods: cross-sectional study of 610 schoolchildren. Nutritional status was classified according to the BMI z score. To determine body dissatisfaction and body image perception, a child body image scale of seven photographs was applied, with a value of 1 to 7 according to the increasing size, and the final range of the BMI. The difference between the figure that participants considered ideal, and the perceived body shape was calculated. Results: 47.3% were overweight and obese. Body dissatisfaction was higher in overweight and obese girls (p = 0.013). BMI correlated with body dissatisfaction (rho(608) = 0.480; p < 0.001) and body image perception (rho(608) = 0.433; p < 0.001). Conclusions: BMI was positively related to body dissatisfaction and body image perception; this could increase the risk of developing eating disorders, contribute to the maintenance of excess body weight, as it is not perceived with excess weight, are less likely to take actions to control it(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Body Mass Index , Overweight , Pediatric Obesity
5.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 16(2)May-Aug. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559129

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el riesgo de aparición del infarto agudo de miocardio está relacionada con varias comorbilidades, muchas de las cuales son prevenibles y tratables. El infarto agudo de miocardio tiene un impacto relevante en términos de mortalidad y número de hospitalizaciones. Objetivos: determinar las características clínica-epidemiológicas del infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST en pacientes atendidos en el Centro Médico Nacional-Hospital Nacional, durante el periodo 2021-2023. Metodología: el diseño del estudio fue observacional, descriptivo de corte transversal, sobre las características clínica-epidemiológicas del infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST en pacientes mayores de edad atendidos en el Centro Médico Nacional-Hospital Nacional, durante el periodo 2021-2023. Resultados: se analizaron 102 expedientes de pacientes con diagnóstico de infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST con una media de 64 ± 12 años; el 68 % (n = 69) correspondió al sexo masculino, con una edad promedio de 62 años, y en relación a las mujeres el promedio fue de 64 años. El motivo de consulta principal fue el dolor precordial y la cara miocárdica más afectada de acuerdo con el electrocardiograma inicial fue la cara anteroseptal. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria fue del 16 %, el 68 % correspondió a varones. La comorbilidad más frecuente fue la hipertensión arterial. Conclusión: La hipertensión arterial es la patología más prevalente. Asimismo, son habituales la obesidad, el tabaquismo y la diabetes mellitus. Las comorbilidades están en relación directa con la edad y prevalecen en mayores de 60 años. El infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST es más frecuente en el sexo masculino.


Introduction: the risk of acute myocardial infarction is related to several comorbidities, many of which are preventable and treatable. Acute myocardial infarction has a relevant impact in terms of mortality and number of hospitalizations. Objectives: the design of the study was observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, on the clinical characteristics of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, in adult patients treated at the Centro Médico Nacional-Hospital Nacional, during the period 2021-2023. Methodology: the design of the study was observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, on the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of acute myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation in adult patients treated at the National Medical Center-National Hospital, during the period 2021-2023. Results: 102 records of patients with a diagnosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction with a mean age of 64 ± 12 years were analyzed; 68 % (n = 69) were male, with an average age of 62 years, and in relation to women the average was 64 years. The main reason for consultation was precordial pain and the most affected myocardial aspect according to the initial electrocardiogram was the anteroseptal aspect. In-hospital mortality was 16 %, 68 % of which were men. The most frequent comorbidity was arterial hypertension. Conclusion: high blood pressure is the most prevalent pathology. Likewise, obesity, smoking and diabetes mellitus are common. Comorbidities are directly related to age and prevail in those over 60 years of age. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is more common in males.

6.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(2)abr. 2024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558124

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This article has two aims: (a) first aim was to determine what is the most applicable and the simplest alternative for recommended BMI categories for underweight, overweight and obesity related to IOTF references, from the practical standpoint; (b) second aim was to determine the prevalence of the nutritional status in Montenegro on this representative sample of school children aged 9-13 years and compare them with peers from relevant and similar studies from both the local region and globally. A total sample of 1478 healthy children from Montenegro participated in this study divided into two sub-samples of 732 girls and 746 boys. According to the IOTF body mass index (BMI) reference values were used through ROC curve analysis to evaluate potential alternatives for estimation of the nutritional status of this sample of children. Only WHtR did not show significant age-related differences in the case of both genders. Considering the nutritional status of children from this study it has been found that boys have a considerably higher prevalence of being overweight (22.7 % vs. 16.4 %) and obese (7.5 % vs. 3.3 %) compared to girls. On the other hand, girls were more prevalent to be underweight (10.5 % vs. 7.5 %). WHtR seems like the best alternative for the estimation of obesity and being overweight due to simplicity and the equipment needed.


Este artículo tiene dos objetivos: (a) el primero fue determinar cuál es la alternativa más aplicable y más sencilla para las categorías de IMC recomendadas para bajo peso, sobrepeso y obesidad relacionadas con las referencias de la IOTF, desde el punto de vista práctico; (b) el segundo objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia del estado nutricional en Montenegro en esta muestra representativa de escolares de 9 a 13 años y compararlos con pares de estudios relevantes y similares tanto de la región local como a nivel mundial. En el estudio participaron 1478 niños sanos de Montenegro divididos en dos submuestras de 732 niñas y 746 niños. De acuerdo con el índice de masa corporal (IMC) de la IOTF, se utilizaron valores de referencia mediante análisis de curvas ROC para evaluar posibles alternativas para la estimación del estado nutricional de esta muestra en niños. Sólo el ICT no mostró diferencias significativas relacionadas con la edad en el caso de ambos sexos. Teniendo en consideración el estado nutricional de los niños, se determinó que los éstos tenían una prevalencia considerablemente mayor de sobrepeso (22,7 % frente a 16,4 %) y obesidad (7,5 % frente a 3,3 %) en comparación con las niñas. Por otro lado, las niñas tenían más prevalencia de bajo peso (10,5 % frente a 7,5 %). El WHtR parece la mejor alternativa para la estimación de la obesidad y el sobrepeso por su sencillez y equipamiento necesario.

7.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(2)abr. 2024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558158

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The identification of children and adolescents who are at risk of sarcopenic obesity development often requires specialized equipment and expensive test procedures. Therefore, the establishment of cheaper and faster methods would be greatly useful, especially if they could be applied in the field. The study's objective was to establish if identification of female adolescents who suffer the risk of developing sarcopenic obesity can be obtained through the standing-long-jump test application. To achieve the research objectives, various anthropometric and body composition measurements were performed and lower limb explosive strength was assessed using the standing long jump fitness test. The research was conducted on a sample of 535 female respondents randomly selected from 9 elementary schools in the Skopje region of the Republic of North Macedonia. The respondents were divided into quintiles according to BMI z-scores, and the arithmetic means and SD about muscle-to-fat ratio were calculated for each quintile. The cutoff was determined based on the mean and standard deviation of the muscle-to-fat ratio for the 3rd quintile of BMI and the percentage of respondents with sarcopenic obesity was examined. The optimal cut-off value of the long jump fitness test results for predicting sarcopenic obesity in an adolescent girl showed that the area under the ROC curve was 0.781 (95 % CI 0.743-0.815). The standing-long-jump test values, on grounds of odds ratio (OR 95 % CI) about the girls at risk of sarcopenic obesity development, which was identified on muscle-to-fat ratio base, were 8.76 (4.39 - 17.54, p 0.001). It can be used to predict sarcopenic obesity presence in female adolescents, which can be vital in case of health intervention.


La identificación de niños y adolescentes que corren riesgo de desarrollar obesidad sarcopénica a menudo requiere equipos especializados y procedimientos de pruebas costosos. Por lo tanto, el establecimiento de métodos más baratos y rápidos sería de gran utilidad, especialmente si pudieran aplicarse en el campo. El objetivo del estudio fue establecer si la identificación de mujeres adolescentes que sufren riesgo de desarrollar obesidad sarcopénica se puede obtener mediante la aplicación de la prueba de salto de longitud de pie. Para lograr los objetivos de la investigación, se realizaron diversas mediciones antropométricas y de composición corporal y se evaluó la fuerza explosiva de los miembros inferiores mediante la prueba de aptitud de salto de longitud de pie. La investigación se realizó con una muestra de 535 mujeres encuestadas seleccionadas al azar de 9 escuelas primarias de la región de Skopje, en la República de Macedonia del Norte. Los encuestados se dividieron en quintiles según las puntuaciones z del IMC, y se calcularon las medias aritméticas y la DE sobre la relación músculo-grasa para cada quintil. El límite se determinó en función de la media y la desviación estándar de la relación músculo-grasa para el tercer quintil del IMC y se examinó el porcentaje de encuestados con obesidad sarcopénica. El valor de corte óptimo de los resultados de la prueba de condición física de salto de longitud para predecir la obesidad sarcopénica en una adolescente mostró que el área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,781 (IC del 95 %: 0,743-0,815). Los valores de la prueba de salto de longitud de pie, sobre la base del odds ratio (OR IC del 95 %) sobre las niñas en riesgo de desarrollar obesidad sarcopénica, que se identificó sobre la base del ratio músculo-grasa, fueron 8,76 (4,39 - 17,54, p. 0,001). Puede utilizarse para predecir la presencia de obesidad sarcopénica en adolescentes, lo que puede ser vital en caso de intervención sanitaria.

8.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 100(2): 124-131, Mar.-Apr. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558314

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: This paper aims to review data on the association of obesity and iron deficiency in children and adolescents, exposing the possible involvement of hepcidin and interleukin-6 (IL-6), obesity's inflammation biomarkers. Data source: Articles from PUBMED and WEB OF SCIENCE database with no chronological limit were reviewed to write this systematic review. Keywords such as children, obesity, iron deficiency, and hepcidin were used. After deleting duplicated and review articles, 91 were screened, and 39 were selected as eligible. Sixteen articles were included because they involved serum hepcidin levels in obese children and adolescents as outcomes. Summary of findings: Finally, those 16 articles were organized in two tables: one includes therapeutic interventions, and the other does not. As hepcidin was discovered in 2000, the first articles that presented serum hepcidin's quantification in obese children and adolescents, homeostasis iron markers, and their possible association with obesity's inflammatory environment began to be published in 2008. Conclusions: Obesity's chronic inflammation state leads to the production of IL-6, which acts as a signaling molecule for hepcidin synthesis, resulting in iron deficiency, which is common in obese children and adolescents who respond inadequately to iron supplementation. On the other hand, that population responds adequately to therapeutic intervention programs that lead to weight loss, guaranteeing iron homeostasis improvement. Therefore, perhaps it is time to discuss serum hepcidin level quantification as part of evaluating children and adolescents with iron deficiency, which could guide clinical choices that might lead to better therapeutic outcomes.

9.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 100(supl.1): S48-S56, Mar.-Apr. 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558343

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To present the different aspects that may be involved in the genesis and maintenance of obesity in children and adolescents. Data source Narrative review of articles published in the PubMed, Scielo, Lilacs, Scopus and Google Scholar databases, using the search terms: overweight, obesity, pre-conception, prenatal, infants, schoolchildren, children, and adolescents. The search was conducted in studies written in Portuguese, English and Spanish, including narrative, integrative or systematic reviews, meta-analyses, cross-sectional, case-control and cohort studies, published between 2003 and 2023. Data synthesis A total of 598 studies were initially screened and 60 of them, which showed the main biopsychosocial aspects related to greater risks of excessive adiposity in the pediatric age, were included in the review. The data were presented taking into account the incidence of risk factors and their consequences in six periods: pre-conception, pre-natal, infant, preschool, school age, and adolescence. Conclusions The causal factors described in the scientific literature that have been shown to be related to obesity in childhood and adolescence are presented.

10.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 51(2)abr. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559706

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: El aumento de la obesidad ha llevado a una mayor estigmatización, con impactos en la salud psicológica y social de las víctimas. La estigmatización por peso puede expresarse en las creencias respecto al control de la obesidad. Escasos estudios han explorado el rol de la victimización por peso corporal y las creencias hacia otras personas con obesidad. Objetivo: Analizar la asociación entre la victimización por peso corporal y características de estudiantes universitarios, en relación con las creencias hacia personas con obesidad. Métodos: Estudio transversal con 281 estudiantes de Santiago, Chile. Los participantes completaron un cuestionario online con la escala Beliefs about Obese Persons Scale (BAOP), preguntas sobre discriminación por su peso corporal, y características personales. La escala BAOP fue validada mediante entrevistas cognitivas (N=8) y análisis de consistencia interna (α-Cronbach=0,814). Los resultados se analizaron con las pruebas U Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis y Chi-cuadrado. Resultados: La mayoría de los estudiantes creían que la obesidad es controlable por las personas que la padecen, pero aquellos que reportaron victimización por peso en lugares como el hogar y la universidad presentaron menores creencias sobre la controlabilidad de la obesidad (p<0,05). No se reportaron diferencias en las creencias hacia personas con obesidad según características personales, exceptuando entre los hombres de distinta cohorte de estudios. Conclusión: Este estudio indica que las víctimas de estigmatización de peso tienden a presentar menores creencias respecto a la controlabilidad de la obesidad. Futuras intervenciones debiesen incorporar estrategias para reducir los sesgos de peso entre estudiantes universitarios en formación.


Background: The rise in obesity prevalence has led to increased weight stigmatization, impacting the psychological and social health of those affected. Weight stigma can manifest in beliefs regarding individuals' control over their obesity. Few studies have explored the role of weight-based victimization and beliefs towards individuals with obesity. Objective: To analyze the association between weight-based victimization and university students' characteristics, with beliefs toward individuals with obesity. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 281 students in Santiago, Chile. Participants completed an online questionnaire including the Beliefs about Obese Persons Scale (BAOP), questions about weight-based discrimination, and personal characteristics. The BAOP scale was validated through cognitive interviews (N=8) and internal consistency analysis (α-Cronbach=0,814). Results were analyzed using U Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and Chi-square tests. Results: Most students believed that obesity is controllable by those affected, but those who reported weight-based victimization in places such as home and university exhibited lower beliefs about the controllability of obesity (p<0,05). No differences in beliefs towards individuals with obesity were reported based on personal characteristics, except among male students in different study cohorts. Conclusion: This study identifies that victims of weight bias tend to exhibit lower beliefs regarding the controllability of obesity. Future interventions should incorporate strategies to reduce weight biases among university students in training.

11.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 51(2)abr. 2024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559711

ABSTRACT

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies directed against endogenous antigens causing various clinical manifestations, chronic inflammation and tissue damage. Although the pathophysiology of SLE remains unknown, it is recognized that genetic, epigenetic, environmental and neuroendocrine factors are involved in the development of the disease and its complications. A notable proportion of patients with SLE also present obesity, and this dysmetabolic profile can cause renal, musculoskeletal and/or respiratory deterioration, fatigue, various pathophysiological alterations and functional deterioration. In this context, precision nutrition emerges as a promising tool in the inflammatory control of SLE, especially in patients with associated obesity. Various studies demonstrate the beneficial influence of balanced dietary patterns in macronutrients with foods rich in fiber, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and polyphenols on the inflammatory control of SLE and the most diverse pathologies, highlighting the Mediterranean diet and plant-based diets. Finally, the intestinal microbiota may play a relevant role in this clinical scenario, since dysbiosis is associated with inflammatory processes and immune deregulation. It is believed that precision nutrition can modulate inflammatory profiles and immune dysfunctions to ensure better quality of life and metabolic well-being of SLE patients with the support of precision omics technologies.


El lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) es una enfermedad autoinmune caracterizada por la producción de autoanticuerpos dirigidos contra antígenos endógenos causando diversas manifestaciones clínicas, inflamación crónica y daño tisular. Aunque la fisiopatología del LES sigue siendo desconocida, se reconoce que factores genéticos, epigenéticos, ambientales y neuroendocrinos están implicados en el desarrollo de la enfermedad y sus complicaciones. Una proporción notable de pacientes con LES presenta también obesidad, y este perfil dismetabólico puede producir deterioro renal, musculoesquelético y/o respiratorio, fatiga, diversas alteraciones fisiopatológicas y deterioro funcional. En este contexto, la nutrición de precisión emerge como una herramienta prometedora en el control inflamatorio del LES, especialmente en pacientes con obesidad asociada. Diversos estudios demuestran la influencia beneficiosa de patrones dietéticos equilibrados en macronutrientes con alimentos ricos en fibra, vitaminas, minerales, antioxidantes y polifenoles en el control inflamatorio del LES y de las más diversas patologías, destacando la dieta Mediterránea y las dietas basadas en plantas/vegetales. Por último, la microbiota intestinal puede tener un papel relevante en este escenario clínico, ya que la disbiosis se asocia con procesos inflamatorios y desregulación inmune. Se cree que con la nutrición de precisión se pueden modular los perfiles inflamatorios y las disfunciones inmunitarias para garantizar una mejor calidad de vida y el bienestar metabólico de los pacientes con LES con el apoyo de las tecnologías de precisión ómicas.

12.
Pensar Prát. (Online) ; 27abr.2024. Tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554127

ABSTRACT

O presente artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa quantitativa com viés exploratório descritivo, cujo objetivo foi analisar a percepção de 22 professores de Educação Física (18 homens e 04 mulheres), atuantes no magistério superior, sobre o papel da escola e da Educação Física no controle do sobrepeso e obesidade juvenil. Foi utilizada versão adaptada do Perceptions of Youth Obesity and Physical Education Questionnaire. A análise dos dados deu-se a partir das seguintes categorias: percepção da obesidade juvenil, papel da escola e papel da Educação Física permitiu inferir que os professores percebem a escola como um espaço potencial para a promoção de ações, como a oferta de disciplinas curriculares voltadas ao controle do peso corporal. Contudo, tanto a escola, quanto o professor e sua práxis nas aulas de Educação Física não devem restringir as intervenções de forma circunscrita ao tratamento e controle da obesidade juvenil (AU).


This article presents the results of a quantitative research with a descriptive exploratory bias, whose objective was to analyze the perception of 22 Physical Education teachers (18 men and 04 women), working in higher education, about the role of school and Physical Education in controlling overweight and juveni-le obesity. An adapted version of the Perceptions of Youth Obesity and Physical Education Questionnaire was used. The analysis of the data from the categories called perception of youth obesity, role of the school and role of Physical Education allowed inferring that teachers perceive the school as a potential space for the promotion of actions, such as the offer of curricular disciplines aimed at controlling the body weight. However, both the school and the teacher and their practice in Physical Education classes should not limit interventions to the treatment and control of juvenile obesity (AU).


Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación cuantitativa con sesgo exploratorio descriptivo, cuyo objetivo fue analizar la percepción de 22 profesores de Educación Física (18 hombres y 04 mujeres), que actúan en la enseñanza superior, sobre el papel de la escuela y la Educación Física en el control so-brepeso y obesidad juvenil. Se utilizó una versión adaptada del Cuestionario de Percepciones de Obesidad Juvenil y Educación Física. El análisis de los datos de las categorías denominadas per-cepción de la obesidad juvenil, rol de la escuela y rol de la Educación Física permitió inferir que los docentes perciben la escuela como un espacio potencial para la promoción de acciones, como la ofer-ta de disciplinas curriculares dirigidas al control el peso corporal. Sin embargo, tanto la escuela como el docente y su práctica en las clases de Educación Física no deben limitar las intervenciones al tratamiento y control de la obesidad juvenil (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female
13.
Vive (El Alto) ; 7(19): 226-243, abr. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1560618

ABSTRACT

Las personas obesas enfrentan mayores complicaciones al contraer SARS-CoV-2 debido a su estado proinflamatorio crónico y respuesta inmune reducida, relacionados con el exceso de tejido adiposo. La interacción del virus con los receptores ACE2 y la retención de lípidos ectópicos renales son aspectos clave en este contexto. Objetivo. Analizar las características específicas de la obesidad que aumentan la susceptibilidad a síntomas graves de COVID-19, a partir de artículos publicados entre 2020 y 2022, y promover futuras investigaciones. Metodología. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de artículos originales entre 2020 y 2022 utilizando términos clave y operadores booleanos en bases de datos como PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, etc. Se excluyeron estudios no originales para obtener investigaciones más específicas. Resultados. De 180 artículos encontrados, 42 fueron seleccionados. Entre estos, se destacó que pacientes obesos, especialmente hombres de edad avanzada, presentaron severas complicaciones. Sin embargo, jóvenes con obesidad severa y personas con bajo peso también mostraron mayor riesgo de mortalidad. La disminución de la función pulmonar, bajos niveles de vitamina D, y la alteración de ACE2 fueron implicados en la gravedad de la infección. La hiperglucemia asociada a la obesidad aumentó el riesgo de ingreso a UCI y ventilación mecánica, mientras que la resistencia a la insulina empeoró el pronóstico. Conclusión. La obesidad emerge como un factor de riesgo importante para la gravedad y mortalidad por COVID-19, señalando la necesidad de una atención específica para este grupo de pacientes y la continuación de investigaciones en el área.


Obese individuals face greater complications in contracting SARS-CoV-2 due to their chronic proinflammatory state and reduced immune response, related to excess adipose tissue. Virus interaction with ACE2 receptors and renal ectopic lipid retention are key issues in this context. Objective. To analyze the specific features of obesity that increase susceptibility to severe COVID-19 symptoms, from articles published between 2020 and 2022, and to promote future research. Methodology. A systematic review of original articles between 2020 and 2022 was conducted using key terms and Boolean operators in databases such as PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, etc. Non-original studies were excluded to obtain more specific research. Results. Of 180 articles found, 42 were selected. Among these, it was highlighted that obese patients, especially elderly men, presented severe complications. However, young people with severe obesity and people with low weight also showed a higher risk of mortality. Decreased lung function, low vitamin D levels, and altered ACE2 were implicated in the severity of infection. Obesity-associated hyperglycemia increased the risk of ICU admission and mechanical ventilation, while insulin resistance worsened prognosis. Conclusion. Obesity emerges as an important risk factor for severity and mortality due to COVID-19, pointing to the need for specific attention to this group of patients and further research in the area.


As pessoas obesas enfrentam maiores complicações para contrair o SARS-CoV-2 devido ao seu estado pró-inflamatório crônico e à resposta imunológica reduzida, relacionados ao excesso de tecido adiposo. A interação do vírus com os receptores ACE2 e a retenção ectópica renal de lipídios são questões fundamentais nesse contexto. Objetivo. Analisar as características específicas da obesidade que aumentam a suscetibilidade a sintomas graves da COVID-19, com base em artigos publicados entre 2020 e 2022, e promover pesquisas futuras. Metodologia. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de artigos originais entre 2020 e 2022 usando termos-chave e operadores booleanos em bancos de dados como PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, etc. Estudos não originais foram excluídos para obter pesquisas mais específicas. Resultados. Dos 180 artigos encontrados, 42 foram selecionados. Entre eles, destacou-se que os pacientes obesos, especialmente os homens mais velhos, apresentaram complicações graves. No entanto, jovens gravemente obesos e pessoas abaixo do peso também apresentaram maior risco de mortalidade. A diminuição da função pulmonar, os baixos níveis de vitamina D e a alteração da ACE2 foram implicados na gravidade da infecção. A hiperglicemia associada à obesidade aumentou o risco de internação na UTI e de ventilação mecânica, enquanto a resistência à insulina piorou o prognóstico. Conclusões. A obesidade surge como um importante fator de risco para a gravidade e a mortalidade da COVID-19, apontando para a necessidade de atenção específica a esse grupo de pacientes e de mais pesquisas na área.


Subject(s)
Signs and Symptoms
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(2): e202310064, abr. 2024. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1537219

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El sobrepeso y la obesidad infantil constituyen un problema de salud pública. El inicio de la pandemia por COVID-19 pudo haber favorecido esta patología. El puntaje Z del índice de masa corporal (Z-IMC) es un indicador aceptado para su diagnóstico y seguimiento. Objetivo. Evaluar si la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, y el Z-IMC en niños de 2 a 5 años aumentó durante la pandemia. Población y métodos. Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron pacientes asistidos en efectores públicos de salud del Gobierno de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (GCABA), de 2 a 5 años de edad, con registro de peso y talla en dos consultas, antes y después de haber comenzado el aislamiento social preventivo y obligatorio (ASPO). Se registró estado nutricional (Z-IMC) y variación del Z-IMC entre ambas consultas. Resultados. Se evaluaron 3866 sujetos, edad promedio 3,4 ± 0,8 años; el 48,1 % fueron mujeres. El intervalo promedio entre consultas fue 14,3 ± 2,5 meses. La prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad aumentó del 12,6 % (IC95% 11,6-13,6) al 20,9 % (IC95% 19,6-22-2); p <0,001, al igual que el Z-IMC (0,4 ± 1,1 vs. 0,8 ± 1,3; p <0,001). Conclusión. La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, y el Z-IMC en niños de 2 a 5 años aumentó significativamente durante la pandemia.


Introduction. Childhood overweight and obesity are a public health problem. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to this condition. The body mass index (BMI) Z-score has been accepted as an indicator for overweight and obesity diagnosis and follow-up. Objective. To assess whether the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the BMI Z-score in children aged 2 to 5 years increased during the pandemic. Population and methods. Retrospective, cohort study. Patients included were those seen at public health care facilities in the City of Buenos Aires (CABA), who were aged 2 to 5 years, had weight and height values recorded at 2 different visits, before and after the establishment of the preventive and mandatory social isolation policy. Patients' nutritional status (BMI Z-score) and the variation in this indicator between both visits were recorded. Results. A total of 3866 subjects were assessed; their average age was 3.4 ± 0.8 years; 48.1% were girls. The average interval between both visits was 14.3 ± 2.5 months. The prevalence of overweight/ obesity increased from 12.6% (95% CI: 11.6­13.6) to 20.9% (95% CI: 19.6­22.2), p < 0.001, and so did the BMI Z-score (0.4 ± 1.1 versus 0.8 ± 1.3, p < 0.001). Conclusion. The prevalence of overweight and obesity and the BMI Z-score in children aged 2 to 5 years increased significantly during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 29: 1-8, abr. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1556029

ABSTRACT

Overweight, obesity, and low physical fitness (PF) are conditions associated with physical and mental health problems in children and adolescents. Schools and physical education (PE) classes provide ideal environments for promoting physical exercise, improving levels of PF, and preventing obesity in this population. This article outlines the protocol of an experimental study whose primary objective is to assess the effects of a 15-minute physical exercise program implemented during elementary school physical education classes on PF and anthropometric markers of overweight and obesity (AMOO). Enrolled students in 6th to 9th-grade classes within rural elementary schools located in a Southern city in Brazil will participate of the study. The participants will be randomized into the intervention group and control group. The intervention will last for 12 weeks with two sessions per week. Various components of PF and AMOO will be the primary dependent variables. Physical activity level, rec-reational screen time, sleep duration, physical self-concept, motivation for participating in PE classes, symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress will be secondary dependent variables. Sociodemographic information and somatic maturation will serve as covariates. All variables will be measured pre and post-intervention. The study's findings will contribute to a better understanding of the potential of school PE classes to improve PF, AMOO, and, secondarily, health-related behaviors, motivation for participating in PE classes, and the mental health of students


O sobrepeso, a obesidade e a baixa aptidão física (ApF) são condições associadas à problemas de saúde física e mental em crianças e adolescentes. A escola e as aulas de educação física (EF) são ambientes propícios para a promoção do exercício físico e a melhoria dos níveis de ApF e prevenção de obesidade nesta população. Este artigo descreve o protocolo de um estudo experimental que tem como objetivo primário identificar os efeitos de um programa de 15 minutos de exercícios físicos realizados durante as aulas de EF na ApF e em indicadores antropométricos de sobrepeso e obesidade (IASO) de escolares. Participarão do estudo escolares do 6° ao 9° ano de ambos os sexos de escolas da zona rural de uma cidade do sul do Brasil. Os participantes serão randomizados em grupo intervenção e grupo controle. A intervenção terá duração de 12 semanas com duas sessões semanais. Diferentes componentes da ApF e IASO serão variáveis dependentes primárias. O nível de atividade física, tempo recreativo de tela, tempo de sono, autoconceito físico, motivação para a participação nas aulas de EF, sintomas de ansiedade, depressão e estresse serão variáveis dependentes secundárias. Informações sociodemográficas e maturação somática serão covariáveis. Todas variáveis serão medidas pré e pós intervenção. O resultado do estudo contribuirá para a melhor compreensão do potencial das aulas de EF escolar para a melhoria da APF, de IASO e, de forma secundária, em comportamentos relacionados à saúde, na motivação para participação nas aulas de EF e na saúde mental de estudantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Students , Exercise , Physical Education and Training , Health , Obesity
16.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 39(3): 396-406, 2024-04-24. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553804

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La cirugía bariátrica y metabólica (CBM) es efectiva en lograr pérdida de peso a corto plazo. Sin embargo, existe evidencia limitada en desenlaces clínicos y metabólicos a largo plazo. Métodos. Estudio longitudinal retrospectivo con pacientes llevados a baipás gástrico en Y de Roux (BGYR) o gastrectomía en manga (MG) por laparoscopia en Bogotá, D.C., Colombia, entre 2013 y 2021. El cambio de peso, control de comorbilidades y resultados metabólicos se recopilaron al inicio del estudio, 3, 6 y 12 meses después de cirugía, y anualmente hasta el quinto año. Las tasas de control de comorbilidades se evaluaron mediante la prueba Kaplan-Meier. Se utilizó un modelo de riesgos proporcionales de Cox para evaluar el efecto de covariables en la reganancia de peso. Resultados. De 1092 pacientes con CBM (71,4 % MG y 28,6 % BGYR), 67 % eran mujeres, con mediana de edad 48 años e índice de masa corporal de 35,5 Kg/m2. Después de cinco años de seguimiento, la tasa de control en diabetes mellitus fue 65,5 %, en hipertensión 56,6 % y en dislipidemia 43,6 %. La tasa de reganancia de peso fue 28 %, sin diferencias entre MG vs BGYR (p=0,482). El tiempo promedio hasta peso nadir fue 14 meses. La edad al momento de CBM fue el mejor predictor independiente de reganancia (HR=1,02, IC95% 1,01-1,04), pero con efecto clínico modesto. Conclusión. La CBM es segura y muestra beneficios a largo plazo en la pérdida de peso y control de comorbilidades en población colombiana.


Introduction. Bariatric and metabolic surgery (BMS) has shown its efficacy in achieving short-term weight loss. However, there is limited evidence regarding long-term clinical and metabolic outcomes. Methods. Retrospective longitudinal study with patients who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) interventions in Bogotá, Colombia, between 2013 and 2021. Weight change, comorbidity control, and metabolic outcomes were collected at the onset, 3-, 6-, and 12-month post-surgery, and annually up to the fifth year. Comorbidity control rates were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier test. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the effect of covariates on weight regain. Results. Of 1092 patients with BMS (71.4% SG and 28.6% RYGB), 67% were women, with a median age of 48 years, BMI 35.5 kg/m2. After five years of follow-up, the control rate in diabetes mellitus was 65.5%, in hypertension 56.6%, and dyslipidemia 43.6%. The weight regain rate was 28% with no differences between SG vs RYGB (p=0.482). The mean time to nadir weight was 14 months. Age at the time of BMS was the best independent predictor of weight regain (HR=1.02, 95%CI: 1.01-1.04), but with a modest clinical effect. Conclusion. BMS is safe and shows long-term benefits in weight loss and control of comorbidities in Colombian population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Obesity, Morbid , Gastroplasty , Comorbidity , Gastric Bypass , Weight Loss , Bariatric Surgery
17.
Rev. argent. cardiol ; 92(1): 21-27, mar. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559229

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Existe evidencia reciente que establecería a la hipoperfusión muscular como causa primaria de trastornos metabólicos en respuesta a la sobrealimentación. Esta concepción centrípeta del desarrollo de trastornos metabólicos podría implicar no solo alteraciones en la microvasculatura, sino también afectación en las arterias de conductancia. Objetivos: 1) Determinar la asociación entre diámetro basal de la arteria humeral (D-Hum) y la vasodilatación mediada por flujo (VDMF) 2) Analizar la asociación de ambos parámetros conforme aumenta de la masa corporal 3) Evaluar asociaciones entre el D-Hum/VDMF con componentes del síndrome metabólico (SM) 4) Evaluar la asociación independiente de ambas variables con el SM. Material y métodos: Se evaluaron 3493 pacientes. Se excluyeron pacientes < 18 y >80 años, con patología cardiovascular previa, insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC), colagenopatías, y tratados con estatinas. Se determinó presión arterial (PA), parámetros antropométricos y perfil metabólico, y se clasificó a los sujetos de acuerdo con la presencia de SM según AHA/NHLBI 2019. Se midieron D-Hum en mm y VDMF en %. Se analizó la asociación lineal entre D-Hum y VDMF y se analizaron ambas variables según decilos de índice de masa corporal (IMC). Se evaluaron asociaciones entre D-Hum/VDMF con la PA, glucemia (Glu), triglicéridos (TG) y colesterol de alta densidad (HDLc). Se realizaron dos regresiones logísticas con SM como variable dependiente y D-Hum o VDMF más edad, sexo, IMC y factores de riesgo coronario (FRC) como independientes. Resultados: Ingresaron 1995 pacientes (48,2 ± 11 años, 56 % hombres). El D-Hum y la VDMF presentaron una asociación inversa (r= -0,42; p < 0,0001). El D-Hum aumentó según decilos del IMC (p < 0,000001); la VDMF mostró relación inversa con los decilos crecientes de IMC (p < 0,000001). El D-Hum presentó correlación directa con PA, Glu y TG; e inversa con HDLc (p < 0,05 en todos los casos). La VDMF mostró correlación inversa con PA, Glu y TG; y directa con HDLc (p < 0,05 en todos los casos). El D-Hum se asoció en forma independiente con el SM ajustado por edad, sexo, IMC y FRC (OR 1,42, p = 0,0019), mientras que la VDMF no (OR 0,98, p = 0,217). Conclusión: El remodelado vascular excéntrico se asoció con un compromiso en la adaptación vascular ante aumentos en la demanda de flujo sanguíneo y con alteraciones metabólicas a lo largo del incremento de la masa corporal. Así, el compromiso dinámico de la vasculatura podría tener un rol determinante en el desarrollo de alteraciones metabólicas en forma sincrónica con la ganancia de peso.


ABSTRACT Background: Recent evidence would establish muscle hypoperfusion as the primary cause of metabolic disorders in response to overfeeding. This centripetal concept on the development of metabolic disorders could involve not only alterations in the microvasculature, but also affect the conductance arteries. Objectives: The aim of this study was 1) to determine the association between baseline brachial artery diameter (BAD) and flow-mediated vasodilation (FMVD), 2) To analyze the association of both parameters throughout the increase in body mass, 3) To evaluate associations between BAD/FMVD with components of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and 4) To evaluate the independent association of both variables with MS. Methods: A total of 3493 patients were evaluated. Patients <18 and >80 years old, those with previous cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD), collagenopathies, or treated with statins were excluded from the study. Blood pressure (BP), anthropometric parameters and metabolic profile were determined, and the subjects were classified according to the presence of MS conforming AHA/NHLBI 2019 criteria. BAD was measured in mm and FMVD as percentage. The linear association between BAD and FMVD was assessed, and both variables were analyzed according to deciles of body mass index (BMI). Associations between BAD/FMVD with BP, glucose (Glu), triglycerides (TG) and high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were evaluated. Two logistic regression analyses were performed with MS as dependent variable and BAD or FMVD plus age, gender, BMI, and coronary risk factors (CRF) as independent variables. Results: A total of 1995 patients (48.2 ± 11 years, 56% men) were admitted in the study. An inverse correlation was found between BAD and FMVD (r= -0.42; p < 0.0001). BAD increased according to deciles of BMI (p < 0.000001), while FMVD showed an inverse relationship with increasing deciles of BMI (p < 0.000001). BAD exhibited a direct correlation with BP, Glu and TG; and an inverse relationship with HDL-C (p < 0.05 in all cases). FMVD presented an inverse correlation with BP, Glu and TG; and a direct correlation with HDL-C (p < 0.05 in all cases). BAD was independently associated with MS adjusted for age, gender, BMI and CRF (OR 1.42, p=0.0019), while FMVD was not (OR 0.98, p = 0.217). Conclusion: Eccentric vascular remodeling was associated with vascular adaptation to increased blood flow demand and with metabolic alterations throughout the increase in body mass. Thus, the dynamic compromise of vasculature could play a decisive role in the development of metabolic alterations occurring synchronously with weight gain.

18.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 74(1): 22-32, mar. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1555082

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La presencia de sobrepeso y obesidad aumentan la morbimortalidad de la población latinoamericana. La deficiencia de micronutrientes como el calcio y la vitamina D se han relacionado con un aumento del riesgo de obesidad. Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre la ingesta de vitamina D y de calcio con los factores de riesgo para obesidad en la población urbana costarricense incluidas en el Estudio ELANS. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron 798 participantes costarricenses del Estudio ELANS. Se determinó la distribución del consumo de calcio y vitamina D según las características socioeconómicas, la actividad física y los datos antropométricos. Se compararon los grupos con las pruebas U de Mann ­ Whitney y Kruskal-Wallis. Se realizaron modelos de regresión lineal y logística. Resultados: El consumo de calcio y vitamina D fue inadecuado en más del 98% de los participantes. Las mujeres, las personas con menor nivel socioeconómico, baja actividad física, de menor edad, con exceso de peso y obesidad abdominal presentaron un consumo menor de calcio y de vitamina D. El consumo de calcio y vitamina D es mayor en los grupos que tienen un menor IMC (p= 0,023 para calcio y p= 0,252 para vitamina D). Las personas con menor circunferencia de la cintura tuvieron más consumo de calcio y vitamina D (p= 0,002 para calcio y p= 0,008 para vitamina D). No hubo asociación del consumo en los modelos de regresión. Conclusiones: El consumo de calcio y vitamina D es deficiente en la población urbana costarricense y, presentó una relación inversa con el IMC(AU)


ntroduction: The presence of overweight and obesity increase the morbimortality of people in Latin America. Micronutrient deficiencies, such as calcium and vitamin D, are associated with an increased risk of obesity. Objective: To determine the relationship between vitamin D and calcium intake with risk factors for obesity in the Costa Rican urban population included in the ELANS Study. Materials and methods: For this analysis we used the 798 Costa Rican participants of the study (ELANS). The distribution of calcium and vitamin D intake was determined according to socioeconomic status, physical activity, and anthropometric measures. The Mann ­ Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis U tests were used, as well as linear and logistic regression models were performed. Results: Calcium and vitamin D intake was inadequate in more than 98% of the participants. Women, individuals with a lower socioeconomic level, low physical activity, younger age and those with excess weight and abdominal obesity presented lower consumptionofcalciumandvitamin D. Theconsumption of calcium and vitamin D was greater in the groups that have a lower BMI (p= 0.023 for calcium and p= 0.252 for vitamin D). The smaller the waist circumference, the greater the consumption of calcium and vitamin D (p= 0.002 for calcium and p= 0.008 for vitamin D). No association of the consumption of calcium and vitamin D was found in the regression models. Conclusions: Consumption of calcium and vitamin D is deficient in the Costa Rican urban population, and more prevalent among those with higher BMI. Arch Latinoam Nutr 2024(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Vitamin D , Calcium , Risk Factors , Overweight , Feeding Behavior , Obesity , Social Class , Exercise , Body Mass Index , Eating , Noncommunicable Diseases
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 121(3): e20230138, Mar.2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557025

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A deficiência de testosterona (DT) é uma condição prevalente em nosso meio e ainda muito negligenciada. A hipertensão arterial (HA) é um de seus possíveis fatores associados. Objetivos: Determinar a prevalência de DT em uma população masculina hipertensa e os fatores associados à sua ocorrência, como idade, tempo de diagnóstico de HA, número de classes de anti-hipertensivos, índice de massa corporal (IMC), diabetes, dislipidemia, doença renal crônica (DRC), sintomas positivos de DT (questionário ADAM positivo) e uso de espironolactona. Métodos: Estudo transversal com aplicação do questionário ADAM, e avaliação de dados bioquímicos, clínicos e antropométricos. Os pacientes foram estratificados em grupos de DT e testosterona normal. As variáveis categóricas foram comparadas pelo teste do qui-quadrado e as variáveis contínuas pelo teste de Mann-Witney; as variáveis com significância (p<0,05) foram submetidas à regressão linear multivariada. Resultados: A prevalência de DT foi de 26,8%. Houve associação entre DT e IMC (p=0,0007), mas não houve com idade (p=0,0520), tempo de diagnóstico de HA (p=0,1418), número de classes de anti-hipertensivos (p=0,0732), diabetes (p=0,1112); dislipidemia (p=0,3888); presença de DRC (p=0,3321); uso de espironolactona (p=0,3546) e questionário ADAM positivo (p=0,2483). Conclusões: A prevalência de DT foi alta e houve associação positiva com IMC. A testosterona total (TT) declinou 8,44 ng/dL com o aumento de 1 kg/m2 no IMC e caiu 3,79 ng/dL com o avanço em um ano na idade.


Abstract Background: Testosterone deficiency (TD) is a prevalent condition in our midst and still very neglected. Arterial hypertension (AH) is one of the possible associated factors. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of TD in a hypertensive male population and the factors associated with its occurrence, such as age, time since hypertension diagnosis, number of antihypertensive classes, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease (CKD), positive symptoms of TD (positive ADAM questionnaire) and use of spironolactone. Methods: Cross-sectional study with administration of the ADAM questionnaire, assessment of biochemical, clinical, and anthropometric data. Patients were stratified into DT and normal testosterone groups. Categorical variables were compared using the chi-squared test and continuous variables using the Mann-Witney test; variables with significance (p<0,05) were analyzed by multivariable linear regression. Results: The prevalence of TD was 26.36%. There was an association between TD and body mass index (BMI) (p=0.0007) but there was no association with age (p=0.0520), time of hypertension diagnosis (p=0.1418), number of classes of antihypertensive drugs (p=0.732), diabetes (p=0.1112); dyslipidemia (p=0.3888); CKD (p=0.3321); use of spironolactone (p=0.3546) or positive ADAM questionnaire (p=0.2483). Conclusions: TD was highly prevalent and positively associated with BMI. Total testosterone (TT) declined by 8.44ng/dL with a one unit increase in BMI and dropped by 3.79ng/dL with a one-year increase in age.

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