Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 145
Filter
1.
Rev. ADM ; 79(1): 7-11, ene.-feb. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359769

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El proceso de evaluación a distancia es una modalidad que ha sido utilizada en los últimos años. Sin embargo, la pandemia por COVID-19 ha ocasionado su rápida adaptación. El personal docente ha reportado las ventajas de este modo de evaluación; no obstante, la opinión de los estudiantes de odontología en torno a las ventajas y desventajas de esta modalidad no ha sido explorada. Objetivo: Explorar las ventajas y desventajas de las tecnologías de la información y comunicación (TIC), específicamente en el proceso de evaluación a distancia reportadas por estudiantes de odontología. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal retrospectivo, en una muestra no aleatoria de 310 estudiantes de tercer año, distribuidos en cuatro generaciones, adscritos a la Facultad de Odontología de la FES Iztacala. Se administró un cuestionario estructurado para la medición de sus opiniones en torno a las evaluaciones a distancia. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo y bivariado. Resultados: De un total de los 382 estudiantes potencialmente elegibles, 310 aceptaron participar (96%). Conclusiones: La opinión mayoritaria fue la preferencia a los exámenes por Internet y mejor a distancia. Queda pendiente la duda: ¿cuál será el comportamiento cuando los estudios profesionales vuelvan a la normalidad después de la pandemia COVID-19? (AU)


Introduction: The process of distance assessment has been employed in the last years. However, COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated its adoption. Academic personnel have previously reported the benefits of this mode of assessments. Nevertheless, dentistry-students' opinions around the advantages and disadvantages of this mode of assessment has not been explored. Objective: Explore the advantages and disadvantages concerning the ICT skills specifically about the process of distance assessment of dental students. Material and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a non-randomized sample of 310 of third-year students distributed in four years attending to the School of Dentistry at FES Iztacala. A structured questionnaire was distributed to measure students' opinions around the advantages and disadvantages of distance assessments. A descriptive and bivariate analysis was conducted. Results: Questionnaires were returned by 310 students (96% response rate). Conclusion: Students' perceptions of their ICT skills has increased, matched by better equipment and greater appreciation of e-learning (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students, Dental , Education, Distance , Educational Measurement , COVID-19 , Schools, Dental , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Information Technology , Mexico
2.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924595

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the opinions of healthcare professional regarding the contributions of the Medical Affairs department. Furthermore, we aimed to identify factors influencing and reasons for the contributions in the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic situation.Design/Methods: A web-based survey was conducted among healthcare professionals (Key Opinion Leader/Key Thought Leader, KOL/KTL) who had multiple contacts with the Medical Affairs department, Japan.Results: The responses of 141 KOL/KTLs in Japan were collected; 77.3% of the respondents indicated that the contributions of the Medical Affairs department exceeded their expectations (achieved the expected level of contribution). The most common responses were “the identification of unmet medical needs” and “the dissemination of medical and scientific information, providing advanced medical and scientific information;” other responses included “promoting sales of the company's drugs.” The requests from KOL/KTLs regarding quality were “knowledge about biological and clinical statistics” and “proposal and quick response ability from the perspective of medical staff and patients,” but these responses were partially different between physicians and pharmacists. COVID-19 has resulted in substantial changes, for example, “face-to-face” interactions have significantly decreased from 91.5 to 50.4% and “Online” interactions have significantly increased from 20.6 to 70.9%. However, the effects of the declaration of emergency state could not be identified. The KOL/KTLs requested to make the meeting times more appropriate, conduct in-depth two-way discussions, provide latest information, and discuss about professional manners and behaviors.Conclusion: In summary, regardless of the changes in the types of activities caused by COVID-19, the Medical Affairs department has made substantial contributions to healthcare professionals, who highly appreciated them. Furthermore, depending on responses of individuals whose expectations could not be met, areas of improvements have been suggested.

3.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 75(3): e20210001, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1341095

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze the opinions of healthcare students on organ and tissue donation for transplantation. Methods: qualitative document analysis study, using the records of a database and analyzing data from two perspectives: 1) Lexical analysis, with the IRAMUTEQ software, and 2) Thematic content analysis. Results: from the analysis, 3 main categories were generated: 1) Organ and tissue donation as an act of love for others and an opportunity of a new beginning; 2) Clarification and awareness on organ and tissue donation; and 3) Importance of communicating the family and promoting organ and tissue donation. Final Considerations: despite being in favor of donation, students also recognize the presence of social taboos; the discussion in the family nucleus, promoting the theme and raising awareness in society are considered important. Additionally, the education of students is one of the possibilities of intervention for the issue.


RESUMEN Objetivos: analizar las opiniones de estudiantes de cursos de la salud sobre la donación de órganos y tejidos para trasplante. Métodos: se trata de un estudio cualitativo, con diseño de análisis documental, a partir del registro de un banco de datos, considerado bajo dos ópticas: 1) Análisis lexical, con el software IRAMUREQ, y 2) Análisis temático de contenido. Resultados: del análisis se generaron 3 categorías principales: 1) Donación de órganos y tejidos como acto de amor al prójimo y oportunidad de recomenzar; 2) Desmitificación y concienciación sobre la donación de órganos y tejidos; e 3) Importancia de comunicar a la familia y divulgar la donación de órganos y tejidos. Consideraciones Finales: a pesar de que los estudiantes hayan mostrado opiniones favorables hacia la donación, reconocen, también, la existencia de tabúes sociales, haciéndose necesaria la discusión en el núcleo familiar, la divulgación de la temática y la concienciación de la sociedad. Una de las posibilidades de intervención en la problemática es la educación de los alumnos.


RESUMO Objetivos: analisar as opiniões de estudantes de cursos da saúde sobre a doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplante. Métodos: estudo qualitativo, com desenho de análise documental, a partir de registro de um banco de dados, analisados sob duas óticas: 1) Análise lexical, com o software IRAMUREQ, e 2) Análise temática de conteúdo. Resultados: da análise, geraram-se 3 categorias principais: 1) Doação de órgãos e tecidos como ato de amor ao próximo e oportunidade de recomeço; 2) Desmistificação e conscientização sobre doação de órgãos e tecidos; e 3) Importância de comunicar a família e divulgar a doação de órgãos e tecidos. Considerações Finais: apesar dos estudantes demonstrarem opiniões favoráveis à doação, também reconhecem a presença de tabus sociais, sendo importante a discussão em núcleo familiar, a divulgação da temática e a conscientização da sociedade. Além disso, a educação dos discentes torna-se uma das possibilidades de intervenção na problemática.

4.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 66, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1390021

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the support of the Brazilian population to the alcohol-policies proposed by the World Health Organization to decrease alcohol harm (specifically: to decrease alcohol availability and advertising, and to increase pricing). In addition, we evaluated the factors associated with being against those policies. METHODS Data from 16,273 Brazilians, aged 12-65 years, interviewed in the 3rd Brazilian Household Survey on Substance Use (BHSU-3) were analyzed. The BHSU-3 is a nationwide, probability survey conducted in 2015. Individuals were asked if they would be against, neutral, or in favor of seven alcohol policies grouped as: 1) Strengthen restrictions on alcohol availability; 2) Enforce bans or restrictions on alcohol advertising, sponsorship, and promotion; and 3) Raise prices on alcohol through excise taxes and pricing. Generalized linear models were fitted to evaluate factors associated with being against each one of those policies and against all of policies. RESULTS Overall, 28% of the Brazilians supported all the above mentioned policies, whereas 16% were against them. The highest rate of approval refers to restricting advertising (53%), the lowest refers to increasing prices (40%). Factors associated with being against all policies were: being male (AOR = 1.1; 95%CI: 1.0-1.3), not having a religion (AOR = 1.4; 95%CI: 1.1-1.8), being catholic (AOR = 1.3; 95%CI: 1.1-1.5), and alcohol dependence (AOR = 1.6; 95%CI: 1.1-2.4). CONCLUSIONS The Brazilian government could count on the support of most of the population to restrict alcohol advertising. This information is essential to tackle the lobby of the alcohol industry and its clever marketing strategy.

5.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 23(3)dic. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386547

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to evaluate the self-confidence of undergraduate students and thus to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of oral surgery education from the students' perspectives. A survey was conducted by preparing a questionnaire to assess the the self-confidence of students in performing oral surgery. Survey questions have been imported to Google Forms®. It was then electronically delivered to the students through the Turkish Dental Association. Regarding the data, besides the frequency and percentage distributions, the relationship between the variables was analyzed using the Chi-Square test. A total of 615 students, including 386 female and 229 male students, participated in this study. Of the students, 62.4% were 5th year and 37.56% were 4th year students. According to the survey, it was observed that male students and 5th year students were in general more confident in themselves. Students had low self-confidence in differentiating between odontogenic and non- odontogenic pain and recognizing malignant lesions or lesions with high malignant potential. In the oral surgery curriculum, subjects in which the students have issues should be identified and more emphasis should be placed on them. Oral pathology as well as head and neck anatomy courses should be emphasized further, priority should be given to case-based courses, and reminder presentations should be made at certain intervals. In addition, considering that practice is important for gaining self- confidence, students must practice more under the supervision of instructors in the areas in which they feel inadequate.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la autoconfianza de los estudiantes de pregrado y así resaltar las fortalezas y debilidades de la educación en cirugía oral desde la perspectiva de los estudiantes. Se realizó una encuesta mediante la elaboración de un cuestionario para evaluar la autoconfianza de los estudiantes en la realización de cirugía oral. Las preguntas de la encuesta se importaron a Google Forms®. Luego se les entregó electrónicamente a los estudiantes a través de la Asociación Dental Turca. En cuanto los datos, además de las distribuciones de frecuencia y porcentaje, se analizó tambien la relación entre las variables mediante la prueba Chi-Cuadrado. Se participaron 386 estudiantes femininas y 229 estudiantes masculinos en este estudio, un total de 615 personas. El 62,4% de los estudiantes eran del 5º año y el 37,56% eran estudiantes del 4º año. Según la encuesta, se observó que los estudiantes masculinos y los estudiantes del 5º año tenían en general más confianza en sí mismos. Los estudiantes tenían poca confianza en sí mismos para diferenciar entre dolor odontogénico y no odontogénico y reconocer lesiones malignas o lesiones malignas con alto potencial. En el plan de estudios de cirugía oral, se deben identificar las materias en las que los estudiantes tienen problemas y se debe poner más énfasis en ellas. Se debe enfatizar aún más los cursos de patología oral, así como de anatomía de cabeza y cuello. Se debe dar prioridad a los cursos basados en casos, y se deben hacer presentaciones recordatorias a ciertos intervalos. Además, considerando que la práctica es importante para aumentar la autoconfianza, los estudiantes deben practicar más bajo la supervisión de instructores en las áreas en las que se sienten inadecuados.

6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(5): 989-996, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286811

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The big data provided by Google Trends may reveal patterns in health information-seeking behavior on population from Brazil and United States (US). Our objective was to explore and compare patterns of stone disease online information-seeking behaviors in both nations. Materials and Methods: To compare Relative Search Volume (RSV) among different urologic key words we chose "US" and "Brazil" as country and "01/01/2009 - 31/12/2018" as time-range. The final selection included 12 key words in each language. We defined "ureteroscopy" as a reference and compared RSV against it for each term. RSV was adjusted by the reference and normalized in a scale from 0-100. Trend presence was evaluated by Mann Kendall Test and magnitude by Sen's Slope (SS) Estimator. Results: We found an upward trend (p <0.01) in most of the researched terms in both countries. Higher temporal trends were seen for "Kidney Stone" (SS=0.36), "Kidney Pain" (SS=0.39) and "Tamsulosin" (SS=0.21) in the US. Technical treatment terms had little search volumes and no increasing trend. "Kidney Stent" and "Double J" had a significant increase in search trend over time and had a relevant search volume overall in 2018. In Brazil, "Calculo Renal", "Colica Renal", "Dor no Rim" and "Pedra no Rim" had a significant increase in RSV (p <0.001). More common and popular terms as "Kidney Stent" and "Tamsulosin" were highly correlated with "Kidney Pain" and "Kidney Stone" in both countries. Conclusions: In the last decade, there was a significant increase in online search for medical information related to stone-disease. Population from both countries tend to look more for generic terms related to symptoms, the disease, medical management and kidney stent, than for technical treatment vocabulary.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Calculi , Search Engine , United States/epidemiology , Ureteroscopy , Information Seeking Behavior , Language
7.
Rev. méd. Panamá ; 41(2): 8-14, oct. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371913

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Es indiscutible la importancia de la investigación científica y los beneficios que ofrece no solo para el investigador sino para todo un país. A pesar de esto, Latinoamérica incluyendo Panamá, está muy por debajo en producción científica a nivel mundial. Nuestro personal de salud es el primero en ser llamado a esta cultura de investigación. ¿Por qué no está ocurriendo? Si conocemos el problema podremos ser capaces de establecer posibles soluciones. Objetivo: determinar el interés, participación y limitantes que presentan los médicos residentes de las especialidades clínicas del Complejo Hospitalario Dr. Arnulfo Arias Madrid (CHDrAAM) para realizar investigación científica durante el mes de julio 2020. Metodología: descriptivo de corte transversal. Los datos se obtendrán mediante un formulario con 21 preguntas en línea usando la herramienta Google Forms. Las preguntas de esta encuesta fueron previamente validadas. Se usará el programa Epi Info para su análisis. Resultados: de los participantes un 71.4% están entre los 29 a 32 años y predomina el sexo femenino. Más de dos tercios refiere interés en realizar investigación científica y un 25% no sabe cómo realizarla. A pesar de que muchos han estado involucrados en realización de trabajos de investigación, solo 26.7% lo ha llevado a la publicación. Las principales limitantes son: falta de tiempo, no contar con mentores y no saber cómo realizarlas. Conclusiones: Si existe interés en realizar investigación científica por parte de los médicos residentes, sin embargo, impresiona que tengan que escoger entre su carga laboral y la investigación. (provisto por Infomedic International)

8.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(2): 505-524, abr.-jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280887

ABSTRACT

A partir do tensionamento de conceitos como objetividade e opinião no jornalismo, polarização espetacularizada e abordagem da saúde pelo jornalismo, o artigo reflete sobre a legitimidade das fontes às quais recorrem os participantes de O Grande Debate, da CNN Brasil. Foram observadas 14 edições do quadro, com o registro das estratégias empregadas pelos comentaristas, a fim de identificar os padrões de legitimidade e de legitimação das fontes. Percebemos que foram acionadas fontes oficiais ou documentais e também fontes falsas ou pseudofontes, contribuindo para a equiparação entre opinião, fato e inverdade nos debates sobre o novo coronavírus.


Based on the tension between concepts such as objectivity and opinion in journalism, spectacular polarization and the approach to health by journalism, this article reflects on the legitimacy of the sources to which participants in O Grande Debate, transmitted by CNN Brazil, resort. Fourteen editions of this panel were observed, recording the strategies employed by commentators in order to identify patterns of legitimacy and legitimation of the sources. We could detect that official or documentary sources were exploited, as well as false or pseudo sources, contributing to the equivalence between opinion, fact and untruth in the debates about the new coronavirus.


A partir de la tensión de conceptos como la objetividad y la opinión en el periodismo, la polarización espectacular y la manera de plantear la salud por parte del periodismo, este artículo reflexiona sobre la legitimidad de las fuentes a que recurren los participantes de O Grande Debate, de la CNN Brasil. Se observaron catorce ediciones del programa y se registraron las estrategias empleadas por los comentaristas para identificar las configuraciones de legitimidad y de legitimación de las fuentes. Notamos que fueron empleadas fuentes oficiales o documentales, así como fuentes falsas o pseudo-fuentes, contribuyendo a la equiparación entre opinión, hecho y falsedad en los debates sobre el nuevo coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Audiovisual Aids , Journalism , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Public Opinion , Social Control, Formal , Scientific Communication and Diffusion , Video-Audio Media
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912799

ABSTRACT

Based on the realities of COVID-19 pandemic, the authors when following a concept clarification of online public opinion and its governance connotation, probed deep into the problems existing in the online public opinion governance during major public health events under the background of rich media in China, and put forward corresponding countermeasures. The authors called for furthering the governance theory as the premise, improving the legal construction as the foundation, improving the governance mechanism as the crux, strengthening the governance means as the priority, shaping the sense of social responsibility of service providers as the guarantee, and improving the information literacy of Internet users as the fundamental basis.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882013

ABSTRACT

Objective Based on the text analysis of COVID-19 media report, text mining was used to probe the trend of major public health emergencies and response of the government and social subjects in China. Methods Using the topic model method, we focused on the quantity of news report, topic content, development trend, and emotional tendency, to present the characteristics of media report on China's public health emergency, and the response mechanism of the Chinese government and the whole society. Results The media report and news commentary of COVID-19 showed a consistent trend with the epidemic progress. The governmental response was the main target of media report, while social power, medical progress and other categories also attracted some attention. The development trend of different topics was characterized by continual or periodic variation due to their different attributes. Conclusion The topic model method comprehensively demonstrates the development and response process of the COVID-19 epidemic. The model may provide a new perspective to improve the national public emergency management system.

11.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 41(spe3): e216273, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340453

ABSTRACT

Apesar de haver um contexto aparentemente favorável e de crescente reconhecimento pelo sistema jurídico brasileiro referente à adoção por casais homossexuais, constitui-se em equívoco afirmar que a manifestação do preconceito e da discriminação frente aos homossexuais esteja reduzindo no Brasil. Tendo em vista tal cenário, o presente estudo objetivou contrastar as opiniões de uma amostra brasileira acerca da adoção por casais homossexuais, frente a um arranjo heterossexual estéril. Para tanto, contou-se com uma amostra da população geral composta por 484 adultos brasileiros (média de idade = 26,6; DP = 8,31, 62,0% feminino), que responderam um questionário sociodemográfico e a duas questões abertas contendo dois cenários de adoção, compostos por casais heterossexuais estéreis e casais homossexuais. A partir da análise de Classificação Hierárquica Descendente, realizada no software Iramuteq, identificou-se a presença de cinco classes no cenário de adoção por casais heterossexuais estéreis (agravantes, desenvolvimento normal, educação, solidariedade e responsabilidade) e no cenário de adoção por casais homossexuais (preconceito, oposição, contexto de favorabilidade, lar amoroso e desenvolvimento infantil). Os resultados apontaram diferentes padrões de aceitação/oposição em função do tipo de configuração parental da família adotante. Tais resultados são discutidos considerando as implicações de normas sociais de padrão hetero-cis-normativo, ressaltando-se a necessidade de dispositivos jurídicos, em forma de lei, que amparem os direitos civis de casais homossexuais no Brasil.(AU)


Despite the seemingly favorable context and growing recognition regarding adoption by same-sex couples by the Brazilian legal system, these factors do not allow us to rightfully infer that prejudice and discrimination against homosexuals are decreasing in this country. Considering that, this study aimed to contrast opinions about adoption by infertile heterosexual and same-sex couples in a sample of 484 Brazilian adults (mean age = 26.6; SD = 8.31, 62.0% women). Data were collected by means of a demographic questionnaire and two semi-structured questions, presenting adoption in two different scenarios: by either homosexual or infertile heterosexual couples. From a descending hierarchical classification analysis performed using the Iramuteq software, five classes for the aforementioned scenarios were identified: infertile heterosexual (aggravating factors, normal development, education, solidarity, and responsibility) and homosexual couples (prejudice, opposition, favorable environment, loving home, and child development). The results indicate different agreement/disagreement patterns regarding the adopting couple parental configuration, whereby same-sex adoption implied an opposition response pattern whereas infertile heterosexual adoption resulted in more evident favorable positions. These results are discussed in the light of the implications arising from the social norms of heterosexist and cissexist systems, highlighting the importance of legal instruments such as governmental laws that guarantee the civil rights of the homosexual population in Brazil.(AU)


A pesar de un contexto aparentemente favorable y de creciente reconocimiento por el sistema jurídico brasileño en relación a la adopción por parejas homosexuales, es una equivocación decir que la manifestación del prejuicio y de la discriminación hacia los homosexuales se está reduciendo en Brasil. El presente estudio tuvo objetivo contrastar las opiniones de una muestra de la población brasileña con respecto a la adopción de niños por parejas homosexuales cuando comparadas con parejas heterosexuales estériles. Para ello, la muestra fue de 484 brasileños adultos (edad promedia de 26,6; DE = 8,31; 62,0% mujeres), que contestaron a preguntas sociodemográficas y a dos preguntas abiertas sobre dos escenarios de adopción: un con parejas heterosexuales estériles y otro con parejas homosexuales. A partir del análisis de Clasificación Jerárquica Descendente (realizada por el software Iramuteq), se identificó cinco clases para cada escenario: parejas estériles (agravantes, desarrollo normal, educación, solidaridad y responsabilidad) y parejas homosexuales (prejuicio, oposición, contexto de favorabilidad, hogar amoroso y desarrollo infantil). Los resultados indican formas diferentes de aceptación/oposición según el tipo de configuración de las parejas adoptantes. Estos hallazgos son discutidos teniendo en cuenta las implicaciones de normas sociales de estilo hetero-cisnormativo, sugiriendo la necesidad de aparatos jurídicos, en forma de leyes, que soporten los derechos civiles de parejas homosexuales en Brasil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Adoption , Child , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Prejudice , Psychology , Reference Standards , Religion , Sexual Behavior , Child Development , Family Characteristics , Heterosexuality , Legislation , Growth and Development , Social Discrimination , Minority Groups , Morale
12.
Acta bioeth ; 26(2): 205-214, oct. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141926

ABSTRACT

Resumen El presente artículo expone los resultados de una investigación empírica que se ha adentrado en las experiencias y discursos ciudadanos respecto del tema de la muerte en dignidad, y de la legitimidad de la implementación de medidas de acompañamiento de este proceso. A través del análisis de lo obtenido en siete grupos de discusión, llevados a cabo en la Región Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile, se ha podido concluir la existencia de altos niveles de consenso en la ciudadanía, respecto de la legitimidad de implementar medidas externas para terminar con la vida de pacientes que lo soliciten debido al padecimiento de enfermedades terminales, y de la necesidad de contar con una normativa legal que respalde su aplicación. Todo esto en el marco de una amplia valoración ciudadana de la autonomía personal y desde la narración de experiencias que revelan los grandes costos emocionales y monetarios que implica el cuidado de personas con enfermedades terminales.


Abstract This article presents the results of empirical research that investigates the citizen's perspectives regarding the issue of death with dignity and the legitimacy of the implementation of measures to accompany this process. Through the implementation and analysis of seven discussion groups, carried out in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago de Chile, it can be concluded that there are high levels of consensus among the citizens supporting the need for implementation of external measures to end the life of patients who request it due to suffering related to terminal illnesses, and the need to have legal regulations that supports its application. All of this has been evaluated within the framework of a broad citizen assessment of personal autonomy and from the narration of experiences that reveal the great emotional and monetary burden involved in the process of caring for people with terminal illnesses.


Resumo O presente artigo expõe os resultados de uma investigação empírica que adentrou as experiências e discursos cidadãos a respeito do tema da morte com dignidade e da legitimidade da implementação de medidas de acompanhamento deste processo. Através da análise do obtido em sete grupos de discussão, levados a cabo na Região Metropolitana de Santiago do Chile, se pode demonstrar a existência de altos níveis de consenso entre as pessoas no que diz respeito à legitimidade de implementar medidas externas para terminar com a vida de pacientes que as solicitem devido ao padecimento de enfermidades terminais e da necessidade de contar com uma normativa legal que respalde sua aplicação. Tudo isto no contexto de uma ampla valorização cidadã da autonomia pessoal e a partir da narrativa de experiências que revelam os grandes custos emocionais e econômicos implicados no cuidado de pessoas com enfermidades terminais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Right to Die , Community Participation , Death , Empathy , Respect , Chile
13.
Cad. pesqui ; 50(178): 925-944, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1142646

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo visa a compreender o posicionamento político e a formação de opinião dos jovens a partir da aplicação de um survey junto aos estudantes de escolas públicas do município de Guarulhos, São Paulo. Por meio de análises descritivas e modelos de regressão logística, buscou-se identificar os determinantes de uma posição mais progressista ou mais conversadora em relação a diferentes temas políticos, considerando características socioeconômicas e relacionais. Os resultados mostram que a proximidade com a família, com determinadas denominações religiosas ou com o grupo de pares pode influenciar na formação de opinião. Da mesma forma, a questão de gênero e a autoidentificação como pobre e de periferia exercem influência importante no posicionamento em questões políticas relativas a esses grupos.


Abstract This article aims to understand youths' political positions and opinion formation based on a survey with students in public schools in the municipality of Guarulhos, Brazil. We used descriptive analysis and logistic regression models to identify the determinants of a more progressive or conservative position on different political issues, considering socio-economic and relational characteristics. The results show that closeness to family, to certain religious denominations or to the group of peers can influence opinion formation. Likewise, the gender issue and self-identification as a poor person from a deprived neighborhood have a significant influence on youths' positions on political issues related with these groups.


Resumen El artículo intenta comprender la posición política y la formación de opinión de los jóvenes, a partir de la aplicación de una encuesta junto a los estudiantes de escuelas públicas del municipio de Guarulhos, Brasil. Por medio de análisis descriptivos y modelos de regresión logística, se trató de identificar los determinantes de una posición más progresista o más conservadora em relación con distintos temas políticos, considerando características socioeconómicas y relacionales. Los resultados muestran que la proximidad con la familia, con determinadas denominaciones religiosas o con el grupo de pares puede influenciar la formación de opinión. De la misma forma, el tema de género y la autoidentificación como pobre y habitante de la periferia ejercen una importante influencia en la posición relativa a temas políticos en dichos grupos.


Résumé L'article vise comprendre le positionnement politique et la formation d'une opinion des jeunes à partir de l'application d'un survey auprès des étudiants d'écoles publiques de la municipalité de Guarulhos, Brésil. Par moyen des analyses descriptives et des modèles de régression logistique on a cherché à identifier les déterminants d'une position plus progressiste ou plus conservatrice par rapport à différents thèmes politiques, prenant en compte des caractéristiques socioéconomiques et relationnelles. Les résultats montrent que la proximité avec la famille, avec quelques dénominations religieuses ou avec le groupe de pairs peut influencer dans la formation d'opinion. De la même façon, le genre et l'auto-identification comme pauvre et banlieusard exercent une influence importante dans le positionnement sur les questions politiques concernant ces groupes.

14.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(8): 465-472, 20200000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363532

ABSTRACT

Los sistemas complejos surgen buscando una mayor integración del conocimiento científico. El paradigma considera que los sistemas están compuestos por agentes dispares, en los cuales aparecen conductas inestables, siendo lo no lineal, cambiante y aleatorio un elemento característico, así como sus procesos son intra y transdisciplinarios, en contraste con cadenas deterministas, propias de visiones reduccionistas. El machine learning, surge como un sistema complejo definido como el proceso por el cual las computadoras buscando patrones comunes desde una información empírica y realizando algoritmos matemáticos, logran predicciones utilizando experiencias pasadas. Recientemente, mostró un gran desarrollo con el avance tecnológico de las computadoras. Análisis de sentimiento o minería de opinión, utiliza el machine learning para identificar y extraer información subjetiva de datos, haciendo uso del procesamiento de lenguaje natural, análisis de texto y lingüística computacional. En este trabajo realizamos una revisión sobre las características de los sistemas complejos en general, del machine learning y análisis de sentimientos en particular, debido a que el conocimiento y manejo de la información resulta de importante en neurociencias, dado que han surgido modelos preparados para obtener información oculta en registros médicos y redes sociales, capaces de predecir conductas vinculadas a eventos de salud como una insuficiencia cardiaca o un trastornos neuropsiquiátrico.


Complex systems emerged a few years ago seeking an integration of scientific knowledge. This paradigm considers that systems are composed of different agents, in which unstable, non-periodic behaviors appear, being the non-linear, changing, unexpected and random a characteristic element, as well as its processes are identified by being intra and transdisciplinary, in contrast to deterministic chains, typical of reductionist visions. Machine learning, emerges as a complex system defined as the process by which computers looking for common patterns from plenty empirical information through mathematical algorithms, make predictions using past experiences. In recent years, it showed an important development in storage capacity and the processing power of computers. Sentiment analysis or opinion mining, uses machine learning to identify and extract subjective information from the data, making use of natural language processing, text analysis and computational linguistics. In this paper we review the characteristics of complex systems in general and machine learning and sentiment analysis in particular, because the knowledge and management of this information is of great importance for health and the study of the human behavior, since models of machine learning could obtain hidden information in medical records, social networks and personal notes with capacity to predict health events such as heart failure or neuropsychiatric disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Science , Neurosciences , Technological Development , Emotions , Machine Learning
15.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(3): 281-305, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126164

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los profesionales tienen un rol significativo en el proceso del duelo perinatal, y la relación que construyan con los padres será decisiva para facilitar u obstaculizar su cuidado. OBJETIVO: Comprender la perspectiva de los profesionales de la salud con relación al duelo perinatal. MÉTODO: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos CINAHL, CUIDEN, PsycINFO, PubMed y Google Académico. Se realizó un análisis temático de estos, permitiendo delimitar categorías temáticas comunes. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron 46 artículos cientificos con menos de 10 años de antiguedad. Se identificaron tres categorias para abordar la experiencia vivida: 1) Sentimientos experimentados por los profesionales, como ansiedad, culpa, resignación, síntomas físicos, frustración y evitación; 2) Necesidades sentidas de apoyo, entre estas, soporte emocional, capacitación formal y experiencia laboral que permitan afrontar de mejor forma el duelo con las familias y el equipo; 3) Facilitadores del proceso, donde se destacan la capacitación, años de trayectoria profesional, confianza en si mismo, apoyo de los pares, equipo multidisciplinario, creencia religiososa y apoyo institucional. CONCLUSIÓN: El duelo perinatal es una situación dramática para los padres, los cuales demandan un cuidado sensible. Y los profesionales desempeñan un rol clave en el apoyo integral a los padres, siendo un proceso exigente tanto en lo personal como en lo profesional. Se sugiere formación de pregrado y postgrado, fomentando el diálogo y apoyo entre los equipos. De esta forma se beneficiarán los padres, su familia y los profesionales, los cuales podrán otorgar un cuidado efectivo y de calidad en situación de duelo perinatal.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Professionals play a significant role in the perinatal mourning. The relationship they established with parent in this process is critical in facilitating or hindering the quality of health care in this context. OBJETIVO: to understand the perspective of health care professionals in relation to perinatal grief. METHOD: A literature review was carried out in CINAHL, CUIDEN, PsycINFO, PubMed and the Google Scholar databases. A thematic analysis of the selected articles was carried out, allowing to define common thematic categories in these articles. RESULTS: 46 scientific articles, published in the last ten years, were obtained. Three topics were identified: 1) feelings experienced by professionals, including anxiety, guilt, anger, resignation, physical symptoms, frustration, avoidance and emotional pain; 2) needs related to support, such as emotional support, formal training and work experience that allows for a better approach with families and parents; and 3) facilitators of the process, where training, years of professional experience, self-confidence, peer support, multidisciplinary team, religious beliefs and institutional support stand out. CONCLUSION: Perinatal grief is a complex situation for parents who demand sensitive care. Professionals play a key role in comprehensive support for them, being a demanding process both personally and professionally. Undergraduate and postgraduate training is suggested, encouraging dialogue and support among teams. This would benefit family and professionals, providing effective and quality care in a situation of perinatal grief.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Grief , Attitude to Death , Health Personnel/psychology , Perinatal Death , Parents , Fetal Death , Nurse Midwives/psychology
16.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 28(2): 102-110, Abr-Jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1121733

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la autoevaluacíón permite un monitoreo continuo del quehacer profesional para perfeccionar la competencia clínica. Por tal motivo se diseñó y validó un instrumento de autoevaluacíón de enfermería para la fase de valoración de mujeres con preeclampsia. Método: la validez de contenido se realizó con tres expertos en dos rondas. La investigación se llevó a cabo en los servicios de Gineco-Obstetricia, Unidad Toco Quirúrgica, Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos y Quirófano en un hospital de zona con 40 enfermeras. La consistencia interna se identificó con el índice de Alfa de Cronbach y se calculó la prueba de Spearman-Brown para identificar la correlación intra dimensiones del instrumento. Resultados: se obtuvo una validez de contenido con Alfa de Cronbach en la prueba piloto de 0.977 y en la aplicación final de 0.923; así como correlaciones estadísticamente significativas entre las dimensiones del instrumento. Conclusión: el instrumento permite un marco de referencia en autoevaluacíón diagnóstica de enfermería en la valoración en mujeres con preeclampsia. Se considera práctico, tiene propiedades psicométricas aceptables de consistencia interna y confiabilidad.


Introduction: The self-assessment allows continuous monitoring of professional work to improve clinical competence. For this reason, a nursing self-assessment instrument was designed and validated for the assessment phase of women with pre-eclampsia. Method: Content validity was performed with three experts in two rounds. The research was carried out in the Services of Gynecology-Obstetrics, Toco Surgical Unit, Intensive Care Unit and Operating Room ¡n an area hospital with 40 nurses. Internal consistency was identified with the Cronbach's Alpha índex and the Spearman-Brown test was calculated to identify the intra-dimensional correlation of the instrument. Results: Content validity was obtained with Cronbach's Alpha in the pilot test of 0.977 and in the final application of 0.907; as well as statistically significant correlations between instrument dimensions. Conclusión: The instrument allows a frame of reference in diagnostic nursing self-assessment in the assessment phase in women with preeclampsia. It is considered practical, it has acceptable psychometric properties of internal consistency and reliability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia , Reproducibility of Results , Nursing , Clinical Competence , Expert Testimony , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Hospitals, Public , Mexico
17.
Rev. iberoam. psicol. (En línea) ; 13(3): 199-209, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1224691

ABSTRACT

Las Premisas Histórico-Socioculturales (PHSC) son normas y creencias que regulan el comportamiento de cada cultura. En México, una premisa de cómo deben conducirse las parejas es "El compromiso da formalidad a la relación de pareja". Sin embargo, los individuos no reciben pasivamente las PHSC, las modifican o las contradicen con sus acciones lo que puede crear disonancia cognoscitiva. Entonces, la disonancia ocurre cuando coexisten dos cogniciones incongruentes en un individuo, lo que puede ocurrir por la llegada de nueva información o por trasgredir una norma cultural. El objetivo del estudio fue comprobar si la opinión contra actitudinal sobre PHSC acerca del compromiso en las relaciones de pareja ocasiona disonancia cognoscitiva en los individuos, medida como ansiedad. Se diseñó un experimento donde se manipuló la PHSC sobre la relación de pareja que los individuos recibían y el estatus de la fuente proveniente: 2 (PHSC: Concordante/ Contra actitudinal) × 2 (Fuente de alto o bajo estatus). Como variable dependiente se midió la ansiedad estado y como covariable el nivel de compromiso en su relación de pareja. Participaron 41 individuos. Los resultados muestran que el grupo de fuente de bajo estatus y PHSC concordante tuvo más preocupación, mientras que los que recibieron una PHSC contra actitudinal estuvieron más tranquilos. En el primer grupo se creó disonancia debido a dos cogniciones incongruentes: nivel educativo y pensar igual que una fuente de bajo estatus, lo que afectó su autoconcepto; mientras que la condición de artículo de alto estatus no generó diferencias


Historical Sociocultural Premises (PHSCs) are norms and beliefs that regulate the behavior of each culture. A premise for Mexican couples is that "Commitment gives formality to couple relationships". However, individuals do not passively receive PHSCs, they modify or contradict them with their actions, which can lead to cognitive dissonance. So, dissonance occurs when two incongruous cognitions coexist in an individual, caused by either receiving new information or transgressing a cultural norm. The objective of the study is in order to verify if counter attitudinal opinions on PHSCs about commitment in couple relationships cause cognitive dissonance in individuals, measured as anxiety. We designed an experiment where we manipulated the PHSCs about couple relationships that individuals received, and the status of the source they came from: 2 (PHSC: Concordant / Counter attitudinal) × 2 (High and low status sources). We measured state anxiety as a dependent variable and the participants' level of commitment in their couple relationship as a covariate. 41 individuals participated. The results of this research showed that, in the low status source group, participants with a concordant PHSC were more worried, while those who received a counter attitudinal PHSC were calmer. In the first group, there was dissonance due to two incongruous cognitions (educational level and thinking like a low status source), which affected their self concept, while the condition of high status article did not generate any differences


Subject(s)
Humans , Behavior , Cognitive Dissonance , Thinking , Attitude , Family Characteristics , Affect , Culture
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827374

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the psychological status of medical staff in the epidemic period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to analyze its influential factors.@*METHODS@#A total of 373 medical staff from Xiangya Hospital and the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University were enrolled for this study. The General Sociological Data Questionnaire, Symptom Check-List 90 (SCL-90), and self-designed public opinion response questionnaire were used to assess general sociological data, mental health scores, and ability to respond to COVID-19 related public opinion information of medical staff. The mental health scores of medical staff with different general sociological data and public opinion information coping abilities were compared. Influential factors of mental health were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The average score of 10 factors in SCL-90 of 373 medical staff was less than 2 points. 14.21% medical staff had one or more factor scores more than two points, including 11.26% with terror symptoms, 7.77% with compulsive symptoms, and 5.63% with anxiety. The main sources of COVID-19 information for medical staff included WeChat, microblog, Jinri toutiao, TV and radio. 66.22% medical staff regularly verified information about COVID-19 through official websites or formal channels. A great deal of COVID-19 information in WeChat could make medical staff nervous (34.05%), anxious (30.29%), and insecure (29.22%). 68.63% medical staff sometimes were worried about getting infected because they knew information about COVID-19. Different departments of medical staff, getting cough or having a fever recently, and the degree of fear of infection had an impact on the SCL-90 score of medical staff, the differences were all statistically significant (all <0.05). Stepwise regression analysis showed that the impact of COVID-19 information on their life in WeChat, getting cough or having a fever recently, insomnia-early caused by COVID-19 information in WeChat, different departments, and the degree of fear of infection COVID-19 were the influential factors for the mental health of medical staff (all <0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#During the epidemic of COVID-19, medical staff suffered from psychological problems to various degrees. It is necessary to establish a psychological assistance platform and guide the direction of public opinion correctly to promote the mental health of medical staff.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Betacoronavirus , China , Compulsive Behavior , Coronavirus Infections , Epidemiology , Psychology , Fear , Health Status , Humans , Medical Staff , Psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Epidemiology , Psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1153-1157, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821599

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To pro vide suggestions for imp roving the quality of ethical review of drug clinical trials in China and protecting the rights and interests of subjects. METHODS :Guided by risk management theory ,the literature research method , expert opinion method and analytic hierarchy process method were used to sort out the ethical review process of drug clinical trials , extract and determine the risk factors that affect the quality of ethical review ,and determine the weight of each risk factor. Suggestions were put forward improving the ethical review of drug clinical trials in China. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS : Established ethical review risk index system of drug clinical trials included 31 influential factors of 5 aspects;the order of importance(weights)of 5 aspects affecting the quality of ethical review of drug clinical trials was as follows :the construction of the medical ethics committee (0.263 5),the management of review meetings (0.251 4),follow-up review (0.194 5),the acceptance and processing of review applications (0.189 2),and the management of documents and files (0.101 4). The influential factors with high weight included “withdrawal of people with conflict of interest in the discussion and voting process (0.078 7)” “timely review or conference discussion of scheme modification ,informed consent modification ,serious adverse events ,etc. (0.070 5)”“clarification and external exhibition of the work process and time of ethical review (0.059 8)”“unified and standardized review standards and approval standards (0.052 1)”,etc. The quality of ethical review can be improved by avoiding people with conflict of interest in the discussion and voting process ,timely reviewing or holding ethics meetings on scheme modification , informed consent modification ,serious adverse events ,etc.,clarifying the working process and time of ethical review ,and establishing unified and standardized review standards and approval standards.

20.
Psicol. USP ; 31: e190128, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1143507

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo examinou a metodologia da pesquisa de opinião intitulada "Percepção sobre a violência sexual e atendimento a mulheres vítimas nas instituições policiais", conduzida em 2016 pelo Fórum Brasileiro de Segurança Pública. Os resultados mostraram que a pesquisa possuiu limitações metodológicas quanto à amostragem, análises estatísticas e formulação de seus itens (exemplos: falta de operacionalização de construtos, ambiguidade e expectativa não realista do conhecimento de seus respondentes), que comprometem a legitimidade de seus resultados. Pesquisas de opinião futuras realizadas no Brasil nessa área podem se beneficiar do uso de escalas validadas. O presente artigo não tem o intuito de desacreditar que muitos brasileiros endossam atitudes de tolerância ao estupro. Em vez disso, enfatiza a necessidade de dados confiáveis e válidos que servirão de base para medidas de intervenção.


Abstract This article examined the methodology used in the survey named "Perception of sexual violence and care of female victims by police institutions", conducted in 2016 by the Brazilian Forum of Public Security. The results showed that this research has methodological limitations regarding sampling, statistical analysis, and formulation of items (e.g., lack of operationalization of constructs, ambiguity and unrealistic expectation regarding the knowledge of respondents), which compromise the legitimacy of its results. Future surveys conducted in Brazil in this field may benefit from the use of validated scales. This article does not attempt to discredit the idea that many Brazilians endorse tolerant attitudes toward rape. Instead, it emphasizes the need for reliable and valid data that must be the basis for intervention measures.


Résumé Cet article a analysé la méthodologie utilisée dans l'enquête intitulée "Perception de la violence sexuelle et prise en charge des femmes victimes par les institutions de police", menée en 2016 par le Forum Brésilien de la Sécurité Publique. Les résultats ont montré que cette recherche présente des limites méthodologiques en ce qui concerne l'échantillonnage, l'analyse statistique et la formulation de ses items (par exemple, le manque d'opérationnalisation des concepts, l'ambiguïté et l'attente irréaliste des connaissances des répondants), qui mettent en question la légitimité de ses résultats. Les futurs sondages d'opinion menés au Brésil dans ce domaine pourraient bénéficier de l'utilisation d'échelles validées. Cet article ne vise pas à discréditer l'idée que de nombreux Brésiliens souscrivent à des attitudes de tolérance au viol. Au contraire, il souligne la nécessité de disposer de données fiables et valides qui serviront de base aux mesures d'intervention.


Resumen Este artículo ha examinado la metodología utilizada en la encuesta de opinión titulada "Percepción de la violencia sexual y la atención a mujeres víctimas por parte de instituciones policiales", realizada en 2016 por el Foro Brasileño de Seguridad Pública. Los resultados mostraron que la mencionada encuesta tiene limitaciones metodológicas con respecto al muestreo, análisis estadísticos y la formulación de sus ítems (por ejemplo, falta de operacionalización de constructos, ambigüedad y expectativa poco realista del conocimiento de los encuestados), que comprometen la legitimidad de sus resultados y de sus conclusiones. Las futuras encuestas de opinión realizadas en Brasil en este campo pueden beneficiarse del uso de escalas validadas. Este artículo no intenta desacreditar la idea de que muchos brasileños respaldan actitudes tolerantes hacia la violación. En cambio, enfatiza la necesidad de datos confiables y válidos que serán la base para las medidas de intervención.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Public Opinion , Sex Offenses , Women , Methodology as a Subject , Brazil , Data Accuracy
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL