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1.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 70(5): e20231548, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558920

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare endometrial thickness with the use of transdermal estrogen (gel) versus oral estrogen (pills) for endometrial preparation in the frozen embryo transfer cycle and serum estrogen concentrations during the preparation cycle, side effects, and chemical and clinical pregnancy rates. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized controlled trial of women undergoing endometrial preparation for cryopreserved blastocyst transfer. A total of 88 women were randomized, of which 82 completed the study protocol. Of this group, 44 received 6 mg/day of estradiol valerate orally (pills group) and 38 received 4.5 mg/day of estradiol hemihydrate transdermally (gel group). Endometrial thickness was measured using transvaginal ultrasound between the 7 and 10th day of the cycle. Serum estradiol concentrations were measured on the day of initiating the cycle, on control transvaginal ultrasounds, and on the day of embryo transfer. Side effects were documented at each study visit. p<0.05 were adopted as statistically significant. The groups were compared using Student's t-test for continuous variables and chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. RESULTS: There were no significant group differences (p>0.05) in endometrial thickness, biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates, miscarriage rate, blood estradiol concentrations, duration of estradiol administration, or cycle cancellation rates. CONCLUSION: Endometrial preparation with transdermal estrogen yielded similar reproductive outcomes to oral estrogen with fewer side effects.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 208-216, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964288

ABSTRACT

It is of great significance to apply the nanocrystals self-stabilized Pickering emulsion (NSSPE) to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds, and to study the effect of NSSPE on the oral absorption of various components with different solubility and permeability. In the study, NSSPE of Tongmai prescription was prepared by the high pressure homogenization method with nanocrystals of main active components (puerarin, ferulic acid, salvianolic acid B and tanshinone IIA) of Tongmai prescription as solid particle stabilizers and a mixture of Ligusticum chuanxiong essential oil and Labrafil M 1944 CS as oil phase. The NSSPE had better physical stability than nanocrystals suspension and blank emulsion. The adsorption of nanocrystals on the surface of oil droplets was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The surface adsorption rates of puerarin, ferulic acid, salvianolic acid B and tanshinone ⅡA in NSSPE were 15.40% ± 3.19%, 15.39% ± 5.07%, 10.97% ± 3.70% and 31.51% ± 1.60%, respectively. When solid active components were prepared into nanocrystals suspension, the cellular uptake and transport across Caco-2 cells were increased significantly for puerarin and tanshinone IIA. The uptake rates of ferulic acid, ligustilide and tanshinone IIA in NSSPE were further increased compared with the physical mixture of nanocrystals suspension and oil, and the transports of ligustilide and tanshinone IIA were also significantly improved. The main absorption mechanisms of NSSPE were passive diffusion and caveolin-mediated endocytosis, which were determined mainly by the microstructure of NSSPE. In conclusion, NSSPE could be applied to complicated TCM. The "micro" and "nano" synergistic microstructure with drug nanocrystals adsorbed on the surface of micron-sized oil droplets could not only improve the physical stability of NSSPE, but also promote the absorption of various components in NSSPE, which made NSSPE a promising oral drug delivery system for TCM.

3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3556-3565, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007976

ABSTRACT

Development of a vaccine that can simultaneously induce effective mucosal immunity and systemic immunity is an ideal goal to prevent mucosal pathogenic infections. The digestive tract has many sites for inducing mucosal immunity, including the mouth, stomach and small intestine. An ideal oral viral vaccine can not only induce better local and distal mucosal immunity, but also produce better systemic immunity. The oral viral vaccine has also attracted much attention because of its painless vaccination, self-administration and other advantages. Due to the complexity of human digestive tract environment and mucosal immunity, only three oral attenuated live vaccines have been successfully marketed for human use. This review summarizes the characteristics of gastrointestinal mucosal immunity, the current types and research status of oral viral vaccines, and the challenges faced by oral viral vaccines, with the hope to facilitate the research and development of oral viral vaccines for human use in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Viral Vaccines , Vaccination , Immunity, Mucosal , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccine Development
4.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210246, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1360442

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo descrever as necessidades de aprendizagem de familiares de crianças e adolescentes com câncer quanto ao tratamento com quimioterápicos antineoplásicos orais. Método pesquisa qualitativa descritiva desenvolvida em um hospital federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados nos meses de julho a setembro de 2020 a partir de entrevistas semiestruturadas com vinte e três familiares de crianças e adolescentes com câncer em quimioterapia antineoplásica oral. Os dados foram processados no software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires pela Classificação Hierárquica Descendente. Resultados dentre os temas que demandam aprendizagem pelos familiares estão administração oral, armazenamento e manipulação dos quimioterápicos orais, além dos efeitos adversos e emergências que demandam atendimento hospitalar. Conclusão e implicações para a prática no tratamento com quimioterápicos orais, as necessidades de aprendizagem dos familiares de crianças e adolescentes precisam ser problematizadas em práticas educativas dialógicas para, assim, favorecer a segurança, a adesão e a eficácia do tratamento.


RESUMEN Objetivo describir las necesidades de aprendizaje de familiares de niños y adolescentes con cáncer en cuanto al tratamiento con quimioterápicos antineoplásicos orales. Método investigación cualitativa descriptiva desarrollada en un hospital federal de Río de Janeiro, Brasil. Los datos fueron recogidos en los meses de julio a septiembre de 2020 a partir de entrevistas semiestructuradas con veintitrés familiares de niños y adolescentes con cáncer en quimioterapia antineoplásica oral. Los datos fueron procesados en el software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires por la Clasificación Jerárquica Descendente. Resultados entre los temas que demandan aprendizaje por los familiares están administración oral, almacenamiento y manipulación de los quimioterápicos orales, además de los efectos adversos y emergencias que demandan atención hospitalaria. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica en el tratamiento con quimioterápicos orales, las necesidades de aprendizaje de los familiares de niños y adolescentes necesitan ser problematizadas en prácticas educativas dialógicas para, así, favorecer la seguridad, la adhesión y la eficacia del tratamiento.


ABSTRACT Objective to describe the learning needs of family members of children and adolescents with cancer regarding treatment with oral antineoplastic chemotherapies. Method a descriptive qualitative research developed in a federal hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected in the months from July to September 2020 from semi-structured interviews with twenty-three family members of children and adolescents with cancer undergoing oral antineoplastic chemotherapy. Data was processed in the software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires by the Descending Hierarchical Classification. Results among the themes that demand learning by the family members are oral administration, storage and handling of oral antineoplastic drugs, as well as adverse effects and emergencies that require hospital care. Conclusion and implications for practice in oral antineoplastic treatment, the learning needs of family members of children and adolescents need to be problematized in dialogic educational practices in order to favor the safety, adherence, and efficacy of the treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Health Education , Caregivers/education , Neoplasms/therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Child Care , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Qualitative Research , Drug Storage , Temozolomide/therapeutic use , Mercaptopurine/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 331-342, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922912

ABSTRACT

Ionic liquids (ILs) are liquid mixtures formed by anions and cations in a certain stoichiometric ratio under certain conditions. They are widely used in various fields because of their simple preparation process, low volatility, high stability, high conductivity and non-flammability. Here, we firstly introduce their formation principles, classification, and physical and chemical properties in detail. Then, we summarize their functions in pharmaceutical preparations, such as improving the solubility of insoluble drugs, enhancing the stability of drugs, and promoting the permeability of drugs, as well as their role as active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) to fabricate new drug delivery systems of API-ILs. Finally, we reviewed the applications of ILs in different administration routes, including oral, transdermal, mucosal, and injection routes, and meanwhile offer perspectives for the further use of ILs.

6.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 126 p. tab.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378785

ABSTRACT

Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease (NTD), is a set of diseases caused by obligatory parasitic protozoa of the genus Leishmania. And it has cutaneous and visceral eishmaniasis as its main forms. Treatment includes pentavalent antimonials. These drugs have several disadvantages, such as the need for parenteral administration, use of high dosages, long duration of treatment, severe toxicity, resistance and variable efficacy. The candidate for hydroxymethylnitrofural drug (NFOH), a prodrug derived from nitrofural, showed high activity in cell cultures infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and less toxicity when compared to nitrofural. Due to its low solubility in water and reduced bioavailability, NFOH has failed the in vivo efficacy tests. Nanostructured drug delivery systems have the potential to overcome these challenges due to their evident advantages: greater therapeutic efficacy, less toxicity, modified drug release and increased gastrointestinal absorption of drugs with low water solubility. The objective of this project will be the preparation and evaluation of the physicochemical characteristics of a nanostructured lipid carrier containing hydroxymethylnitrofural (NLC-NFOH). The NFOH showed the highest solubility in Miglyol® 840 among the tested liquid lipids. For solid lipids, Gelucire® 50/13 and Precirol® ATO5 proved to be more suitable for the solubilization of NFOH. The optimized NLC-NFOH consisted of these three lipids. These lipids were selected using a quick Technobis Crystal 16TM methodology, microscopy and DSC. Different lipid selection tools provided scientific knowledge relevant to the development of NLC. The NLC-NFOH had an average z of 198.6 ± 5.4 nm, a PDI of 0.11 ± 0.01 and a zeta potential of -13.7 ± 0.7 mV. This study allowed a design space development approach of the first NLC-NFOH with the potential to treat leishmaniasis orally. The development of a sensitive bioanalytical method using HPLC and evaluation of some analytical figures of merit for the validation allowed the quantification of NFOH and NF. The bioanalytical method for analysis of NFOH and NF use Zorbax SB-C18, 5µm, (4.6x250mm) HPLC column. The mobile phase was consisted of acetonitrile:water (20:80 v/v) with flow rate of 1.2 ml/min, at UV detection of 370 nm. The linearity of NFOH and NF was found in the range 0.0253.0 µg/ml with a correlation coefficient of r > 0.98. The precision was 2.44 to 13.77% for NFOH and 2.61 to 18.42%; the accuracy was 2.66 to 14.28% for NFOH and 2.09 to 19.06% for NF. The method showed to be suitable for effectively evaluation of NFOH is serum. NLC-NFOH (2.8 mg/kg) was administered to animals by gavage, and the blocking flow of the chylomicrons model was performed with an intraperitoneal injection of cycloheximide. The presence of NFOH in serum was evaluated with and without cycloheximide. The cytotoxicity assay of NLC-NFOH and blank-NLC showed more than 90% viable cells at the maximum concentration used (2560 µM). NFOH and NF were detected at 1h after the gavage of DMSO-NFOH or NLC-NFOH, without the pretreatment with cycloheximide. The concentration found for DMSO-NFOH and NLC-NFOH were 0.0316 and 0.0291 µg/mL, respectively. The NLC presented the NFOH absorption by the lymphatic system, demonstrated by blocking chylomicrons flow


A leishmaniose, uma doença tropical negligenciada (DTN), é um conjunto de doenças causadas por protozoários parasitas obrigatórios do gênero Leishmania. E tem como formas principais a leishmaniose cutânea e visceral. O tratamento inclui antimoniais pentavalentes. Esses fármacos apresentam várias desvantagens, como necessidade de administração parenteral, uso de altas dosagens, longa duração do tratamento, toxicidade grave, resistência e eficácia variável. O candidato ao fármaco hidroximetilnitrofural (NFOH), um pró-fármaco derivado do nitrofural, apresentou alta atividade em culturas de células infectadas pelo Trypanosoma cruzi e menor toxicidade quando comparado ao nitrofural. Devido à sua baixa solubilidade em água e biodisponibilidade reduzida, o NFOH falhou nos testes de eficácia in vivo. Os sistemas nanoestruturados de liberação de fármacos têm potencial para superar esses desafios devido às suas vantagens evidentes: maior eficácia terapêutica, menor toxicidade, liberação modificada do fármaco e aumento da absorção gastrointestinal de fármacos com baixa solubilidade em água. O objetivo deste projeto será a preparação e avaliação das características físico-químicas de um carreador lipídico nanoestruturado contendo hidroximetilnitrofural (NLC-NFOH). O NFOH apresentou a maior solubilidade no Miglyol® 840 entre os lipídios líquidos testados. Para lipídios sólidos, Gelucire® 50/13 e Precirol® ATO5 se mostraram mais adequados para a solubilização de NFOH. O NLC-NFOH otimizado consistiu desses três lipídios. Esses lipídios foram selecionados usando Technobis Crystal 16TM, microscopia e DSC. Diferentes ferramentas de seleção de lipídios forneceram conhecimento científico relevante para o desenvolvimento de NLC. O NLC-NFOH teve z-average de 198,6 ± 5,4 nm, PDI de 0,11 ± 0,01 e potencial zeta de -13,7 ± 0,7 mV. Este estudo permitiu o desenvolvimento por abordagem de Design Space do primeiro NLC-NFOH com potencial para tratar a leishmaniose por via oral. O desenvolvimento de um VIII método bioanalítico sensível utilizando HPLC e a avaliação de algumas figuras analíticas de mérito para a validação permitiram a quantificação de NFOH e NF em soro. O método bioanalítico para análise de NFOH e NF usou coluna de HPLC Zorbax SB-C18, 5 µm, (4,6 x 250 mm). A fase móvel foi constituída por acetonitrila: água (20:80 v / v) com vazão de 1,2 ml / min, com detecção no UV de 370 nm. A linearidade de NFOH e NF foi encontrada na faixa de 0,0253,0 µg / ml com um coeficiente de correlação de r> 0,98. A precisão foi de 2,44 a 13,77% para NFOH e 2,61 a 18,42%; a precisão foi de 2,66 a 14,28% para NFOH e 2,09 a 19,06% para NF. O método mostrou-se adequado para avaliação efetiva do NFOH no soro. NLC-NFOH (2,8 mg / kg) foi administrado aos animais por gavagem, e o modelo de bloqueio do fluxo de quilomícrons foi realizado com injeção intraperitoneal de cicloheximida. A presença de NFOH no soro foi avaliada com e sem cicloheximida. O ensaio de citotoxicidade de NLC-NFOH e brancoNLC mostrou mais de 90% de células viáveis na concentração máxima utilizada (2560 µM). NFOH e NF foram detectados 1h após a gavagem de DMSO-NFOH ou NLC-NFOH, sem o pré-tratamento com cicloheximida. As concentrações encontradas para DMSO-NFOH e NLC-NFOH foram 0,0316 e 0,0291 µg / mL, respectivamente. O NLC apresentou a absorção do NFOH pelo sistema linfático, demonstrada pelo bloqueio do fluxo dos quilomícrons


Subject(s)
Leishmaniasis/pathology , Chemistry, Physical/classification , Administration, Oral , Tropical Medicine/classification , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Cell Culture Techniques/instrumentation , Methodology as a Subject , Drug Liberation/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Absorption/drug effects , Lymphatic System
7.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Practice ; (6): 49-52, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862487

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the pharmacokinetic differences of pure salidroside and Kunfukang pills in rats and explore the pharmacokinetic changes of salidroside as a pure form or in the mixture. Methods The rats were divided into two groups. One group received pure salidroside and the other was administrated with kunfukang pills. Concentrations of salidroside in both groups were determined by LC/MS/MS method. The main pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Results AUC0−t of salidroside was (587.11±35.02) in pure salidroside group and (956.35±47.65)ng·h/ml in Kunfukang group. cmax was (85.81±15.66) and (143.86±46.91)ng/ml separately, with significant difference. Conclusion The results indicated that other components in kunfukang pills had influence on the absorption, distribution and elimination of salidroside.

8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2594-2600, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879165

ABSTRACT

To explore the drug use rules of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, and to provide some references for clinical treatment. The full-text search of "ulcerative colitis+TCM" was conducted based on CNKI. The literatures published from 2000 to 2020 were selected, and the clinical prescriptions for ulcerative colitis were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The statistical processing and association rule analysis were carried out with use of Excel 2013, Clementine 12.0 and IBM SPSS Statistics 25.0 statistical software. A total of 177 prescriptions were obtained after retrieval of 3 432 relevant literatures, including 93 oral prescriptions and 84 enema prescriptions. Among them, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Coptidis Rhizoma, Aucklandiae Radix and Paeoniae Radix Alba were the most frequently used drugs in oral administration, with the functions of tonifying, heat clearing and Qi regulating. The drugs with high frequency in enema included Bletillae Rhizoma, Coptidis Rhizoma, Sanguisorbae Radix, Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex and Sophorae Flavescentis Radix, with the functions of heat clearing, blood stopping and tonifying. Both oral and enema means of drugs were mainly of warm, cold and slightly cold properties, and bitter and sweet flavors, involving spleen, stomach, lung and large intestine. In cluster analysis, oral and enema drugs were divi-ded into 5 groups. Accordingly, in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, tonifying medicine, heat clearing medicine and Qi regulating medicine are often used for oral administration and heat clearing medicine, hemostatic medicine and tonifying medicine are often used for enema administration. On this basis, they are combined with diuretic drugs and astringent drugs respectively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Data Mining , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
9.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 484-489, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To systematically evaluat e the efficacy and safety of intranasal administration of dexmedetomidine versus oral administration of chloral hydrate for programmed sedation in children. METHODS :Retrieved from Cochrane Library ,PubMed, Embase,CBM,CNKI and Wanfang database ,randomized controlled trials (RCTs)about intranasal administration of dexmedetomidine (trial group )versus oral administration of chloral hydrate (control group )for programmed sedation in children were collected. Cochrane 5.1.0 bias risk assessment tool was used to evaluate the quality of the included literatures after literature screening and data extraction,and Meta-analysis was conducted by using Rev Man 5.3 statistical software. RESULTS :A total of 8 RCTs were included , with a total of 1 413 children. Meta-analysis showed that the sedation success rate [RR =1.13,95%CI(1.02,1.25),P=0.02],sedation onset time [MD =-1.07,95%CI(-1.82,-0.31),P=0.006],sedation duration [MD =-8.25,95%CI(-14.02,-2.47),P= 0.005],wake-up time [MD =-9.63,95%CI(-15.40,-3.86),P=0.001],the incidence of nausea and vomiting [RR =0.05,95%CI (0.02,0.14),P<0.000 01] in the trial group were significantly better than those in control group. There was no statistical significance in the incidence of SpO 2<95% [RR=0.60,95%CI(0.24,1.54),P=0.29],incidence of hypotension [RR =1.18,95%CI(0.51, 2.74),P=0.71],incidence of bradycardia [RR =1.33,95%CI(0.18,9.88),P=0.78] between 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS :Intranasal administration of dexmedetomidine has better efficacy than oral administration of chloral hydrate for programmed sedation in children with good safety.

10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5177-5183, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878803

ABSTRACT

In the current study, schisandrin B(SchB)-loaded F127 modified lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles(SchB-F-LPNs) were developed to improve the inhibition of breast cancer lung metastasis. Modified nanoprecipitation method was used to prepare SchB-F-LPNs. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape with shell-core structure by TEM observation. SchB-F-LPNs showed a mean particle size of(234.60±6.11) nm with zeta potential of(-5.88±0.49) mV. XRD results indicated that SchB existed in the nanoparticles in an amorphous state. The apparent permeability coefficient through porcine mucus of F-LPNs was 1.43-fold of that of LPNs as shown in the in vitro mucus penetration study. The pharmacokinetics study showed that the C_(max) of SchB was(369.06±146.94) μg·L~(-1),(1 121.34±91.65) μg·L~(-1) and(2 951.91±360.53) μg·L~(-1) respectively in SchB suspensions group, SchB-LPNs group and SchB-F-LPNs group after oral administration in rats. With SchB suspensions as the reference formulation, the relative bioavailability of SchB-F-LPNs was 568.60%. SchB-F-LPNs inhibited the morphological change during transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In addition, SchB-F-LPNs significantly decreased the number of metastatic pulmonary nodules in 4 T1 tumor-bearing mice, suggesting that SchB-F-LPNs may inhibit the metastasis of breast cancer. These results reveal the promising potential of SchB-F-LPNs in treatment of breast cancer lung metastasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Cyclooctanes , Lignans , Lipids , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nanoparticles , Polycyclic Compounds , Polyethylenes , Polymers , Polypropylenes , Swine
11.
Modern Hospital ; (6): 293-295, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-823814

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical effect of hemorrhoid elimination agent made by our hospital for the treatment of constipation, blood in stool, pain in defecation, anal burning sensation and abdominal distension after hemorrhoids surgery. Methods A number of 120 patients from January 2017 to June 2019 undergo hemorrhoid surgery in the department of anorectal surgery in our hospital were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into the experimental group and the control group by the random digit table. The experimental group took hemorrhoid elimination agent orally, and the control group took paraffin oil orally. The two groups were compared in terms of the clinical efficacy, symptom and sign scores before and after treatment and adverse reactions. Results The total clinical effective rate of patients in the experimental group was 95%,and the total effective rate in the control group was 81.6% . Compared withpre-treatment, the fecal character score in the experimental group was significantly improved after treatment, and the incidence of hematochezia was significantly reduced after treatment (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in fecal character score and incidence of hematochezia before and after treatment in the control group(P>0.05). After treatment, the score of symptoms and signs in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). The incidence of hematocele in the experimental group was 5 %,while that in the control group was 21.67%,with significant difference between them(P<0.05). Conclusion With obvious effect and high safety, hemorrhoid elimination agent can effectively relieve constipation and hemostasis after hemorrhoidectomy, which is worthy of promotion in clinic.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1549-1561, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-823320

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia, resulting from insulin deficiency or resistance, or both. Insulin plays an irreplaceable role in the treatment of diabetes. Subcutaneous injection is the main route of insulin administration, but usually leads to poor compliance and many side effects. Oral insulin is safer and more convenient, which has always been the Holy Grail for people to explore. After oral administration, insulin is absorbed into the hepatic portal vein and transported to the liver, which can activate the normal physiological functions and reduce the risk of hypoglycemia, insulin resistance, and improve patient compliance. However, the gastrointestinal tract has multiple absorption barriers such as chemical barrier, enzyme barrier, and permeation barrier. Due to the physical and chemical properties of insulin, it is difficult to achieve desired oral bioavailability. This article reviews the recent attempts and progress in the field of oral administration of insulin driven by innovative drug delivery technologies and biomaterials, including structural modification, enzyme inhibitors, absorption enhancers, various nanoparticles, liposomes, microspheres, and even microorganisms. Some clinical researches on oral insulin are also introduced.

13.
HU rev ; 45(1): 65-75, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048520

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A erosão dentária é caracterizada por uma perda progressiva e irreversível dos tecidos dentários mineralizados que ocorre sem envolvimento bacteriano. Acredita-se que o uso frequente de medicamentos líquidos orais, em crianças, possa desenvolver erosão dentária visto que esses medicamentos apresentam, em sua maioria, pH ácido, que pode atuar como fator predisponente ao desenvolvimento da erosão dentária. Objetivo: O presente estudo avaliou os efeitos do uso de medicamentos líquidos orais na estrutura de dentes decíduos por meio de revisão sistemática da literatura. Material e Métodos: Foi realizada pesquisa de artigos científicos, em março de 2018, nas bases de dados PubMed e Web of Science utilizando descritores específicos para a pesquisa, de modo a avaliar, descritivamente, a seguinte pergunta "Os medicamentos infantis de uso contínuo podem causar erosão na superfície de dentes decíduos?" Foram encontrados 278 artigos na base de dados Pubmed e 41 na base Web of Science, dos quais 18 artigos eram coincidentes, assim 301 títulos e resumos foram lidos e analisados. Destes, 293 foram excluídos de modo que 8 artigos foram selecionados para análise crítica. Resultados: Os medicamentos líquidos de uso contínuo, geralmente utilizados para o tratamento de condições crônicas em crianças, promovem efeito erosivo sobre a estrutura dentária, principalmente quando relacionado ao pH e acidez titulável dos medicamentos, por avaliação de estudos conduzidos "in vitro". Conclusão: Torna-se necessária a realização de estudos clínicos para avaliação mais adequada do efeito erosivo de medicamentos infantis na superfície de dentes decíduos.


Introduction: Dental erosion is characterized by a progressive and irreversible loss of mineralized dental tissues that occurs without bacterial involvement. It is believed that the frequent use of oral liquid medicines in children can develop dental erosion since the majority of these medications has acidic pH, which can act as a predisposing factor for dental erosion development. Objective: The present study evaluated the effects of the use of liquid oral medications on the structure of deciduous teeth by a systematic review of literature. Material and Methods: We conducted a survey of scientific articles in PubMed and Web of Science databases on March 2018, using specific descriptors for the research, in order to evaluate descriptively the following question: "Children's medicines for continuous use may cause erosion on the surface of deciduous teeth?". We found 278 articles in the PubMed database and 41 in the Web of Science database, of which 18 articles were matched, so 301 titles and abstracts were read and analyzed. Of these, 293 were excluded. Thus, 8 articles were selected for the critical analysis. Results: Liquid medications of continuous use, generally used for the treatment of chronic conditions in children, promoted erosive effect on dental structure, especially when related to pH and titratable acidity of the drugs in in vitro studies. Conclusion:It is necessary to carry out clinical studies for a more adequate evaluation of the erosive effect of children's medicines on the surface of deciduous teeth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Tooth, Deciduous , Tooth Erosion , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Child , Administration, Oral , Tooth Demineralization , Dental Care for Children , Drug Utilization
14.
Rev. CEFAC ; 21(4): e0119, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041112

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the difficulty in swallowing medications and correlate it with age and gender in healthy adults and elderly. Methods: a total of 439 asymptomatic healthy volunteers (270 females and 169 males), who were not taking any medication on a regular basis, aged from 20 to 84 years, were questioned as for dysphagia, by using the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10). Question number five of the EAT-10, specifically, approached the difficulty in swallowing drugs, considering zero as "no swallowing problem" and 1 to 4 as "some degree of difficulty" (4 as great difficulty).The chi-square test (x2) was used for the statistical analysis. Results: a total of 365 (83%) volunteers reported having no difficulty in swallowing medications (89% of men and 80% of women), whereas 74 (17%) reported some degree of difficulty (11% of men and 20% of women)(p = 0.01). These represented 20% of those aged between 20 and 49, and 9% of those aged 50 and over (p = 0.02). Conclusion: in this study, it was observed that both age and gender influence on medication swallowing, a difficulty more frequent among women and young adults. Some degree of difficulty was reported by 17% of the volunteers.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar dificuldade de deglutição de medicamentos e a relacionar com idade e gênero de adultos e idosos saudáveis. Métodos: por meio do instrumento EAT-10, traduzido para o português, foram avaliados, quanto à ocorrência de disfagia,439 voluntários (270 mulheres e 169 homens) com idades entre 20 e 84 anos sem doenças, sem sintomas, e que não ingeriam medicamentos regularmente. A questão de número cinco do EAT-10, especificamente, questionou sobre a dificuldade de deglutição de medicamentos, considerando zero como ausência de dificuldade e 1 a 4 como algum grau de dificuldade (4 como dificuldade intensa). Para análise estatística foi utilizado o teste qui-quadrado (x(2)). Resultados: trezentos e sessenta e cinco (83%) voluntários referiram não apresentar dificuldades para ingerir medicamentos (89% dos homens e 80% das mulheres),e 74 (17%) relataram algum grau de dificuldade,11% dos homens e 20% das mulheres (p=0,01), 20% daqueles com idades entre 20 e 49 anos e 9% daqueles com idades iguais ou acima de 50 anos (p=0,02). Conclusão: neste trabalho foi observado que idade e gênero têm influência na dificuldade de deglutição de medicamentos, a qual é mais freqüente em mulheres e nos adultos jovens. Algum grau de dificuldade foi referido por 17% dos voluntários.

15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1029-1040, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771825

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the optimal administration frequency for interferon-α (IFN-α) and the effect of its combined use with inactive virus on chicken flocks, the prokaryotic expression plasmid pET-22b-ChIFN-α was constructed and transferred into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) host bacteria to induce the expression of chicken IFN-α and to harvest recombinant proteins inclusion bodies. The expression of recombinant chicken IFN-α was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, and the results demonstrated that the chicken IFN-α (20 kDa) was highly expressed using the prokaryotic expression vector with a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL in the medium. Chicken IFN-α was diluted to 2.5×10⁴ U/fowls and administered to immunized specific-pathogen-free chickens orally in combination with inactivated H9N2 subtype influenza virus. Chicken that received chicken IFN-α were safe after three repeated immunizations (96 h). In addition, chicken IFN-α could induce higher levels of antiviral-related inducible genes in peripheral blood, spleen, and thymus of chicken flocks. The results of a challenge assay revealed that the lowest detoxification rates of chicken IFN-α ranged from three to five days, suggesting a higher capacity to resist H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus. The present study obtained the optimal immune frequency and immunization period for chicken IFN-α to provide theoretical support for the optimal clinical application of IFN-α.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Administration, Oral , Chickens , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Interferon-alpha , Virus Replication
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1736-1749, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771757

ABSTRACT

The development of orally administrated heparin drugs requires a systematic understanding of the interaction between heparin and gut flora. The in vivo distribution of fluorescein-labeled heparin that is orally administrated by mice was observed using fluorescein microscopy. In addition, the stability of heparin in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, as well as the in vitro degradation of heparin by gut flora were detected by HPLC. The results show that orally administrated heparin was mainly distributed in the gastrointestinal tract of mice, and exerted structural stability under the condition of simulated gastric and intestinal fluids in vitro. However, heparin could be degraded by intestinal flora cultured in medium containing heparin. In order to further study the effect of orally administrated heparin on intestinal flora in mice, the fecal microbiota 16S rRNA fragment of C57BL/6J mice was tested by the Illumina Mi-Seq high-throughput sequencing technology. Compared with the gut flora of mice that orally administrated by saline, the biodiversity of gut flora in mice with orally administrated heparin was decreased. The difference of microflora structure was not significant at the phylum level, and the relative abundance of Alistipes, Parasutterella and Akkermansia was increased at the genus level, and the relative abundance of Bilophila, Enterorhabdus, Ruminiclostridium, Prevotellaceae_UCG_001, Ruminiclostridium-9, Bacteroides, Lachnoclostridium, Candidatus, Saccharimonas, Intestinimonas and Dubosiella was reduced. These findings indicate that heparin could influence the gut flora of mice. In addition, no obvious toxic and side effects were found in mice that orally administrated heparin, suggesting the safety of orally administrated heparin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Heparin , Mice, Inbred C57BL , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
17.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 403-408, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816897

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the literature quality of systematic reviews/Meta-analysis of oral administration of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) using radar plot, and to provide scientific and effective evidence for clinical use of medicine. METHODS: Retrieving CNKI, VIP, Wanfang database, CBM, PubMed, Cochrane library and Embase during the establishement of database to Oct. 1st, 2018, the literatures about systematic reviews/Meta-analysis of oral administration of TCM in the treatment of LDH were collected. After data extraction of literatures met inclusion criteria, the quality literatures were evaluated from 6 aspects of radar plot (year of publication, design type, AMSTAR methodological quality evaluation, PRISMA reprot quality evaluation, homogeneous, publication bias risk). The average score of rank number was calculated. Moreover, Excel 2010, Adobe Illustrator CC and other software were used to draw and optimize the radar plot. RESULTS: A total of 6 qualified literatures were included; average score of rank number of 6 aspects were 3.83, 4.67, 3.83, 3.67, 6.00, 4.67, scoring 4.56 in average. Multivariate evaluation of radar plot showed that 2 studies had higher qualities and only 1 study had lower qualities relatively. However, problems could be found such as information selection bias, inclusion and exclusion criteria, publication situation, limitations, project registration. CONCLUSIONS: The literature quality of systematic review/Meta-analysis of oral administration of TCM in the treatment of LDH need to be improved, starting with strengthening methodological quality and reporting quality. Radar plot is a visual and effective method of graphic evaluation, which is worth popularizing and applying in the future.

18.
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs ; (24): 4020-4030, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-850871

ABSTRACT

Paclitaxel (PTX) is a complex secondary metabolite isolated from Taxus brevifolia, which widely used as chemotherapentic agent with a broad spectrum of actinity against cancer in the world. Its water solubility was poor and oral bioavailability was low. Cremophor-EL was used in traditional PTX injections to improve the solubility of PTX, and resulted in several adverse side effects such as severe hypersensitivity. Pre-desensitization treatment was needed before clinical use. Recently, a variety of non-injection drug delivery systems (DDS) of PTX have been developed. In this paper, the research progress of non-parenteral PTX was reviewed, including oral administration systems, vaginal administration systems, transdermal DDS, implantable DDS, transdermal DDS, intranasal administration and inhalation DDS, so as to provide references for future study and clinical applications.

19.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 23(3): 6838-6849, Sep.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977048

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. The aim of present investigation was to assess the immunostimulatory activity of herb extracts from Allium sativum, Aloe arborescens and germanium oxide. Materials and methods. Quails were immunized three times orally with bovine serum albumin (BSA) in combination with the crude plant extracts and the inorganic substance which was indicated above. BSA-specific IgA antibodies in saliva and IgY antibodies in egg yolk were tested by ELISA. Results. It was discovered that the birds treated with BSA in combination with either Allium sativum or Aloe arborescens extracts or germanium oxide had higher titers of BSA-specific IgA antibodies in the saliva at the 42 day of monitoring, while the quails administered with BSA and Allium sativum or Aloe arborescens extracts or germanium oxide demonstrated higher levels of BSA-specific IgY antibodies in the egg yolk at the end of observation. Furthermore, the birds immunised with BSA alone had significantly lower immune responses to BSA than quails immunised with BSA supplemented with the herb extracts and germanium oxide. Conclusions. These data suggest that medicinal plant extracts and germanium oxide can be applied as oral adjuvants or as immunomodulators for quails.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad inmunoestimulante de extractos de hierbas de Allium sativum, Aloe arborescens y óxido de germanio. Materiales y métodos. Las codornices se inmunizaron tres veces por vía oral con albúmina de suero bovino (BSA) en combinación con los extractos vegetales crudos y la sustancia inorgánica antes indicada. Los anticuerpos IgA específicos de la BSA en la saliva y los anticuerpos IgY en la yema de huevo se analizaron mediante ELISA. Resultados. Se encontró que las aves tratadas con BSA en combinación con extractos de Allium sativum o Aloe arborescens o con óxido de germanio tenían títulos más altos de anticuerpos IgA específicos de BSA en la saliva a los 42 días de seguimiento, mientras que las codornices administradas con BSA y Allium sativum o extractos de Aloe arborescens u óxido de germanio demostraron niveles más altos de anticuerpos IgY específicos de BSA en la yema de huevo al final de la observación. Además, las aves inmunizadas sólo con BSA tuvieron respuestas inmunitarias significativamente más bajas a la BSA que las codornices inmunizadas con BSA complementadas con extractos de hierbas y óxido de germanio. Conclusiones. Estos datos sugieren que los extractos de plantas medicinales y el óxido de germanio pueden aplicarse como adyuvantes orales o como inmunomoduladores para las codornices.


Subject(s)
Animals , Quail , Immunization , Coturnix
20.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(supl.3): 1388-1394, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-958729

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the preparation and administration of oral medications to institutionalized children by nursing professionals. Method: quantitative study, developed from August to September 2016, in a shelter in Fortaleza, Ceará. 323 observations of preparation and administration of oral drugs were carried out. Interview and non-participant direct observation of the process of drug administration were performed, whose data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. Results: Of the 29 actions of preparation and administration of the drugs, ten were considered satisfactory. Sanitizing of hands before touching the pills occurred in only 5.2% of the observations and cleansing of the bottle for liquid drugs was performed in 23.8%. The actions "check the right child"; "checking medication with the prescription", and "check the right dose" obtained percentages below 15%. Conclusion: measures recommended by the literature for the administration of medication were not, in their clear majority, followed, making specific training and protocols necessary.


RESUMEN Objetivo: evaluar el preparo y la administración de medicinas orales por profesionales de enfermería a niños institucionalizados. Método: estudio cuantitativo desarrollado en agosto y septiembre de 2016, en un refugio de niños de Fortaleza, Ceará. Fueron realizadas 323 observaciones del preparo y de la administración de medicinas. Se realizaron encuesta y observación directa en el participante del proceso de administración de las medicinas, cuyos datos fueron evaluados por la estadística descriptiva. Resultados: de entre las 29 acciones del preparo y de la administración de las medicinas, diez fueron consideradas satisfactorias. La higienización de las manos antes de manosear las pastillas ocurrió en el 5,2% de las observaciones y la limpieza de los frascos de medicinas se dio en el 23,8%. Las acciones "verificar el niño bien"; "verificar la medicina con la prescripción" y "certificar la dosis correcta" obtuvieron porcentuales inferiores al 15%. Conclusión: medidas recomendadas por la literatura para administración de medicinas no fueron, en su gran parte, adoptadas, convirtiéndose necesarias las capacitaciones y los protocolos específicos.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar o preparo e a administração de medicamentos orais por profissionais de enfermagem a crianças institucionalizadas. Método: estudo quantitativo desenvolvido em agosto e setembro de 2016, em um abrigo de Fortaleza, Ceará. Foram realizadas 323 observações do preparo e da administração de medicamentos. Realizaram-se entrevista e observação direta não participante do processo de administração dos medicamentos, cujos dados foram avaliados pela estatística descritiva. Resultados: dentre as 29 ações do preparo e da administração dos medicamentos, dez foram consideradas satisfatórias. A higienização das mãos antes de tocar em comprimidos ocorreu em 5,2% das observações e a limpeza dos frascos de medicamentos deu-se em 23,8%. As ações "conferir a criança certa"; "conferir o medicamento com a prescrição" e "verificar a dose certa" obtiveram percentuais inferiores a 15%. Conclusão: medidas recomendadas pela literatura para administração de medicamentos não foram, em maioria, adotadas, tornando-se necessários treinamentos e protocolos específicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , Child, Institutionalized , Administration, Oral , Drug Compounding/standards , Brazil , Interviews as Topic/methods , Drug Compounding/methods , Medication Errors/nursing , Middle Aged
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