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J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-8, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411263


Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy on glycerol-induced renal changes in rats. Methods: Twenty-four female Wistar rats were submitted to ovariectomized (OVX) or sham surgery. One week after surgery, the animals received an intramuscular injection (8ml/kg) of 50% glycerol or saline (0.15 M) solution. These animals were divided into the following groups (n=6 per group): Sham, sham-operated female rats injected with saline; OVX, ovariectomized female rats injected with saline; Sham+Gly, sham-operated female rats injected with glycerol; OVX+Gly, ovariectomized female rats injected with glycerol. All rats were euthanized 3 days after the injections and the kidneys were removed for histological and immunohistochemical studies. Blood and urine samples were also collected for renal function studies. Results: The OVX+Gly group presented higher creatinine serum levels, as well as greater fractional excretion of sodium and urinary flow than the Sham+Gly group. Histological lesions and tubulointerstitial staining for macrophages, nuclear factor-kappa B, and nitrotyrosine were more pronounced in the renal cortex of the OVX+Gly group compared to the Sham+Gly group. Conclusion: We conclude that ovariectomy aggravated changes in renal function and structure in glycerol-induced acute kidney injury by the intensification of the proinflammatory tissue response.

Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da ovariectomia nas alterações renais induzidas pelo glicerol em ratas. Métodos: Vinte e quatro ratas Wistar foram submetidas à ovariectomia (OVX) ou cirurgia sham (intervenção falsa). Uma semana após a cirurgia, os animais receberam injeção intramuscular (8ml/kg) de glicerol a 50% ou solução salina (0,15 M). As ratas foram divididas nos seguintes grupos (n=6 por grupo): Sham, fêmeas sham-operadas e injetadas com solução salina; OVX, fêmeas ovariectomizadas e injetadas com solução salina; Sham+Gly, fêmeas sham-operadas e injetados com glicerol; OVX+Gly, fêmeas ovariectomizadas e injetadas com glicerol. Todas as ratas foram eutanasiadas 3 dias após as injeções e os rins foram removidos para estudos histológicos e imuno-histoquímicos. Amostras de sangue e urina também foram coletadas para estudos de função renal. Resultados: O grupo OVX+Gly apresentou maiores níveis séricos de creatinina, assim como maiores fração de excreção de sódio e fluxo urinário do que o grupo Sham+Gly. As lesões histológicas e imunomarcação tubulointersticial para macrófagos, fator nuclear-kappa B e nitrotirosina foram mais pronunciadas no córtex renal do grupo OVX+Gly em comparação ao grupo Sham+Gly. Conclusão: Concluímos que a ovariectomia agravou as alterações na função e estrutura renal, na lesão renal aguda induzida por glicerol, pela intensificação da resposta tecidual pró-inflamatória.

Ovariectomy , Rhabdomyolysis , Acute Kidney Injury , Glycerol , Inflammation , Kidney
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 832-838, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385655


RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio fue establecer la influencia de diferentes materiales en el proceso de regeneración ósea de alveolos post exodoncia de ratas hembra adultas ovariectomizadas (OVX). Para ello, se utilizaron 40 ratas sprague dawley, divididas en grupo experimental (OVX) (n=20) y grupo control (Sin ovariectomía) (n=20). Todas las ratas del grupo experimental fueron sometidas a ovariectomía bilateral para simular un estado de osteoporosis inducida por déficit de estrógeno. Posterior a 12 semanas post OVX, las ratas de ambos grupos fueron divididas en 4 subgrupos, en los cuales fue extraído el primer molar superior derecho de cada rata. Posteriormente, las terapias realizadas en los alveolos post-exodoncia fueron: A: (N=5) Alveolo no rellenado para ser utilizado como control negativo. B: (N=5) Aplicación de injerto bifásico (HA+BTCP). C: (N=5) Aplicación de PRF. D: Aplicación de una combinación de injerto bifásico + PRF. Luego de tres semanas se realizó la eutanasia de los animales y obtención de las muestras para los análisis respectivos. Todos los animales sobrevivieron al final del estudio sin ninguna complicación postoperatoria. Los resultados cuantitativos del área ósea interradicular del segundo molar superior, mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre grupo control y grupo OVX. Mientras que no se observaron diferencias en la descripción histológica ni en el análisis cuantitativo de fibras colágenas tipo I y III. Es posible concluir que el modelo de osteoporosis inducida por déficit de estrógeno modificaría también la microarquitectura ósea de la Maxila. No obstante, nuevos estudios son necesarios para continuar con el estudio de biomateriales para regeneración ósea en modelos de osteoporosis inducida.

SUMMARY: The aim of the present study was to establish the influence of different materials on the process of bone regeneration in post-extraction sockets of ovariectomized (OVX) adult female rats. For this, 40 Sprague Dawley rats were used, divided into an experimental group (OVX) (n=20) and a control group (without ovariectomy) (n=20). All rats in the experimental group underwent bilateral ovariectomy to simulate a state of estrogen deficiency osteoporosis. After 12 weeks post OVX, rats from both groups were divided into 4 subgroups, in which the upper right first molar of each rat was extracted. Subsequently, the therapies performed in the post-extraction sockets were A: (N=5) Unfilled alveolus to be used as a negative control. B: (N=5) Biphasic graft application (HA+BTCP). C: (N=5) PRF application. D: Application of a combination of biphasic graft + PRF. After three weeks, the animals were euthanized, and the samples were obtained for the respective analyses. All animals survived to the end of the study without any postoperative complications. The quantitative results of the interradicular bone area of ??the upper second molar showed significant differences between the control group and the OVX group. While no differences were observed in the histological description or in the quantitative analysis of collagen fibers type I and III. It is possible to conclude that the model of osteoporosis induced by estrogen deficiency would modify the bone microarchitecture of the Maxilla. However, new studies are necessary to continue with the study of biomaterials for bone regeneration in models of induced osteoporosis.

Animals , Female , Rats , Osteoporosis/therapy , Bone Regeneration , Ovariectomy , Bone Transplantation , Tooth Extraction , Biocompatible Materials , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932293


Objective:To study the protective effect of alendronate combined with Lactobacillus rhamnosus on bone loss in ovariectomized mice.Methods:Fifty female C57BL/6 mice were divided into 5 equal groups ( n=10). Ovariotomy was performed in groups A, B, C and D while a sham operation was performed in group E. Group A was subjected to combined administration of alendronate and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, group B to administration of alendronate, group C to administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and groups D and E to administration of physiological saline only. At 3 months after operation, all the mice were sacrificed to harvest their femurs. Micro CT scanning was performed to detect the bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular relative volume, bone surface area/bone volume, and trabecular thickness and number of trabecular bone. Three-point bending test was used to detect the maximum load, stiffness, ultimate load, Young's modulus, and fracture energy. Osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase levels were measured using blood samples from the mice eyeballs. The 2 groups were compared in terms of all the above indexes. Results:The BMD [(669.87±67.87) mg/cm 3], maximum load [(14.35±0.75) N] and fracture energy [(1,497.43±38.29) J/m 2] in group A were significantly higher than those in group B [(520.07±9.01) mg/cm 3, (11.94±0.82) N and(1,277.61±35.12) J/m 2] and group C [(388.15±25.61) mg/cm 3, (11.10±0.93) N and (1,115.27±63.24) J/m 2] (all P<0.05). The osteocalcin level in group A [(22.25±1.78) ng/mL] was significantly higher than that in group B [(19.08±1.45) ng/mL] and group D [(19.33±1.66) ng/mL] (both P<0.05). The alkaline phosphatase level in group A [(83.21±9.69) ng/mL] was significantly lower than that in group C [(113.16±14.44) ng/mL] and group D [(137.96±14.01) g/mL] (both P<0.05). Conclusion:Alendronate combined with Lactobacillus rhamnosus may play a synergistic role in prevention of bone loss in ovariectomized mice, because combined administration of the two is more effective than administration of either of the two.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942346


ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of Jiawei Bazhen Yimu capsule on serum sex hormones, sexual organs and estrogen signaling pathway in female rats with premature ovarian failure. MethodThe key target proteins of Jiawei Bazhen Yimu capsule in the treatment of premature ovarian failure were screened out by network pharmacology analysis. Female healthy SD rats were selected, and the rat model of premature ovarian failure was established by ovariectomy. Fifty ovariectomized rats were randomly divided into a model group, an estradiol (E2) valerate group, and Jiawei Bazhen Yimu capsule low, medium, and high-dose groups. Another 10 healthy female rats were set as a sham operation group. The sham operation group and the model group were given distilled water by gavage, and other administration groups were given corresponding doses of drugs by gavage. After 21 d, the serum hormone levels of female rats were measured, including E2, progesterone (P), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). Immunofluorescence staining (IF) was used to detect the protein expression levels of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), estrogen metabolism P4503A4 enzyme (CYP3A4), and P45019A1 enzyme (CYP19A1) in the uterine tissues of female rats. ResultAs compared with the model group, the serum E2 and P levels of female rats in the Jiawei Bazhen Yimu capsule low, medium, and high-dose groups were significantly increased. Jiawei Bazhen Yimu capsule improved the endometrial status of female rats and increased positive expression of ESR1, CYP3A4, and CYP19A1 in the uterine tissues of female rats (P<0.05). ConclusionThe mechanism of Jiawei Bazhenyimu capsule in the treatment of premature ovarian failure may be related to its hormone-like effect and activation of the estrogen signaling pathway.

Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19254, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374532


Abstract Ischemic postconditioning (IPTC) brings cardioprotection endogenously, Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) produces the same effect. It happens due to down expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Thus, experimental protocol associating IPTC has been formulated to find the role of ANP in the cardioprotection of heart in OVX rats. For this experiment, heart was isolated from OVX rat and held tightly on Langendorff's apparatus in a manner that ischemia of 30 min and reperfusion of 120 min were also given. Simultaneously, IPTC with four cycles of 5 min ischemia and 5 min reperfusion of each was applied. Parameters like size of myocardial infarct, levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and release of creatine kinase- MB (CK-MB) in coronary effluent were noted after each stage of experiment for ensuring the extent of myocardial injury. Some significant changes were also seen in the histopathology of cardiovascular tissues. The cardio-protection has been made by four cycles of IPTC. It was confirmed by decline in the size of myocardial infarct. It diminishes the release of LDH and CK-MB in heart of OVX rat. Thus, IPTC induces cardio-protection in the isolated heart from OVX rat. Perfusion of ANP associating with IPTC favors the cardioprotection which is further confirmed by rise in the NO release and heart rate. The level of myocardial damage changes using IPTC, IPTC+OVX, IPTC+OVX+ANP, IPTC+ OVX+ANP+L-NAME and other groups were observed significantly and were found to be less than those in I/R control group. Thus, it is recommended that ANP involving IPTC restores attenuated cardio-protection in OVX rat heart. Therefore, Post-conditioning is useful in various clinical aspects.

Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19224, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383989


Abstract Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death in postmenopausal women. The activity of heart ACE increases whereas the activity of ACE-2 decreases after menopause. The present study was designed to investigate the role of ACE and ACE-2 in the abrogated cardioprotective effect of IPC in OVX rat heart. The heart was isolated from OVX rat and mounted on Langendorff's apparatus for giving intermittent cycles of IPC. The infarct size was estimated using TTC stain, and coronary effluent was analyzed for LDH, CK-MB, and nitrite release. IPC induced cardioprotection was significantly attenuated in the ovariectomized rat heart as compared to the normal rat heart. However, this attenuated cardioprotection was significantly restored by perfusion of DIZE, an ACE-2 activator, and captopril, an ACE inhibitor, alone or in combination noted in terms of decrease in myocardial infarct size, the release of LDH and CK-MB, and also increase in the release of NO as compared to untreated OVX rat heart. Thus, it is suggested that DIZE and captopril, alone or in combination restore the attenuated cardioprotective effect of IPC in OVX rat heart which is due to an increase in ACE-2 activity and decrease in ACE activity after treatment.

Animals , Female , Rats , Ovariectomy/classification , Myocardial Ischemia , Heart/physiopathology , Infarction/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Women , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Captopril/pharmacology
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): e149-e152, abril 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1152046


Los tumores ováricos, a diferencia de lo que sucede en la edad adulta, son infrecuentes en la población pediátrica. Predomina la estirpe germinal, con altas tasas de supervivencia. El objetivo de este estudio es presentar la epidemiología, clínica, diagnóstico y tratamiento de las pacientes de 0-15 años con diagnóstico, entre 2007 y 2017, de tumor ovárico en nuestro centro. Fueron 8 los casos encontrados de 171 tumores diagnosticados (el 4,7 %), con edad media de presentación de 12,5 años. Predominaban, al momento del debut, alteraciones menstruales, dolor abdominal y aumento de perímetro abdominal. Fueron de tipo germinal 6/8, y el teratoma maduro fue el más frecuente. Todas se diagnosticaron con ecografía abdominal, y se confirmó el diagnóstico en 7/8 con resonancia magnética. Se intervinieron todos los casos; predominó la salpingo-ooforectomía, y una paciente precisó quimioterapia adyuvante. La supervivencia libre de enfermedad fue del 100 %.

Unlike adults, ovarian tumors are infrequent in the pediatric population, predominating the germ line at this age, with high survival rates. The objective is to present the epidemiological, clinical, diagnosis and therapeutic characteristics of 0 to 15-year-old patients diagnosed with ovarian tumor in our center between 2007 and 2017.Eight cases out of 171 diagnosed tumors (4.7 %) were found, with a mean age of presentation of 12.5 years. At the moment of diagnosis, menstrual disturbances, abdominal pain and an increase in abdominal circumference predominated. Six out of eight were germ cell tumors, being the mature teratoma the most frequent one. All cases were diagnosed with abdominal ultrasound scan, confirmed in 7/8 cases with magnetic resonance imaging. All cases underwent surgery, predominating salpingo-oophorectomy with one patient requiring adjuvant chemotherapy. Disease-free survival was 100 %.

Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Ovarian Neoplasms/surgery , Biomarkers, Tumor , Retrospective Studies , Salpingo-oophorectomy
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1)feb. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385324


RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar un análisis histopatológico de un modelo animal en ratas, que simule las características observables en huesos de pacientes con osteoporosis. Para ello, se utilizaron 10 ratas hembras (Rattus norvegicus) Sprague Dawley de 12 semanas de desarrollo y aproximadamente 200-250 g. De las cuales, a 5 se le realizó ovariectomía (OVX) bilateral, mientras que las 5 restantes fueron utilizadas como control. Posterior a 12 semanas de realizadas las ovariectomías en el grupo experimental, se realizó la eutanasia de los animales y la obtención de ambos fémur, los cuales fueron posteriormente seccionados para procesar su porción distal para su procesamiento histológico de rutina. Todos los animales sobrevivieron al final del estudio sin ninguna complicación postoperatoria, las imágenes histológicas evidenciaron en el grupo experimental (OVX), una disminución del grosor del hueso cortical, mayor cantidad de hueso esponjoso, pérdida de la continuidad de periostio y endostio alrededor de la matriz ósea además de mayor cantidad de tejido adiposo en la médula ósea, al ser comparados con el grupo control. Se puede concluir que a las 12 semanas post ovariectomía se observa un fenotipo histopatológico compatible con características oseteoporóticas en ratas adultas.

SUMMARY: The aim of the present study was to conduct a histopathological analysis of an animal model in rats, which simulates the characteristics observable in bones of patients with osteoporosis. To this end, 10 female rats (Rattus norvegicus) Sprague Dawley of 12 weeks of development and approximately 200-250 g were used. Of these, 5 underwent bilateral ovariectomy (OVX), whereas the remaining 5 were used as control. After 12 weeks of ovariectomy in the experimental group, the animals were euthanized and the two femurs were collected, which were then sectioned to process their distal portion. All the animals survived at the end of the study without any signs of postoperative complications. In the experimental group (OVX), the histological images showed a decrease in the thickness of the cortical bone, a greater amount of cancellous bone, loss of the continuity of the periosteum and endostium around the bone matrix in addition to a greater amount of adipose tissue in the bone marrow, when compared with the control group. It can therefore be inferred that a histopathological phenotype can be found at 12 weeks post- ovariectomy that would be consistent with osteoporotic characteristics in adult rats.

Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(1): 1-8, 2021-01-28. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362129


Background: Oxidative stress, genetic expression changes, and decomposition of the blood-brain barrier have been shown to be caused by exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR); therefore, the search for drugs or food products that offer some protection from these effects has attracted interest. Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a native Andean plant known for its effects on the female reproductive system as well as its immunomodulating, energizing, antioxidant, and nutritive properties due to its high concentration of alkaloids, amino acids, glucosinolates, fatty acids, and macamides. Objectives: We aim to determine the effect of dietary maca supplementation on spatial memory and cerebral oxidative damage in rats with induced menopause and/or with exposure to mobile phone radiation. Method:Female rats divided into 6 groups (six rats in each group): control or not ovariectomized (O-), ovariectomized (O+), ovariectomized + estrogen (O+E+), ovariectomized + estrogen + irradiated (O+E+I+), ovariectomized + maca (O+M+), and ovariectomized + maca + irradiated (O+M+I). Rat spatial memory was tested using the Morris water navigation task. Rats were sacrificed, and cerebral malondialdehyde was measured. Results: After exposure to mobile phone radiation, the group supplemented with maca showed improved spatial memory and lower levels of malondialdehyde than the estrogenized group. Conclusions: Our results suggest that consumption of maca has a positive effect on the maintenance of memory and decreases oxidative stress caused by mobile phone radiation. However, it is necessary to extend this work using a larger sample size

Antecedentes: El estrés oxidativo, los cambios en la expresión genética y la descomposición de la barrera hematoencefálica son causados por la exposición a la radiación de radiofrecuencia (RFR); por tanto, ha despertado interés la búsqueda de fármacos o productos alimenticios que ofrezcan alguna protección frente a estos efectos. Lepidium meyenii (maca) es una planta andina nativa conocida por sus efectos sobre el sistema reproductor femenino así como por sus propiedades inmunomoduladoras, energizantes, antioxidantes y nutritivas debido a su alta concentración de alcaloides, aminoácidos, glucosinolatos, ácidos grasos y macamidas. Objetivos: Determinar el efecto de la suplementación dietética con maca sobre la memoria espacial y el daño oxidativo cerebral en ratas con menopausia inducida y / o con exposición a la radiación de teléfonos móviles. Método: Ratas hembras divididas en 6 grupos (seis ratas en cada grupo): control o no ovariectomizadas (O-), ovariectomizadas (O +), ovariectomizadas + estrógeno (O + E +), ovariectomizadas + estrógeno + irradiadas (O + E + I +), ovariectomizado + maca (O + M +), y ovariectomizado + maca + irradiado (O + M + I). La memoria espacial de las ratas se probó utilizando la tarea de navegación acuática de Morris. Se sacrificaron ratas y se midió el malondialdehído cerebral. Resultados: Después de la exposición a la radiación del teléfono móvil, el grupo suplementado con maca mostró una memoria espacial mejorada y niveles más bajos de malondialdehído que el grupo estrogenizado. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados sugieren que el consumo de maca tiene un efecto positivo en el mantenimiento de la memoria y disminuye el estrés oxidativo causado por la radiación del teléfono móvil. Sin embargo, es necesario ampliar este trabajo utilizando un tamaño de muestra más grande

Humans , Oxidative Stress , Immunologic Factors
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18976, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345448


Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5Is) exert positive effects on bone healing and mineralization by activation the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein kinase-G (NO/cGMP/PKG) signaling pathway. In this study, the effects of zaprinast and avanafil, two PDE-5Is, on the NO signaling pathway, estrogen levels, selected bone formation and destruction marker levels, whole-body bone mineral density (WB-BMD), right femur trabecular bone thickness (RF-TBT) and epiphyseal bone width, angiogenesis in the bone-marrow, and selected oxidative stress parameter levels were investigated in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. Twenty four adult rats (8 months old) were equally divided into four groups. The first group was the sham operated group. Groups 2, 3 and 4 included ovariectomized rats. At six months after ovariectomy, the 3rd and 4th groups were administered 10 mg/kg zaprinast and avanafil daily as a single dose for 60 days, respectively. Increases in the activity of the NO/cGMP/PKG signalling-pathway, C-terminal collagen peptide levels, angiogenesis in the bone marrow, RF-TBT, epiphyseal bone width and WB-BMD were observed compared to the ovariectomized positive control group (OVX), while the pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline levels were decreased in the OVX+zaprinast and OVX+avanafil groups (p<0.05). The malondialdehyde, ubiquinone10/ubiquinol10 and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine/106deoxyguanosine levels were also increased in the ovariectomized groups compared to the sham group (p<0.05). Based on these results, the levels of bone atrophy and some markers of oxidative stress were increased due to acute estrogen deficiency induced by ovariectomy, but zaprinast and avanafil administration significantly prevented these changes

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Protein Kinases , Bone and Bones , Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5 , Osteoporosis/complications , Atrophy/prevention & control , Ovariectomy/classification , Bone Density/physiology , Single Dose/classification , Oxidative Stress
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(4): 332-338, 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349501


Introduction: Postmenopausal women are more susceptible to chronic conditions, such as osteoporosis, arthritis, and other inflammatory diseases. We investigated the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on biomarker levels in ovariectomized rats subjected to an inflammatory model. Methods: Twenty adult female Wistar rats underwent ovariectomy and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation. We divided them into 2 groups: OAS (sham tDCS) and OAT (active tDCS). Fifteen days later, the rats underwent bimodal tDCS treatment (20 min, 0.5 mA, 8 days). After 24 h of the last tDCS session, we killed the rats and collected tissue samples (hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, and brainstem) for biomarker analysis by ELISA. We removed the paws for histological analysis. Results: Active tDCS increased hypothalamic and cortical TNF-α and NGF levels, hypothalamic and brainstem IL-1ß levels, and hypothalamic IL-10 levels. Histology of paws showed an inflammatory profile. We observed a small tDCS effect, not statistically significant. Discussion: Bimodal tDCS had an effect on the central inflammatory axis, with a small effect on the peripheral site as evaluated by histology in the current study. (AU)

Animals , Female , Rats , Ovariectomy/adverse effects , Biomarkers , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation , Inflammation
Clinics ; 76: e3175, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339705


OBJECTIVES: In addition to the classic motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), patients also present with non-motor symptoms, such as autonomic dysfunction, which is present in almost 90% of patients with PD, affecting the quality of life and mortality. Regarding sex differences in prevalence and presentation, there is increasing concern about how sex affects autonomic dysfunction. However, there are no previous data on autonomic cardiac function in females after 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) striatal injection. METHODS: Wistar female rats were ovariectomized. After 20 days, the animals received bilateral injections of 6-OHDA (total dose per animal: 48 µg) or a vehicle solution in the striatum. Thirty days after 6-OHDA injection, subcutaneous electrodes were implanted for electrocardiogram (ECG) recording. Ten days after electrode implantation, ECG signals were recorded. Analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were performed, and the 6-OHDA lesion was confirmed by analyzing the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). RESULTS: A high dose of 6-OHDA did not affect HRV of females, independent of ovariectomy. As expected, ovariectomy did not affect HRV or lesions in the SNpc after 6-OHDA injection. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that females with 6-OHDA present with cardioprotection, independent of ovarian hormones, which could be related to female vagal predominance.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Quality of Life , Ovariectomy , Oxidopamine , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Rate
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880503


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanistic basis for the attenuation of bone degeneration by edible bird's nest (EBN) in ovariectomized rats.@*METHODS@#Forty-two female Sprage-Dawley rats were randomized into 7 groups (6 in each group). The ovariectomized (OVX) and OVX + 6%, 3%, and 1.5% EBN and OVX +estrogen groups were given standard rat chow alone, standard rat chow +6%, 3%, and 1.5% EBN, or standard rat chow +estrogen therapy (0.2mg/kg per day), respectively. The sham-operation group was surgically opened without removing the ovaries. The control group did not have any surgical intervention. After 12 weeks of intervention, blood samples were taken for serum estrogen, osteocalcin, and osteoprotegerin, as well as the measurement of magnesium, calcium abd zinc concentrations. While femurs were removed from the surrounding muscles to measure bone mass density using the X-ray edge detection technique, then collected for histology and estrogen receptor (ER) immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#Ovariectomy altered serum estrogen levels resulting in increased food intake and weight gain, while estrogen and EBN supplementation attenuated these changes. Ovariectomy also reduced bone ER expression and density, and the production of osteopcalcin and osteorotegerin, which are important pro-osteoplastic hormones that promote bone mineraliztion and density. Conversely, estrogen and EBN increased serum estrogen levels leading to increased bone ER expression, pro-osteoplastic hormone production and bone density (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EBN could be used as a safe alternative to hormone replacement therapys for managing menopausal complications like bone degeneration.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880494


OBJECTIVE@#To systematically evaluate the protective effects of Humulus lupulus L. extract (HLE) on osteoporosis mice.@*METHODS@#In vivo experiment, a total of 35 12-week-old female ICR mice were equally divided into 5 groups: the sham control group (sham); the ovariectomy with vehicle group (OVX); the OVX with estradiol valerate [EV, 0.2 mg/(kg•d)] the OVX with low- or high-dose HLE groups [HLE, 1 g/(kg•d) and 3 g/(kg•d)], 7 in each group. Treatment began 1 week after the ovariectomized surgery and lasted for 12 weeks. Bone mass and trabecular bone mircoarchitecture were evaluated by micro computed tomography, and bone turnover markers in serum were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. In vitro experiment, osteoblasts and osteoclasts were treated with HLE at doses of 0, 4, 20 and 100 µg/mL. Biomarkers for bone formation in osteoblasts and bone resorption in osteoclasts were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the OVX group, HLE exerted bone protective effects by the increase of estradiol (P<0.05), the improvement of cancellous bone structure, bone mineral density (P<0.01) and the reduction of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), bone gla-protein, c-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-I) and deoxypyridinoline levels (P<0.01 for all). In vitro experiment, compared with the control group, HLE at 20 µg/mL promoted the cell proliferation (P<0.01), and increased the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin levels in osteoblasts (both P<0.05). HLE at 100 µg/mL increased the osteoblastic ALP activities, and HLE at all dose enhanced the extracellular matrix mineralization (both P<0.01). Furthermore, compared with the control group, HLE at 20 µg/mL and 100 µg/mL inhibited osteoclastic TRAP activity (P<0.01), and reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cathepsin K (both P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#HLE may protect against bone loss, and have potentials in the treatment of osteoporosis.

Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(6): 534-544, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153494


ABSTRACT Objective: Staphylococcus aureus infections remain associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in both hospitals and the community. There is little information regarding the role of ovarian hormones in infections caused by S. aureus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in the immune response induced by S. aureus. Methods: Female mice BALB/c were ovariectomized (OVX) to significantly reduce the level of ovarian hormones. We also used sham-operated animals. The mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with S. aureus. Blood samples were collected for leukocyte count and bacterial quantification. The uterus and spleen were removed and weighed to calculate the uterine and splenic indexes. Lungs were removed and fractionated for immunohistochemical analysis for macrophage detection (anti-CD68) and relative gene expression of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α by RT-PCR. Results: Ovariectomy enlarged spleen size and generally increased circulating lymphocytes. OVX females experienced a continuation of the initial reduction of lymphocytes and a monocyte and neutrophil late response compared to shams (p ≥ 0.05). Moreover, OVX females showed neutropenia after 168 h of infection (p ≥ 0.05). Macrophage response in the lungs were less pronounced in OVX females in the initial hours of infection (p ≥ 0.01). OVX females showed a higher relative gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the lung at the beginning of the infection compared to sham females (p ≥ 0.01). Among the uninfected females, the OVX control females showed a higher expression of IL-6 in the lung compared to the sham control females (p ≥ 0.05). In this model, the lack of ovarian hormones caused a minor increase in circulating leukocytes during the initial stage of infection by S. aureus and increased pulmonary gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Ovariectomy alone enlarged the spleen and increased circulating lymphocytes. Ovarian hormones acted as immunoprotectors against S. aureus infection.

Braz. dent. j ; 31(6): 640-649, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132358


Abstract The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of lithium chloride (LiCl) on the socket healing of estrogen-deficient rats. Seventy-two rats were allocated into one of the following groups: Control, Ovariectomy and LiCl (150 mg/kg/2 every other day orally) + Ovariectomy. Animals received LiCl or water from the 14th day post-ovariectomy, until the completion of the experiment. On the 21st day after ovariectomy, the first molars were extracted. Rats were euthanized on the 10th, 20th and 30th days following extractions. Bone healing (BH), TRAP positive cells and immunohistochemical staining for OPG, RANKL, BSP, OPN and OCN were evaluated. The Ovariectomy group presented decreased BH compared to the LiCl group at 10 days, and the lowest BH at 20 days (p<0.05). At 30 days, the Ovariectomy and LiCl-groups presented lower BH than that of the Control (p<0.05). The number of TRAP-stained cells was the lowest in the LiCl group at 20 days and the highest in the Ovariectomy group at 30 days (p<0.05). At 10 days of healing, the LiCl group demonstrated stronger staining for all bone markers when compared to the other groups, while the Ovariectomy group presented higher RANKL expression than that of the Control (p<0.05). LiCl enhanced bone healing in rats with estrogen deficiency, particularly in the initial healing phases. However, as data on the effects of lithium chloride on bone tissue are still preliminary, more studies related to its toxicity and protocol of administration are necessary before its application in clinical practice.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do Cloreto de Lítio (ClLi) na cicatrização de alvéolos de ratas deficientes em estrogênio. Setenta e duas ratas foram alocadas em um dos seguintes grupos: Controle, Ovariectomia e Cloreto de Lítio (150mg/kg/ oralmente a cada 2 dias) + ovarectomia. Os animais receberam ClLi ou água a partir do 14º dia pós-ovariectomia, até a conclusão do experimento. No 21º dia após a ovariectomia, os primeiros molares foram extraídos. As ratas foram sacrificadas nos dias 10, 20 e 30 após extrações. Foram avaliadas a cicatrização óssea (BH), células positivas para TRAP e coloração imuno-histoquímica para OPG, RANKL, BSP, OPN e OCN. O grupo Ovariectomia apresentou BH diminuída em comparação ao grupo LiCl aos 10 dias e a menor BH aos 20 dias (p<0,05). Aos 30 dias, os grupos Ovariectomia e LiCl apresentaram menor BH do que o Controle (p<0,05). O número de células positivas para TRAP foi menor no grupo ClLi em 20 dias e o maior no grupo Ovariectomia em 30 dias (p<0,05). Aos 10 dias de cicatrização, o grupo ClLi demonstrou imunomarcação mais intensa em todos os marcadores testados quando comparado aos outros grupos, enquanto o grupo Ovariectomia apresentou maior expressão de RANKL do que a do controle (p<0,05). O ClLi melhorou a cicatrização óssea em ratos com deficiência de estrogênio, particularmente nas fases iniciais do reparo. No entanto, como os dados sobre os efeitos do cloreto de lítio no tecido ósseo ainda são preliminares, mais estudos relacionados à sua toxicidade e protocolo de administração são necessários antes de sua aplicação na prática clínica.

Humans , Animals , Female , Rats , Tooth Extraction , Lithium Chloride , Wound Healing , Ovariectomy , Rats, Wistar , Tooth Socket , Estrogens
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(8): 1134-1138, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136337


SUMMARY Women with mutations in the BRCA 1 and 2 genes are at increased risk for ovarian and breast cancer and therefore candidates for risk-reducing surgery, including salpingo-oophorectomy and mastectomy. Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) is considered the most effective prophylactic measure for ovarian cancer prevention in this group of patients. This procedure involves loss of ovarian function and induced menopause. Estrogen therapy is the most effective treatment for controlling vasomotor symptoms and improving the quality of life of climacteric women. However, the potential hormonal stimulation of these tumors and the risk of breast cancer are a concern regarding the safety of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in this population. This article aims to review the current evidence regarding the potential benefits and safety of HRT after RRSO.

RESUMO Mulheres portadoras de mutações nos genes BRCA 1 e 2 possuem risco aumentado para cânceres de ovário e mama e, portanto, são candidatas às cirurgias redutoras de risco, incluindo a salpingo-ooforectomia e a mastectomia. A salpingo-ooforectomia redutora de risco (SORR) é considerada a medida profilática mais efetiva para prevenção do câncer de ovário nesse grupo de pacientes. Esse procedimento implica a perda da função ovariana e menopausa induzida. A estrogenioterapia é o tratamento mais efetivo para o controle de sintomas vasomotores e melhora da qualidade de vida de mulheres no climatério. No entanto, a potencial estimulação hormonal desses tumores e o risco de câncer de mama constituem uma preocupação com a segurança da terapia hormonal (TH) nesta população. Este artigo tem como objetivo uma revisão das evidências atuais quanto aos benefícios potenciais e segurança da TH após SORR.

Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Ovarian Neoplasms , Quality of Life , Ovariectomy , Risk Factors , BRCA1 Protein , BRCA2 Protein , Salpingo-oophorectomy , Mastectomy , Mutation
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 129-134, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056410


Menopause complications such as cardiovascular and bone diseases represent a major public health concern. We sought to determine whether a high-fat diet (HFD) can augment ovariectomy-induced bone resorption in a rat model of menopause possibly via the upregulation of the inflammatory biomarkers and dyslipidemia. Rats were either ovariectomized and fed a standard laboratory chow (model group) or were ovariectomized and fed with a HFD for 15 weeks before being sacrificed. Ovariectomy significantly (p<0.05) increased body weight, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and biomarker of bone resorption, nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), which were augmented by feeding animals with a HFD. This was confirmed through immunohistochemical study, where ovariectomy induced expression of p65/NF-kB protein in tibia bone sections of the model group, which were augmented by HFD. HFD augments ovariectomy-induced bone resorption through increased inflammatory biomarkers and NF-kB in rats.

Las complicaciones de la menopausia, como las enfermedades cardiovasculares y óseas, representan un importante problema de salud pública. Intentamos determinar si una dieta alta en grasas (HFD) puede aumentar la resorción ósea inducida por ovariectomía en un modelo de menopausia en ratas, a través de la regulación positiva de los biomarcadores inflamatorios y la dislipidemia. Las ratas fueron ovariectomizadas y alimentadas con una comida estándar de laboratorio (grupo modelo) o fueron ovariectomizadas y alimentadas con un HFD durante 15 semanas antes de ser sacrificadas. La ovariectomía aumentó significativamente (p <0,05) el peso corporal, dislipidemia, resistencia a la insulina, citocinas proinflamatorias, factor de necrosis tumoral a (TNF-α) e interleucina-6 (IL-6), y el biomarcador de resorción ósea, factor nuclear-kB (NF-kB), que se aumentaron alimentando animales con un HFD. Esto se confirmó a través del estudio inmunohistoquímico, donde la ovariectomía indujo la expresión de la proteína p65 / NF-kB en secciones de hueso de tibia del grupo modelo, que fueron aumentadas por HFD. HFD aumenta la resorción ósea inducida por ovariectomía a través del aumento de biomarcadores inflamatorios y NF-kB en ratas.

Animals , Female , Rats , Bone Resorption/pathology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Triglycerides/analysis , Bone Resorption/etiology , Insulin Resistance , Menopause , Ovariectomy/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Dyslipidemias/complications
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(2): 174-179, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136174


SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Although estrogen therapy is widely used against post-menopausal symptoms, it can present adverse effects, including endometrial cancer. Soy isoflavones are considered a possible alternative to estrogen therapy. However, there are still concerns whether isoflavones exert trophic effects on the uterine cervix. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in the uterine cervix of ovariectomized rats treated with soy isoflavones (Iso). METHODS Fifteen adult Wistar rats were ovariectomized (Ovx) and divided into three groups: Group I (Ovx), administered with vehicle solution; Group II (OVX-Iso), administered with concentrated extract of Iso (150 mg/kg) by gavage; and Group III (OVX-E2), treated with 17β-estradiol (10 µg/kg), subcutaneously. After 30 days of treatments, the uterine cervix was fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed for paraffin-embedding. Sections were stained with Hematoxylin and eosin for morphological and morphometric studies or subjected to immunohistochemistry for detections of Ki-67 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A). The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis (p ≤ 0.05). RESULTS We noted an atrophic uterine cervix in GI, whereas it was more voluminous in GII and even more voluminous in GIII. The thickness of the cervical mucosa was significantly higher in GIII, as compared to GI and GII. The cell proliferation (Ki-67) was significantly elevated in the estradiol and isoflavones treated groups, whereas Vegf-A immunoexpression was significantly higher in GIII, as compared to groups GII and GI. CONCLUSIONS Soy isoflavones cause less trophic and proliferative effects in the uterine cervix of rats as compared to estrogen.

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO Embora a terapia estrogênica seja amplamente utilizada contra sintomas pós-menopausais, ela pode apresentar efeitos adversos, incluindo câncer de mama e endometrial. Assim, as isoflavonas da soja são consideradas uma alternativa possível à terapia estrogênica. No entanto, ainda há controvérsias se estes compostos exercem efeitos tróficos significativos no colo do útero. OBJETIVOS Avaliar as alterações histomorfométricas e imuno-histoquímicas no colo do útero de ratas ovariectomizadas tratadas com isoflavonas da soja (iso). MÉTODOS Quinze ratas Wistar adultas foram ovariectomizadas bilateralmente (Ovx) e separadas em três grupos: Grupo I (Ovx) - veículo (propilenoglicol); Grupo II (Ovx-Iso) - receberam extrato concentrado de Iso (150 mg/kg) e Grupo III (Ovx-E2) - tratado com 17β-estradiol (10 µg/kg); as soluções foram administradas via gavagem por 30 dias consecutivos. Posteriormente, os colos uterinos foram retirados, fixados em formaldeído a 10% tamponado e processados para inclusão em parafina. Cortes (4 µm) foram coradas com hematoxilina e eosina para estudo morfológico e morfométricos, enquanto outros foram submetidos à imuno-histoquímica para detecção de Ki-67 e do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular-A (Vegf-A). Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística (p≤0,05). RESULTADOS Observamos a presença de colo uterino atrófico no GI (Ovx), sendo este mais volumoso no GII (Ovx+Iso) e ainda mais volumoso no GIII (Ovx+E2). A espessura da mucosa cervical foi significativamente maior no GIII (Ovx-E2), em comparação ao GI (Ovx) e ao GII (Ovx-Iso). A proliferação celular (Ki-67) foi significativamente mais elevada nos grupos tratados com estradiol e isoflavonas, enquanto a imunoexpressão de Vegf-A foi significativamente maior no GIII (Ovx-E2), em comparação ao GII (Ovx-Iso) e ao GI (Ovx-E2). CONCLUSÕES As isoflavonas da soja causam menos efeitos tróficos e proliferativos no colo do útero de ratas em comparação ao estrogênio.

Humans , Animals , Cervix Uteri/drug effects , Phytoestrogens/pharmacology , Estrogens/pharmacology , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Ovariectomy , Random Allocation , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Epithelium/drug effects , Mucous Membrane/drug effects
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 27(1): 28-33, jan.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090415


RESUMO O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar o índice de função sexual de mulheres submetidas à histerectomia total com ooforectomia bilateral (HT-OB), a prevalência de incontinência urinária por esforço (IUE) e sua associação com a realização desse procedimento cirúrgico em um hospital de referência em Belém (PA). Foram incluídas 162 mulheres, com vida sexual ativa, alocadas em dois grupos: aquelas que realizaram HT-OB em período superior a 12 meses (n=68), e aquelas que não realizaram (n=94). Utilizou-se o questionário female sexual function index (FSFI) para avaliação da função sexual, e um questionário desenvolvido pelos pesquisadores para coletar dados sociais, econômicos e clínicos, incluindo informações quanto à presença de IUE. O valor de significância foi definido como p<0,05. Houve diferença significativa no índice de função sexual entre o grupo HT-OB e o grupo-controle, com escore geral do FSFI de 23,56 e 28,68, respectivamente (p=0,0001). Os domínios desejo, excitação, lubrificação (p<0,0001), orgasmo (p=0,04), satisfação (p=0,0006) e dor (p=0,015) apresentaram escores inferiores em mulheres histerectomizadas. A prevalência de sintomas de IUE no grupo HT-OB foi de 35,3%, sendo observada associação significativa entre a presença desses sintomas e a realização da histerectomia (p=0,02). Mulheres que realizam HT-OB têm maior risco de disfunção sexual, e este procedimento cirúrgico é associado ao desenvolvimento de IUE.

RESUMEN El presente artículo tuvo el objetivo de evaluar el índice de función sexual de mujeres sometidas a histerectomía total con ooforectomía bilateral (HT-OB), la prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria de esfuerzo (IUE) y su asociación con la realización de este procedimiento quirúrgico en un hospital de referencia en Belém (Brasil). Se incluyeron a 162 mujeres con vida sexual activa, que fueron divididas en dos grupos: las que se sometieron a HT-OB durante el período superior a 12 meses (n=68) y las que no lo había hecho (n=94). Se les aplicaron el cuestionario female sexual function index (FSFI), para evaluar la función sexual, y un cuestionario desarrollado por investigadores para recopilar datos sociales, económicos y clínicos, con informaciones en cuanto a la presencia de IUE. El valor de significación fue de p<0,05. Hubo una diferencia significativa en el índice de función sexual entre el grupo HT-OB y el grupo control, con un puntaje general de FSFI de 23,56 y 28,68, respectivamente (p=0,0001). Los dominios deseo, excitación, lubricación (p<0,0001), orgasmo (p=0,04), satisfacción (p=0,0006) y dolor (p=0,015) tuvieron puntajes más bajos en mujeres histerectomizadas. La prevalencia de síntomas de IUE fue del 35,3% en el grupo HT-OB, además se observó una asociación significativa entre la presencia de estos síntomas y la realización de la histerectomía (p=0,02). Las mujeres que se someten a HT-OB tienen un mayor riesgo de disfunción sexual, y este procedimiento quirúrgico está asociado al desarrollo de IUE.

ABSTRACT The objective of this article was to evaluate the sexual function index of women submitted to total hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy (THBO), the prevalence of urinary incontinence (SUI) and its association with the performance of this surgical procedure in a reference hospital in Belém, Pará. One hundred sixty-two women with active sexual life were included in two groups: those who have undergone THBO for more than 12 months (n=68), and those who have not (n=94). The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was used to evaluate sexual function along with a questionnaire developed by the researchers to collect social, economic and clinical data, including information on the presence of SUI. The significance level was defined as p<0.05. There was a significant difference in the sexual function index between THBO group and the control group, with an FSFI overall score of 23.56 and 28.68, respectively (p=0.0001). Desire, arousal, lubrication (p<0.0001), orgasm (p=0.04), satisfaction (p=0.0006) and pain (p=0.015) domains had lower scores in hysterectomized women. The prevalence of SUI symptoms in THBO group was 35.3%, and a significant association was observed between the presence of SUI and hysterectomy (p=0.02). Women who undergo THBO have a higher risk of sexual dysfunction, and this surgical procedure is associated with the development of SUI.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological/etiology , Urinary Incontinence/etiology , Hysterectomy/adverse effects , Hysterectomy/methods , Postoperative Complications , Quality of Life , Urinary Incontinence/epidemiology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sexuality , Evaluation Study