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1.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 29: 1-7, abr. 2024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555438

ABSTRACT

Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement (PRISMA), a systematic review with metanalysis was conducted to identify and summarize the effects of school-based physical activity interventions that sought to control and / or reduce blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) in children and / or adolescents with overweight and / or obesity. In September 2022, potential studies were searched in five electronic databases (Pubmed, Scielo, Scopus, Sportdiscus, and Web of Science) and in reference lists. Randomized controlled trials conducted in schools with interventions involving physical activity and assessment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in children and adolescents aged 6 to 19 years with overweight and / or obesity were con-sidered for synthesis. The risk of bias was assessed using an adapted version of the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool (EPHPP). Metanalysis was developed from the random model. Four studies were included. For systolic blood pressure, a summary effect of -0.10 (95% CI: -0.39; 0.19; I2 = 0%) was observed. For diastolic pressure, the metanalysis indicated -0.33 (95% CI: -0.62; -0.04; I2 = 11%). Considering the promising effects on diastolic blood pressure, we suggest the develop-ment of more school-based interventions based on physical activity practice for overweight and / or obese populations, which may also add environmental elements, longer duration, multicomponent approaches, and parent / guardian involvement to their strategies.


Com base na declaração Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), foi realizada uma revisão sistemática com metanálise para identificar e sumarizar os efeitos de intervenções escolar baseadas na atividade física que buscaram o controle e / ou redução da pressão arterial (sistólica e diastólica) em crianças e / ou adolescentes com excesso de peso e / ou obesidade. Em setembro de 2022, estudos potenciais foram pesquisados em cinco bases de dados eletrônicas (Pubmed, Scielo, Scopus, Sportdiscus, e Web of Science) e em listas de referências. Foram considerados para a síntese ensaios controlados randomizados realizados em escolas, com intervenções que envolviam a atividade física e avaliação da pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica em crianças e adolescentes dos 6 aos 19 anos com excesso de peso e/ ou obesidade. O risco de viés foi avaliado utilizando uma versão adaptada do instrumento Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). A metanálise foi elaborada a partir do modelo randômico. Foram incluídos quatro estudos. Para a pressão arterial sistólica, observou-se um efeito sumarizado de -0,10 (IC 95%: -0,39; 0,19; I2 = 0%). Para a pressão diastólica, a metanálise indicou -0,33 (IC 95%: -0,62; -0,04; I2 = 11%). Considerando os efeitos promissores na pressão arterial diastólica, sugerimos o desenvolvimento de mais intervenções escola-res fundamentadas na prática de atividade física às populações com sobrepeso e / ou obesidade, que possam agregar também, em suas estratégias, elementos ambientais, maior duração, abordagens multicomponentes e envolvimento dos pais / responsáveis.

2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(2): e202310064, abr. 2024. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1537219

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El sobrepeso y la obesidad infantil constituyen un problema de salud pública. El inicio de la pandemia por COVID-19 pudo haber favorecido esta patología. El puntaje Z del índice de masa corporal (Z-IMC) es un indicador aceptado para su diagnóstico y seguimiento. Objetivo. Evaluar si la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, y el Z-IMC en niños de 2 a 5 años aumentó durante la pandemia. Población y métodos. Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron pacientes asistidos en efectores públicos de salud del Gobierno de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (GCABA), de 2 a 5 años de edad, con registro de peso y talla en dos consultas, antes y después de haber comenzado el aislamiento social preventivo y obligatorio (ASPO). Se registró estado nutricional (Z-IMC) y variación del Z-IMC entre ambas consultas. Resultados. Se evaluaron 3866 sujetos, edad promedio 3,4 ± 0,8 años; el 48,1 % fueron mujeres. El intervalo promedio entre consultas fue 14,3 ± 2,5 meses. La prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad aumentó del 12,6 % (IC95% 11,6-13,6) al 20,9 % (IC95% 19,6-22-2); p <0,001, al igual que el Z-IMC (0,4 ± 1,1 vs. 0,8 ± 1,3; p <0,001). Conclusión. La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, y el Z-IMC en niños de 2 a 5 años aumentó significativamente durante la pandemia.


Introduction. Childhood overweight and obesity are a public health problem. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to this condition. The body mass index (BMI) Z-score has been accepted as an indicator for overweight and obesity diagnosis and follow-up. Objective. To assess whether the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the BMI Z-score in children aged 2 to 5 years increased during the pandemic. Population and methods. Retrospective, cohort study. Patients included were those seen at public health care facilities in the City of Buenos Aires (CABA), who were aged 2 to 5 years, had weight and height values recorded at 2 different visits, before and after the establishment of the preventive and mandatory social isolation policy. Patients' nutritional status (BMI Z-score) and the variation in this indicator between both visits were recorded. Results. A total of 3866 subjects were assessed; their average age was 3.4 ± 0.8 years; 48.1% were girls. The average interval between both visits was 14.3 ± 2.5 months. The prevalence of overweight/ obesity increased from 12.6% (95% CI: 11.6­13.6) to 20.9% (95% CI: 19.6­22.2), p < 0.001, and so did the BMI Z-score (0.4 ± 1.1 versus 0.8 ± 1.3, p < 0.001). Conclusion. The prevalence of overweight and obesity and the BMI Z-score in children aged 2 to 5 years increased significantly during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Ciudad de México; s.n; 20240216. 126 p.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1537448

ABSTRACT

Introducción. A nivel mundial, la obesidad es considerada como un problema de salud pública debido a que afecta a la población de todas las edades, incluso al mismo personal que trabaja en instituciones de salud, situación que repercute en su ámbito personal, familiar, pero sobre todo laboral, causando en el trabajador dificultad para realizar algunos procedimientos, ausentismo laboral, discapacidad parcial o total y/o necesidad de cuidado, entre otros.  Objetivo.  Evaluar el efecto de una intervención de autocuidado en hábitos de vida saludable con relación a la obesidad en personal de salud de una institución de tercer nivel.  Metodología. Estudio cuasi experimental, muestra 30 trabajadores con sobrepeso o algún grado de obesidad de una institución de salud de tercer nivel. Se impartieron 10 temas con relación a la obesidad, para cambiar hábitos deficientes por hábitos saludables, además de 10 sesiones de actividad física.    Resultados. Al final de la intervención, dos personas bajaron el nivel de su índice de masa corporal, una persona con obesidad grado III y una de grado II bajaron a peso normal. En cuanto a las medidas antropométricas posterior a la intervención, hubo reducción en cada uno de los parámetros, referente a la evaluación del cuestionario hábitos de vida saludable, relacionados con la obesidad posterior a la intervención, se encontraron cambios positivos en cada una de las dimensiones. Sin embargo, tanto en la reducción de IMC, así como en las dimensiones del cuestionario, la diferencia encontrada, no fue estadísticamente significativa.  Conclusiones. Los resultados sugieren que una intervención educativa en hábitos de vida saludable vinculados con la obesidad en personal de salud, son eficaces para contribuir al autocuidado de los trabajadores en el ámbito laboral


Introduction. Worldwide, obesity is considered a public health problem because it affects the population of all ages, including the same personnel who work in health institutions, a situation that has repercussions in their personal and family environment, but above all at work, causing the worker difficulty in performing some procedures, absenteeism, partial or total disability and/or need for care, among others. Objective. To evaluate the effect of a self-care intervention on healthy life habits in relation to obesity in health personnel of a third level institution. Methodology. Quasi-experimental study, sample of 30 workers with overweight or some degree of obesity in a tertiary health institution. Ten topics related to obesity were taught in order to change deficient habits for healthy habits, in addition to 10 sessions of physical activity. Results. At the end of the intervention, two people lowered their body mass index level, one person with grade III obesity and one with grade II obesity lowered to normal weight. Regarding the anthropometric measures after the intervention, there was a reduction in each one of the parameters, regarding the evaluation of the healthy life habits questionnaire, related to obesity after the intervention, positive changes were found in each one of the dimensions. However, both in the reduction of BMI and in the dimensions of the questionnaire, the difference found was not statistically significant. Conclusions. The results suggest that an educational intervention on healthy lifestyle habits related to obesity in health personnel is effective in contributing to the self-care of workers in the workplace


Introdução. A nível mundial, a obesidade é considerada um problema de saúde pública porque afecta a população de todas as idades, incluindo o próprio pessoal que trabalha nas instituições de saúde, situação que tem repercussões no seu ambiente pessoal e familiar, mas sobretudo no trabalho, causando ao trabalhador dificuldade na realização de alguns procedimentos, absentismo, incapacidade parcial ou total e/ou necessidade de cuidados, entre outros. Objectivos. Avaliar o efeito de uma intervenção de autocuidado sobre hábitos de vida saudáveis em relação à obesidade em profissionais de saúde de uma instituição de cuidados terciários. Metodologia. Estudo quase-experimental, amostra de 30 trabalhadores com excesso de peso ou algum grau de obesidade numa instituição de saúde terciária. Foram ensinados dez temas relacionados com a obesidade, com o objetivo de mudar hábitos deficientes por hábitos saudáveis, além de 10 sessões de atividade física. Resultados. No final da intervenção, duas pessoas baixaram o índice de massa corporal, uma pessoa com obesidade de grau III e uma com obesidade de grau II passaram para o peso normal. Relativamente às medidas antropométricas após a intervenção, verificou-se uma redução em cada um dos parâmetros, e relativamente à avaliação do questionário de hábitos de vida saudáveis relacionados com a obesidade após a intervenção, verificaram-se alterações positivas em cada uma das dimensões. No entanto, tanto na redução do IMC como nas dimensões do questionário, a diferença encontrada não foi estatisticamente significativa. Conclusões. Os resultados sugerem que uma intervenção educativa sobre hábitos de vida saudáveis ligados à obesidade no pessoal de saúde é eficaz para contribuir para o autocuidado dos trabalhadores no local de trabalho


Subject(s)
Humans , Self Care/adverse effects
4.
Med. U.P.B ; 43(1): 11-21, ene.-jun. 2024. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1531448

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar el efecto del programa de ejercicio físico del proyecto institucionalUSCO saludable con enfoque sanológico en 40 jóvenes universitarios con sobrepeso. Metodología: se plantea un estudio mixto el cual utiliza metodología cuantitativa y cualitativa. En específico, se desarrolló un estudio cuasiexperimental de un solo grupo con valoración antes y después, los datos se tomaron de la revisión de historias clínicosanológicas del programa de ejercicio físico, de la dimensión actividad física. Del proyecto USCO Saludable, se seleccionaron 40 estudiantes con un índice de masa muscular (IMC) entre los rangos de 25 a 30 kg/m2. Se utilizó un instrumento denominado historia clínico-sanológica, esta fue diseñada, ajustada y estandarizada por los investigadores Pedro Reyes Gaspar y Dolly Arias Torres. Los datos se trabajaron a través de entrevista semiestructurada, mediante la creación de códigos y categorías con el programa ATLAS. ti 6.0. Para la comparación del IMC se empleó la prueba de Wilcoxon y el tamaño del efecto por medio de la g de Hedges en el programa SPSS versión 24. Resultados: después de la intervención, en el grupo de estudiantes universitarios con sobrepeso se observaron cambios importantes en la comprensión del concepto de salud, salud actual y del ejercicio físico como herramienta de cuidado de la salud y la vejez. Además, se identificó un cambio significativo en el IMC de la población. Conclusiones: la estrategia de ejercicio físico desde un enfoque sanológico es factible y eficaz, debido a los cambios significativos en el pensamiento y comportamiento en la salud de estudiantes universitarios con sobrepeso.


Objective: to identify the effect of the physical exercise program, of the healthy USCO institutional project with a sanological approach, on 40 overweight university students. Methodolgy: a mixed study is proposed using quantitative and qualitative methodology. Specifically, a quasiexperimental study of a single group was developed with evaluation before and after, the data was taken from the review of clinical-sanological histories of the physical exercise program, of the physical activity dimension, of the Healthy USCO project, 40 students with BMI (body mass index) between the ranges of 25 to 30 kg/ m2 were selected. An instrument called clinical-sanological history was used, it was designed, adjusted, and standardized by researchers Pedro Reyes Gaspar and Dolly Arias Torres. The data was processed through a semi-structured interview through the creation of codes, and categories with the ATLAS.ti 6.0 software, for the comparison of the BMI the Wilcoxon test was used and the effect size through Hedges' G in the SPSS program version 24. Results: after the intervention, important changes were observed in the understanding of the concept of health, current health, and physical exercise as a tool for health care and old age in a group of overweight university students. Furthermore, a significant change in the BMI of the population was identified. Conclusions: the strategy of physical exercise from a sanological approach is feasible and effective due to the significant changes in the thinking and behavior in the health of overweight university students.


Objetivo: identificar o efeito do programa de exercícios físicos do projeto institucional USCO saudável com enfoque saudável em 40 universitários com excesso de peso. Metodologia: propõe-se um estudo misto que utiliza metodologia quantitativa e qualitativa. Especificamente, foi desenvolvido um estudo quase-experimental de grupo único com avaliação antes e depois, os dados foram retirados da revisão dos registros clínico-saúde do programa de exercício físico, da dimensão atividade física. Do projeto USCO Healthy, foram selecionados 40 alunos com índice de massa muscular (IMC) entre 25 e 30 kg/m2. Foi utilizado um instrumento denominado histórico clínico-saúde, desenhado, ajustado e padronizado pelos pesquisadores Pedro Reyes Gaspar e Dolly Arias Torres. Os dados foram trabalhados por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, mediante criação de códigos e categorias com o programa ATLAS.ti 6.0. Para a comparação do IMC foi utilizado o teste de Wilcoxon e o tamanho do efeito por meio do g de Hedges no programa SPSS versão 24. Resultados: após a intervenção, no grupo de universitários com excesso de peso, foram observadas mudanças importantes na compreensão do conceito de saúde, saúde atual e exercício físico como ferramenta de cuidado à saúde e à velhice. Além disso, foi identificada uma alteração significativa no IMC da população. Conclusões: a estratégia de exercício físico sob uma abordagem de saúde é viável e eficaz, devido às mudanças significativas no pensamento e no comportamento de saúde de estudantes universitários com excesso de peso


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult
5.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 423-426, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1014515

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the prevalence of elevated blood pressure and overweight/obesity and their comorbidities among Tibetan middle school students in Lhasa, and to analyze their association with lifestyle and other factors, so as to provide a basis for the intervention measures targeting elevated blood pressure, overweight and obesity among middle school students in high altitude area.@*Methods@#Using a stratified cluster random sampling method in September 2021, a total of 1 488 Tibetan junior and high students from Lhasa City were investigated with blood pressure measurement, physical examination and questionnaire survey. The influencing factors of elevated blood pressure, overweight and obesity and their comorbidities association were analyzed by multivariate Logistic regression.@*Results@#The prevalence of elevated blood pressure, overweight/obesity and their comorbidities were 17.8%, 17.4% , 5.0% respectively. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that age( OR =0.81), residence, body mass inex(BMI) and gender were the influencing factors of elevated blood pressure; and the risks of elevated blood pressure in female students were higher than male students ( OR =1.89), suburban students were higher than urban students ( OR =8.06), overweight and obesity groups were higher than normal groups ( OR =2.55, 2.87) ( P <0.05). Adjusting for confounding factors such as gender, residence and school, and BMI (only for elevated blood pressure), daily screen time ≥2 h was positively correlated with elevated blood pressure, overweight/obesity and its comorbidities ( OR =1.56, 1.59 , 2.51) ( P <0.05).@*Conclusions@#The prevalence of elevated blood pressure, overweight/obesity are relatively high in Lhasa. Longer screen time is a common factor affecting with elevated blood pressure, overweight/obesity and comorbidities among Tibetan students. Measures should be taken intervene in the lifestyle of Tibetan students, in order to reduce elevated blood pressure and overweight/obesity.

6.
Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine ; (12): 243-250, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013430

ABSTRACT

Background Multiple studies have shown a close relationship between changes in gut microbiota composition and obesity, and research results are influenced by factors such as race and geographical location, but there are few studies on children. Objective To analyze the diversity of gut microbiota related to obesity in a population of 2-6 years old, observe the distribution characteristics and species differences of gut microbiota between obese/overweight and normal weight groups, and explore the association betweenobese/overweight and gut microbiota diversity. Methods Fecal samples were collected from 74 children aged 2-6 years in Shanghai, including 18 obese/overweight individuals, 6 males and 12 females (male to female ratio of 1∶2), and 56 normal weight individuals, 18 males and 38 females (male to female ratio is nearly 1∶2). The 16S rDNA was extracted from bacteria in fecal samples, followed by PCR amplification, cDNA construction, and high-throughput sequencing. Naive Bayes algorithm was used to perform taxonomic analysis (phylum, class, order, family, genus, species) and community diversity analysis (Sobs index, Shannon index, Shannoneven index, Coverage index, PD index, and principal co-ordinates analysis) on representative sequences and abundance of amplicon sequence variants (ASV). Wilcoxon rank sum test, P-value multiple test correction, and analysis of similarities were used to test differences between the two groups to obtain information on the distribution characteristics and species differences of intestinal microbiota in children. Results Seventy-four fecal samples were sequenced, and the sequencing results were subjected to quality control and filtering. A total of 4905306 optimized sequences were obtained, resulting in 1860 ASVs. The diversity data analysis of ASVs generated 889 species annotation results at 8 taxonomic levels. The alpha diversity analysis showed that the richness (Sobs index), diversity (Shannon index), evenness (Shannoneven index), and phylogenetic diversity (PD index) of fecal community of the obese/overweight children were increased compared to those of the normal weight children, but there were no statistical differences between the two groups (P>0.05). The beta diversity analysis showed that there was little difference in the composition of microbial species between the two groups, and no significant clustering separation was observed. The results of species composition analysis at phylum, order, family, and genus levels of 74 samples showed a consistent core microbiota structure in the two groups of gut microbiota, but there were differences in microbiota composition. The differences in microbial community composition between the two groups were manifested at the taxonomic levels of order, family, and genus, among which phylum Firmicutes, order Erysipelotrichales, family Erysipelatocyclostridiaceae, genus Erysipelotrichaceae_ UCG-003 and genus Catenibacterium were significantly enriched in the obese/overweight group and contributed significantly to the phenotypic difference of obese/overweight [linear discriminant analysis (LDA)=3.72, P<0.01; LDA=3.29, P<0.05). Phylum Proteobacteria, order Enterobacterales, family Enterobacteriaceae, genus unclassified was significantly enriched in the normal weight group and contributed significantly to the phenotypic difference of normal body weight (LDA=3.93, P<0.05). Conclusion The richness and diversity of gut microbiota in obese/overweight children aged 2-6 years in Shanghai are increased, but there is no difference compared to normal weight children. There is a difference in the composition of gut microbiota between the obese/overweight group and the normal weight group.

7.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 84-89, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012660

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo identify and analyze the possible influencing factors of obesity among public primary school students in Minhang District, Shanghai. MethodsBasic data, collected through questionnaire stars, was imported with merged physical examination data into Excel to form a database. Data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS 22.00. Independent sample t-test was used for the data with normal distribution. Nonparametric test was used for the data with non-normal distribution. χ2 test was used for the quantitative data. Logistic regression was used for univariate and multivariate analysis. ResultsAccording to the national physical health standards for students (revised in 2014) , the prevalence rate of obesity among primary school students in Minhang district was 29.63% . The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 32.1% in boys and 26.9% in girls. The trend of overweight and obesity in different grades was similar among different genders .A single factor analysis showed that, being the only child (χ2=9.300, P<0.01) , father obesity(χ2=106.417, P<0.001) or mother obesity(χ2=118.534, P<0.001) , mother's overweight during pregnancy (χ2=159.731, P<0.001) , caregiver's role as grandparents (χ2=38.736, P<0.001) , low education level (χ2=111.309, P<0.001) had effects on overweight and obesity of children while the differences had statistical significance. Pupil's bad eating habit (χ2=18.905,P<0.001) and preference (χ2=22.901, P<0.001) , insufficient sleep time (χ2=61.685, P<0.001) , long-time using of electronic products (χ2=37.182, P<0.001) and low-time of exercise (χ2=15.328, P<0.001) also affected the obesity of primary school students. Among the five factors of family, diet, psychology, static state and dynamic state, the influencing factors of obesity in primary school students from grade one to grade four were being the only child, obese father and/or mother, overweight mother during pregnancy, caregivers without higher education. In terms of diet, it was mainly based on eating habits before bedtime, as well as partial and picky eating habits. In terms of psychology, the main psychological source was the pressure of learning in school. There was a clear relationship between the pace of learning and not keeping up. Static analysis revealed a correlation with lack of sleep. After assigning values based on eye hygiene recommendations for the use of electronic products, it was found that there was no direct correlation between obesity in primary school students and the duration of electronic product use. Dynamic analysis showed that not taking part in school physical exercise was related to obesity. ConclusionThe obesity of primary school students is influenced by family, diet, psychology, static and dynamic factors. The intervention of obesity in primary school needs the joint efforts of school, society, family, self-cognition and so on.

8.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 188-192, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012465

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To assess the nutritional status of primary and secondary school students in Beijing City and to analyze the related factors, so as to provide a scientific basis for improving the nutritional status of primary and secondary school students in a targeted manner.@*Methods@#Based on the 2021 Beijing Student Common Diseases and Health Influencing Factors Surveillance Project, a stratified random cluster sampling method was used to conduct a physical examination and questionnaire survey on 25 487 primary and secondary school students from September to November 2021. The Chi square test was used for comparison of nutritional status detection rates, and disordered multi classification Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the factors associated with students nutritional status.@*Results@#The detection rates of malnutrition, overweight and obesity among primary and secondary school students in Beijing City were 4.7%, 18.0% and 23.8% respectively. The detection rates of malnutrition, overweight and obesity were higher among male students (5.1%, 20.4%, 29.7%) than female students (4.2%, 15.5%, 17.4%) ( χ 2= 12.23, 101.71, 526.99, P <0.01). The detection rate of obesity was higher in the suburbs than urban areas(26.6%, 19.8%), and the detection rate of malnutrition was lower in the suburbs than urban areas (4.2%,5.5%)( χ 2=157.25, 23.61, P <0.01). The results of disordered multi classification Logistic regression showed that the related factors for malnutrition, overweight and obesity were gender, residence, moderate to vigorous exercise ≥60 min per day and lack of sleep( OR =1.70, 1.88,2.48; 1.14, 0.87, 0.67; 0.85, 0.92, 0.81 ; 0.83, 1.08, 1.07); frequency of fried food intake daily was a related factor for overweight ( OR =0.70); whether eating breakfast daily or not was a related factor for overweight and obesity ( OR =0.91, 0.84); academic level (middle and high school) was a related factor for malnutrition and obesity ( OR =1.38, 1.37; 0.77, 1.40)( P <0.05).@*Conclusions@#The problem of overweight and obesity among primary and secondary school students in Beijing City continues to be serious, especially among boys and suburban areas. It is recommended that society, schools, families and individuals should work together to improve the nutritional status of primary and secondary school students by adopting a graded and classified approach.

9.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 115-120, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011374

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity and its associations with sleep duration among children and adolescents aged 6-17 in Gansu Province, so as to formulate tailored prevention and control strategies and intervention measures.@*Methods@#Using a multi stage stratified cluster random sampling method, a questionnaire survey and physical examination were conducted among 2 172 students aged 6-17 from 2 monitoring points in Gansu Province from May to July 2022. Using Chi square test to analyze the inter group differences in the detection rates of overweight and obesity and the composition of sleep duration, and using Logistic regression model to analyze the correlation between overweight and obesity and sleep duration.@*Results@#The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 10.45% and 6.86%, respectively. The average sleep duration was ( 8.28 ±1.66)h/d. The detection rate of overweight was high among high school students aged 16-17 and those with sleep duration<8 h/d ( χ 2=12.51, 19.32, 14.96), while the detection rate of obesity was high among male and non residential students ( χ 2= 5.89 , 9.59)( P <0.05). For both boys and girls, the rates of overweight and obesity among primary school students increased with the decrease in sleep duration ( χ 2=38.84, 9.80, 19.61, 41.60, P <0.05). The rates of obesity in boys were higher than girls across varying sleep durations among the general population (sleep duration <8 h/d: 6.07%, 11.11%, 8~<9 h/d: 5.76%, 6.09 %, 9~<10 h/d: 6.02%, 8.19 %, ≥10 h/d: 4.04%, 6.90%). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that insufficient sleep duration among primary school students was positively associated with the risk of overweight and obesity, and adequate sleep duration among high school students was negatively associated with the risk of overweight and obesity (sleep duration 8~<9 h/d: OR primary school students = 1.89 , 9~< 10 h/d: OR primary school students =1.54, 8~<9 h/d: OR high school students =0.30, P <0.05).@*Conclusions@#Insufficient sleep is a risk factor for overweight and obesity among primary and secondary school students at monitoring sites in Gansu Province. Prevention strategies and interventions should be developed for different populations to ensure adequate sleep duration and reduce the risk of overweight and obesity among primary and secondary school students.

10.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 284-291, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007242

ABSTRACT

objectiveTo investigate the differences in clinical indices and lipid metabolism between the patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and healthy individuals in the overweight population. MethodsIn this study, body mass index (BMI)>23 kg/m2 was defined as overweight. A total of 62 overweight patients with NAFLD who were admitted to Putuo Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from August 2020 to April 2021 were enrolled as overweight NAFLD group, and 50 overweight individuals who underwent physical examination during the same period of time were enrolled as control group. Clinical information and blood biochemical parameters were recorded for all subjects. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze serum lipidomic profile, and principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis were used to perform the multivariate statistical analysis of lipidomic data. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between two groups, and the independent-samples t test or the Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups. ResultsThe overweight NAFLD group had a significantly higher BMI than the overweight control group (Z=-2.365, P=0.018). As for serological markers, compared with the overweight control group, the overweight NAFLD group had significantly higher levels of red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, uric acid, total protein, globulin, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, cholinesterase, low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, apolipoprotein B, and blood glucose (all P<0.05). The lipidomic analysis showed that there was a significant difference in lipid metabolism between the two groups, and a total of 493 differentially expressed lipids were identified (VIP value>1, P<0.05), among which 143 lipids were significantly upregulated and 350 lipids were significantly downregulated in the overweight NAFLD group. The mean total fatty acid content in the overweight NAFLD group was 3.6 times that in the overweight control group. Compared with the overweight control group, the overweight NAFLD group had a significant reduction in the content of triglyceride with>3 unsaturated bonds (P<0.001) and a significant increase in the content of triglyceride with ≤3 unsaturated bonds (P<0.001). ConclusionCompared with healthy overweight individuals, overweight NAFLD patients tend to have significant abnormalities in some biochemical parameters and lipid metabolites, with significant increases in the content of fatty acid in blood and the types of saturated fat chains in triglycerides.

11.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 41-45, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007210

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To examine the mediating effects of blood pressure, glucose, lipids, and serum uric acid on the association between childhood overweight/obesity and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and to provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases during childhood.@*Methods@#One public school in Huantai County, Zibo City was selected to conduct the baseline survey from November 2017 to January 2018 using a convenient cluster sampling method. A total of 1 400 children aged 6 to 11 were included in the study. According to the classification criteria based on body mass index (BMI), participants were divided into the non overweight/obese group ( n =787) and the overweight/obese group ( n =613). The mediating effects of metabolic variables on the association between childhood overweight/obesity and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) were analyzed using the "mediation" package in R software.@*Results@#Children who were overweight/obese had higher levels of BMI- Z score (2.0±0.8), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (109.1±8.9 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (65.4±6.8 mmHg), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (4.8±0.5 mmol/L), insulin (INS) (11.3±7.6 μU/mL), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) (0.7±0.2 g/L), lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (2.4±0.7 mmol/L), total cholesterol (TC) (4.2±0.9 mmol/L), triglycerides (TG) (0.9±0.4 mmol/L), and serum uric acid (SUA) (321.2±91.4 μmol/L) compared to those who were non-overweight/obese [the corresponding values were (-0.2±0.7),(104.3±8.8) mmHg, (62.2±6.2) mmHg, (4.7±0.6) mmol/L, (6.1±4.2) μU/mL, (0.6±0.2) g/L, (2.2±0.6) mmol/L, (4.1±0.7) mmol/L, (0.7±0.2) mmol/L, and (278.6±74.7) μmol/L, respectively], whereas the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were lower in overweight/obese children (1.5±0.3 mmol/L) than in non-overweight/obese children (1.7±0.4 mmol/L). All differences were statistically significant ( t =53.66, 9.88, 9.19, 3.60, 16.32, 7.36, 5.11, 2.55, 11.08, 9.58, -10.31, P <0.05). After adjusting for potential covariates, overweight/obese children had 8.72 times increased risk of developing LVH compared to the non-overweight/obese children ( OR=8.72, 95%CI =5.45-14.66, P <0.01). Mediation analysis showed that INS, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, ApoB, and SUA partially mediated the association between childhood overweight/obesity and LVH, and among these, INS and TG had relatively strong mediating effects, accounting for 28.05% and 13.71% of the total effects, respectively.@*Conclusions@#INS, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, ApoB, and SUA are intermediate risk factors on the association between childhood overweight/obesity and LVH. Keeping metabolic indicators (especially INS and TG) at healthy levels is particularly important for reducing the burden of cardiovascular diseases in overweight/obese children.

12.
Journal of Public Health and Preventive Medicine ; (6): 129-132, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005923

ABSTRACT

Overweight/obesity has become an increasingly serious global public health problem. Studies have shown that many factors caused by overweight/obesity are involved in the occurrence of atherosclerosis, including adipokines, inflammatory factors and overweight/obesity related metabolic syndrome. This paper reviews the research progress on overweight/obesity and atherosclerosis from the above perspectives, aiming to provide reference for the prevention of overweight/obesity-related atherosclerosis.

13.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 37: eAPE02062, 2024. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1533335

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar os fatores associados ao ganho de peso interdialítico em usuários de serviços de hemodiálise em uma Região Metropolitana do Brasil. Métodos Estudo epidemiológico transversal envolvendo 1.024 indivíduos com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise no Brasil. O ganho de peso interdialítico foi avaliado pelo percentual de ganho de peso entre uma sessão de hemodiálise e outra. As variáveis incluídas na análise de regressão logística binária foram selecionadas considerando p< 0,10 no teste bivariado. Resultados Demonstramos que ter mais anos de estudo (OR=0,537;IC 95% = 0,310-0,931; p=0,027) e sobrepeso (OR=0,661;IC 95% = 0,461-0,948; p=0,024) ou obesidade ( OR=0,387;IC 95% = 0,246-0,608; p=<0,001) reduziu as chances de os usuários apresentarem alto ganho de peso interdialítico. Usuários sem trabalho remunerado (OR=2,025; IC 95% = 1,218-3,365; p=0,007) e que não adotavam medidas para reduzir o sal (OR=1,694; IC 95% = 1,085-2,645; p=0,020) tiveram maiores chances de ganho de peso interdialítico. Conclusão Os resultados apontam para associação entre o aumento do ganho de peso interdialítico e a ausência de trabalho remunerado e a não adoção de medidas para reduzir a ingestão de sal na dieta. Portanto, o conhecimento sobre esses fatores associados pode ser uma alternativa importante para o direcionamento individualizado dessa população.


Resumen Objetivo Evaluar los factores asociados al aumento de peso interdialítico en usuarios de servicios de hemodiálisis en una región metropolitana de Brasil. Métodos Estudio epidemiológico transversal que incluyó 1.024 individuos con enfermedad renal crónica en hemodiálisis en Brasil. El aumento de peso interdialítico se evaluó mediante el porcentaje de aumento de peso entre una sesión de hemodiálisis y otra. Las variables incluidas en el análisis de regresión logística binaria fueron seleccionadas considerando p< 0,10 en la prueba bivariada. Resultados Se demostró que tener más años de estudio (OR=0,537;IC 95 % = 0,310-0,931; p=0,027) y sobrepeso (OR=0,661;IC 95 % = 0,461-0,948; p=0,024) u obesidad ( OR=0,387;IC 95 % = 0,246-0,608; p=<0,001) redujo las chances de que los usuarios presenten un elevado aumento de peso interdialítico. Usuarios sin trabajo remunerado (OR=2,025; IC 95 % = 1,218-3,365; p=0,007) y que no adoptaban medidas para reducir la sal (OR=1,694; IC 95 % = 1,085-2,645; p=0,020) tuvieron más chances de aumento de peso interdialítico. Conclusión Los resultados señalan una relación entre el aumento de peso interdialítico y la ausencia de trabajo remunerado y la no adopción de medidas para reducir la ingesta de sal en la dieta. Por lo tanto, el conocimiento sobre estos factores asociados puede ser una alternativa importante para la orientación individualizada de esta población.


Abstract Objectives The study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with interdialytic weight gain in users of haemodialysis services in a metropolitan region of Brazil. Methods This is an cross-sectional epidemiological study with 1,024 individuals with chronic kidney disease on haemodialysis in Brazil. Interdialytic weight gain was evaluated by the percentage weight gain between one haemodialysis session and another. The variables included in the binary logistic regression analysis were selected by considering p< 0.10 in the bivariate test. Results We demonstrated that having more years of study (OR=0.537;CI 95% = 0.310-0.931; p=0.027) and be overweight (OR=0.661;CI 95% = 0.461-0.948; p=0.024) or obese (OR=0.387;CI 95% = 0.246-0.608; p=<0.001) reduced the chances of users having high interdialytic weight gain. Those who did not have paid work (OR=2.025;CI 95% = 1.218-3.365; p=0.007) and not adopting measures to reduce salt increased (OR=1.694;CI 95% = 1.085-2.645; p=0.020) increased the chances of interdialytic weight. Conclusion The results point to an association between the increase in interdialytic weight gain and the absence of paid work and the non-adoption of measures to reduce salt intake in the diet. Therefore, the need for knowledge about these associated factors can be an important alternative for the individual targeting of this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Body Weights and Measures , Weight Gain , Nutritional Status , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Feeding Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 40(1): e00037023, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528218

ABSTRACT

Os objetivos foram descrever a prevalência de baixo peso e excesso de peso, avaliados pelo índice de massa corporal (IMC), estratificada por sexo e faixa etária, e analisar as características sociodemográficas associadas ao IMC em mulheres e homens mais velhos. Trata-se de uma análise transversal de 8.974 participantes com ≥ 50 anos da linha de base do Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde dos Idosos Brasileiros (ELSI-Brasil, 2015-16). O IMC foi classificado em baixo peso, eutrofia e excesso de peso de acordo com a idade do participante. Foi utilizado modelo de regressão logística multinominal, considerando-se as características sociodemográficas de mulheres e homens. Os resultados evidenciaram maior prevalência de excesso de peso nas mulheres em comparação aos homens (64,1% vs. 57,3%). Em ambos os sexos, a prevalência de baixo peso foi maior nos mais longevos, enquanto que o excesso de peso foi menor. Nas mulheres, a chance de baixo peso foi maior do que a chance de eutrofia naquelas solteiras/viúvas/divorciadas (OR = 1,95; IC95%: 1,42-2,66) e nas residentes na área rural (OR = 1,58; IC95%: 1,01-2,49), ao passo que a chance de excesso de peso foi menor do que a chance de eutrofia nas residentes na área rural (OR = 0,78; IC95%: 0,62-0,97) e em todas as macrorregiões geográficas relativas à Região Sul. Para os homens, a chance de excesso de peso foi menor do que a chance de eutrofia entre solteiros/viúvos/divorciados (OR = 0,58; IC95%: 0,48-0,69). Os mais ricos apresentaram menor chance de baixo peso (OR = 0,59; IC95%: 0,38-0,90), bem como maior chance de excesso de peso (OR = 1,52; IC95%: 1,20-1,92). Em conclusão, as características sociodemográficas associadas ao IMC diferiram entre os sexos.


The objective were to describe the prevalence of underweight and overweight, assessed by body mass index (BMI), stratified by sex and age group, and to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics associated with BMI in older women and men. This is a cross-sectional analysis of 8,974 participants aged ≥ 50 years from the baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-Brasil, 2015-2016). BMI was classified as underweight, eutrophy, and overweight according to the participant's age. A multinomial logistic regression model was used, considering the sociodemographic characteristics of women and men. The results showed a higher prevalence of overweight in women compared to men (64.1% vs. 57.3%). In both sexes, the prevalence of underweight was higher in the longest-lived individuals, while overweight was lower. In women, the chance of underweight was higher than the chance of eutrophy in those who were single/widowed/divorced (OR = 1.95; 95%CI: 1.42-2.66) and in those living in rural areas (OR = 1.58; 95%CI: 1.01-2.49), while the chance of being overweight was lower than the chance of being eutrophy in those living in rural areas (OR = 0.78; 95%CI: 0.62-0.97) and in all geographic macro-regions related to the South Region. For men, the chance of being overweight was lower than the chance of being eutrophy among single/widowed/divorced individuals (OR = 0.58; 95%CI: 0.48-0.69). The richest had a lower chance of being underweight (OR = 0.59; 95%CI: 0.38-0.90), as well as a higher chance of being overweight (OR = 1.52; 95%CI: 1.20-1.92). In conclusion, the sociodemographic characteristics associated with BMI differed between the sexes.


Los objetivos fueron describir la prevalencia de bajo peso y sobrepeso, evaluados a través del índice de masa corporal (IMC), estratificada por sexo y grupo de edad, y analizar las características sociodemográficas asociadas al IMC en mujeres y hombres mayores. Se trata de un análisis transversal de 8.974 participantes con ≥ 50 años de la línea de base del Estudio Longitudinal Brasileño sobre el Envejecimiento (ELSI-Brasil, 2015-2016). Se clasificó el IMC en bajo peso, eutrofia y sobrepeso conforme la edad del participante. Se utilizó el modelo de regresión logística multinomial, teniendo en cuenta las características sociodemográficas de mujeres y hombres. Los resultados evidenciaron una prevalencia más alta de sobrepeso en las mujeres en comparación con los hombres (64,1% vs. 57,3%). En ambos sexos, la prevalencia de bajo peso fue más alta en los grupos de mayor edad, mientras que la prevalencia del sobrepeso fue menor. La chance de bajo peso fue más alta que la chance de eutrofia en las mujeres solteras/viudas/divorciadas (OR = 1,95; IC95%: 1,42-2,66) y en las que viven en el área rural (OR = 1,58; IC95%: 1,01-2,49), mientras que la chance de sobrepeso fue menor que la chance de eutrofia en las que viven en el área rural (OR = 0,78; IC95%: 0,62-0,97) y en todas las macrorregiones geográficas relacionadas a la región Sur. La chance de sobrepeso fue menor que la chance de eutrofia entre los hombres solteros/viudos/divorciados (OR = 0,58; IC95%: 0,48-0,69). Los más ricos presentaron una chance menor de bajo peso (OR = 0,59; IC95%: 0,38-0,90), así como una chance más alta de sobrepeso (OR = 1,52; IC95%: 1,20-1,92). En conclusión, las características sociodemográficas asociadas al IMC difirieron entre los sexos.

15.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 29(1): e14712022, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528325

ABSTRACT

Abstract Longitudinal study, whose objective was to present a better strategy and statistical methods, and demonstrate its use with the data across the 2013-2015 period in schoolchildren aged 7 to 11 years, covered with the same food questionnaire (WebCAAFE) survey in Florianopolis, southern Brazil. Six meals/snacks and 32 foods/beverages yielded 192 possible combinations denominated meal/snack-Specific Food/beverage item (MSFIs). LASSO algorithm (LASSO-logistic regression) was used to determine the MSFIs predictive of overweight/obesity, and then binary (logistic) regression was used to further analyze a subset of these variables. Late breakfast, lunch and dinner were all associated with increased overweight/obesity risk, as was an anticipated lunch. Time-of-day or meal-tagged food/beverage intake result in large number of variables whose predictive patterns regarding weight status can be analyzed by machine learning such as LASSO, which in turn may identify the patterns not amenable to other popular statistical methods such as binary logistic regression.


Resumo Estudo longitudinal cujo objetivo foi apresentar melhores estratégia e métodos estatísticos e demonstrar sua utilização com os dados do período 2013-2015 em escolares de 7 a 11 anos, contemplados com o mesmo questionário alimentar (WebCAAFE) em Florianópolis, Sul do Brasil. Seis refeições/lanches e 32 alimentos/bebidas resultaram em 192 combinações possíveis denominadas item refeição/lanche-alimentos/bebidas específicos (MSFIs). O algoritmo LASSO (LASSO-regressão logística) foi usado para determinar os MSFIs preditivos de sobrepeso/obesidade e, em seguida, a regressão binária (logística) foi usada para analisar um subconjunto dessas variáveis. Café da manhã, almoço e jantar tardios foram todos associados ao aumento do risco de sobrepeso/obesidade, assim como um almoço antecipado. O consumo de alimentos/bebidas marcados na hora do dia ou na refeição resulta em um grande número de variáveis ​​cujos padrões preditivos em relação ao status do peso podem ser analisados ​​por LASSO. Essa análise pode identificar os padrões não passíveis de outros métodos estatísticos populares, como a regressão logística binária.

16.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 100(1): 46-52, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528964

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Children with spina bifida (SB) are at risk for stunting and overweight. However, height and Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score distribution in children and adolescents with SB are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine height and BMI z-score distribution in Brazilian children and adolescents with and without SB. This study further aimed to examine whether height and BMI z-scores differ between individuals with and without SB. Method This study included 101 participants (SB: n= 18; non-SB: n= 83, aged 7-16 years). The World Health Organization (WHO) AnthroPlus software was used to calculate height and BMI z-scores. AnthroPlus z-score distribution graphs were used to examine individual z-scores based on the 2007 WHO normal distribution curve. Effects of the group (SB vs non-SB) on height and BMI z-scores were examined with sequential regression. Results In the WHO distribution graph analysis, height z-scores of participants with SB were slightly left-shifted compared to the WHO normal distribution curve. In the regression analysis, group (SB vs non-SB) was a significant predictor of height z-scores after controlling for sex and age (ΔR2= 0.064, p= 0.010). BMI z-scores of participants with SB were right-shifted compared to the WHO normal curve. However, there was no contribution of the group to BMI z-scores (ΔR2= 0.011, p= 0.301). Conclusions These findings suggest that Brazilian children and adolescents with SB may be at risk for reduced height and increased BMI.

17.
São Paulo med. j ; 142(3): e2022264, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515597

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The cardiopulmonary function of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is significantly lower than that of patients with simple snoring and is significantly related to the severity of OSA. Currently, only a few studies have been conducted on cardiopulmonary exercise testing in overweight patients with OSA. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation between cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) indices and the condition of overweight patients with OSA. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study in Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine. METHODS: This study included 73 hospitalized overweight patients. The patients were divided into no, mild, moderate, and severe OSA groups. Differences in the CPET indices among the four groups were compared. The correlation between the CPET indices and conditions was analyzed. RESULTS: No, mild, moderate, and severe OSA groups had 18 men and 5 women, 11 men and 3 women, 12 men and 2 women, and 21 men and 1 woman, respectively (P > 0.05). No significant difference was observed in resting pulmonary function among the four groups (P > 0.05). In the CPET, the anaerobic threshold, maximum oxygen uptake, and oxygen pulse were significantly lower in the severe OSA group than those in the normal OSA group (P < 0.05). Moreover, CPET indices negatively correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index. CONCLUSION: Changes in CPET indices occurred earlier than changes in resting pulmonary function in patients with OSA. CPET might be a potential method for evaluating the severity of OSA combined with overweight status.

18.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529391

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to estimate the role of maternal overweight and obesity before pregnancy as predictors of childhood asthma in a population of Peruvian children under five years. Methods: we carried out a retrospective cohort study of children aged five years or less and their mothers from the Regional Hospital of Ayacucho and the María Auxiliadora Hospital in Lima, Peru. We included children who were born between 2013 and 2014 and follow them up until 2018 and 2019, respectively. The diagnosis of overweight and obesity of the mother before pregnancy and asthma in the child were registered in their clinical histories. Crude (cRR) and adjusted relative risks (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%) were obtained using a generalized lineal model of the Poisson family with link log and robust variances. Results: we evaluated 431 medical records and found that 20.9% of the children had asthma, 26.7% of the mothers were overweight, and 20.2% were obese before pregnancy. In the adjusted regression model, overweight (aRR=2.94; CI95%= 1.54-5.60) and maternal obesity (aRR=5.10; CI95%= 2.73-9.51) were predictors of an increased risk of childhood asthma. Conclusions: maternal overweight and maternal obesity increased the risk of her children developing asthma threeand five-fold, respectively.


Resumen Objetivos: estimar el papel del sobrepeso y la obesidad materna antes del embarazo como predictores de asma infantil en una población de niños peruanos menores de cinco años. Métodos: realizamos un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo de niños de cinco años o menos y sus madres del Hospital Regional de Ayacucho y del Hospital María Auxiliadora de Lima, Perú. Se incluyeron niños nacidos entre 2013 y 2014 y se les dio seguimiento hasta 2018 y 2019, respectivamente. El diagnóstico de sobrepeso y obesidad de la madre antes del embarazo y asma en el niño fueron registrados en sus historias clínicas. Los riesgos relativos crudos (cRR) y ajustados (RRa) y los intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC95%) se obtuvieron mediante un modelo lineal generalizado de la familia de Poisson con log de enlace y varianzas robustas. Resultados: se evaluaron 431 historias clínicas y se encontró que el 20,9% de los niños tenían asma, el 26,7% de las madres tenían sobrepeso y el 20,2% eran obesas antes del embarazo. En el modelo de regresión ajustada, el sobrepeso (aRR=2,94; IC95%= 1,54-5,60) y obesidad materna (RRa=5,10; IC95%= 2,73-9,51) fueron predictores de un mayor riesgo de asma infantil. Conclusiones: el sobrepeso materno y la obesidad materna aumentaron tres y cinco veces el riesgo de que sus hijos desarrollaran asma, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Asthma , Risk Factors , Overweight , Obesity, Maternal , Peru , Cohort Studies
19.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 38: e015, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1550154

ABSTRACT

Abstract This review aimed to assess the association between overweight/obesity and dental caries in Brazilian children/adolescents. Searches were performed in the Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, PubMed, Embase and SciELO, Lilacs and Open Grey literature databases up to June 2022. The Joanna Briggs Institute checklist for analytical cross-sectional studies, the checklist for cohort studies, and the checklist for case-control studies were used. A total of 41 publications were included, and 15 meta-analyses were performed. The authors analyzed the differences in weighted mean difference (MD) and odds ratios (OR), and their corresponding confidence intervals (CI) (95%) for dental caries among eutrophic and obese and/or overweight children/adolescents. Meta-analyses showed that there was no association between overweight and/or obesity and dental caries in Brazilian children/adolescents for most anthropometric reference curves using BMI (Body Mass Index). A greater experience of dental caries was associated with well-nourished adolescents in permanent dentition, compared with obese individuals in the same dentition, as classified by the CDC 2000 curve (OR = 2.53, 95% CI;1.49-4.29; p = 0.0006; I2 = 0%) in dichotomous outcome studies, and (MD = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.08-1.15; p = 0.02; I2 = 0%) in continuous studies. The strength of the evidence of the results was classified as very low, low or moderate. It was concluded that there is no association between overweight and/or obesity and dental caries in Brazilian children/adolescents for most anthropometric reference curves using BMI. A greater experience of dental caries was associated with well-nourished adolescents in permanent dentition, compared with obese individuals in the same dentition, as classified by the CDC 2000 curve.

20.
Rev. ADM ; 80(6): 340-345, nov.-dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555514

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades periodontales son enfermedades inflamatorias causadas por bacterias patógenas en el biofilm subgingival, que afectan los tejidos circundantes y de soporte de los dientes, el periodonto. Estas conexiones inexplicables pasan a primer plano a medida que las enfermedades orales, como la enfermedad periodontal, echan raíces. El desafío bacteriano exacerba la producción de citoquinas por el epitelio gingival, lo que resulta en una inflamación incontrolada que conduce a la pérdida de dientes en adultos de diferentes poblaciones. La prevalencia de estas enfermedades aumenta con el envejecimiento, la retención más prolongada de los dientes y el aumento de la incidencia entre la población. Se realiza una búsqueda en los motores bibliográficos de Medline, PubMed y Cochrane encontrándose 33 artículos de valiosa necesidad, de los últimos cinco años. Esta revisión presenta los puntos que resaltan el poder desarrollar nuevos métodos capaces de detectar a las enfermedades periodontales en las primeras etapas (AU)


Periodontal diseases are inflammatory diseases, caused by pathogenic bacteria in the subgingival biofilm, which affect the surrounding and supporting tissues of the teeth, the periodontium. These inexplicable connections come to the fore as oral diseases, such as periodontal disease, take root. Bacterial challenge exacerbates cytokine production by the gingival epithelium, resulting in uncontrolled inflammation leading to tooth loss in adults from different populations. The prevalence of these diseases increases with aging, longer retention of teeth, and increasing incidence among the population. A search was carried out in the bibliographic engines of Medline, PubMed and Cochrane, finding 33 articles of valuable need, 5 years old. This review of the article presents the points that stand out to be able to develop new methods capable of detecting these diseases in the early stages (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Periodontal Diseases/etiology , Overweight/complications , Obesity/complications , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Databases, Bibliographic , Mexico/epidemiology
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