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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 57: e13102, fev.2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534066

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the reliability and sensitivity of a wearable near-infrared spectroscopy (wNIRS) device in moderate and heavy exercise intensity domains. On three separate days, eleven males performed an incremental test to exhaustion, and in the following visits, four submaximal constant-load bouts (i.e., test and retest) were performed in the moderate-intensity domain (100 and 130 W) and heavy-intensity domain (160 and 190 W). The local tissue oxygen saturation index (SmO2) and pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇O2) were measured continuously. The absolute SmO2 and V̇O2 values and the change (Δ) from the 3rd to 6th min of exercise were calculated. There was good reliability for SmO2 measurements, as indicated by the high intraclass correlation coefficient analysis (ICC ≥0.84 for all) and low coefficient of variation between the two trials (CV ≤4.1% for all). Steady-state responses were observed for SmO2 and V̇O2 from the 3rd to the 6th min in the two moderate-intensity bouts (P>0.05), whereas SmO2 decreased and V̇O2 increased from the 3rd to the 6th min in the two heavy-intensity bouts (P<0.05). Together, these findings suggested that the SmO2 measured with a wNIRS device is reliable and sensitive to track local metabolic changes provoked by slight increments in exercise intensity.

2.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 28(2): 307-313, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558019

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Cricothyrotomy, percutaneous dilation tracheostomy, and tracheostomy are all cost-effective and safe techniques used in the management of critically ill patients who need an artificial airway other than endotracheal tube ventilation. The present study focused on enlightening on elective and emergency procedures performed on conditions present with difficult airways and also attempts to shed light on the aspects of securing an airway in anticipated and unanticipated difficult intubation. Objective The objective of the study was to compare the three procedures conducted during difficult airway/failed intubation situations. Methods The present retrospective observational study was conducted collecting data from patient files obtained at a tertiary healthcare center from 2013 to 2018. The difficult intubation cases were managed by ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeons. The study compared three methods: Cricothyrotomy, percutaneous dilation tracheostomy, and tracheostomy based on factors such as procedure duration, complications, and the instruments required for each procedure. Results The study enrolled 85 patients, 61 males and 24 females, aged between 30 and 70 years old. To perform cricothyrotomy, only a simple blade was required. Cricothyrotomy had the shortest operating time (4.1±3.1 minutes) and the shortest time of full oxygen saturation (3 min). Percutaneous tracheostomy had the least amount of bleeding (1%). Cricothyrotomy significantly showed the least intraoperative bleeding than percutaneous dilation, tracheostomy, and tracheostomy (p = 0.001). Conclusion Cricothyrotomy is preferable as it takes less time to perform, causes less bleeding, and takes the least time for full oxygen saturation than tracheostomy and percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy in "can't intubate, can't oxygenate" patients.

3.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 30: e2021_0499, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515071

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Traditional intermittent hypoxia training improves sport performance after short periods of exposure, but acute exposure to intermittent hypoxia leads to decreased training intensity and technical quality. The solution to overcome these negative effects may be to perform efforts in normoxia and the intervals between efforts in hypoxia, maintaining the quality of training and the benefits of hypoxia. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the acute physiological responses to hypoxia exposure during recovery between high intensity efforts. Materials and methods: Randomized, one-blind, placebo-controlled study. Sixteen men performed a graded exercise test to determine their maximal intensity and two sessions of high-intensity interval training. The training intervals could be in hypoxia (HRT), FIO2: 0.136 or normoxia (NRT), FIO2: 0.209. During the two-minute interval between the ten one-minute efforts, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate ([La]), blood glucose ([Glu]) were constantly measured. Results: There were differences in HR (TRN = 120 ± 14 bpm; TRH = 129 ± 13 bpm, p < 0.01) and SpO2 (TRN = 96.9 ± 1.0%; TRH = 86.2 ± 3.5%, p < 0.01). No differences in [La] and [Glu] TRN (4.4 ± 1.7 mmol.l-1; 3.9 ± 0.5 mmol.l-1) and TRH (5.2 ± 2.0 mmol.l-1; 4.0 ± 0.8 mmol.l-1, p = 0.17). Conclusion: The possibility of including hypoxia only in the recovery intervals as an additional stimulus to the training, without decreasing the quality of the training, was evidenced. Level of Evidence II; Randomized Clinical Trial of Minor Quality.


RESUMEN Introducción: El entrenamiento tradicional en hipoxia intermitente mejora el rendimiento deportivo tras cortos periodos de exposición, sin embargo, la exposición aguda a la hipoxia intermitente conduce a una disminución de la intensidad del entrenamiento y de la calidad técnica. La solución para superar estos efectos negativos puede ser realizar los esfuerzos en normoxia y los intervalos entre esfuerzos en hipoxia, manteniendo la calidad del entrenamiento y los beneficios de la hipoxia. Objetivo: Este estudio pretendía evaluar las respuestas fisiológicas agudas a la exposición a la hipoxia durante la recuperación entre esfuerzos de alta intensidad. Materiales y métodos: Estudio aleatorizado, a ciegas y controlado con placebo. Dieciséis hombres realizaron una prueba de ejercicio graduado para determinar su intensidad máxima y dos sesiones de entrenamiento por intervalos de alta intensidad. Los intervalos de entrenamiento podían ser en hipoxia (HRT), FIO2: 0,136 o normoxia (NRT), FIO2: 0,209. Durante el intervalo de dos minutos entre los diez esfuerzos de un minuto, se midieron constantemente la saturación periférica de oxígeno (SpO2), la frecuencia cardiaca (FC), el lactato en sangre ([La]) y la glucemia ([Glu]). Resultados: Hubo diferencias en la FC (TRN = 120 ± 14 lpm; TRH = 129 ± 13 lpm, p < 0,01) y la SpO2 (TRN = 96,9 ± 1,0%; TRH = 86,2 ± 3,5%, p < 0,01). No hubo diferencias en [La] y [Glu] TRN (4,4 ± 1,7 mmol.l-1; 3,9 ± 0,5 mmol.l-1) y TRH (5,2 ± 2,0 mmol.l-1; 4,0 ± 0,8 mmol.l-1, p = 0,17). Conclusión: Se evidenció la posibilidad de incluir hipoxia sólo en los intervalos de recuperación como estímulo adicional al entrenamiento sin disminuir la calidad del mismo. Nivel de Evidencia II; Ensayo Clínico Aleatorizado de Baja Calidad.


RESUMO Introdução: O treinamento de hipóxia intermitente tradicional melhora o desempenho esportivo após curtos períodos de exposição, porém a exposição aguda à hipóxia intermitente leva à diminuição da intensidade do treinamento e da qualidade técnica. A solução para superar esses efeitos negativos pode ser realizar esforços em normóxia e os intervalos entre os esforços em hipóxia, mantendo a qualidade do treinamento e os benefícios da hipóxia. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as respostas fisiológicas agudas à exposição de hipóxia durante a recuperação entre esforços de alta intensidade. Materiais e métodos: Estudo aleatório e one-blinded, com efeito placebo controlado. Dezesseis homens realizaram um teste de exercício graduado para determinar sua intensidade máxima e duas sessões de treinamento intervalado de alta intensidade. Os intervalos de treinamento podem ser em hipóxia (TRH), FIO2: 0,136 ou normóxia (TRN), FIO2: 0,209. Durante os dois minutos de intervalo entre os dez esforços de um minuto, foram medidos constantemente a saturação periférica de oxigênio (SpO2), frequência cardíaca (FC), lactato sanguíneo ([La]), glicemia ([Glu]). Resultados: Houve diferenças na FC (TRN = 120 ± 14 bpm; TRH = 129 ± 13 bpm, p <0,01) e SpO2 (TRN = 96,9 ± 1,0%; TRH = 86,2 ± 3,5%, p <0,01). Sem diferenças em [La] e [Glu] TRN (4,4 ± 1,7 mmol.l-1; 3,9 ± 0,5 mmol.l-1) e TRH (5,2 ± 2,0 mmol.l-1; 4,0 ± 0,8 mmol.l-1, p = 0,17). Conclusão: Evidenciou-se a possibilidade de incluir a hipóxia apenas nos intervalos de recuperação como um estímulo adicional ao treinamento, sem diminuir a qualidade do treinamento. Nível de Evidência II; Estudo Clínico Randomizado de Menor Qualidade.

4.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 80(4): 242-246, Jul.-Aug. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520285

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) values are used to make clinical decisions that might change a patient's prognosis, and it has been proposed as the fifth vital sign. This study aimed to determine the variation of SaO2 at different altitudes above sea level (ASL) in healthy Mexican full-term newborns. Methods: From July 2018 to June 2019, a cross-over study was conducted in six hospitals at different altitudes ASL in Mexico. SaO2 was measured in 4015 newborns after the first 24 h of birth and before leaving the hospital using pulse oximetry. We analyzed three groups: < 250 m ASL (group 1), 1500 m ASL (group 2), and 2250 m ASL (group 3). Results: The mean SaO2 was 97.6 ± 1.8%. For group 1, mean oxygen saturation was 98.2 ± 1.9%; for group 2, 96.7 ± 1.9%, and for group 3, 96.0 ± 2.1%. A statistically significant difference was observed among the groups (p < 0.001), and this difference was higher between groups 1 and 2 (1.5%, p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis showed a decrease in oxygen saturation of 1.01% for every 1000 m ASL. Conclusions: We demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in SaO2 levels at higher altitudes. This observation can be relevant for clinical decision-making based on pulse oximetry such as critical congenital heart disease screening in Mexico, where more than half of the population lives above 1500 m ASL.


Resumen Introducción: Los valores de SaO2 (saturación de oxígeno) se utilizan para la toma de decisiones clínicas que podrían cambiar el pronóstico del paciente. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la variación de la SaO2 en recién nacidos mexicanos a término sanos a diferentes altitudes en México. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal en seis hospitales situados a diferentes altitudes en México. Se determinó la SaO2 usando oximetría de pulso en 4015 recién nacidos después de las primeras 24 horas de vida, pero antes del egreso del hospital de nacimiento. Se formaron tres grupos para el análisis: grupo 1 con altitud < 250 m sobre el nivel del mar (SNM); grupo 2, altitud de 1500 m SNM y grupo 3, altitud de 2250 m SNM. Resultados: El promedio de la SaO2 fue de 97.6 ± 1.8%. Para el grupo 1, la media fue 98.2 ± 1.9%, para el 2, 96.7 ± 1.9% y para el 3, 96.0 ± 2.1%. Se observó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos (p < 0.001), que fue mayor entre los grupos 1 y 2 (1.5%, p < 0.001). El análisis de regresión lineal mostró una reducción de 1.01% en la SaO2 por cada 1000 m SNM. Conclusiones: Se demostró una disminución estadísticamente significativa de los valores de SaO2 conforme aumenta la altitud. Esto puede ser de particular relevancia en la toma de decisions clínicas basadas en la oximetría de pulso, como el tamiz neonatal cardiaco, sobre todo en México donde mas de la mitad de la población vive a una altitud superior a 1500 m SNM.

5.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 21: eAO0349, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520855

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend the use of face masks in public. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of face masks on pulse rate and partial blood oxygen saturation in patients without cardiorespiratory disorders. Methods A total of 150 volunteers of both sexes were divided into three groups (n=50) according to age (children, young adults, and older adults). The partial blood oxygen saturation and pulse rate were measured for each volunteer using a digital oximeter while wearing a facial mask and remaining at rest. The masks were removed for two minutes, and partial blood oxygen saturation and pulse rate were remeasured. The materials and types of masks used were recorded. The t -test for paired samples was used to compare the mean values obtained before and after removing the masks. Results The most frequently used mask was a two-layered cloth (64.7%). A decrease in pulse rate was observed after removing the face mask in males, particularly in children (p=0.006) and young adults (p=0.034). Partial blood oxygen saturation levels increased in young adult males after mask removal (p=0.01). Conclusion The two-layer cotton tissue face masks are associated with a higher pulse rate and reduced arterial blood oxygen saturation without associated clinical disorders, mainly in adult men with a lower tolerance to breathing and ear discomfort.

6.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 18(2): 37-39, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444103

ABSTRACT

En las alturas, sobre todo a 2500 metros sobre el nivel del mar, la cantidad absoluta de oxígeno va decreciendo y por lo tanto la cantidad disponible para el intercambio gaseoso disminuye, produciéndose una vasoconstricción hipóxica pulmonar (VHP). La VHP asociada a la hipoxia hipobárica de la altura produce un aumento de la presión pulmonar que es mayor en los lactantes y a mayores alturas. No hay valores únicos de saturación de oxígeno (SatO2) en la altura, porque ésta va disminuyendo según el mayor nivel de altura, aumenta con la edad, y la brecha entre la vigilia y sueño es grande (sobre todo en los primeros meses de vida). El 25% de los niños sanos que viven en altura tienen valores de SatO2 significativamente menores que el 75% restante. Los valores normales de los índices de apnea/hipopnea son distintos a los de nivel del mar. El edema pulmonar de las alturas es una patología frecuente, que se produce por un incremento desproporcionado en la VHP reflejando una hiperactividad del lecho vascular pulmonar ante la exposición aguda a la hipoxia hipobárica. Tiene cuatro fenotipos, es infrecuente en menores de 5 años y rara vez es mortal, la sospecha clínica y el manejo oportuno con oxigeno es la clave. Finalmente, en la altura los valores normales de la función pulmonar de la espirometría, oscilometría de impulso y capacidad de difusión son distintos que a nivel del mar.


At high altitude, especially > 2,500 meters above sea level, the absolute amount of oxygen decreases and therefore the amount available for gas exchange decreases, producing hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (VHP). VHP associated with high-altitude hypobaric hypoxia produces an increase in pulmonary pressure that is greater in infants and at higher altitudes. There are no single values of oxygen saturation (SatO2) at altitude, because it decreases with the highest level of altitude, increases with age, and the gap between wakefulness and sleep is large (especially in the first months of life). Around 25% of healthy children living at altitude have SatO2 values significantly lower than the remaining 75%. The normal values of the apnea/hypopnea indices are different from those at sea level. High altitude pulmonary edema is a frequent pathology that is produced by a disproportionate increase in VHP reflecting hyperactivity of the pulmonary vascular bed in the face of acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia, it has four phenotypes, it is uncommon in children under 5 years of age, and it is rarely fatal, the clinical suspicion and timely management with oxygen is the key. Finally, at high altitude, the normal values of lung function from spirometry, impulse oscillometry, and diffusing capacity are different from those at sea level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Pulmonary Edema/physiopathology , Altitude , Altitude Sickness/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests , Oxygen Saturation , Hypoxia/physiopathology
7.
J. bras. pneumol ; 49(3): e20220143, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421975

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: In view of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the objective of this study was to determine, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, whether the use of N95/FFP2 masks during aerobic exercise has a significant impact on HR, RR, SpO2, and blood pressure (BP) in healthy individuals. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE database for studies published in English between 2005 and 2021. To reduce bias and increase reliability, only randomized controlled trials and randomized crossover clinical trials were considered for inclusion. The selected outcomes included HR, RR, SpO2, and BP, with perceived exertion being evaluated by means of the Borg scale. Results: Eight controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. Seven evaluated HR (p > 0.05), five evaluated RR (p > 0.05), five evaluated SpO2 and BP (p > 0.05 for both), and six evaluated perceived exertion, presenting controversial results such as risk ratios that were grouped for each variable. Conclusions: This study suggests that N95 and FFP2 masks do not have significant effects on HR, RR, SpO2, and BP during aerobic exercise in healthy individuals.


RESUMO Objetivo: Diante da atual pandemia de COVID-19, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar, por meio de uma revisão sistemática e meta-análise, se o uso de máscaras N95/PFF2 durante o exercício aeróbico tem impacto significativo na FC, FR, SpO2 e pressão arterial (PA) em indivíduos saudáveis. Métodos: Buscamos no banco de dados MEDLINE estudos publicados em inglês entre 2005 e 2021. Para reduzir o viés e aumentar a confiabilidade, foram considerados para inclusão no estudo somente ensaios clínicos controlados randomizados e ensaios clínicos cruzados randomizados. Os desfechos selecionados foram FC, FR, SpO2 e PA; a percepção de esforço foi avaliada por meio da escala de Borg. Resultados: Oito ensaios controlados foram incluídos na meta-análise. Sete avaliaram FC (p > 0,05), cinco avaliaram FR (p > 0,05), cinco avaliaram SpO2 e PA (p > 0,05 para ambas) e seis avaliaram a percepção de esforço, com resultados controversos (razões de risco agrupadas para cada variável, por exemplo). Conclusões: Este estudo sugere que as máscaras N95 e PFF2 não têm efeitos significativos na FC, FR, SpO2 e PA durante o exercício aeróbico em indivíduos saudáveis.

8.
Chinese Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; (12): 26-31, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995525

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the correlation between intraoperative regional cerebral oxygen saturation(rScO 2) and nerve damage markers with postoperative neurological dysfunction(PND) in patients undergoing acute Stanford type A aortic dissection surgery. Methods:A total of 57 patients undergoing acute Stanford type A aortic dissection surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB) in the operating room of Henan Provincial Hospital from July 2020 to May 2021 were enrolled, regardless of gender, aged 35-64 years old, weighed 58.0-90.0 kg and with American Association of Anesthesiologists(ASA) classification status with Ⅱ-Ⅲ. A near infrared spectrometer(NIRS) was used to continuously monitor the bilateral rScO 2 of the patients during the surgery. Central venous blood was drawn 10 min before induction of anesthesia(T0), 10 min after induction of anesthesia(T1), immediately after CPB started(T2), when CPB ended(T3), at the end of the operation(T4), and when exiting ICU(T5), 1 day(T6), 2 days(T7) and 3 days(T8) after operation, and the levels of nerve injury marker S100 calcium binding protein(S100β protein) and neuron-specific enolase(NSE) in serum were measured. Follow up was performed on postoperative 3 to evaluate the occurrence of PND.The value of intraoperative rScO 2 and the concentrations serum S100β protein and NSE were compared between the PND group and the NND(NPND) group. The changes of intraoperative rScO 2 value, the concentrations of serum S100β protein and NSE between the PND group and NPND group were compared. The risk factors of PND and its correlation with the intraoperative rScO 2 value, and the concentrations of serum S100β protein and NSE were analyzed. The prognostic indicators of the two groups of patients were statistically analyzed. Results:Three patients were excluded from the study. A total of 12 patients(22.2%) developed PND(PND group), and 42 patients(77.8%) did not develop PND(NPND group) on postoperative 3 day. Compared with the NPND group, the minimum mean arterial pressure and the minimum rScO 2 during CPB were significantly decreased( P<0.05), the maximum da-rScO 2 during CPB was significantly increased( P<0.05), and duration of da-rScO 2>0.50, duration of da-rScO 2>0.40, duration of rScO 2 reduction >25%, rScO 2<0.50, rScO 2<0.40, during CPB were significantly prolonged( P<0.05) in the PND group. The levels of serum S100β and NSE in the PND group were significantly increased, compared with the NPND group at T2-8, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the reduction of rScO 2 more than 25%( P=0.033), during of rScO 2<0.40( P=0.007) and duration of da-rScO 2>0.50( P=0.001) during CPB were risk factors of PND. Conclusion:Compared with the NPND group, the postoperative mechanical ventilation time, duration of ICU stay, postoperative hospital stay and PND recovery time were significantly prolonged( P<0.05), and the medical expenses were increased significantly( P<0.05) in the PND group. The duration of the reduction of rScO 2>25%, the duration of rScO 2<0.40 and the duration of da-rScO 2>0.50 during CPB are the risk factors of PND in patients with acute Stanford type A aortic dissection under CPB. Significantly increased levels of serum nerve injury markers S100β and NSE are related to the occurrence of PND. The occurrence of PND has a significant adverse effect on the early clinical prognosis of patients.

9.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 540-546, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994225

ABSTRACT

Objective:To systematically review and evaluate the effect of intraoperative regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO 2) monitoring on perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PNDs) in elderly patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Methods:China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, China Biomedical Literature Database, China Science and Technology Journal Database, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science databases were searched from inception to October 2022 for randomized controlled trials involving the effects of intraoperative rSO 2 monitoring on PND in elderly patients underwent non-cardiac surgery. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of PND (1-7 days after surgery), and secondary outcome measures were intraoperative minimum rSO 2 (rSO 2min), intraoperative mean rSO 2 (rSO 2mean), maximum percentage of decrease (rSO 2% max) in rSO 2 from baseline (rSO 2baseline), and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale was used to evaluate the quality of references that met the inclusion criteria, and data were extracted for meta-analysis using RevMan5.4 software. Results:Thirteen randomized controlled trials were enrolled, involving 1 134 patients with 557 patients in experimental group (anesthesia under rSO 2 monitoring) and 577 patients in control group. The results of meta-analysis showed that the incidence of PND was significantly lower in experimental group than in control group ( RR=0.32, 95% confidence interval [ CI] 0.25-0.41, P<0.001), the intraoperative rSO 2min was significantly higher in experimental group than in control group ( MD=7.46, 95% CI 5.05-9.86, P<0.001), and the intraoperative rSO 2mean was significantly higher in experimental group than in control group ( MD=5.49, 95% CI 3.97-7.02, P<0.001), the intraoperative rSO 2% max was significantly lower in experimental group than in control group ( MD=-6.55, 95% CI-9.03--4.07, P<0.001), and the postoperative Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale score was significantly higher in experimental group than in control group ( MD=1.37, 95% CI 0.74-1.99, P<0.001). Conclusions:Intraoperative application of rSO 2 monitoring can reduce the occurrence of PND in elderly patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery.

10.
Chinese Journal of Postgraduates of Medicine ; (36): 684-689, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991076

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO 2) combined with neurophysiological blood pressure monitoring on brain protection and myocardial protection during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients with carotid stenosis and coronary heart disease. Methods:One hundred patients with carotid artery stenosis complicated with coronary heart disease treated in Jinhua Central Hospital from June 2021 to June 2022 were randomly divided into control group and experimental group. All patients were scheduled to undergo CEA. Fifty patients in the control group were administered with empirically increasing basic blood pressure by 20% - 30%, and 50 patients in the experimental group were administered with blood pressure under the guidance of rSO 2 combined with motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and somatosensory evoked potentials (EPS). The neurological function indexes of the two groups [neuron specific enolase (NSE), central nerve specific protein (S100-β)], myocardial function indicators [cardiac troponin I (cTnI), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)], clinical indicators (eye opening time, extubation time, recovery room stay time, hospital stay) and the incidence of postoperative complications [delirium (POD), cognitive dysfunction (POCD), neurological impairment] were compard between the two groups. Results:Two sets of postoperative NSE and S100-β both increased ( P<0.05), but NSE and S100 in the experimental group after surgery were lower than those in the control group: (0.82 ± 0.14) μg/L vs. (1.18 ± 0.28) μg/L, (290.13 ± 27.25) mg/L vs. (301.98 ± 28.56) mg/L, the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05). After surgery, cTnI and BNP increased in both groups ( P<0.05), but the cTnI and BNP in the experimental group were lower than those in the control group: (2.87 ± 0.74)] μg/L vs. (3.36 ± 0.83) μg/L, (3.01 ± 0.85) μg/L vs. (3.89 ± 0.92) μg/L, the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05). The opening time, extubation time, recovery room stay time, and hospitalization time in the experimental group were shorter than those in the control group: (16.79 ± 3.15) min vs. (20.55 ± 3.83) min, (29.38 ± 4.66) min vs. (40.14 ± 4.57) min, (66.82 ± 15.80) min vs. (89.35 ± 24.78) min, (11.24 ± 4.89) d vs. (14.56 ± 6.74) d, there were statistical differences ( P<0.05). The incidence of postoperative complications in the experimental group was lower than that in the control group: 12.00% (6/50) vs. 28.00% (14/50), there was statistical difference ( P<0.05). Conclusions:The application of rSO 2 combined with neurophysiological blood pressure monitoring in CEA of patients with carotid artery stenosis and coronary heart disease has a good effect, which has brain protection and myocardial protection, can shorten the recovery time of anesthesia and hospitalization time, and reduce the incidence of postoperative complications.

11.
Chinese Pediatric Emergency Medicine ; (12): 276-280, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990514

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the value of monitoring regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO 2) in the prognosis of comatose children in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods:A total of 127 coma children who admitted to PICU at Henan Children′s Hospital from January 2019 to September 2021 were collected and divided into mild[Glasgow coma score(GCS): 13-15], moderate(GCS: 9-12) and severe coma(GCS: 3-8) groups according to GCS.A cerebral oxygen monitor was used to monitor the rSO 2 of all children before treatment, and on the 3rd, 7th and 14th day after treatment.The outcomes were assessed according to the pediatric cerebral performance category (PCPC), and the children were divided into recovery group(PCPC score: 1), disability group(PCPC score: 2-4) and poor prognosis group(PCPC score: 5-6). Multiple linear regression and receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curve were used to analyze the correlation between rSO 2 and PCPC score. Results:rSO 2 in mild, moderate and severe coma groups before treatment were (78.06±3.21)%, (66.07±6.05)%, and (52.87±6.49)%, respectively ( F=209.263, P<0.05). rSO 2 before treatment was positively correlated with GCS( r=0.806, P<0.05). There were significant differences in rSO 2 among recovery group, disability group and poor prognosis group before treatment and that on the 3rd, 7th and 14th day after treatment ( P<0.05). Notably, rSO 2 in recovery group was higher than that in disability group, and rSO 2 in disability group was higher than that in poor prognosis group.The rSO 2 of three groups showed an increasing trend over time ( P<0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that rSO 2 on the 7th and 14th day of treatment were independent prognostic factors ( OR -0.042, 95% CI -0.082~0.003, P<0.05; OR -0.047, 95% CI -0.094~0.000, P<0.05). ROC analysis showed that rSO 2 on the 7th day of treatment had a relatively higher prognostic value for children in coma, and the area under the ROC curve for predicting the prognosis of abnormal brain function and no wakefulness were 0.741 and 0.746, respectively. Conclusion:Monitoring rSO 2 has predictive value for the prognosis of brain function of coma children in PICU, in which the prognostic value of rSO 2 on the 7th day after treatment is relatively higher and can be used as a reference index for prognosis assessment of coma children in PICU.

12.
China Tropical Medicine ; (12): 404-2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979700

ABSTRACT

@#Abstract: Objective To explore the clinical characteristics of nucleic acid negative newborns delivered by pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 (Omicron variant BA. 5.1.3) in Sanya area, and to provide evidence for understanding its clinical characteristics. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 14 neonates with negative nucleic acid delivered by pregnant women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (Omicron variant BA.5.1.3) in Sanya Central Hospital (the Third People's Hospital of Hainan Province) from June 2022 to September 2022 (observation group, n=14). The corresponding nucleic acid-negative newborns delivered by pregnant women detected negative with SARS-CoV-2 (Omicronon variant strain BA.5.1.3) were set as the control group (n=56), and the general data and clinical characteristics of neonates in the two groups were compared. Results There was no significant difference between the observation group and the control group in pregnancy diabetes, pregnancy induced hypertension, gestational pre-eclampsia, fetal intrauterine distress, premature rupture of membranes (P>0.05); there was no significant difference between the observation group and the control group in terms of sex, gestational age, birth weight, age, mode of delivery, birth Apgar score, heart screening, pulmonary disease, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, thalassemia, breast milk jaundice, hemolytic jaundice (P>0.05). The bilirubin level, blue light irradiation cases and the duration of blue light irradiation of the newborns in the observation group at 7 days after birth were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05); the ratio of blood oxygen saturation ≥ 90% in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (21.43% vs 89.29%, P<0.05), and the ratio of blood oxygen saturation occasionally<90% was higher than that in the control group (57.14% vs 10.71%, P<0.05). The ratio of blood oxygen saturation<90% had no significant difference compared with that in the control group (7.14% vs 0, P>0.05), and the ratio of blood oxygen saturation reduced to the required oxygen uptake was higher than that in the control group (14.29% vs 0, P<0.05). Conclusions The jaundice manifestation of the nucleic acid-negative newborns delivered by pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 (Omicronon variant strain BA.5.1.3) in Sanya area is relatively obvious, with blood oxygen saturation easily lower than 90% and even requiring oxygen inhalation in severe cases.

13.
International Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 55-60, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989316

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effects of game addiction disorders on brain cognitive control functions based on near-infrared spectroscopy.Methods:Thirteen subjects were screened according to the Online Game Addiction (OGA) Scale. The experimental paradigm was the stop-signal task. The relative concentration levels of oxyhemoglobin (HbO 2) and deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) in the prefrontal region of the brain during cognitive activity were collected using near-infrared spectroscopy to assess the cognitive control function of the subjects. Results:The game-addicted patients had lower keystroke accuracy in the stop-signal task than healthy subjects, and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05). Compared to healthy subjects, game-addicted patients had less activation in prefrontal areas and showed uncontrolled behavior and brain activity. Conclusions:Game addiction disorders impair brain cognitive control, which in turn triggers a weakening of cognitive control. The results of this study provide a reference for the prevention and treatment of game addiction.

14.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University(Medical Sciences) ; (6): 107-114, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005509

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 To investigate the predictive value of regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) monitoring during total aortic arch replacement and stent trunk surgery for perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) and changes in plasma S100β protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) concentrations and their relationship with PND. 【Methods】 Sixty-five Stanford type A aortic dissection patients who planned to undergo total aortic arch replacement and trunk stenting were selected. Their rScO2 values were monitored throughout the operation and recorded after induction (T1), the beginning of CPB (T2), during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (T3), rewarming to 36℃(T4), CPB stop for 1 hour (T5), and post-operation (T6). After induction (Ta), rewarming to 36℃ (Tb),1 h (Tc), 6 h (Td) and 24 h (Te) after cessation of cardiopulmonary bypass, central venous blood was collected from patients, and the concentrations of S100β protein and NSE in plasma were detected by ELISA. The patients were divided into PND group and non-PND group by the evaluation of MMSE scale at time of before operation, on the day of extubation, and 7 days after operation. 【Results】 The incidence of PND was 44.6%. The rScO2 value at T2 was significantly lower than that at T1 (P<0.05). The rScO2 value of PND group at T3 and T6 was significantly lower than that at T1 and non-PND group (P<0.05). The mean value of rScO2 and the minimum value of rScO2 in PND group were significantly lower than those in non-PND group, while rScO2 %max in PND group was significantly higher than that in non-PND group (P<0.05). The intraoperative critical value of rScO2 %max was >9.89%, the area under curve (AUC) was 0.658 (95% CI: 0.525-0.791, P<0.05), and sensitivity and specificity were 48.3% and 75.0%, respectively. The concentrations of S100β protein and NSE protein in PND group were significantly higher than those in non-PND group at Tc and Td (P<0.01). Compared with Ta, the concentration of S100β protein in PND group was significantly increased at Tc and Td (P<0.001), and the concentration of NSE protein was significantly increased at Tb-Te (P<0.01). CPB time was an independent risk factor for PND. 【Conclusion】 The occurrence of PND after total arch replacement and stenting may be related to the decrease of rScO2 and the increase of S100β protein and NSE protein. Intraoperative rScO2 %max >9.89% can be a potential predictor of PND.

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-219002

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute respiratory illness with fever and respiratory symptoms such as cough and shortness of breath comprise the main clinical presenta?ons of Corona virus disease (COVID-19).Clinical manifesta?ons in COVID-19 shows significant regional varia?ons. Objec?ve of the study: To study the demographic and clinical profiles of laboratory confirmed COVID-19 pa?ents in South India Methods: In this cross sec?onal study,pa?ents diagnosed with COVID-19 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reac?on (RT-PCR) test were taken up for the study.History of fever,throatpain,cough,breathlessness,malaise were taken.Blood pressure,respiratory rate,oxygen satura?on were recorded.Data on co-morbid illnessness like diabetes,hypertension,renal disease were also noted .All these were correlated to assess the clinical course of COVID-19 Results: Of the total 518 pa?ents,257(49.6%) pa?ents were in the age group of 46 to 65 years and 309 (59.7 %) pa?ents were males. History of fever was present in 349(67.38%) pa?ents and cough was present in 291 (56.17%) pa?ents. Throat pain and running nose was present in 291 (56.2%)and 110 (21.23%) pa?ents respec?vely. Heart rate was between 60 and 100 beats per minute in 472 (80.3%) of pa?ents and 102 (19.7%) pa?ents had respiratory distress with respiratory rate ?24. Oxygen satura?on was between 90-93% in 57 (9.85%) pa?ents and 87(16.8%) pa?ents were on oxygen support with 21(4.1%) pa?ents on non-invasive ven?la?on. A total of 291(56.2%) pa?ents were treated with steroids. Diabetes mellitus was present in 214(41.3%), hypertension in 150 (29%) pa?ents. Case fatality rate was 2.1% Conclusion: Severe disease and lower oxygen satura?on was associated with older age and co-morbid diseases par?cularly diabetes

16.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(6): 875-881, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420791

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Serum level of high-mobility group box 1 protein is reportedly correlated with the severity of obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: We tried to evaluate the possibility of using the serum high-mobility group box 1 protein level as a biologic marker in obstructive sleep apnea patients. Methods: We generated a chronic intermittent hypoxia murine model that reflected human obstructive sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea patients who underwent polysomnography were prospectively enrolled. Serum samples were obtained from mice and obstructive sleep apnea patients, and the serum high-mobility group box1 protein level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Serum high-mobility group box 1 protein level was 56.16 ± 30.33 ng/mL in chronic intermittent hypoxia and 18.63 ± 6.20 ng/mL in control mice (p<0.05). The mean apnea-hypopnea index and respiratory disturbance index values of enrolled obstructive sleep apnea patients were 50.35 ± 27.96 and 51.56 ± 28.53, respectively, and the mean serum high-mobility group box 1 protein level was 30.13 ± 19.97 ng/mL. The apnea-hypopnea index and respiratory disturbance index were not significantly correlated with the serum high-mobility group box 1 protein level (p>0.05). Instead, this protein level was significantly correlated with lowest arterial oxygen concentration (SaO2) (p<0.05). Conclusion: High-mobility group box 1 protein may be involved in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea, and the possibility of this protein being a useful biologic marker in obstructive sleep apnea should be further evaluated.


Resumo Introdução: O nível sérico da proteína de alta mobilidade do grupo Box-1 está relacionado com a gravidade da apneia obstrutiva do sono. Objetivo: Avaliar o uso do nível sérico da proteína de alta mobilidade do grupo Box-1 como um marcador biológico em pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono. Método: Geramos um modelo murino de hipóxia intermitente crônica que imita a apneia obstrutiva do sono em humanos. Pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono que fizeram polissonografia foram incluídos prospectivamente. Amostras de soro foram obtidas de camundongos e pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono e o nível sérico da proteína de alta mobilidade do grupo Box-1 foi medido por enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Resultados: O nível sérico da proteína de alta mobilidade do grupo Box-1 foi 56,16 ± 30,33 ng/mL em hipóxia intermitente crônica e 18,63 ± 6,20 ng/mL em camundongos controle (p < 0,05). Os valores médios do índice de apneia-hipopneia e do índice de distúrbio respiratório nos pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono foram 50,35 ± 27,96 e 51,56 ± 28,53, respectivamente, e o nível médio da proteína de alta mobilidade do grupo Box-1 foi 30,13 ± 19,97 ng/mL. O índice de apneia-hipopneia e o índice de distúrbio respiratório não foram significantemente associados com o nível da proteína de alta mobilidade do grupo Box-1 p> 0,05). Em vez disso, esse nível de proteína foi significantemente associado com o valor mais baixo da concentração arterial de oxigênio (SaO2) (p <0,05). Conclusão: A proteína de alta mobilidade do grupo Box-1 pode estar envolvida na patogênese da apneia obstrutiva do sono e a possibilidade de que essa proteína possa ser um marcador biológico útil na apneia obstrutiva do sono deve ser avaliada mais detalhadamente.

17.
Braz. dent. j ; 33(5): 26-34, Sep.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1403786

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different dental tissue thickness on the measurement of oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels in high (HP) and low (LP) blood perfusion by comparing the values obtained from two different pulse oximeters (POs) - BCI and Sense 10. Thirty freshly extracted human teeth had their crowns interposed between the POs and an optical simulator, which emulated the SpO2 and heart beats per minute (bpm) at HP (100% SpO2/75 bpm) and LP (86% SpO2/75 bpm) modes. Afterwards, the palatine/lingual surfaces of the dental crowns were worn with diamond drills. The reading of SpO2 was performed again using the POs alternately through the buccal surface of each dental crown. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and Kendall Tau-b tests (α=5%). The results showed significant difference at the HP and LP modes in the SpO2 readouts through the different dental thicknesses with the use of BCI, and at the LP mode with the use of Sense 10, which had a significant linear correlation (p<0.0001) and lower SpO2 readout values in relation to the increase of the dental thickness. Irrespective of tooth thickness, Sense 10 had significantly higher readout values (p<0.0001) than BCI at both perfusion modes. The interposition of different thicknesses of enamel and dentin influenced the POs measurement of SpO2, specially at the low perfusion mode. The POs were more accurate in SpO2 measurement when simulated perfusion levels were higher.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou a influência de diferentes espessuras de esmalte e dentina na medição dos níveis de saturação de oxigênio (SpO2) em alta (HP) e baixa (LP) perfusão sanguínea, comparando os valores obtidos em dois oxímetros de pulso (OPs) diferentes, BCI e Sense 10. Trinta dentes recém-extraídos de humanos tiveram suas coroas interpostas entre os OPs e um simulador óptico, que simulava a SpO2 e os batimentos cardíacos por minuto (bpm) nos modos de HP (100% SpO2 / 75 bpm) e LP (86% SpO2 / 75 bpm). Após, as superfícies palatinas / linguais dos dentes foram desgastadas com brocas de diamantadas. A leitura da SpO2 foi realizada novamente usando os dois OPs alternadamente através da face vestibular de cada coroa dental. Os dados foram analisados ​​pelos testes Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney e Kendall Tau-b (α = 5%). Os resultados mostraram diferença significativa nos modos HP e LP nas leituras de SpO2 através das diferentes espessuras dentárias com o uso do BCI, e no modo LP com o uso do Sense 10, que teve correlação linear significativa (p <0,0001) e menores valores de leitura de SpO2 em relação ao aumento da espessura dentária. Independentemente da espessura do dente, o Sense 10 apresentou valores de leitura significativamente maiores (p <0,0001) do que o BCI em ambos os modos de perfusão. A interposição de diferentes espessuras de esmalte e dentina influenciaram a mensuração da SpO2 pelos OPs, especialmente no modo de baixa perfusão. Os POs foram mais precisos na mensuração da SpO2 quando os níveis simulados de perfusão foram maiores.

18.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 34(2): 255-261, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394911

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Testar se, após um teste de oclusão venosa, a taxa de saturação tecidual de oxigênio é capaz de estimar a taxa de saturação venosa de oxigênio central. Métodos: Realizou-se estudo observacional em pacientes de unidade de terapia intensiva. A taxa de saturação tecidual de oxigênio foi monitorada a partir de um espectrômetro tecidual (InSpectra modelo 650, Hutchinson Technology Inc., MN, Estados Unidos) com uma sonda múltipla de 15mm e 25mm na posição tenar. Aplicou-se um teste de oclusão venosa no braço superior de voluntários para testar a tolerabilidade e o padrão de mudanças na taxa de saturação tecidual de oxigênio durante a realização do teste de oclusão venosa. Inflou-se um manguito de esfigmomanômetro a uma pressão 30mmHg maior que a pressão diastólica até que a taxa de saturação tecidual de oxigênio alcançasse um platô e o manguito fosse desinflado a 0mmHg. Os parâmetros da taxa de saturação tecidual de oxigênio foram classificados como em repouso e mínima ao final do teste de oclusão venosa. Nos pacientes, o manguito foi inflado a uma pressão 30mmHg maior que a pressão diastólica durante 5 minutos, que foi o tempo derivado dos voluntários, ou até que a taxa de saturação tecidual de oxigênio atingisse um platô. Os parâmetros da taxa de saturação tecidual de oxigênio foram classificados como em repouso e mínima, e o tempo médio que a taxa de saturação tecidual de oxigênio se igualou à de saturação venosa de oxigênio central. A taxa de saturação tecidual de oxigênio no tempo médio foi comparada à de saturação venosa de oxigênio central. Resultados: Todos os nove voluntários toleraram bem o teste de oclusão venosa. O tempo de tolerabilidade ou o platô da taxa de saturação tecidual de oxigênio foi de 7 ± 1 minutos. Estudamos 22 pacientes. O tempo médio para a equalização da taxa de saturação tecidual de oxigênio à de saturação venosa de oxigênio central foi de 100 segundos e 95 segundos, utilizando sondas de 15 e 25mm, respectivamente. A taxa de saturação tecidual de oxigênio em 100 segundos foi de 74% ± 7%, utilizando sonda de 15mm, e de 74% ± 6%, utilizando sonda de 25mm. Então, as taxas foram comparadas à taxa de saturação venosa de oxigênio central, que apresentou 75% ± 6%. A taxa de saturação tecidual de oxigênio em 100 segundos correlacionou-se com a de saturação venosa de oxigênio central (15mm: R2 = 0,63; 25mm: R2 = 0,67; p < 0,01) sem discrepância (Bland-Altman). Conclusão: A taxa de saturação venosa de oxigênio central pode ser estimada a partir da taxa de saturação tecidual de oxigênio, a partir de um teste de oclusão venosa.


ABSTRACT Objective: To test whether tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) after a venous occlusion test estimates central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2). Methods: Observational study in intensive care unit patients. Tissue oxygen saturation was monitored (InSpectra Tissue Spectrometer Model 650, Hutchinson Technology Inc., MN, USA) with a multiprobe (15/25mm) in the thenar position. A venous occlusion test in volunteers was applied in the upper arm to test the tolerability and pattern of StO2 changes during the venous occlusion test. A sphygmomanometer cuff was inflated to a pressure 30mmHg above diastolic pressure until StO2 reached a plateau and deflated to 0mmHg. Tissue oxygen saturation parameters were divided into resting StO2 (r-StO2) and minimal StO2 (m-StO2) at the end of the venous occlusion test. In patients, the cuff was inflated to a pressure 30mmHg above diastolic pressure for 5 min (volunteers' time derived) or until a StO2 plateau was reached. Tissue oxygen saturation parameters were divided into r-StO2, m-StO2, and the mean time that StO2 reached ScvO2. The StO2 value at the mean time was compared to ScvO2. Results: All 9 volunteers tolerated the venous occlusion test. The time for tolerability or the StO2 plateau was 7 ± 1 minutes. We studied 22 patients. The mean time for StO2 equalized ScvO2 was 100 sec and 95 sec (15/25mm probes). The StO2 value at 100 sec ([100-StO2] 15mm: 74 ± 7%; 25mm: 74 ± 6%) was then compared with ScvO2 (75 ± 6%). The StO2 value at 100 sec correlated with ScvO2 (15 mm: R2 = 0.63, 25mm: R2 = 0.67, p < 0.01) without discrepancy (Bland Altman). Conclusion: Central venous oxygen saturation can be estimated from StO2 during a venous occlusion test.

19.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-219020

ABSTRACT

Introduction : Globally healthcare systems are jeopardized due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A fast and simple triage is very important for effec?ve u?liza?on of health care resources. We propose a new tool is for severity assessment of pa?ents at the ini?al point of care. Objec?ve: To propose a scoring method for fast triage of COVID 19 pa?ents in predic?ng the level of care required by the pa?ent Methods: The SCIP score is for pa?ents who have been tested posi?ve for COVID-19. This scoring system is useful to segregate the pa?ents into different level of care based on values of clinical parameters like Pulse rate (PR), Respiratory rate (RR) and arterial blood oxygen satura?on. The risk score ranges from 1 to 10. Lower the score more severe is the disease and hence more intense care is warranted. Result: Preliminary observa?on of SCIP scoring criteria is based on ten pa?ents. On retrospec?ve analysis it was observed that the level of care required by the pa?ents was in correspondence with the score obtained by the SCIP formula. Conclusion: SCIP scoring system is an easy and rapid tool which may be helpful in early detec?on of severity and taking fast decision in the ?me of crisis due to COVID 19. Valida?on in more number of pa?ents is required to establish the findings.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-222347

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of five pre?treatment behaviour modification techniques in 4–7?year olds in reducing dental anxiety by evaluating pulse rate, partial pressure of oxygen, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, salivary flow rate, salivary pH, and through modified facial anxiety scale. Material and Methods: Using simple random sampling technique (drawing of lots), 125 children were equally distributed into 5 groups of 25 each: Group 1: tell?show?do (control); Group 2: tell?show?play?doh; Group 3: Playmobil Dentist; Group 4: mobile dentist games; Group 5: role play as dentist. Samples in each group were treated in a single appointment after using the behaviour modification techniques. Class I or Class II cavities were prepared on carious primary molar and restored using glass ionomer cement. Patient’s anxiety level was assessed by recording blood pressure, pulse rate, oxygen saturation, salivary pH, salivary flow rate, and facial anxiety scale at different time intervals, that is before the treatment, during the treatment, and after the treatment. Results: All the intervention Groups (Groups 2–5) showed reduced anxiety scores in both physiological and facial anxiety compared to the control group, that is tell, show do. The modified distraction techniques aid in better modification. Conclusion: Tell?show?play?doh, Playmobil dentist games, mobile dentist games and role play as dentist are effective distraction techniques as compared to conventional tell?show?do techniques which can be incorporated in day?to?day clinical practice to reduce dental anxiety in paediatric patients

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