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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 181-202, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881132

ABSTRACT

Urea transporters (UT) play a vital role in the mechanism of urine concentration and are recognized as novel targets for the development of salt-sparing diuretics. Thus, UT inhibitors are promising for development as novel diuretics. In the present study, a novel UT inhibitor with a diarylamide scaffold was discovered by high-throughput screening. Optimization of the inhibitor led to the identification of a promising preclinical candidate,

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 3869-3878, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922447

ABSTRACT

Disease-mediated alterations to drug disposition constitute a significant source of adverse drug reactions. Cisplatin (CDDP) elicits nephrotoxicity due to exposure in proximal tubule cells during renal secretion. Alterations to renal drug transporter expression have been discovered during nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), however, associated changes to substrate toxicity is unknown. To test this, a methionine- and choline-deficient diet-induced rat model was used to evaluate NASH-associated changes to CDDP pharmacokinetics, transporter expression, and toxicity. NASH rats administered CDDP (6 mg/kg, i.p.) displayed 20% less nephrotoxicity than healthy rats. Likewise, CDDP renal clearance decreased in NASH rats from 7.39 to 3.83 mL/min, renal secretion decreased from 6.23 to 2.80 mL/min, and renal CDDP accumulation decreased by 15%, relative to healthy rats. Renal copper transporter-1 expression decreased, and organic cation transporter-2 and ATPase copper transporting protein-7b increased slightly, reducing CDDP secretion. Hepatic CDDP accumulation increased 250% in NASH rats relative to healthy rats. Hepatic organic cation transporter-1 induction and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein-1 and multidrug resistance-associated protein-4 reduction may contribute to hepatic CDDP sequestration in NASH rats, although no drug-related toxicity was observed. These data provide a link between NASH-induced hepatic and renal transporter expression changes and CDDP renal clearance, which may alter nephrotoxicity.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 3608-3621, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922428

ABSTRACT

@#Drug transportation is impeded by various barriers in the hypoxic solid tumor, resulting in compromised anticancer efficacy. Herein, a solid lipid monostearin (MS)-coated CaO2/MnO2 nanocarrier was designed to optimize doxorubicin (DOX) transportation comprehensively for chemotherapy enhancement. The MS shell of nanoparticles could be destroyed selectively by highly-expressed lipase within cancer cells, exposing water-sensitive cores to release DOX and produce O2. After the cancer cell death, the core-exposed nanoparticles could be further liberated and continue to react with water in the tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) and thoroughly release O2 and DOX, which exhibited cytotoxicity to neighboring cells. Small DOX molecules could readily diffuse through ECM, in which the collagen deposition was decreased by O2-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor-1 inhibition, leading to synergistically improved drug penetration. Concurrently, DOX-efflux-associated P-glycoprotein was also inhibited by O2, prolonging drug retention in cancer cells. Overall, the DOX transporting processes from nanoparticles to deep tumor cells including drug release, penetration, and retention were optimized comprehensively, which significantly boosted antitumor benefits.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906205

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of notoginseng total saponins (TNS) on adriamycin (Adr) resistance in HepG2/Adr cells and the expression and activity of the mechanisms as the modulators of multi-drug resistance, so as to explore the possible mechanism of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways in reversing the resistance of HepG2/Adr cells mechanism. Method:Effect of TNS on HepG2/Adr cell proliferation was detected by thiazole blue (MTT) method. HepG2/Adr cells were treated with different concentrations (100, 50, 25, 0 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>) of TNS and (20 μmol·L<sup>-1</sup>) Adr respectively, and a blank group was set. The high-content screening platform was used to detect the accumulation of Adr in HepG2/Adr cells after 40 minutes, 3 hours and 6 hours. Western blot was used to detect the expression of P-glycoprotein /multidrug resistance/ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1(P-gp/MDR1/ABCB1) and other drug resistance-related proteins and the main protein expression of ERK/Akt signaling pathway. The change of MDR1 on cell membranes was observed by laser confocal microscopy. Result:Compared with HepG2 cells, the expression of MDR1 in HepG2/Adr cells was significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the Adr group, the half-inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>) of TNS (25, 50, 100 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>) and Adr (20 μmol·L<sup>-1</sup>) co-administration group on HepG2/Adr cells <italic>in vitro</italic> significantly reduced (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and the highest reversal multiple was 10 times. Compared with the Adr group, the co-administration group could significantly increase the accumulation of Adr in the cells (<italic>P</italic><0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the blank group, the co-administration group could significantly reduce MDR1, ABC semitransporter (ABCG2), multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP1), ERK, phosphorylated extracellular regulatory protein kinase (p-ERK), Akt, phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt), mammals, rapamycin target protein (mTOR) and phosphorylated mammalian rapamycin target protein (p-mTOR) (<italic>P</italic><0.05), with the same results in the doxorubicin group. Compared with the blank group, there was no significant difference in the distribution and fluorescence intensity of MDR1 on the cell membrane between the Adr group and the notoginseng total saponins (25 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>) group. Compared with the blank group and the doxorubicin group, TNS could significantly reduce the distribution of MDR1 on the cell membrane (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:TNS can inhibit the ERK/Akt pathway, reduce the expression of MDR1, and significantly increase the accumulation of doxorubicin in HepG2/Adr cells, which may be one of the mechanisms of notoginseng total saponins in reversing resistance.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2306-2325, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888864

ABSTRACT

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) strictly controls matter exchange between blood and brain, and severely limits brain penetration of systemically administered drugs, resulting in ineffective drug therapy of brain diseases. However, during the onset and progression of brain diseases, BBB alterations evolve inevitably. In this review, we focus on nanoscale brain-targeting drug delivery strategies designed based on BBB evolutions and related applications in various brain diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury and brain tumor. The advances on optimization of small molecules for BBB crossing and non-systemic administration routes (

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1789-1812, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888835

ABSTRACT

Due to its safety, convenience, low cost and good compliance, oral administration attracts lots of attention. However, the efficacy of many oral drugs is limited to their unsatisfactory bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract. One of the critical and most overlooked factors is the symbiotic gut microbiota that can modulate the bioavailability of oral drugs by participating in the biotransformation of oral drugs, influencing the drug transport process and altering some gastrointestinal properties. In this review, we summarized the existing research investigating the possible relationship between the gut microbiota and the bioavailability of oral drugs, which may provide great ideas and useful instructions for the design of novel drug delivery systems or the achievement of personalized medicine.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878930

ABSTRACT

The present study is to investigate the absorption characteristics of the main components in Polygonum orientale extract in normal and isoproterenol-induced myocardial ischemia model rats with everted intestinal sac models. Intestinal sac fluid samples were collected in different part of intestine(duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon) at different time after administration of different concentration of P. orientale extract(5.0,10.0, 20.0 mg·mL~(-1)). An UPLC-TQD method was employed for the determination of six components including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, protocatechuic acid, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercitrin in the intestinal sac samples. The absorption rate and cumulative absorption were calculated to analyze the intestinal absorption characteristics of six components in normal and myocardial ischemia model rats. The P-glycoprotein(P-gp) inhibitor was applied to investigate influence of intestinal absorption of six components in P. orientale extract. The results showed that the main absorption sites were concentrated on the duodenum at low concentration, while they were the colon at the medium concentration and the ileum at high concentration in control groups. In the condition of myocardial ischemia model, the main absorption sites focus on the ileum and jejunum at low concentration; the main absorption sites were in the ileum at the medium concentration and main absorption sites were the duodenum and ileum at high concentration. Compared with the normal group, the absorption rate and cumulative absorption of the six components significantly decreased in the model group. P-gp inhibitor markedly increased the absorption rate and cumulative absorption of six components in the model group, inferring that the 6 components may be the substrates of P-gp, and the mechanism needs further study. In this study, it is revealed that the six components of P. orientale extract can be absorbed into the intestinal sac, and it is an effective method to assess the intestinal absorption characteristics of P. orientale extract through everted intestinal sac model, providing data support for the clinical application and further development of P. orientale.


Subject(s)
Animals , Intestinal Absorption , Intestines , Isoproterenol , Myocardial Ischemia/chemically induced , Polygonum , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
9.
J Biosci ; 2020 Jul; : 1-10
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214260

ABSTRACT

Altered glucose uptake and metabolism is the key characteristic of cancer cells including hepatocellularcarcinoma (HCC). However, role of glucose availability in chemotherapeutic outcome of HCC is unclear. Thepresent study investigates the effect of glucose facilitated sensitization of HCC cells towards doxorubicin(DOX) and sorafenib (SORA). In HCC cells, we observed that hyperglycemic culture condition (HG) isassociated with increased sensitivity towards DOX and SORA. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a transporter involved indrug efflux, was elevated in HCC cells in NG, rendering them less susceptible to DOX and SORA. Further, thisstudy demonstrated that knockdown of dickkopf protein 4 (DKK4), a Wnt antagonist protein, causes enhancedglucose uptake and reduction in P-gp level rendering HCC cells in NG sensitive to DOX and SORA.Moreover, HG elevates the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which regulates P-gp.Alteration in intracellular ROS did not directly affect regulation of DKK4 in HCC cells. Functional assayssuggest that alterations in DKK4 and P-gp level in HCC cells are dependent on glucose availability andchanges in ROS level because of enhanced glucose utilization, respectively. Collectively, the present studyhighlights direct involvement of glucose-induced ROS, DKK4 and P-gp in altering the sensitivity of HCC cellstowards DOX and SORA.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-793161

ABSTRACT

@#Objective: To study the effects of vitamin C (VC) on reversing cisplatin (DDP) resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and the mechanism. Methods: Human OSCC CAL27 cells were cultured in vitro and DDP-resistant CAL27 cell line (CAL27/ DDP) was screened by increasing concentration gradient method. Plate clone formation assay, CCK-8, Wound healing assay, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining flow cytometry were used to determine the effects of DDP alone or in combination with VC on colony formation, proliferation, migration and apoptosis of CAL27/DDP cells. Western blotting was used to detect the expression level of P-gp protein in CAL27 cells, CAL27/DDP cells and VC treated CAL27/DDP cells. Results: The inhibition concentration (IC50) of DDP increased significantly in CAL27/DDP cells as compared with that in CAL27 cells (P<0.05), indicating CAL27/DDP was DDP-resistant.After the combination with VC, the IC50 of DDP on CAL27/DDP cells was significantly reduced compared with that of DDP alone (P<0.05). DDP combined with VC significantly inhibited the migration of CAL27/DDP cells (P<0.01), and promoted the apoptosis rate (P<0.01). The expression level of P-gp protein in CAL27/DDP cells was increased compared with that in CAL27 cells (P<0.05), but decreased after VC intervention (P<0.05). Conclusion: VC can reverse DDP-resistance in OSCC cells by inhibiting P-gp protein expression.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 327-343, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787625

ABSTRACT

Our recent studies demonstrated that the natural product nobiletin (NOB) served as a promising multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agent and improved the effectiveness of cancer chemotherapy . However, low aqueous solubility and difficulty in total synthesis limited its application as a therapeutic agent. To tackle these challenges, NOB was synthesized in a high yield by a concise route of six steps and fourteen derivatives were synthesized with remarkable solubility and efficacy. All the compounds showed improved sensitivity to paclitaxel (PTX) in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpressing MDR cancer cells. Among them, compound exhibited water solubility 280-fold higher than NOB. A drug-resistance A549/T xenograft model showed that at a dose of 50 mg/kg co-administered with PTX (15 mg/kg), inhibited tumor growth more effective than NOB and remarkably increased PTX concentration in the tumors P-gp inhibition. Moreover, Western blot experiments revealed that inhibited expression of NRF2, phosphorylated ERK and AKT in MDR cancer cells, thus implying of multiple mechanisms to reverse MDR in lung cancer.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 33-41, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781552

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is an infection-induced systemic inflammatory syndrome. The immune response in sepsis is characterized by the activation of both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. When sepsis occurs, the expression and activity of many inflammatory cytokines are markedly affected. Xenobiotic receptors are chemical-sensing transcription factors that play essential roles in the transcriptional regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). Xenobiotic receptors mediate the functional crosstalk between sepsis and drug metabolism because the inflammatory cytokines released during sepsis can affect the expression and activity of xenobiotic receptors and thus impact the expression and activity of DMEs. Xenobiotic receptors in turn may affect the clinical outcomes of sepsis. This review focuses on the sepsis-induced inflammatory response and xenobiotic receptors such as pregnane X receptor (PXR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), DMEs such as CYP1A, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4, and drug transporters such as p-glycoprotein (P-gp), and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRPs) that are affected by sepsis. Understanding the xenobiotic receptor-mediated effect of sepsis on drug metabolism will help to improve the safe use of drugs in sepsis patients and the development of new xenobiotic receptor-based therapeutic strategies for sepsis.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-850704

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the anti-tumor effect of Ligusticum chuanxiong volatile oil in combination with temozolomide (TMZ) in the treatment of glioma, and illuminate its possible mechanism. Methods: After C6 glioma animal model was successfully finished, changes of body weight, survival status, tumor volume, and the tumor inhibition rate of rats were detected in the TMZ group and the compatibility group of the volatile oil of L. chuanxiong and TMZ. The concentration of TMZ in the internal and external fluids of U87-MG cells was measured by HPLC after the administration of TMZ and the combination of volatile oil of L. chuanxiong and TMZ, and the differences of the content were analyzed statistically. Western blotting was used to study the effects of TMZ monotherapy, L. chuanxiong volatile oil and TMZ on the expression of P-gp protein of U87-MG cells.Results: Compared with TMZ group, the tumor volume of rats in the compatibility group was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), which was positively correlated with the amount of volatile oil. At the same time, the weight gain of the rats in the compatibility group was increased and the survival status was better. Volatile oil of L. chuanxiong can promote the entry of TMZ into U87-MG cells, and with the increase concentration of volatile oil, the promoting effect was stronger. Volatile oil at 6.25 × 10-3 μL/mL can significantly increase the accumulation of TMZ in the internal fluid (P < 0.05). Western blotting analysis showed that P-gp expressions of cells treated with combination treatment with TMZ (20 μg/mL) and volatile oil [(3.125 × 10-3), (6.25 × 10-3) μL/mL] were markedly down-regulated (P < 0.01), when compared with TMZ group. Conclusion: The volatile oil of L. chuanxiong can promote TMZ entry into glioma cells and then enhance TMZ-induced anticancer efficiency in vivo by inhibiting P-gp expression.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776839

ABSTRACT

Herein, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of kaempferol on bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of nifedipine and its metabolite dehydronifedipine in rats. The experimental design is based on with or without kaempferol in the oral and intravenous administration of nifedipine in rats. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic parameters including nifedipine and dehydronifedipine were evaluated in rats.The in vitro studies ofkaempferol were investigated on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity. Kaempferol reduced a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC) of 8.6 μmol·L on CYP3A4 enzyme activity. Moreover, kaempferol clearly improved the cell internalization of rhodamine-123 in MCF-7/ADR cells overexpressing P-gp. Depending on increased concentrations of kaempferol, the areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and the peak concentration (C) of nifedipine were increased after oral and intravenous administration. Moreover, the absolute bioavailability (AB) and relative bioavailability (RB) of nifedipine in the presence of kaempferol was significantly higher than those of the control group after oral and intravenous administration. Improvement of bioavailability of nifedipine by kaempferol may be mainly because of the inhibition of the P-gp-mediated efflux transporter in the small intestine and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism in the small intestine or liver, or both.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776607

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the potential mechanisms that curcumin reverses 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) multidrug resistance (MDR).@*METHODS@#Cell growth and the inhibitory rate of curcumin (2-25 μg/mL) and/or 5-FU (0.05-1000 μg/mL) on human colon cancer HCT-8 and HCT-8/5-FU (5-FU-resistant cell line) were determined using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle after 5-FU and/or curcumin treatment were detected by flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The expression of the multidrug resistance related factors p-glycoprotein (P-gp) and heat shock protein 27 (HSP-27) genes and proteins were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting (WB), respectively.@*RESULTS@#The inhibitory rate of curcumin or 5-FU on HCT-8 and HCT-8/5-FU cells proliferation at exponential phase were in a dosedependent manner, HCT-8 cell line was more sensitive to curcumin or 5-FU when compared the inhibitory rate of HCT-8/5-FU. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC) of combination 5-FU and curcumin (4.0 μg/mL) in HCT-8/5-FU was calculated as 179.26 μg/mL, with reversal fold of 1.85. Another IC of combination 5-FU and curcumin (5.5 μg/mL) in HCT-8/5-FU was calculated as 89.25 μg/mL, with reversal fold of 3.71. Synergistic effect of 5-FU and curcumin on HCT-8 and HCT-8/5-FU cells were found. The cell cycle analysis performed by FCM showed that HCT-8 and HCT-8/5-FU cells mostly accumulated at G/G phase, which suggested a synergistic effect of curcumin and 5-FU to induce apoptosis. FCM analysis found that the percentage of apoptosis of cells treated with curcumin, 5-FU and their combination were significantly increased compared to the control group (P<0.05), and the percentage of apoptosis of the combination groups were slightly higher than other groups (P<0.05). The mRNA levels of P-gp (0.28±0.02) and HSP-27 (0.28±0.09) in HCT-8/5-FU cells treated with combination drugs were lower than cells treated with 5-FU alone (P-gp, 0.48±0.07, P=0.009; HSP-27, 0.57±0.10, P=0.007). The protein levels of P-gp (0.25±0.06) and HSP-27 (0.09±0.02) in HCT-8/5-FU cells treated with combination drugs were decreased when compared to 5-FU alone (P-gp, 0.46±0.02, P=0.005; HSP-27, 0.43±0.01, P=0.000).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Curcumin can inhibit the proliferation of human colon cancer cells. Curcumin has the ability of reversal effects on the multidrug resistance of human colon cancer cells lines HCT-8/5-FU. Down-regulation of P-gp and HSP-27 may be the mechanism of curcumin reversing the drug resistance of HCT-8/5-FU to 5-FU.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 19-35, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775006

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the coamorphous drug delivery system has been established as a promising formulation approach for delivering poorly water-soluble drugs. The coamorphous solid is a single-phase system containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and other low molecular weight molecules that might be pharmacologically relevant APIs or excipients. These formulations exhibit considerable advantages over neat crystalline or amorphous material, including improved physical stability, dissolution profiles, and potentially enhanced therapeutic efficacy. This review provides a comprehensive overview of coamorphous drug delivery systems from the perspectives of preparation, physicochemical characteristics, physical stability, and performance. Furthermore, the challenges and strategies in developing robust coamorphous drug products of high quality and performance are briefly discussed.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 316-323, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774984

ABSTRACT

Previously, we reported that Y, a new epigallocatechin gallate derivative, is efficacious in reversing doxorubicin (DOX)--mediated resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7404/DOX cells. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of Y in reversing drug resistance both and by determining its effect on the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette protein B1 transporter (ABCB1 or P-glycoprotein, P-gp). Our results showed that Y significantly sensitized cells overexpressing the ABCB1 transporter to anticancer drugs that are ABCB1 substrates. Y significantly stimulated the adenosine triphosphatase activity of ABCB1. Furthermore, Y exhibited a higher docking score as compared with epigallocatechin gallate inside the transmembrane domain of ABCB1. In addition, in the nude mouse tumor xenograft model, Y (110 mg/kg, intragastric administration), in combination with doxorubicin (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection), significantly inhibited the growth of BEL-7404/DOX cell xenograft tumors, compared to equivalent epigallocatechin gallate. In conclusion, Y significantly reversed ABCB1-mediated multidrug resistance and its mechanisms of action may result from its competitive inhibition of the ABCB1 drug efflux function.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 615-625, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774966

ABSTRACT

Multidrug resistance (MDR) has been considered as a huge challenge to the effective chemotherapy. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new strategies to effectively overcome MDR. Here, based on the previous research of -(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) polymer-drug conjugates, we designed an effective system that combined drug-efflux circumvention and mitochondria targeting of anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox). Briefly, Dox was modified with mitochondrial membrane penetrating peptide (MPP) and then attached to (HPMA) copolymers (P-M-Dox). Our study showed that macromolecular HPMA copolymers successfully bypassed drug efflux pumps and escorted Dox into resistant MCF-7/ADR cells endocytic pathway. Subsequently, the mitochondria accumulation of drugs was significantly enhanced with 11.6-fold increase by MPP modification. The excellent mitochondria targeting then resulted in significant enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as reduction of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, which could further inhibit drug efflux and resistant cancer cell growth. By reversing Dox resistance, P-M-Dox achieved much better suppression in the growth of 3D MCF-7/ADR tumor spheroids compared with free Dox. Hence, our study provides a promising approach to treat drug-resistant cancer through simultaneous drug efflux circumvention and direct mitochondria delivery.

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 659-674, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774953

ABSTRACT

Precision medicine is a rapidly-developing modality of medicine in human healthcare. Based on each patient׳s unique characteristics, more accurate dosages and drug selection can be made to achieve better therapeutic efficacy and less adverse reactions in precision medicine. A patient׳s individual parameters that affect drug transporter action can be used to develop a precision medicine guidance, due to the fact that therapeutic efficacy and adverse reactions of drugs can both be affected by expression and function of drug transporters on the cell membrane surface. The purpose of this review is to summarize unique characteristics of human breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP) and the genetic variability in the BCRP encoded gene in the development of precision medicine. Inter-individual variability of BCRP/ can impact choices and outcomes of drug treatment for several diseases, including cancer chemotherapy. Several factors have been implicated in expression and function of BCRP, including genetic, epigenetic, physiologic, pathologic, and environmental factors. Understanding the roles of these factors in controlling expression and function of BCRP is critical for the development of precision medicine based on BCRP-mediated drug transport.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-705334

ABSTRACT

α-Hederagenin (H), derived from Hedera nepalensis var.sinensis, is a pentacyclic oleane-type triterpenoid that exhibits clear cytotoxicity to different tumor cell lines.In this study,a series of novel C-28 derivatives of hederagenin (H) were designed and synthesized in attempt to develop potent tumor resistance reverse activities agents. Previous research showed that H6 displayed robust reverse activity for paclitaxel resistance in KBV cells. Importantly, Co-treatment of paclitaxel with H6 significantly reduced the tumor weight to 42%. Pleasingly, H6 enhanced the efficacy of paclitaxel against KBV cancer cell-derived xenograft tumors in nude mice.Mechanism studies had found that H6 activated permeability glycoprotein(P-gp)ATPase,reduced intracellular ATP levels and inhibited efflux of P-gp substrates,thus enhancing the antitumor activity of paclitaxel on KBV cells.Molecular docking analysis of homology P-gp and H6 then conducted using the Surflex-Dock module.H6 showed a high binding affinity docking score with a total score of 5.4148,much higher than that of H(0.1414).The nov-el C-28 derivatives of H was synthesized from H6 via three-step reaction. The reversal activity of all synthesized H derivatives were tested using the MTT assay.The results showed that the derivatives of nitrogen groups at C-28 displayed same even potent activity than parent compound H6.In addition,its underlying mechanism of action and in vivo activity are in explore.

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