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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252676, 2024. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364501

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is the foremost reason of progressive hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, with an elevated risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Medicinal plants have been used for human health benefits for several years, but their therapeutic potential needs to be explored. The main objective of this study was to figure out the in vitro antiviral and anticancer characteristics of total crude protein of Iberis gibraltarica against HCV and HCC. Total crude protein of Iberis gibraltarica was isolated and quantified. The level of cytotoxicity was measured against the HepG2 cell line and it shows no significant cytotoxicity at the concentration of 504µg/ml. The anti-HCV effect was determined by absolute quantification via real time RT-PCR method and viral titer was reduced up to 66% in a dose dependent manner against the total protein of Iberis gibraltarica. The anticancer potential of Iberis gibraltarica was also examined through mRNA expression studies of AFP and GPC3 genes against the total protein of Iberis gibraltarica-treated HepG2 cells. The results show up to 90% of the down-regulation expression of AFP and GPC3. The obtained results indicate the therapeutic potential of total protein of Iberis gibraltarica against HCV and hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro.


A infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é a principal causa de fibrose hepática progressiva e cirrose, com risco elevado de desenvolvimento de carcinoma hepatocelular (HCC). As plantas medicinais vêm sendo utilizadas para benefícios à saúde humana há vários anos, mas seu potencial terapêutico precisa ser explorado. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi descobrir as características antivirais e anticancerígenas in vitro da proteína bruta total de Iberis gibraltarica contra HCV e HCC. A proteína bruta total de Iberis gibraltarica foi isolada e quantificada. O nível de citotoxicidade foi medido contra a linha celular HepG2 e não apresenta citotoxicidade significativa na concentração de 504µg/ml. O efeito anti-HCV foi determinado por quantificação absoluta através do método RT-PCR em tempo real e o título viral foi reduzido em até 66% de forma dose-dependente contra a proteína total de Iberis gibraltarica. O potencial anticancerígeno de Iberis gibraltarica também foi examinado através de estudos de expressão de mRNA dos genes AFP e GPC3 contra a proteína total de células HepG2 tratadas com Iberis gibraltarica. Os resultados mostram até 90% da expressão de regulação negativa de AFP e GPC3. Os resultados obtidos indicam o potencial terapêutico da proteína total de Iberis gibraltarica contra HCV e carcinoma hepatocelular in vitro.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Therapeutics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256923, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360219

ABSTRACT

Naturally occurring mutations in morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are associated with decreased ovulation rate (OR), litter size (LS), and sterility. It is of a great interest to elucidate BMP15 gene in Cholistani sheep breed to uplift socio-economic status and the knowledge of Cholistani sheep breeding in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. In our study, a total of 50 infertile Cholistani sheep aged between 2-6 years and having no blood relation were screened for BMP15 mutations. For this purpose, a high-quality DNA was extracted from the blood of sheep followed by primer designing, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification, DNA sequencing, and in silico analyses. Out of total 50 samples, 9 samples including case 1 (T3), case 2 (T8), case 3 (T17), case 4 (T22), case 5 (T25), case 6 (T33), case 7 (T40), case 8 (T44), and case 9 (T47) were found positive for a variety of already reported and novel BMP15 mutations. Further in silico analyses of the observed mutations have shown the functional impact of these mutations on different characteristics (molecular weight, theoretical PI, estimated half-life, instability index, sub-cellular localization, and 3D confirmation) of the encoded proteins, possibly altering the normal functionality. In a nutshell, findings of this study have confirmed the possible essential role of the BMP15 mutations in the infertility of the Cholistani sheep.


Mutações de ocorrência natural na proteína morfogenética 15 (BMP15) estão associadas à diminuição da taxa de ovulação (TO), tamanho da ninhada (TN) e esterilidade. Estudar a BMP15 na raça Cholistani para elevar o status socioeconômico e o conhecimento da criação de ovinos Cholistani no sul de Punjab, Paquistão. Em nosso estudo, 50 ovelhas Cholistani inférteis sem parentesco sanguíneo foram rastreadas para mutações BMP15. Para tanto, um DNA de alta qualidade foi extraído do sangue dessas ovelhas, seguido de concepção do primer, amplificação da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR), sequenciamento de DNA e análises in silico. Do total de 50 amostras, 9, incluindo caso 1 (T3), caso 2 (T8), caso 3 (T17), caso 4 (T22), caso 5 (T25), caso 6 (T33), caso 7 (T40), caso 8 (T44) e caso 9 (T47), foram consideradas positivas para uma variedade de mutações BMP15 novas e já relatadas. Mais análises in silico das mutações observadas mostraram o impacto funcional dessas mutações em diferentes características (peso molecular, PI teórico, meia-vida estimada, índice de instabilidade, localização subcelular e confirmação 3D) das proteínas codificadas, possivelmente alterando a funcionalidade normal. Nossos achados confirmaram o possível papel essencial das mutações BMP15 na infertilidade de ovelhas Cholistani.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep , Infertility , Mutation/genetics
3.
Health sci. dis ; 24(1): 1-5, 2023. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1411406

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Au Mali, le dépistage de certains virus tels que la dengue, Zika et la fièvre de la vallée du Rift n'est pas systématique au centre national de transfusion sanguine (CNTS). Le risque peut être considérable en raison de leurs courtes périodes de virémie asymptomatique dans la population dont l'incidence est variable et parfois extrêmement élevée. Cette étude avait pour objectif d'explorer la possibilité de transmission de certains arbovirus à travers le don de sang au CNTS de Bamako. Méthodes. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, de juillet 2019 à juin 2020 à Bamako. Au total deux cents (200) donneurs de sang du CNTS ont été inclus. Les examens ont été réalisés au Centre d'Infectiologie Charles Mérieux (CICM) de Bamako avec le dépistage du génome des virus responsables de la Dengue, de la fièvre de la Vallée du Rift, et du Zika à l'aide de la technique de la RT-PCR en temps réel. Le Test de Dépistage Rapide (TDR) a été utilisé pour la détection des anticorps IgG et IgM spécifiques de la Dengue. Résultats. Le sexe masculin représente 84% (168/200). Le TDR a détecté 4,5% (9/200) de Dengue IgG positifs et aucun cas de Dengue IgM positif. La technique de RT-PCR n'a détecté aucun des trois virus. Conclusion. Cette étude prouve que le risque de transmission de certains arbovirus à travers le don de sang existe, mais il semble être minime au CNTS de Bamako


Background. In Mali, screening for certain viruses such as dengue, Zika, and Rift Valley fever is not systematic at the national blood transfusion center (CNTS). The risk can be considerable due to their short periods of asymptomatic viremia in the population with variable and sometimes extremely high incidence. The objective of this study was to explore the possibility of transmission of certain arboviruses through blood donation at the CNTS of Bamako. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study, from July 2019 to June 2020 in Bamako. A total of two hundred (200) blood donors from the CNTS were included. The examinations were performed at the Centre d'Infectiologie Charles Mérieux (CICM) in Bamako with the screening of the genome of viruses responsible for Dengue, Rift Valley fever, and Zika using the real-time RT-PCR technique. The Rapid Screening Test (RST) was used for the detection of Dengue-specific IgG and IgM antibodies. Results. Male sex represented 84% (168/200). The RDT detected 4.5% (9/200) of IgG positive Dengue and no IgM positive Dengue cases. The RT-PCR technique did not detect any of the three viruses. Conclusion. This study proves that the risk of transmission of certain arboviruses through blood donation exists, but it seems to be minimal at the CNTS of Bamako.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Arboviruses , Rift Valley Fever , Blood Donors , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Dengue , Zika Virus , Polymerase Chain Reaction
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251671, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345526

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan infection affecting both human and animals in almost all parts of the world. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles and elephants. This review paper was designed to address the effect of this economically important disease in countries on the Red Sea, especially in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, and Saudi Arabia during the period 2010 to 2020. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis is different between these countries due to different types of diagnostic methods (Giemsa-stained blood smears, Hematocrit centrifugation, Serological test, and molecular analysis PCR) used and differential distribution of vector (Tse tse) flies. In current review, retrospective studies of published literature on distribution and prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries was conducted [Google Scholar and PubMed were used to retrieve the published literature from 2000-2020. A total of 77 published articles met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed. A total of 16 reports have been reported on the prevalence and distribution of Trypnosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries have been from 2010-2020]. According to the published literature, we can say that trypanosomiasis in camels are more prevalent in Sudan than in other countries, followed by 17% and 51.78% in both clinical and non-clinical cases. Hence, the reliable diagnostic tests should be used for rapid treatment or control of the disease as if not treated appropriately in early-stage, can lead to death of the camels.


Resumo A tripanossomíase é uma infecção por protozoário que afeta humanos e animais em quase todas as partes do mundo. Pode afetar grande variedade de hospedeiros domésticos e selvagens, incluindo camelídeos, equinos, gado, búfalos, ovelhas, cabras, porcos, cães e outros carnívoros, veados, gazelas e elefantes. Este artigo de revisão foi elaborado para abordar o efeito dessa doença economicamente importante em países do mar Vermelho, especialmente Egito, Sudão, Somália e Arábia Saudita, durante o período de 2010 a 2020. A prevalência de tripanossomíase é diferente entre esses países devido a tipos distintos de métodos diagnósticos (esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa, centrifugação de hematócrito, teste sorológico e PCR de análise molecular) usados ​​e distribuição diferencial de moscas vetoras (tsé-tsé). Na revisão atual, foram realizados estudos retrospectivos da literatura publicada sobre distribuição e prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho [Google Scholar e PubMed foram usados ​​para recuperar a literatura publicada de 2000 a 2020. Um total de 77 artigos publicados preencheu os critérios de elegibilidade e foi revisado. E há também 16 relatos sobre a prevalência e distribuição da infecção por Trypnosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho, de 2010 a 2020]. De acordo com a literatura publicada, podemos afirmar que a tripanossomíase em camelos é mais prevalente no Sudão do que em outros países, seguida por 17% e 51,78% em casos clínicos e não clínicos. Assim, os testes diagnósticos confiáveis ​​devem ser utilizados para o tratamento rápido ou controle da doença, pois, se eles não forem tratados de forma adequada na fase inicial, isso pode levar à morte dos camelos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Trypanosomiasis/diagnosis , Trypanosomiasis/veterinary , Trypanosomiasis/epidemiology , Deer , Cattle , Sheep , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Indian Ocean , Horses
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247181, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339388

ABSTRACT

Abstract The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Resumo Os protozoários incluem muitos patógenos humanos intracelulares. A detecção acurada desses patógenos é necessária para tratar as doenças. Na epidemiologia clínica, a identificação molecular de protozoários é considerada o método de identificação mais confiável e rápido do que a microscopia. Entre esses protozoários, o Cryptosporidium é considerado um dos importantes patógenos zoonóticos transmitidos pela água e uma das principais causas de uma doença diarreica denominada criptosporidiose em humanos, animais domésticos e selvagens. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar Cryptosporidium em zoofelídeos (N = 56) pertencentes a diferentes zoológicos da China, mas acidentalmente Colpodella foi encontrada na amostra de zoofelídeos e os dados filogenéticos confirmaram essa amplificação inesperada de amostras fecais usando nested-PCR em duas etapas. A análise filogenética revelou o fato sobre os primers específicos usados ​​anteriormente por muitos pesquisadores e a amplificação entre gêneros. Ficamos sabendo que o amplicon sequenciado geneticamente fornece uma identificação mais acurada das espécies. Este estudo sugere mais investigação sobre Colpodella, que foi negligenciada anteriormente, mas ganha a atenção dos pesquisadores depois de identificada em humanos e animais e é conhecida por se correlacionar com sintomas neurológicos em pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Phylogeny , China , Feces , Genotype
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246385, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339384

ABSTRACT

Abstract Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although remain controversial, several studies have demonstrated the association of M. pneumoniae infections with atherosclerosis. We evaluated the possible association of mycoplasma infections in patients diagnosed with atherosclerosis by ELISA and PCR methods. Atherosclerotic tissue samples and blood samples were collected for the detection of mycoplasma antibodies (IgA) by ELISA from the 97 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). M. pneumoniae specific IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by using the Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA/IgG/IgM ELISA. Detection of M. pneumoniae targeting the P1 adhesion gene was performed by PCR Acute infection of M. pneumoniae was diagnosed in 43.3% (42) of patients by PCR. The M. pneumoniae specific antibodies were detected in 36.1% (35) of patients. Twenty-five (25.8%) cases had IgG antibodies, 15 (15.5%) cases had IgM antibodies, 3 (3.1%) cases had IgA antibodies, 10 (10.3%) cases had both IgM + IgG antibodies and 1 (1%) case of each had IgM + IgA and IgG + IgA antibodies. None of the cases was positive for all three antibodies. A Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed an excellent correlation between the PCR and the serological results (r=0.921, p<0.001). A majority (17, 40.5%) of the M. pneumoniae positive patients are within the 41-50 years of age group, followed by 10 (23.8%) patients in the age group of 61-70 years and 2 (4.8%) patients were >70 years of age. Our study reported an unusually higher prevalence of M. pneumoniae by serological tests (36.1%) and PCR (43.3%). Although the hypothesis of the association of M. pneumoniae and CAD is yet to be proven, the unusually high prevalence of M. pneumoniae in CAD patients indicates an association, if not, in the development of atherosclerosis.


Resumo A doença coronariana (DCC) tem sido associada a significativa morbidade e mortalidade em todo o mundo. Embora ainda sejam controversos, vários estudos têm demonstrado a associação de infecções por M. pneumoniae com aterosclerose. Avaliamos a possível associação de infecções por micoplasma em pacientes com diagnóstico de aterosclerose pelos métodos ELISA e PCR. Amostras de tecido aterosclerótico e amostras de sangue foram coletadas para a detecção de anticorpos contra micoplasma (IgA) por ELISA de 97 pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC). IgA, IgG e IgM específicos para M. pneumoniae foram medidos usando o Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA / IgG / IgM ELISA. A detecção de M. pneumoniae visando o gene de adesão P1 foi realizada por PCR. A infecção aguda por M. pneumoniae foi diagnosticada em 43,3% (42) dos pacientes pela PCR. Os anticorpos específicos para M. pneumoniae foram detectados em 36,1% (35) dos pacientes. Vinte e cinco (25,8%) casos tinham anticorpos IgG, 15 (15,5%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM, 3 (3,1%) casos tinham anticorpos IgA, 10 (10,3%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM + IgG e 1 (1%) caso de cada um tinha anticorpos IgM + IgA e IgG + IgA. Nenhum dos casos foi positivo para os três anticorpos. A análise do coeficiente de correlação de Pearson revelou uma excelente correlação entre o PCR e os resultados sorológicos (r = 0,921, p < 0,001). A maioria (17, 40,5%) dos pacientes positivos para M. pneumoniae está na faixa etária de 41-50 anos, seguida por 10 (23,8%) pacientes na faixa etária de 61-70 anos e 2 (4,8%) pacientes tinham > 70 anos de idade. Nosso estudo relatou uma prevalência incomumente maior de M. pneumoniae por testes sorológicos (36,1%) e PCR (43,3%). Embora a hipótese da associação de M. pneumoniae e DAC ainda não tenha sido comprovada, a prevalência incomumente alta de M. pneumoniae em pacientes com DAC indica uma associação, se não, no desenvolvimento de aterosclerose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Mycoplasma Infections/diagnosis , Mycoplasma Infections/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin M , Prevalence , Antibodies, Bacterial , Mycoplasma pneumoniae
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247529, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339345

ABSTRACT

Abstract Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting 16S rRNA genes followed by DNA sequencing are still important tools to characterize microbial communities present in environmental samples. However, despite the crescent number of deposited archaeal DNA sequences in databases, until now we do not have a clear picture of the effectiveness and specificity of the universal primers widely used to describe archaeal communities from different natural habitats. Therefore, in this study, we compared the phylogenetic profile obtained when Cerrado lake sediment DNA samples were submitted to 16S rDNA PCR employing three Archaea-specific primer sets commonly used. Our findings reveal that specificity of primers differed depending on the source of the analyzed DNA. Furthermore, archaeal communities revealed by each primer pair varied greatly, indicating that 16S rRNA gene primer choice affects the community profile obtained, with differences in both taxon detection and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) estimates.


Resumo A amplificação de genes que codificam o rRNA 16S por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) e o seu subsequente sequenciamento consistem em uma ferramenta importante na caracterização de comunidades microbianas presentes em amostras ambientais. No entanto, apesar do crescente número de sequências de DNA de Archaea depositadas em bancos de dados, a especificidade e efetividade dos iniciadores de PCR descritos como universais e amplamente utilizados na descrição desse grupo ainda não está clara. Neste estudo foram comparados os perfis filogenéticos de comunidades de arqueias obtidos a partir amostras de DNA de sedimentos lacustres do Cerrado submetidas a ensaios de PCR empregando três pares de iniciadores específicos para Archaea, comumente utilizados neste tipo de estudo. Nossos resultados indicam que as comunidades de arqueias detectadas com cada par de iniciadores apresentaram grande variação filogenética, sugerindo que a escolha de iniciadores dirigidos ao gene de rRNA 16S tem efeito significativo no perfil da comunidade descrita, com diferenças tanto em relação aos táxons detectados, como nas estimativas de unidades taxonômicas operacionais (OTU).


Subject(s)
Archaea/genetics , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , DNA Primers/genetics , Genes, rRNA
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246514, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285640

ABSTRACT

Abstract The poultry sector in Pakistan is contributing mainly in bridging gap between demand and supply for protein. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an emerging bacterium causing serious problems in poultry industry of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the M. gallisepticum load in poultry populated regions of Pakistan. Total 600 serum and 600 swab samples were collected, 200 from each broiler, layers and breeders poultry in Rawalpindi and Abbottabad districts. Serum samples were analyzed through ELISA for seroprevalence. Swabs were cultured on Frey's medium followed by PCR and partial mgc2 gene sequencing. Results of seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum showed that layers (75%, n=150) are more positive as compared to breeders (70%, n=140) and broilers (50%, n=100). Typical colonies of the M. gallisepticum were observed in breeder (26.5%), followed by layer (21%) and broilers (9%). A total of 37.1% (n=42) samples were identified positive through PCR out of total 113 cultured based positive samples. A total of six M. gallisepticum isolates of current study showed 98-99 percent similarity with previously reported isolates on the basis of mgc2 gene partial sequencing. The M. gallisepticum was found highly prevalent in different poultry breads. Results of this study would add into basic data and provide a direction for livestock sector to strengthen a control strategy for mycoplasmosis in poultry farms.


Resumo O setor avícola do Paquistão está contribuindo principalmente para preencher a lacuna entre a demanda e a oferta de proteína. Mycoplasma gallisepticum é uma bactéria emergente que causa sérios problemas na indústria avícola do Paquistão. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido para avaliar a carga de M. gallisepticum em regiões de avicultura do Paquistão. Um total de 600 amostras de soro e 600 amostras de esfregaço foi coletado, 200 de cada frango de corte, poedeiras e aves reprodutoras nos distritos de Rawalpindi e Abbottabad. Amostras de soro foram analisadas por ELISA para soroprevalência. As zaragatoas foram cultivadas em meio Frey, seguido de PCR e sequenciação parcial do gene mgc2. Os resultados da soroprevalência de M. gallisepticum mostraram que as poedeiras (75%, n = 150) são mais positivas em comparação com matrizes (70%, n = 140) e frangos de corte (50%, n = 100). Colônias típicas de M. gallisepticum foram observadas em reprodutoras (26,5%), seguidas de poedeiras (21%) e frangos de corte (9%). Um total de 37,1% (n = 42) das amostras foi identificado como positivas por PCR de um total de 113 amostras positivas baseadas em cultura. Um total de seis isolados de M. gallisepticum do estudo atual mostrou 98-99% de similaridade com isolados relatados anteriormente com base no sequenciamento parcial do gene mgc2. O M. gallisepticum foi encontrado com alta prevalência em diferentes pães de aves. Os resultados deste estudo acrescentariam dados básicos e forneceriam orientação para o setor pecuário fortalecer uma estratégia de controle da micoplasmose em granjas avícolas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genetics , Pakistan/epidemiology , Poultry , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Chickens , Cross-Sectional Studies
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244977, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285621

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the serious global public health burden of liver disease. Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with (HCV). In Pakistan, where the disease has high occurrence rate. The present study envisages an up-to-date prevalence of HCV and genotypic distribution in the general population of Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The blood samples from 6,538 individuals including 3,263 males and 3,275 females were analyzed for hepatitis C surface antigen by Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 396 (12.13%) out of 3263 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HCV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HCV antibodies were found in the 31-40 age group (11.01%). The ICT positive samples were further screened by nested PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA. It was identified that 7.11% (3263) of the total population (6538) tested was positive, among which the 461 (14.07%) females possessed antibodies in their blood against HCV. Our data showed total HCV infection in the investigated population was 5.78%. Higher percentage of HCV prevalence was detected in males than females in the age group 31-40 and 41-50. To compare the prevalence of HCV genotypes age-wise in male and female genotype 3a was found most prevalent genotype followed by 1a, 2a and 3b, respectively.


Resumo O vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é o grave problema de saúde pública das doenças hepáticas. Aproximadamente 170 milhões de pessoas no mundo estão infectadas com HCV; no Paquistão, a doença tem alto índice de ocorrência. O presente estudo prevê uma prevalência atualizada do HCV e distribuição genotípica na população geral do distrito de Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Paquistão. As amostras de sangue de 6.538 indivíduos, incluindo 3.263 homens e 3.275 mulheres, foram analisadas para o antígeno de superfície da hepatite C por teste imunocromatográfico (ICT), ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) e reação em cadeia da polimerase de transcrição reversa (PCR). Verificou-se que 396 (12,13%) de 3.263 indivíduos continham anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV, enquanto entre as diferentes faixas etárias as maiores incidências de anticorpos anti-HCV foram encontradas na faixa etária de 31 a 40 anos (11,01%). As amostras positivas para ICT foram posteriormente rastreadas por nested PCR para determinar a existência de HCV-RNA ativo. Identificou-se que 7,11% (3.263) do total da população (6.538) testada foram positivos, dentre os quais 461 (14,07%) mulheres possuíam anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV. Nossos dados mostraram que a infecção total pelo HCV na população investigada foi de 5,78%. Maior porcentagem de prevalência de HCV foi detectada em homens do que em mulheres nas faixas etárias de 31-40 e 41-50. Para comparar a prevalência de genótipos de HCV com relação à idade no genótipo masculino e feminino 3a foi encontrado o genótipo mais prevalente seguido por 1a, 2a e 3b, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Pakistan/epidemiology , Prevalence , Genotype
10.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 24(3)dic. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1406164

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the gingival state and presence of red complex bacteria in saliva samples of 12-year-old schoolchildren. A calibrated periodontist evaluated biofilm index (BI) (Silness and Löe, 1964), presence of calculus, and gingival index (GI) (Silness and Löe, 1967) in sixty two 12-year-old students of Carmen Lyra School. Saliva samples were collected from each student. The DNA of each sample was extracted and amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, using specific primers. The BI was 1.18. Calculus was present in 40.40% of the schoolchildren examined; 19.4% was supragingival calculus and 21% both supragingival and subgingival calculus. The GI was 0.97, which according to Silness and Löe is mild gingivitis. Gingivitis was present in 96.8% of the children examined. Regarding the PCR tests: 18 of the samples (31.58%) did not present any of the bacteria analyzed and the remaining 39 samples (68.42%) were positive for at least the presence of red complex bacteria. Within the limitations of this study, it is concluded that the prevalence of gingivitis and calculus is high in the sample examined, and the gingival state observed in the study population, may be related to the presence of red complex bacteria.


Resumen El objetivo de este estudio era determinar el estado gingival y la presencia de bacterias del complejo rojo en muestras de saliva de niños de 12 años de la Escuela Carmen Lyra. Una periodoncista calibrada evaluó en 62 estudiantes de 12 años de la Escuela Carmen Lyra, el índice de biofilme (IB) (Silness y Löe, 1964), la presencia de cálculo y el índice gingival (IG) (Silness y Löe, 1967). Se recolectaron muestras de saliva de cada estudiante. El ADN de cada muestra fue extraído y amplificado por medio de la prueba PCR, empleando primers específicos, para determinar la presencia de bacterias del complejo rojo. El IB fue de 1.18. El cálculo estuvo presente en el 40.40% de la muestra, se encontró 19.4% de cálculo en supragingival y 21% tanto en supragingival como en subgingival. El IG fue de 0.97, que de acuerdo con Silness y Löe es una gingivitis leve. La gingivitis estuvo presente en el 96.8 % de los niños examinados. Con respecto a las pruebas PCR: 18 de las muestras (31.58 %) no presentaron ninguna de las bacterias analizadas y las 39 muestras restantes (68.42%) fueron positivas por lo menos a la presencia de las bacterias del complejo rojo. Dentro de las limitaciones de este estudio, se concluye que la prevalencia de gingivitis y cálculo es alta en la muestra examinada y el estado gingival observado puede estar relacionado con la presencia de bacterias del complejo rojo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Gingival Diseases , Gingivitis/diagnosis , Costa Rica
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(5): 336-339, oct. 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1391180

ABSTRACT

Frenar la propagación de la enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19, por su sigla en inglés) es fundamental, y se puede realizar mediante técnicas de detección rápidas y efectivas. El objetivo fue comparar la precisión diagnóstica de un test rápido de antígeno (TRAg,) con la reacción en cadena de polimerasa con retrotranscripción (RT-qPCR, por su sigla en inglés) y describir los umbrales de amplificación (Ct, por su sigla en inglés). Participaron niños de 1 mes a 11 años que tuvieran menos de 7 días de síntomas, sin resultado detectable en los últimos 90 días, e inmunocompetentes. Se incluyeron 1855 pacientes con una prevalencia de COVID-19 del 4,7 %. La sensibilidad global del TRAg fue del 60,2 % y su especificidad, del 99,8 %; en niños mayores de 5 años los valores fueron de 69,8 % y 99,8 %, respectivamente. Los valores de Ct de las muestras discordantes fueron más altos. En conclusión, la precisión diagnóstica muestra que TRAg tiene una especificidad similar a la RT-qPCR, pero una sensibilidad considerablemente menor, sobre todo en niños de menos de 5 años.


Stopping the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is critical and can be achieved through rapid and effective detection techniques. Our objective was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of rapid antigen tests (RAgT) and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and to describe amplification cycle thresholds (Cts). Participants were children aged 1 month to 11 years with symptoms for less than 7 days, who did not have a detectable result in the past 90 days, and were immunocompetent. A total of 1855 patients were included; the prevalence of COVID-19 was 4.7%. For the RAgT, overall sensitivity was 60.2% and specificity, 99.8%; in children older than 5 years, values were 69.8% and 99.8%, respectively. Ct values for discordant samples were higher. To conclude, the diagnostic accuracy indicated that the specificity of RAgT is similar to that of RT-qPCR, but its sensitivity is notably lower,especially in children younger than 5 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , COVID-19 Testing
12.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(3): 302-311, jul.-sep. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410008

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos. Evaluar la exactitud de gota gruesa (GG) frente a la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) cuantitativa para la malaria asociada al embarazo (MAE). Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de pruebas diagnósticas en nueve bases de datos. Se evaluó la calidad metodológica con QUADAS. Se estimó sensibilidad, especificidad, cociente de probabilidad positivo (CPP) y negativo (CPN), razón de odds diagnóstica (ORD) y área bajo la curva ROC. Se determinó la heterogeneidad con el estadístico Q de Der Simonian-Laird y la incertidumbre con el porcentaje de peso de cada estudio sobre el resultado global. Resultados. Se incluyeron diez estudios con 5691 gestantes, 1415 placentas y 84 neonatos. En los estudios con nPCR (PCR anidada) y qPCR (PCR cuantitativa) como estándar, los resultados de exactitud diagnóstica fueron estadísticamente similares, con sensibilidad muy baja (50 y 54%, respectivamente), alta especificidad (99% en ambos casos), alto CPP y deficiente CPN. Usando nPCR la OR diagnóstica fue 162 (IC95%=66-401) y el área bajo la curva ROC fue 95%, mientras que con qPCR fueron 231 (IC95%=27-1951) y 78%, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Mediante un protocolo exhaustivo se demostró el bajo desarrollo de investigaciones sobre la exactitud diagnóstica de la GG en MAE. Se demostró que la microscopía tiene un desempeño deficiente para el diagnóstico de infecciones asintomáticas o de baja parasitemia, lo que afianza la importancia de implementar otro tipo de técnicas en el seguimiento y control de las infecciones por malaria en las gestantes, con el fin de lograr el control y posible eliminación de la MAE.


ABSTRACT Objective. To evaluate the accuracy of thick smear (TS) versus quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM). Materials and methods. We carried out a systematic review of diagnostic tests in nine databases. Methodological quality was evaluated with QUADAS. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the ROC curve were estimated. Heterogeneity was determined with the Der Simonian-Laird Q method and uncertainty with the weighted percentage of each study on the overall result. Results. We included 10 studies with 5691 pregnant women, 1415 placentas and 84 neonates. In the studies with nested PCR (nPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) as the standard, the diagnostic accuracy results were statistically similar, with very low sensitivity (50 and 54%, respectively), high specificity (99% in both cases), high PLR and poor NLR. When nPCR was used, the DOR was 162 (95%CI=66-401) and the area under the ROC curve was 95%, while with qPCR it was 231 (95%CI=27-1951) and 78%, respectively. Conclusions. We demonstrated that research on the diagnostic accuracy of TS in PAM is limited. Microscopy showed poor performance in the diagnosis of asymptomatic or low parasitemia infections, which reinforces the importance of implementing other types of techniques for the follow-up and control of malaria infections in pregnant women, in order to achieve the control and possible elimination of PAM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pregnant Women , Systematic Review , Malaria , Meta-Analysis , Diagnosis , Gout
13.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 27(2): 1-9, mayo-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406913

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la prevalencia de especies de Cryptosporidium en humanos y terneros en la provincia de Van, Turquía. Materiales y métodos. Se incluyeron en el estudio un total de 150 pacientes, incluidos 50 pacientes en hemodiálisis, 40 pacientes inmunosuprimidos con diarrea, 30 pacientes con diarrea solamente y 30 pacientes inmunocompetentes. Se recolectaron muestras de heces rectales de un total de 50 terneros alojados en establos y granjas en 10 aldeas centrales de Van, Turquía. Resultados. Se detectó Cryptosporidium parvum en el 17.3% de las 150 muestras de heces tomadas de seres humanos. C. parvum se observó en el 20% de los 50 pacientes en hemodiálisis, el 32.5% de los 40 pacientes inmunosuprimidos con diarrea y el 10% de los 30 pacientes con diarrea solamente, mientras que no hubo Cryptosporidium spp. detectado en los pacientes inmunocompetentes. C. parvum se observó en sólo el 6% de los 30 terneros diarreicos. Conclusiones. Claramente se entendio que la Criptosporidiosis fue detectada en una alta tasa en las muestras de los pacientes inmunosuprimidos sin y con sintomas de diarrea, y que además la especie activa que causó la enfermedad fue el agente etiologico Criptosporidium parvum. Por lo tanto, estos dos grupos de pacientes deben ser evaluados en lo que a términos de Criptosporidiosis se refiere.


ABSTRACT Objective. To investigate of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in humans and calves in the province of Van, Turkey. Materials and methods. Included in this research were 150 patients, comprising 50 hemodialysis patients, 40 immunosuppressed patients with diarrhea, 30 patients with diarrhea only, and 30 immunocompetent patients. Collected were stool rectal samples from 50 calves that were housed in stables and farms in 10 central villages of Van, Turkey. Results. Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in 17.3% of the 150 human stool samples. C. parvum was observed in 20% of the 50 samples from the hemodialysis patients, 32.5% of the 40 samples from the immunosuppressed patients with diarrhea, and 10% of the 30 samples from patients with diarrhea only, whereas no Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in the samples from the immunocompetent patients. C. parvum was observed in only 6% of the samples from the diarrheic 30 calves. Conclusions. It was clearly understood that cryptosporidiosis was detected at a high rate in the samples from the immunosuppressed patients and those who were immunosuppressed with diarrhea, and that the active and effective species that causes cryptosporidiosis in the Van region is C. parvum. Hence, these patient groups should be evaluated in terms of cryptosporidiosis.

14.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 74(2): e493, May.-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1408912

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Cryptosporidium spp. son parásitos que causan infecciones respiratorias principalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Objetivo: Detectar Cryptosporidium spp. en el lavado broncoalveolar (BAL) de pacientes VIH positivos y con síndrome respiratorio. Métodos: Se seleccionaron 60 muestras de BAL y se analizaron mediante microscopía óptica con tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen y PCR de punto final; esta última es una técnica eficiente para el diagnóstico de patógenos oportunistas. Se recolectaron datos clínicos y epidemiológicos de cada paciente. Resultados: La prevalencia hallada en este estudio mediante PCR de punto final fue del 5 %. Los signos y síntomas que se presentaron con mayor frecuencia, sobre todo en el grupo etario de 31 a 40 años, fueron fiebre, tos y disnea; sin embargo, no se obtuvieron asociaciones estadísticamente significativas a ninguna de las variables y no se pudo visualizar parásitos mediante la tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen. Conclusión: Cryptosporidium spp. puede causar infecciones pulmonares de difícil reconocimiento clínico, pues se confunde con otras infecciones oportunistas. En el presente estudio no puede establecerse si la detección del ADN parasitario correspondió a una verdadera infección o solamente a colonización, lo que es importante para implementar técnicas con mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico. Se debe considerar relevante la prevalencia encontrada en Ecuador, al ser inusualmente alta en comparación con países cercanos como Brasil.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Cryptosporidium spp. are parasites that cause respiratory infections mainly in immunocompromised patients. Objective: To detect Cryptosporidium spp. in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of HIV-positive patients with respiratory syndrome. Methods: Sixty samples of BAL were selected and analyzed by optical microscopy with Ziehl-Neelsen staining and end-point PCR. The latter is an efficient technique for the diagnosis of opportunistic pathogens. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected from every patient. Results: In this study, the prevalence by end-point PCR was 5%. The most frequent signs and symptoms, mainly in the age group 31-40 years old, were fever, cough, and dyspnea. However, no significant statistical associations to any variable were obtained, and no parasites were observed with the Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Conclusions: Cryptosporidium spp. can cause pulmonary infections that are difficult to identify clinically, since they are confused with other opportunistic diseases. The current study could not establish whether the detection of parasitic DNA corresponded to a real infection or only to colonization, which is important to implement diagnostic techniques with greater sensitivity. The prevalence found in Ecuador should be considered relevant, as it is unusually high in comparison with nearby countries such as Brazil.

15.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 74(2): e809, May.-Aug. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1408918

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El aumento de los casos de COVID-19 en Cuba requirió el desarrollo de nuevas capacidades para el diagnóstico molecular de la infección. En la Unidad Empresarial de Base Laboratorios LIORAD-AICA+, de La Habana, se estableció un Laboratorio de Biología Molecular para el diagnóstico molecular de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Analizar la experiencia de un año de trabajo, en el diagnóstico molecular de la COVID-19, del Laboratorio de Biología Molecular de la UEB LIORAD. Métodos: Para iniciar el diagnóstico molecular del SARS-CoV-2 en la UEB Laboratorios LIORAD se llevó a cabo un conjunto de acciones que estuvieron dirigidas a la evaluación de los riesgos, establecimiento de las áreas y el flujo de trabajo, y formación de equipos de trabajo. El personal se capacitó, se modificaron y elaboraron procedimientos e instructivas. Resultados: La evaluación de los riesgos permitió detectar un conjunto de riesgos asociados a la actividad de diagnóstico y se establecieron las medidas para mitigarlos. El personal del laboratorio recibió un total de 23 capacitaciones, se elaboró un total de ocho procedimientos e instructivas y dos registros. El laboratorio procesó en un año un total de 125 154 muestras. Conclusiones: Durante el año de trabajo el Laboratorio de Biología Molecular de la UEB LIORAD se realizó el diagnóstico certero de la enfermedad. Esto evidencia la importancia de la capacitación del personal y el cumplimiento de las buenas prácticas y medidas de bioseguridad en el trabajo con muestras potencialmente infecciosas.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The increase in the number of cases of COVID-19 in Cuba demanded of new capacities for the molecular diagnosis of the infection. A Laboratory of Molecular Biology for the molecular diagnosis of this disease was installed at the Base Business Unit LIORAD-AICA+ Laboratories in Havana. Objective: To analyze a one-year work experience in the molecular diagnosis of COVID-19 at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, LIORAD-AICA+. Methods: To begin with the molecular diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 at LIORAD-AICA+, a group of actions were carried out aimed at evaluating the risks, establishing the working areas and flow, and training the work team. Personnel were trained, and procedures and guidelines were drawn up and modified. Results: Risk assessment allowed identifying several risks associated with the diagnostic activity, and measures were established to mitigate them. The laboratory personnel received 23 training sessions; and eight procedures and guidelines, and two registers were drawn up. The laboratory processed a total of 125 154 samples in a year. Conclusions: During the work year, the accurate diagnosis of the disease was conducted at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, LIORAD-AICA+. This evidences the importance of personnel training and the compliance with good practices and biosafety measures when working with potentially infectious samples.

16.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 74(2): e863, May.-Aug. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1408919

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN A finales del año 2019 el mundo conoció de la existencia y propagación de un nuevo coronavirus denominado SARS-CoV-2, capaz de provocar la enfermedad COVID-19. Las autoridades gubernamentales y de salud cubanas trazaron desde el principio estrategias de control epidemiológico, y fue el diagnóstico molecular por PCR en tiempo real una tarea de suma importancia para el control de la enfermedad en nuestro país. Un gran número de jóvenes profesionales y estudiantes de la Facultad de Biología de la Universidad de La Habana se sumaron a esta tarea. El presente trabajo aborda las principales actividades desarrolladas por estos últimos durante el diagnóstico molecular del SARS-CoV-2 en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí (IPK) en los primeros meses de la pandemia en nuestro país. El ejercicio de la profesión a partir de la puesta en práctica de habilidades y conocimientos teórico-prácticos, la adquisición de nuevos conocimientos, así como el fomento de valores éticos y morales como la solidaridad, el compañerismo y el trabajo mancomunado en colectivo, caracterizaron esta experiencia llena de desafíos y logros.


ABSTRACT At the end of 2019, the existence and spread of a novel coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2, responsible of the disease COVID-19 was known worldwide. From the beginning, the Cuban governmental and health authorities drawn up epidemiological control strategies, in which the molecular diagnosis by real-time PCR was of paramount importance for the control of the disease in our country. A large number of young professionals and students from the School of Biology of the University of Havana joined this task. This paper deals with the main activities performed by the students related to the molecular diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 at the "Pedro Kourí" Institute of Tropical Medicine (IPK) in the first months of the pandemic in our country. The exercise of the profession in the implementation of the skills, and theoretical and practical knowledge; the acquisition of new knowledge; and the promotion of ethical and moral values such as solidarity, companionship, and joint work characterized this experience full of challenges and achievements.

17.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 38(2): e38204, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1389688

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: el inicio temprano de la antibioticoterapia adecuada en infecciones graves se asocia con reducción de la mortalidad. La identificación precoz del microorganismo es fundamental para realizar un tratamiento dirigido y disminuir la terapéutica inicial inapropiada. Objetivo: valorar la utilidad de una técnica de biología molecular por amplificación de ácidos nucleicos mediante reacción en cadena de polimerasa en tiempo real para diagnóstico microbiológico temprano y adecuación de la antibioticoterapia en pacientes con neumonías graves. Metodología: estudio retrospectivo observacional llevado a cabo en la unidad de cuidados intensivos del Hospital Maciel. Se analizaron muestras respiratorias de pacientes con diagnóstico o sospecha de neumonía. Se compararon los resultados microbiológicos obtenidos por técnicas convencionales y por biología molecular multiplex (panel neumonía). Resultados: se incluyeron 53 muestras obtenidas de 51 pacientes. El multiplex detectó al menos un microorganismo en 38 (71,7%) muestras frente a 30 (56.6%) desarrollos en cultivos tradicionales. La mayoría de las muestras se obtuvieron bajo antibioticoterapia previa (86.8%). El panel neumonía mostró un porcentaje de concordancia positiva combinado de 100% y un porcentaje de concordancia negativa del 94% para la identificación bacteriana en comparación con los métodos microbiológicos tradicionales. En 27 (51%) casos el resultado del panel de neumonía determinó un cambio en la conducta terapéutica. Conclusiones: la técnica de PCR permite la identificación temprana de microorganismos causantes de neumonía optimizando la terapéutica empírica inicial y racionalizando el uso de antimicrobianos. Un panel negativo aleja el planteo de infección respiratoria a gérmenes habituales y permite considerar diagnósticos diferenciales en cuanto a foco y/o etiología.


Summary: Introduction: the early initiation of the adequate antibiotic therapy in severe infections is associated to a reduction in mortality. Early identification of the microorganism is essential to define directed therapy and decrease the initial inadequate treatment. Objective: to assess usefulness of a molecular biology technique by nucleic acid amplification through a polymerase chain reaction in real time for an early microbiological diagnosis and correction of the antibiotic therapy in patients with severe pneumonias. Method: retrospective, observational study conducted in the intensive care unit of Maciel Hospital. The respiratory samples of patients with a diagnosis of pneumonia or suspicious to have pneumonia were analyzed. The microbiological results obtained were compared using conventional techniques and multiplex molecular biology (pneumonia panel). Results: 53 samples obtained from 51 patients were included in the study. Multiplex detected at least one microorganism in 38 (71.7%) samples compared to 30 (56.6%) in traditional cultures. Most samples were obtained under the previous antibiotic therapy (86.8%). The pneumonia panel showed a combined positive agreement percentage of 100% and a negative agreement of 94% for the identification of bacteria when compared to the traditional microbiological methods. In 27 cases (51%) the pneumonia panel results determined changing the therapeutic behavior. Conclusions: the PCR technique allows for the early identification of microorganisms causing pneumonia, thus optimizing initial empirical therapy and rationalizing the use of antibiotics. A negative panel reduces the suspicion of a respiratory infection caused by the usual germs and enables considering differential diagnosis in terms of etiology or cause.


Resumo: Introdução: o início precoce da antibioticoterapia adequada em infecções graves está associado à redução da mortalidade. A identificação precoce do microrganismo é essencial para realizar o tratamento dirigido e reduzir o uso inicial inadequado de antimicrobianos. Objetivo: avaliar a utilidade de uma técnica de biologia molecular para amplificação de ácidos nucleicos por reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real para diagnóstico microbiológico precoce e adequação da antibioticoterapia em pacientes com pneumonia grave. Metodologia: estudo observacional retrospectivo realizado na unidade de terapia intensiva do Hospital Maciel. Amostras respiratórias de pacientes com diagnóstico ou suspeita de pneumonia foram analisadas. Os resultados microbiológicos obtidos por técnicas convencionais e por biologia molecular multiplex (painel de pneumonia) foram comparados. Resultados: foram incluídas 53 amostras obtidas de 51 pacientes. O multiplex detectou pelo menos um microrganismo em 38 (71,7%) amostras em comparação com 30 (56,6%) usando culturas tradicionais. A maioria das amostras foi obtida com antibioticoterapia prévia (86,8%). O painel de pneumonia mostrou uma concordância percentual positiva combinada de 100% e uma concordância percentual negativa de 94% para identificação bacteriana em comparação com métodos microbiológicos tradicionais. Em 27 (51%) casos, o resultado do painel de pneumonia determinou mudança no comportamento terapêutico. Conclusões: a técnica de PCR permite a identificação precoce de microrganismos causadores de pneumonia, otimizando a terapia empírica inicial e racionalizando o uso de antimicrobianos. Um painel negativo afasta a suspeita de infecção respiratória pelos germes usuais e permite considerar diagnósticos diferenciais em termos de foco e/ou etiologia.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia/microbiology , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Critical Care
18.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(2): 97-103, abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388725

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analizar la implementación de la prueba rápida de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa cuantitativa y fluorescente (QF-PCR) para la detección de aneuploidías. MÉTODO: Se incluyeron todas las pacientes que se realizaron una QF-PCR entre septiembre de 2017 y mayo de 2021. En todos los casos se consignaron los datos clínicos, ecográficos y de laboratorio, y se efectuó un seguimiento de quienes se realizaron además cariograma y su resultado fue normal. RESULTADOS: Se realizaron 213 procedimientos invasivos genéticos prenatales, siendo 72 para detección rápida de aneuploidía mediante QF-PCR. El promedio de edad de las madres con QF-PCR fue de 37 años y 48 pacientes (67%) tenían menos de 15 semanas de gestación. La QF-PCR demostró aneuploidía de los cromosomas 18, 13 y de triploidía en 21 de 49 casos informados como anormales. De los 22 casos sin sugerencia de alteración, 17 accedieron a proseguir el estudio con cariotipo, que resultó anormal en 6 casos. Hubo 4 casos de discordancia entre la QF-PCR y el cariotipo, que pudo afectar el manejo clínico de la gestación. En 25/72 casos (34,7%) la aneuploidía era letal. CONCLUSIONES: Considerando la necesidad de tener un diagnóstico rápido, pero también completo y que permita un consejo genético apropiado, debería integrarse la QF-PCR a un protocolo de diagnóstico que considere variables clínicas y ecográficas.


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the performance of QF-PCR test for the detection of aneuploidies. METHOD: All patients who underwent QF-PCR from September 2017 to May 2021, were included. Clinical, ultrasound and laboratory data were recorded in all cases, as well as follow-up of the cases, including those performing karyotype and the result was normal. RESULTS: 213 prenatal genetic invasive procedures were performed in the study period, 72 for rapid detection of aneuploidy by QF-PCR. 48 patients (67%) were less than 15 weeks at the time of ultrasound diagnosis. The QF-PCR test demonstrated aneuploidy of chromosomes 18, 13, and triploidy in 21/49 cases reported as abnormal. Of the cases without suggestion of alteration (22), 17 agreed to continue the study with a karyotype, which was abnormal in 6 cases. There were 4 cases of discrepancy between QF-PCR and karyotype, which could affect the clinical management of pregnancy. 25/72 cases (34. 7%) corresponded to lethal aneuploidy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results justify the use of QF-PCR. Considering the need to have a rapid diagnosis, but also complete and that allows appropriate genetic counseling, it is that QF-PCR should be integrated into a protocol that considers clinical and ultrasound variables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Aneuploidy , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetic Analysis , Genetic Counseling
19.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 74(1): e860, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1408887

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El significado biológico de las infecciones múltiples con virus del papiloma humano de alto riesgo oncogénico (VPH-AR), pertenecientes a la familia Alphapapillomavirus, en la carcinogénesis cervical aún es controversial. Objetivo: Proporcionar información sobre la circulación del VPH-AR del género Alphapapillomavirus-especie 9, e infecciones múltiples en mujeres ecuatorianas con lesiones intraepiteliales y cáncer cervicouterino (CaCU). Métodos: Se estudiaron 300 mujeres, residentes en la región Litoral del Ecuador. Se detectó la infección viral en muestras cervicales, mediante PCR anidada con cebadores genéricos MY09/11 y GP5/GP6. Los genotipos virales fueron identificados con el sistema comercial ANYPLEX II VPH28. La razón de prevalencia (RP) fue utilizada como medida de asociación entre las lesiones citológicas y las infecciones simples, múltiples o combinaciones de genotipos. Resultados: Se detectó VPH en el 92,00 % (276/300) de las mujeres, con frecuencias altas de infección por genotipos individuales, principalmente de alto riesgo oncogénico. Los VPH-AR más frecuentes fueron VPH58 (18,17 %), 70 (8,64 %), 53 (8,34 %), 35 (7,45 %), 16 (7,37 %), 33 (6,55 %), 31 (5,58 %) y 18 (4,24 %). En el 91,66 % (253/276) de las muestras se detectaron infecciones múltiples, hasta con 13 tipos en una misma paciente, incluyendo varias especies del género Alphapapillomavirus. La combinación VPH16/VPH58 fue la más frecuente en lesiones de alto grado (RP = 2,9; p = 0,000), y la coinfección triple VPH16/VPH58/VPH70 predominó en las mujeres con CaCU (RP = 3,5; p = 0,007). Conclusión: Los resultados demuestran que la combinación VPH16/VPH58 del género Alphapapillomavirus, especie 9, podría ser un factor clave en la aparición de lesiones premalignas y su progresión hacia el CaCU.


ABSTRACT Introduction: It is still controversial the biological connotation of multiple infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPV), that belong to the genus Alphapapillomavirus, for the cervical carcinogenesis. Objective: To provide information on the circulation of hrHPV, genus Alphapapillomavirus, specie 9, and the multiple infections in Ecuadorian women with intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer. Methods: 300 women, from the coastal region of Ecuador, were screened. Viral infection was detected in cervix samples by nested PCR with MY09/11 and GP5/GP6 generic primers. Viral genotypes were identified using the commercial kit ANYPLEX II VPH28. The prevalence ratio (PR) was used to measure the association between cytological lesions and the simple, multiple or combined genotype infections. Results: Ninety-two percent of women (276/300) tested positive for HPV. Frequency of infection for single genotypes was high, mainly those of high oncogenic risk. The most frequent hrHPV genotypes were HPV58 (18.17%), 70 (8.64%), 53 (8.34%), 35 (7.45%), 16 (7.37%), 33 (6.55%), 31 (5.58%) and 18 (4.24%). In 91.66% (253/300) of the samples, multiple infections were detected, with up to 13 types in a single patient, including various species from the genus Alphapapillomavirus. The combination HPV16/HPV58 was the most frequent on high-grade lesions (PR = 2.9; p = 0,000), and HPV16/HPV58/HPV70 triple co-infection prevailed in women with cervical cancer (PR = 3.5; p = 0.007). Conclusions: The results evidence that the combination HPV16/HPV58, genus Alphapapillomavirus, specie 9, could be a key factor in the occurrence of premalignant lesions and their evolution into cervical cancer.

20.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 74(1): e752, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1408896

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El empleo de técnicas moleculares para el diagnóstico de virus del papiloma humano de alto riesgo oncogénico (VPH-AR) es crucial para la detección precoz del cáncer cervicouterino. Objetivo: Evaluar el desempeño analítico de dos estuches de PCR-tiempo real, comercializados por el Centro de Inmunoensayo de Cuba, para detectar VPH-AR. Métodos: Se utilizaron dos paneles de ADN de muestras cervicouterinas: uno con 150 muestras, para validar el estuche SUMASIGNAL HPV 16/18, el proceso de extracción de ADN y su utilidad como prueba cuantitativa, y otro con 163 muestras para evaluar el estuche HPV 13+2. Se determinó la utilidad clínica del estuche HPV 13+2 en 55 muestras cervicovaginales autocolectadas. Se calcularon los indicadores de desempeño analítico de ambos estuches con respecto a pruebas de referencia. Resultados: Los indicadores de desempeño para SUMASIGNAL HPV 16/18 fueron excelentes (> 95 %), concordancia 96 %, índice kappa=0,93 [0,85-1,01]. La extracción de ADN mostró 100 % de especificidad clínica y analítica y 95 % de sensibilidad analítica. Se obtuvo buena correlación con la prueba de referencia cuantitativa (r = + 0,688). El estuche HPV 13+2 tuvo especificidad y sensibilidad clínicas del 100 %, la especificidad analítica fue del 84 % debido a reactividad cruzada con otros VPH-AR. Su aplicación clínica reveló alta frecuencia de infección (41,8 %): 23,6 % con VPH-AR, particularmente en mujeres jóvenes (50 %). La muestra autocolectada resultó útil (100 %). Conclusión: Los ensayos evaluados mostraron altos estándares de calidad, lo que permitiría su uso con una cobertura nacional en una plataforma tecnológica disponible para todo el país.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of molecular techniques for the diagnosis of high oncogenic risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is crucial for the early detection of cervical cancer. Objective: To evaluate the analytical performance of two real-time PCR kits, commercialized by the Cuban Immunoassay Center, to detect hrHPV. Methods: Two DNA panels from cervical samples were used: one with 150 samples to validate the SUMASIGNAL HPV 16/18 kit, the DNA extraction process and its usefulness as a quantitative test; and another with 163 samples to evaluate the HPV 13+2 kit. The clinical utility of the HPV 13+2 kit was determined in 55 self-collected cervicovaginal samples. The analytical performance indicators of both kits were calculated with respect to reference tests. Results: Performance indicators for SUMASIGNAL HPV 16/18 were excellent (>95%), concordance 96%, kappa index=0.93 [0.85-1.01]. DNA extraction showed 100% clinical and analytical specificity and 95% analytical sensitivity. Good correlation was obtained with the quantitative reference test (r = + 0.688). The HPV 13+2 kit had 100% clinical specificity and sensitivity, analytical specificity was 84% due to cross-reactivity with other hrHPVs. Its clinical application revealed a high frequency of infection (41.8%): 23.6% with hrHPV, particularly in young women (50%). The self-collected sample was viable (100%). Conclusion: The assays evaluated showed high quality standards, which would allow their use with national coverage in a technological platform available for the whole country.

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