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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 821-837, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929309

ABSTRACT

Acidosis, regardless of hypoxia involvement, is recognized as a chronic and harsh tumor microenvironment (TME) that educates malignant cells to thrive and metastasize. Although overwhelming evidence supports an acidic environment as a driver or ubiquitous hallmark of cancer progression, the unrevealed core mechanisms underlying the direct effect of acidification on tumorigenesis have hindered the discovery of novel therapeutic targets and clinical therapy. Here, chemical-induced and transgenic mouse models for colon, liver and lung cancer were established, respectively. miR-7 and TGF-β2 expressions were examined in clinical tissues (n = 184). RNA-seq, miRNA-seq, proteomics, biosynthesis analyses and functional studies were performed to validate the mechanisms involved in the acidic TME-induced lung cancer metastasis. Our data show that lung cancer is sensitive to the increased acidification of TME, and acidic TME-induced lung cancer metastasis via inhibition of miR-7-5p. TGF-β2 is a direct target of miR-7-5p. The reduced expression of miR-7-5p subsequently increases the expression of TGF-β2 which enhances the metastatic potential of the lung cancer. Indeed, overexpression of miR-7-5p reduces the acidic pH-enhanced lung cancer metastasis. Furthermore, the human lung tumor samples also show a reduced miR-7-5p expression but an elevated level of activated TGF-β2; the expressions of both miR-7-5p and TGF-β2 are correlated with patients' survival. We are the first to identify the role of the miR-7/TGF-β2 axis in acidic pH-enhanced lung cancer metastasis. Our study not only delineates how acidification directly affects tumorigenesis, but also suggests miR-7 is a novel reliable biomarker for acidic TME and a novel therapeutic target for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. Our study opens an avenue to explore the pH-sensitive subcellular components as novel therapeutic targets for cancer treatment.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1885-1902, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888840

ABSTRACT

Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) is significantly hindering effective cancer chemotherapy. However, currently, no ABCB1-inhibitory drugs have been approved to treat MDR cancer clinically, mainly due to the inhibitor specificity, toxicity, and drug interactions. Here, we reported that three polyoxypregnanes (POPs) as the most abundant constituents of

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2344-2361, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888806

ABSTRACT

Recent infectious disease outbreaks, such as COVID-19 and Ebola, have highlighted the need for rapid and accurate diagnosis to initiate treatment and curb transmission. Successful diagnostic strategies critically depend on the efficiency of biological sampling and timely analysis. However, current diagnostic techniques are invasive/intrusive and present a severe bottleneck by requiring specialist equipment and trained personnel. Moreover, centralised test facilities are poorly accessible and the requirement to travel may increase disease transmission. Self-administrable, point-of-care (PoC) microneedle diagnostic devices could provide a viable solution to these problems. These miniature needle arrays can detect biomarkers in/from the skin in a minimally invasive manner to provide (near-) real-time diagnosis. Few microneedle devices have been developed specifically for infectious disease diagnosis, though similar technologies are well established in other fields and generally adaptable for infectious disease diagnosis. These include microneedles for biofluid extraction, microneedle sensors and analyte-capturing microneedles, or combinations thereof. Analyte sampling/detection from both blood and dermal interstitial fluid is possible. These technologies are in their early stages of development for infectious disease diagnostics, and there is a vast scope for further development. In this review, we discuss the utility and future outlook of these microneedle technologies in infectious disease diagnosis.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2983-2994, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922779

ABSTRACT

Genomic instability remains an enabling feature of cancer and promotes malignant transformation. Alterations of DNA damage response (DDR) pathways allow genomic instability, generate neoantigens, upregulate the expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and interact with signaling such as cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) signaling. Here, we review the basic knowledge of DDR pathways, mechanisms of genomic instability induced by DDR alterations, impacts of DDR alterations on immune system, and the potential applications of DDR alterations as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cancer immunotherapy.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1321-1330, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828805

ABSTRACT

JS001 (toripalimab) is a humanized IgG monoclonal antibody which strongly inhibits programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). In this study, we used a different iodine isotype (I) to label JS001 probes to target the human PD1 (hPD1) antigen. , the half maximal effective concentration (EC) value of I-JS001 did not significantly differ from that of JS001. The uptake of I-JS001 by activated T cells was 5.63 times higher than that by nonactivated T cells after 2 h of incubation. The binding affinity of I-JS001 to T cells of different lineages after phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation reached 4.26 nmol/L. Humanized C57BL/6 mice bearing mouse sarcoma S180 cell tumors were validated for immuno-positron emission tomography (immuno-PET) imaging. Pathological staining was used to assess the expression of PD1 in tumor tissues. The homologous Ihuman IgG (IhIgG) group or blocking group was used as a control group. Immuno-PET imaging showed that the uptake in the tumor area of the I-JS001 group at different time points was significantly higher than that of the blocking group or the I-hIgG group in the humanized mouse model. Taken together, these results suggest that this radiotracer has potential for noninvasive monitoring and directing tumor-specific personalized immunotherapy in PD1-positive tumors.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 563-574, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690882

ABSTRACT

Overexpressing of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is the essential cause of multidrug resistance (MDR), which is a significant hurdle to the success of chemotherapy in many cancers. Therefore, inhibiting the activity of ABC transporters may be a logical approach to circumvent MDR. Olmutinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), which has been approved in South Korea for advanced EGFR T790M-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we found that olmutinib significantly increased the sensitivity of chemotherapy drug in ABCG2-overexpressing cells. Furthermore, olmutinib could also increase the retention of doxorubicin (DOX) and rhodamine 123 (Rho 123) in ABC transporter subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2)-overexpressing cells. In addition, olmutinib was found to stimulate ATPase activity and inhibit photolabeling of ABCG2 with [I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP). However, olmutinib neither altered ABCG2 expression at protein and mRNA levels nor blocked EGFR, Her-2 downstream signaling of AKT and ERK. Importantly, olmutinib enhanced the efficacy of topotecan on the inhibition of S1-MI-80 cell xenograft growth. All the results suggest that olmutinib reverses ABCG2-mediated MDR by binding to ATP bind site of ABCG2 and increasing intracellular chemotherapeutic drug accumulation. Our findings encouraged to further clinical investigation on combination therapy of olmutinib with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs in ABCG2-overexpressing cancer patients.

7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(8): 724-730, Aug. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-797994

ABSTRACT

Na clínica médica de equinos, explora-se o perfil hematológico do animal, geralmente, com a finalidade de encontrar alterações que não foram constatadas ao exame clínico. A pesquisa de hematozoários em equinos, muitas vezes, apresenta resultados conflitantes entre o quadro clínico apresentado pelo animal e o resultado laboratorial, levantando a hipótese de que a técnica de pesquisa de hematozoários seja a responsável por falhas diagnósticas. Este estudo visa comparar os valores obtidos em exames hematológicos de 15 equinos de esporte e 15 equinos de tração (carroceiros), levando-se em consideração diferenças como características nutricionais, estado de higidez e tipo de atividade realizada, e comparar as diferentes técnicas de pesquisa de hematozoários, como esfregaço sanguíneo e PCR. Verificou-se que apenas os equinos de tração apresentaram valores médios de hemácias, hematócrito e hemoglobina abaixo do considerado fisiológico para a espécie, embora 100% dos animais, de ambos os grupos experimentais, tenham sido considerados positivos para hemoparasitoses por PCR. Verifica-se a superioridade do método de pesquisa de hemoparasitas por PCR, em comparação com esfregaço sanguíneo, realizado por diferentes técnicas, visto que apenas 33,3% dos animais foram considerados positivos para Theileria equi por esta técnica, enquanto que o PCR revelou 100% de positividade, para Theileria equi, Babesia caballi e infecção mista. Nenhum dos animais estudados foi diagnosticado com Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ehrlichia equi) e Ehrlichia risticcii (Neoricketsia risticii). Verifica-se, então, que muitos dos diagnósticos de ausência de hemoparasitose por exame hematológico e ou esfregaço sanguíneo são errôneos, devido à baixa sensibilidade da técnica e podem repercutir em falha no tratamento ou disseminação dos hemoparasitos e das hemoparasitoses. Ressalta-se, então, a importância de exames como o PCR na elaboração de diagnóstico definitivo.(AU)


The blood profile is usually explored in equine medicine to find changes not detected through clinical examination. The haematozoa search in horses, often presents conflicting results between the clinical picture presented by the animal and the laboratory result, raising the hypothesis that the hematozoa search technique is responsible for diagnostic failures. Thus, this study aims to compare the values obtained from blood tests in 15 sports horses and 15 traction horses (cart horses), taking into account differences such as nutritional characteristics, state of health and type of activity performed, and to compare the different techniques with hematozoa search, as blood smear and PCR. It was found that only the traction horses showed mean values of red blood cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin below the considered physiological for the species, although 100% of the animals of both experimental groups were considered positive for hemoparasitoses by PCR. It was verified the superiority of hemoparasites search method by PCR, compared with blood smear performed by different techniques, since only 33.3% of the horses were considered positive for Theileria equi by this technique, while the PCR showed 100% positive for Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and mixed infection. None of the animals studied was diagnosed with Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ehrlichia equi) and Ehrlichia risticcii (Neoricketsia risticii). It is shown that many cases of hemoparasitosis absence of diagnostic by hematological exams and or blood smears are erroneous due to the low sensitivity of the technique and may impact on treatment failure or spread of blood parasites and hemoparasitoses. It is noteworthy to stres the importance of tests such as PCR for the definitive diagnosis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Horses/parasitology , Parasites/isolation & purification , Hematologic Tests/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
8.
Acta méd. costarric ; 58(2): 81-83, abr.-jun. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-779718

ABSTRACT

El miltefosine (Impávido(r)) es un medicamento de componente antineoplásico que ha encontrado efectividad muy alta contra la leishmaniasis mucocutánea y visceral en el mundo, y se ha convertido en una opción muy atractiva para pacientes con enfermedades de fondo y tratamientos de base que contraindican el uso de amoniato de meglumina (Glucantime(r)) o stibogluconato de sodio (Pentostam(r)). Seguidamente se presenta el caso de un paciente de 78 años con antecedentes de diabetes mellitustipo 2, hipertenso, anticoagulado con warfarina por una fibrilación auricular crónica, que inició una dermatosis ulcerosa de bordes violáceos elevados, única en el hélix del oído derecho, de evolución crónica asociada a múltiples ulceraciones en la mucosa nasal. La biopsia cutánea se reportó como inespecífica, pero como la sospecha clínica era alta de leishmaniasis, se realizó una reacción de cadena polimerasa de tejido de mucosa nasal que fue reportada positiva por Leishmania panamensis. Por las comorbilidades y el tratamiento del paciente se decidió tratarlo con miltefosine (Impávido(r)).


Miltefosine (Impavido(r)) is an anticancer medicine that has been found highly effective against mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis worldwide, making it a very attractive option for patients with underlying diseases and treatments that contraindicate the use of glucamine antimoniate (Glucantime(r)) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam(r)). Here we present the case of a 78 years old male, with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, high blood preasure, anticoagulated with warfarin for chronic atrial fibrillation, who started with a solitary cutaneous ulcer of purplish edges on the right ear helix of chronic evolution associated with multiple ulcerations on the nasal mucosa. Skin biopsy was reported as nonspecific, but as clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis was high, a polymerase chain reaction of nasal mucosa tissue was performed for Leishmania with positive results for Leishmania panamensis. Due to comorbidities and the treatment of our patient we decided to use miltefosine (Impavido(r)) for 2 months with very good results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents , Diabetes Mellitus , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous , Meglumine
9.
Sci. med. (Porto Alegre, Online) ; 25(4): 20932, out-dez 2015.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-834021

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To describe the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood and demonstrate its importance in the clinical follow-up of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. CASE DESCRIPTION: Two immunocompetent patients were clinically diagnosed with acute ocular toxoplasmosis. The routine clinical evaluation consisted of fundus examination using binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy, color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The serological diagnosis was made by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). The molecular diagnosis was made by PCR in peripheral blood using the B1 gene of Toxoplasma gondii as marker. The younger patient was male, had previous lesion in the right eye, complained of low visual acuity in the left eye and was under treatment. The older patient was male, had retinal detachment, and presented with sudden loss of acuity in the right eye. The fundus examination revealed chorioretinal scar in the left eye. IgG was reactive, IgM was non-reactive, and PCR was positive in the peripheral blood of both patients. New blood samples were collected for serological and molecular monitoring and PCR remained positive in both cases. Six weeks after treatment with oral sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine, the PCR yielded negative results. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that T. gondii antigens may be found in peripheral blood during ocular reactivations and that PCR may be a good tool for the follow-up of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis.


OBJETIVOS: Descrever o uso da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) no sangue periférico e demonstrar sua importância no acompanhamento clínico de pacientes com toxoplasmose ocular. DESCRIÇÃO DOS CASOS: Dois pacientes imunocompetentes foram clinicamente diagnosticados com toxoplasmose ocular aguda. Rotineiramente, a avaliação clínica foi feita por fundoscopia com o uso de oftalmoscópio binocular indireto, retinografia colorida, angiografia fluorescente e tomografia de coerência óptica espectral. A sorologia foi realizada por ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) e confirmada por ensaio imunoenzimático fluorescente ELFA (IgG, IgM). O diagnóstico molecular foi realizado por PCR em sangue periférico usando o gene B1 de Toxoplasma gondii como marcador. O paciente mais jovem era do sexo masculino, apresentava lesão prévia no olho direito, queixa de baixa acuidade visual no olho esquerdo e estava sob tratamento. O paciente mais velho era do sexo masculino, apresentava descolamento de retina e súbita diminuição de visão no olho direito. A fundoscopia revelou cicatriz coriorretiniana no olho esquerdo. Ambos os pacientes tinham IgG reagente, IgM não reagente e PCR positivo em sangue periférico. Novas amostras de sangue foram coletadas para monitoramento sorológico e molecular e a PCR permaneceu positiva em ambos os casos. Seis semanas após o início do tratamento com sulfadiazina e pirimetamina oral, os resultados do PCR tornaram-se negativos. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram que antígenos de T. gondii podem ser encontrados em sangue periférico durante as reativações oculares e que a PCR parece ser uma boa ferramenta para o acompanhamento de pacientes com toxoplasmose ocular.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 487-492, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310002

ABSTRACT

The accessory proteins (3a, 3b, 6, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9b and ORF14), predicted unknown proteins (PUPs) encoded by the genes, are considered to be unique to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) genome. These proteins play important roles in various biological processes mediated by interactions with their partners. However, very little is known about the interactions among these accessory proteins. Here, a EYFP (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein) bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay was used to detect the interactions among accessory proteins. 33 out of 81 interactions were identified by BiFC, much more than that identified by the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. This is the first report describing direct visualization of interactions among accessory proteins of SARS-CoV. These findings attest to the general applicability of the BiFC system for the verification of protein-protein interactions.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 544-553, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-309997

ABSTRACT

Fucoidan is a traditional Chinese medicine suggested to possess anti-tumor effects. In this study the anti-metastatic effects of fucoidan were investigated in vitro in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells (Huh-7 and SNU-761) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and in vivo using a distant liver metastasis model involving injection of MH134 cells into spleen via the portal vein. Its ability to protect hepatocytes against bile acid (BA)-induced apoptosis was investigated in primary hepatocytes. Fucoidan was found to suppress the invasion of HCC cells through up-regulation of p42/44 MAPK-dependent NDRG-1/CAP43 and partly, under normoxic conditions, through up-regulation of p42/44 MAPK-dependent VMP-1 expression. It also significantly decreased liver metastasis in vivo. As regards its hepatoprotective effect, fucoidan decreased BA-induced hepatocyte apoptosis as shown by the attenuation of caspase-8, and -7 cleavages and suppression of the mobilization of caspase-8 and Fas associated death domain (FADD) into the death-inducing signaling complex. In summary, fucoidan displays inhibitory effects on proliferation of HCC cells and protective effects on hepatocytes. The results suggest fucoidan is a potent suppressor of tumor invasion with hepatoprotective effects.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 161-166, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-329740

ABSTRACT

The rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway which can lead to triterpenoid saponin glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR). In order to reveal the effect of copy number variation in the HMGR gene on the MVA pathway, the HMGR gene from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (GuHMGR) was cloned and over-expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. Six recombinant P. pastoris strains containing different copy numbers of the GuHMGR gene were obtained and the content of ergosterol was analyzed by HPLC. The results showed that all the recombinant P. pastoris strains contained more ergosterol than the negative control and the strains with 8 and 44 copies contained significantly more ergosterol than the other strains. However, as the copy number increased, the content of ergosterol showed an increasing-decreasing-increasing pattern. This study provides a rationale for increasing the content of GA through over-expressing the GuHMGR gene in cultivars of G. uralensis.

13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 464-469, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-329701

ABSTRACT

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes metabolize numerous endogenous substrates, such as retinoids, androgens, estrogens and vitamin D, that can modulate important cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The aim of this study is to characterize the expression of CYP genes in CD34+ human cord blood hematopoietic stem and early progenitor cells (CBHSPCs) as a first step toward assessment of the potential biological functions of CYP enzymes in regulating the expansion or differentiation of these cells. CD34+ CBHSPCs were purified from umbilical cord blood via antibody affinity chromatography. Purity of CD34+ CBHSPCs was assessed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. RNA was isolated from purified CD34+ CBHSPCs and total mononuclear cells (MNCs) for RNA-PCR analysis of CYP expression. Fourteen human CYPs were detected in the initial screening with qualitative RT-PCR in CD34+ CBHSPCs. Further quantitative RNA-PCR analysis of the detected CYP transcripts yielded evidence for preferential expression of CYP2R1 in CD34+ CBHSPCs relative to MNCs; and for greater expression of CYP1B1 in MNCs relative to CD34+ CBHSPCs. These findings provide the basis for further studies on possible functions of CYP2R1 and CYP1B1 in CBHSPCs׳ proliferation and/or differentiation and their potential utility as targets for drugs designed to modulate CD34+ CBHSPC expansion or differentiation.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-31474

ABSTRACT

Primary lid tuberculosis after lid surgery is a very rare condition and is likely caused by the introduction of bacilli through epithelial injury. Secondary infection, due to direct hematogenous spread or contiguous spread from adjacent structures are more common presentations of lid tuberculosis. The authors experienced a case of primary lid tuberculosis occurring in a 19 year old female after blepharoplasty for making a eyelid crease. Her upper lid skin showed a reddish and non-tender mass lesion measured 3x1 cm, which was diagnosed as the tuberculosis through typical histopathological findings (caseous necrosis), acid-fast bacilli stain and PCR, and treated with anti-tuberculosis medications.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Blepharoplasty/adverse effects , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Eyelid Diseases/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis, Ocular/drug therapy
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168606

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the efficacy of the PCR which is known as more sensitive method than culture in the diagnosis of causal microorganisms of the infective endophthalmitis. METHODS: We used 0.3 ml of aqueous humor and 0.5 ml of vitreous sample in 3 cases of postoperative and 1 case of endogenous endophthalmitis for detecting causal microorganisms. To detect the bacteria we used universal, Gram positive and negative primers, and to detect the fungus we used fungal primer. RESULTS: Three cases of endophthalmitis, there was no bacteria in the bacterial culture for 10 days but PCR results identified causal microorganisms in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: PCR is effective in the fast and accurate diagnosis of infective endophthalmitis and especially in the culture-negative endophthalmitis.


Subject(s)
Aqueous Humor , Bacteria , Diagnosis , Endophthalmitis , Fungi , Polymerase Chain Reaction
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-581594

ABSTRACT

DRB alleles of 10 different HLA-DR individuals tested by serology typing were studied with polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis, single-strand DNA of different sequence exhibited specific band patterns and mobilities by this technique. Our results suggested that PCR-SSCP is expected to be a useful tool for donor-recipient DRB allele HLA-matching in organ transplantation, as well as identification of criminal in forensic medicine.

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