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Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 609-620, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881159


The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway plays important roles in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis and the gastrointestinal tumor microenvironment (TME). Aberrant HH signaling activation may accelerate the growth of gastrointestinal tumors and lead to tumor immune tolerance and drug resistance. The interaction between HH signaling and the TME is intimately involved in these processes, for example, tumor growth, tumor immune tolerance, inflammation, and drug resistance. Evidence indicates that inflammatory factors in the TME, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interferon-

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 3134-3149, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922800


Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)/programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) cascade is an effective therapeutic target for immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy. Targeting PD-L1/PD-1 axis by small-molecule drug is an attractive approach to enhance antitumor immunity. Using flow cytometry-based assay, we identify tubeimoside-1 (TBM-1) as a promising antitumor immune modulator that negatively regulates PD-L1 level. TBM-1 disrupts PD-1/PD-L1 interaction and enhances the cytotoxicity of T cells toward cancer cells through decreasing the abundance of PD-L1. Furthermore, TBM-1 exerts its antitumor effect in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and B16 melanoma tumor xenograft

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 723-733, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828847


Immunotherapy strategies targeting the programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)/programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) pathway in clinical treatments have achieved remarkable success in treating multiple types of cancer. However, owing to the heterogeneity of tumors and individual immune systems, PD-L1/PD-1 blockade still shows slow response rates in controlling malignancies in many patients. Accumulating evidence has shown that an effective response to anti-PD-L1/anti-PD-1 therapy requires establishing an integrated immune cycle. Damage in any step of the immune cycle is one of the most important causes of immunotherapy failure. Impairments in the immune cycle can be restored by epigenetic modification, including reprogramming the environment of tumor-associated immunity, eliciting an immune response by increasing the presentation of tumor antigens, and by regulating T cell trafficking and reactivation. Thus, a rational combination of PD-L1/PD-1 blockade and epigenetic agents may offer great potential to retrain the immune system and to improve clinical outcomes of checkpoint blockade therapy.

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2299-2312, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881112


Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) blocking therapy has become a major pillar of cancer immunotherapy. Compared with antibodies targeting, small-molecule checkpoint inhibitors which have favorable pharmacokinetics are urgently needed. Here we identified berberine (BBR), a proven anti-inflammation drug, as a negative regulator of PD-L1 from a set of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) chemical monomers. BBR enhanced the sensitivity of tumour cells to co-cultured T-cells by decreasing the level of PD-L1 in cancer cells. In addition, BBR exerted its antitumor effect in Lewis tumor xenograft mice through enhancing tumor-infiltrating T-cell immunity and attenuating the activation of immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T-cells (Tregs). BBR triggered PD-L1 degradation through ubiquitin (Ub)/proteasome-dependent pathway. Remarkably, BBR selectively bound to the glutamic acid 76 of constitutive photomorphogenic-9 signalosome 5 (CSN5) and inhibited PD-1/PD-L1 axis through its deubiquitination activity, resulting in ubiquitination and degradation of PD-L1. Our data reveals a previously unrecognized antitumor mechanism of BBR, suggesting BBR is small-molecule immune checkpoint inhibitor for cancer treatment.