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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1163-1185, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929376

ABSTRACT

Cancer immunotherapy has become a new generation of anti-tumor treatment, but its indications still focus on several types of tumors that are sensitive to the immune system. Therefore, effective strategies that can expand its indications and enhance its efficiency become the key element for the further development of cancer immunotherapy. Natural products are reported to have this effect on cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccines, immune-check points inhibitors, and adoptive immune-cells therapy. And the mechanism of that is mainly attributed to the remodeling of the tumor-immunosuppressive microenvironment, which is the key factor that assists tumor to avoid the recognition and attack from immune system and cancer immunotherapy. Therefore, this review summarizes and concludes the natural products that reportedly improve cancer immunotherapy and investigates the mechanism. And we found that saponins, polysaccharides, and flavonoids are mainly three categories of natural products, which reflected significant effects combined with cancer immunotherapy through reversing the tumor-immunosuppressive microenvironment. Besides, this review also collected the studies about nano-technology used to improve the disadvantages of natural products. All of these studies showed the great potential of natural products in cancer immunotherapy.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 890-906, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929333

ABSTRACT

Antrodia cinnamomea is extensively used as a traditional medicine to prevention and treatment of liver cancer. However, its comprehensive chemical fingerprint is uncertain, and the mechanisms, especially the potential therapeutic target for anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still unclear. Using UPLC‒Q-TOF/MS, 139 chemical components were identified in A. cinnamomea dropping pills (ACDPs). Based on these chemical components, network pharmacology demonstrated that the targets of active components were significantly enriched in the pathways in cancer, which were closely related with cell proliferation regulation. Next, HCC data was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database (GEO). The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and DisGeNET were analyzed by bioinformatics, and 79 biomarkers were obtained. Furtherly, nine targets of ACDP active components were revealed, and they were significantly enriched in PI3K/AKT and cell cycle signaling pathways. The affinity between these targets and their corresponding active ingredients was predicted by molecular docking. Finally, in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that ACDPs could reduce the activity of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and downregulate the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, contributing to the decreased growth of liver cancer. Altogether, PI3K/AKT-cell cycle appears as the significant central node in anti-liver cancer of A. Cinnamomea.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 774-786, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929326

ABSTRACT

Glioblastoma is carcinogenesis of glial cells in central nervous system and has the highest incidence among primary brain tumors. Brain metastasis, such as breast cancer and lung cancer, also leads to high mortality. The available medicines are limited due to blood-brain barrier. Abnormal activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) signaling pathway is prevalent in glioblastoma and metastatic tumors. Here, we characterized a 2-amino-4-methylquinazoline derivative XH30 as a potent PI3K inhibitor with excellent anti-tumor activity against human glioblastoma. XH30 significantly repressed the proliferation of various brain cancer cells and decreased the phosphorylation of key proteins of PI3K signaling pathway, induced cell cycle arrest in G1 phase as well. Additionally, XH30 inhibited the migration of glioma cells and blocked the activation of PI3K pathway by interleukin-17A (IL-17A), which increased the migration of U87MG. Oral administration of XH30 significantly suppressed the tumor growth in both subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor models. XH30 also repressed tumor growth in brain metastasis models of lung cancers. Moreover, XH30 reduced IL-17A and its receptor IL-17RA in vivo. These results indicate that XH30 might be a potential therapeutic drug candidate for glioblastoma migration and brain metastasis.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 558-580, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929314

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive human cancer with increasing incidence worldwide. Multiple efforts have been made to explore pharmaceutical therapies to treat HCC, such as targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors, immune based therapies and combination of chemotherapy. However, limitations exist in current strategies including chemoresistance for instance. Tumor initiation and progression is driven by reprogramming of metabolism, in particular during HCC development. Recently, metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), a reappraisal of new nomenclature for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), indicates growing appreciation of metabolism in the pathogenesis of liver disease, including HCC, thereby suggesting new strategies by targeting abnormal metabolism for HCC treatment. In this review, we introduce directions by highlighting the metabolic targets in glucose, fatty acid, amino acid and glutamine metabolism, which are suitable for HCC pharmaceutical intervention. We also summarize and discuss current pharmaceutical agents and studies targeting deregulated metabolism during HCC treatment. Furthermore, opportunities and challenges in the discovery and development of HCC therapy targeting metabolism are discussed.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 33-49, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929280

ABSTRACT

Metabolic homeostasis requires dynamic catabolic and anabolic processes. Autophagy, an intracellular lysosomal degradative pathway, can rewire cellular metabolism linking catabolic to anabolic processes and thus sustain homeostasis. This is especially relevant in the liver, a key metabolic organ that governs body energy metabolism. Autophagy's role in hepatic energy regulation has just begun to emerge and autophagy seems to have a much broader impact than what has been appreciated in the field. Though classically known for selective or bulk degradation of cellular components or energy-dense macromolecules, emerging evidence indicates autophagy selectively regulates various signaling proteins to directly impact the expression levels of metabolic enzymes or their upstream regulators. Hence, we review three specific mechanisms by which autophagy can regulate metabolism: A) nutrient regeneration, B) quality control of organelles, and C) signaling protein regulation. The plasticity of the autophagic function is unraveling a new therapeutic approach. Thus, we will also discuss the potential translation of promising preclinical data on autophagy modulation into therapeutic strategies that can be used in the clinic to treat common metabolic disorders.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 18-32, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929279

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive fibrotic interstitial pneumonia with unknown causes. The incidence rate increases year by year and the prognosis is poor without cure. Recently, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) signaling pathway can be considered as a master regulator for IPF. The contribution of the PI3K/AKT in fibrotic processes is increasingly prominent, with PI3K/AKT inhibitors currently under clinical evaluation in IPF. Therefore, PI3K/AKT represents a critical signaling node during fibrogenesis with potential implications for the development of novel anti-fibrotic strategies. This review epitomizes the progress that is being made in understanding the complex interpretation of the cause of IPF, and demonstrates that PI3K/AKT can directly participate to the greatest extent in the formation of IPF or cooperate with other pathways to promote the development of fibrosis. We further summarize promising PI3K/AKT inhibitors with IPF treatment benefits, including inhibitors in clinical trials and pre-clinical studies and natural products, and discuss how these inhibitors mitigate fibrotic progression to explore possible potential agents, which will help to develop effective treatment strategies for IPF in the near future.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929261

ABSTRACT

Catechins have been proven to exert antitumor effects in different kinds of cancers. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been completely clarified yet. This study aimed to assess the effects and mechanisms of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) on human melanoma skin A375 cells. Results showed that EGCG and ECG inhibited the proliferation of A375 cells and ECG showed better inhibitory effect. Flow cytometry analysis had shown that EGCG and ECG induced apoptosis and led to cell cycle arrest. EGCG and ECG decreased Bcl-2 expression and upregulated Caspase-3 protein level, indicating the development of apoptosis. Furthermore, EGCG and ECG could decreased mitochondrial membrane potential of A375 cells. In addition, the expression of Beclin-1, LC3 and Sirt3 were downregulated at protein levels, which known to be associated with autophagy. After autophagy was increased by rapamycin, the apoptotic trend was not change, indicating that apoptosis and autophagy are independent. Mechanistically, EGCG and ECG treatments decreased phosphorylated-AMPK (p-AMPK) and increased the ratios of p-PI3K, p-AKT and p-mTOR in melanoma cells. Conclusively, EGCG and ECG induced apoptosis via mitochondrial signaling pathway, downregulated autophagy through modulating the AMPK/mTOR and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. It indicated that EGCG and ECG may be utilized in human melanoma treatment.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Electrocardiography , Humans , Melanoma/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Genetic mutation is one of the important causes for tumor genesis and development, but genetic mutation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has rarely been reported. This study explored the role of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-Akt), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway in the efficacy and prognosis in patients with NPC.@*METHODS@#A total of 31 patients with advanced NPC, who came from the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine of Central South University/Hunan Provincial Cancer Hospital, were enrolled. All of the exons of 288 genes, introns of 38 genes and promoters or fusion breakpoint regions from the nasopharyngeal biopsy tissues before treatment were detected by the gene sequencing platform Illumina NextSeq CN500. The coding regions of 728 genes were carried out a high-depth sequencing of target region capture, and the 4 variant types of tumor genes (including point mutations, insertion deletions of small fragments, copy number variations, and currently known fusion genes) were detected. All of 31 patients received platinum-based induction chemotherapy combined with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and were followed up for a long time.@*RESULTS@#The 3-year regional failure-free survival (RFFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with PI3K-Akt pathway mutation were significantly lower than those in unmutated patients (χ2=6.647, P<0.05). The 3-year RFFS and DFS in patients with mTOR pathway mutations were significantly lower than those in unmutated patients, and there was significant difference (χ2=5.570, P<0.05). The rate of complete response (CR) in patients with unmutated AMPK pathway was significantly higher than that in patients with mutation at 3 months after treatment (P<0.05), and the 3-year RFFS and DFS in patients with AMPK pathway mutation were significantly lower than those in unmutated patients (χ2=4.553, P<0.05). PI3K-Akt/mTOR/AMPK signaling pathway mutations and pre-treatment EB virus DNA copy numbers were independent prognostic factors for 3-year RFFS and DFS in patients with NPC (both P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The NPC patients with PI3K-Akt/mTOR/AMPK signaling pathway mutation have poor prognosis, and the detection of PI3K-Akt, mTOR, AMPK driver genes and signaling pathways by next-generation sequencing is expected to provide new idea for basic research and targeted therapy of NPC.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , DNA Copy Number Variations , Humans , Mutation , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/genetics , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Sirolimus , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928958

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the influences of andrographolide (Andro) on bladder cancer cell lines and a tumor xenograft mouse model bearing 5637 cells.@*METHODS@#For in vitro experiments, T24 cells were stimulated with Andro (0-40 µmol/L) and 5637 cells were stimulated with Andro (0 to 80 µmol/L). Cell growth, migration, and infiltration were assessed using cell counting kit-8, colony formation, wound healing, and transwell assays. Apoptosis rate was examined using flow cytometry. In in vivo study, the antitumor effect of Andro (10 mg/kg) was evaluated by 5637 tumor-bearing mice, and levels of nuclear factor κ B (NF- κ B) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT related-proteins were determined by immunoblotting.@*RESULTS@#Andro suppressed growth, migration, and infiltraion of bladder cancer cells (P⩽0.05 or P⩽0.01). Additionally, Andro induced intrinsic mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in bladder cancer cell lines. Furthermore, Andro inhibited bladder cancer growth in mice (P⩽0.01). The expression of p65, p-AKT were suppressed by Andro treatment in vitro and in vivo (P⩽0.05 or P⩽0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Andrographolide inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in bladder cancer cells by interfering with NF- κ B and PI3K/AKT signaling in vitro and in vivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Diterpenes/therapeutic use , Humans , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/drug therapy
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928947

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether the antihypertensive mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) is associated with attenuating phenotype transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via phosphoinositide3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways.@*METHODS@#Eight Wistar-ktoyo (WKY) rats were set as normal blood pressure group (normal group). A total of 32 spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) were randomly divided into 4 groups using random number tables: a model group, an EA group, an EA+PI3K antagonist group (EA+P group), and an EA+p38 MAPK agonist+extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) agonist group (EA+M group) (n=8/group). SHRs in EA group, EA+P group and EA+M group received EA treatment 5 sessions per week for continuous 4 weeks, while rats in the normal and model groups were bundled in same condition. The systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) of each rat was measured at 0 week and the 4th week. After 4-week intervention, thoracic aorta was collected for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemistry [the contractile markers α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and calponin and the synthetic marker osteopontin (OPN)] and Western blot [α-SMA, calponin, OPN, PI3K, phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt), Akt, p-p42/44 ERK, total p42/44 ERK, p-p38 MAPK and total p38 MAPK].@*RESULTS@#EA significantly reduced SBP, DBP and MAP (P<0.01). HE staining showed that the wall thickness of thoracic aorta in EA group was significantly decreased (P<0.01). From results of immunohistochemistry and Western blot, EA increased the expression of α-SMA and calponin, and decreased the expression of OPN (P<0.01). In addition, the expression of PI3K and p-Akt increased (P<0.01), while the expression of p-p42/44 ERK and p-p38 MAPK decreased in EA group (P<0.01). However, these effects were reversed by PI3K antagonist, p38 MAPK agonist and ERK agonist.@*CONCLUSIONS@#EA was an effective treatment for BP management. The antihypertensive effect of EA may be related with inhibition of phenotypic transformation of VSMCs, in which the activation of PI3K/Akt and the repression of MAPK pathway were involved.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electroacupuncture , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Phenotype , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927897

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of long-chain noncoding RNA Linc00673 overexpression on proliferation and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells and its mechanisms. Methods: The recombinant lentivirus expressing plasmid pLVX-Linc00673 and the control empty plasmid pLVX-NC were packaged and amplified in 293T cells, and the recombinant lentivirus was transfected into gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 to establish a cell line stably overexpressing Linc00673. The expression of Linc00673 gene was detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. The growth and proliferation of cells were observed by MTT assay and clone formation assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. The expressions of cell cycle related regulatory genes were detected by qPCR. The expressions of key molecules in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and tumor proliferation related proteins were detected by Western blot. Results: The expressions of Linc00673 in gastric cancer cell line MGC-803, BGC-823 and AGS were significantly higher than that in normal gastric mucosa cell line GES-1 (P<0.05). MGC-803 cell line with stable overexpression of LINC00673 was established, and the expression level of LincC00673 was 200 times higher than that of the control empty carrier group. Overexpression of Linc00673 promoted proliferation of MGC-803 cells (P<0.05) and clone formation (P<0.05), inhibited cell apoptosis and affected the G1→S phase progression of cell cycle (P<0.01). Overexpression of Linc00673 could affect the expressions of cell cycle regulatory gene CCNG2, P19 and CDK1 in MGC-803. Western blot showed that Linc00673 overexpression not only promoted the expressions of the key molecule pAkt in PI3K / Akt signaling pathway and its downstream target NF-κ B and Bcl-2 protein, but also up regulated the expressions of tumor related factors β-catenin and EZH2 proteins. Conclusion: Overexpression of Linc00673 may promote proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of MGC-803 cells through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927892

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of Zhongfeng capsule on the autophagy-related proteins expression in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CI/ RI), and to explore its neural protection mechanisms of the decoction. Methods: Rat middle cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion injury model (ischemia for 2 h, reperfusion for 24 h) was prepared by the improved line plug method. Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, butylphthalide group(0.054 g/kg), Zhongfeng capsule high-dose groups (1.08 g/kg), Zhongfeng capsule middle-dose groups (0.54 g/kg), Zhongfeng capsule low-dose groups (0.27 g/kg), with 10 rats in each group. Rats were treated with Zhongfeng capsule by gavage once a day for 10 days. The rats were sacrificed and the brain tissue was obtained after the experiment in each group. Score neurological deficit was evaluated after 24 h of the last intervention in rat of each group. The pathological changes of brain tissue were observed by HE staining. The serum levels of estradiol (E2) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were determined by ELISA. The expressions of key genes and proteins of PI3K/Akt/Beclin1 signaling pathway in brain tissue were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Results: Compared with the sham operation group, the body weight and protein expressions of p-PI3k and p-Akt in brain tissue of rats were decreased significantly in the model group, while the brain index, neurological deficit score, gene and protein expressions of Beclin1 and LC3 were increased markedly in the model group(P<0.05 or P<0.01). In the model group, nerve cells of brain tissue were loosely packed, interstitial edema, triangular in shape, nuclear pyknosis and dark-blue staining were observed. Compared with the model group, the body weight of rats was increased obviously, the neurological deficit score was decreased significantly and the pathological injury of brain tissue was alleviated evidently in high-dose of Zhongfeng capsule group (P<0.05). The brain index, the gene and protein expressions of Beclin1 and LC3 were decreased apparently in Zhongfeng capsule treatment groups(P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the expressions of p-PI3k and p-Akt in brain tissue were increased evidently in Zhongfeng capsule treatment groups(P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: Zhongfeng capsule can inhibit autophagy and improve brain neurons lesion of CIRI rats, the mechanism may be related to regulate the expression of Beclin1 and LC3 in PI3K/Akt/Beclin1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy-Related Proteins/pharmacology , Beclin-1/metabolism , Body Weight , Brain , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Male , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy
13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 375-384, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922926

ABSTRACT

Drug repositioning provides new clinical indications for existing drugs. The imbalance between body's "immune-inflammation" regulation is one of the important factors in the occurrence and development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Chinese patent medicine Kunxian capsule is clinically used for treating rheumatoid arthritis with satisfying immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory actions. Notably, accumulating clinical evidence based on small cohorts had shown that Kunxian capsule may be used to treat DN. But the underlying pharmacological mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, this study integrated "drug target-disease gene-biological pathway-function module" multi-level associated network analysis, and in vivo and in vitro experiments, to verify the pharmacological effects of Kunxian capsules in DN and to elucidate its molecular mechanisms. The experimental protocol was reviewed by the Laboratory Animal Welfare and Ethics Committee of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, and it complies with the relevant regulations on laboratory animal welfare and ethics. As a result, the network analysis showed that the candidate targets of Kunxian capsule against DN were significantly involved into various functional modules which were related to modulation of immune-inflammation system, basement membrane lesion, abnormal hemorheology, energy metabolism and hormone metabolism, and the number of targets enriched by PI3K/AKT/NF-κB pathway is the largest. In addition, both in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that Kunxian capsule by gavage effectively reduced blood glucose, improved insulin resistance, reduced blood lipid, inhibited renal extracellular matrix protein production and renal inflammation, improved renal function and pathological damages, and inhibited the activity of PI3K/AKT/NF-κB/TNF-α/IL-1β pathway in diabetic nephropathy rats. Collectively, these findings suggest the therapeutic potentials of Kunxian capsule to alleviate DN by regulating the imbalance of immune-inflammation system.

14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19922, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384022

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-II (AgII) is thought to be crucial for tumor growth and progression. Moreover, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) performs a controversial action in cancer pathology. Zofenopril (ZF) is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with H2S donating properties. Hence, this study aims at investigating the tumor suppressor activity of ZF and elucidating the involved trajectories in Ehrlich's solid tumor (EST)-bearing mice. EST was induced by the intradermal injection of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cells into femoral region. All parameters were assessed after 28 days post-inoculation or one-week thereafter. ZF treatment resulted in significant reduction of tumor weights with marked decrease in IL-6 and VEGF levels in serum, and tumor Ag II and CEA contents. Additionally, the administration of ZF downregulated the tumor gene expression of cyclin-D, ACE-1, and Bcl2 and upregulated the proapoptotic gene, BAX. Moreover, ZF increased CBS gene expression, which is a major contributor to cellular H2S production. In addition, ZF was able to reduce the protein expression of PI3K, pAKT, pGSK-3ß, and NFκB. Our study has provided novel insights into the possible mechanisms by which ZF may produce its tumor defeating properties. These intersecting trajectories involve the interference between PI3K/Akt and CBS signaling pathways


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor/pathology , Neoplasms , Angiotensin II/adverse effects , Carcinoma/pathology , Gene Expression , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
15.
Clinics ; 76: e2175, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249578

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) KCNQ1 overlapping transcript 1 (KCNQ1OT1) exerts vital regulatory functions in diverse tumors. However, the biological function of KCNQ1OT1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear. METHODS: KCNQ1OT1 expression was detected in ESCC tissues using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were detected by the CCK-8 assay, EdU assay, flow cytometry analysis, and Transwell experiments, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis, luciferase reporter experiments, and RNA immunoprecipitation assays were used to predict and validate the regulatory relationships between KCNQ1OT1, microRNA-133b (miR-133b) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). RESULTS: KCNQ1OT1 expression was remarkably upregulated in ESCC tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of KCNQ1OT1 markedly promoted ESCC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and enhanced the expression of N-cadherin, MMP-2, and MMP-9, but inhibited apoptosis and E-cadherin expression in ESCC cell lines; KCNQ1OT1 knockdown exerted the opposite effects. KCNQ1OT1 could directly bind to miR-133b and suppress its expression, and miR-133b reversed the effects of KCNQ1OT1 overexpression in ESCC cells. MiR-133b reduced the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR); further, KCNQ1OT1 activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway by repressing miR-133b repression and indirectly upregulating EGFR. KCNQ1OT1 expression was positively correlated with EGFR mRNA expression and negatively correlated with miR-133b expression. CONCLUSION: KCNQ1OT1 facilitates ESCC progression by sponging miR-133b and activating the EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esophageal Neoplasms/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Cell Proliferation/genetics , KCNQ1 Potassium Channel/genetics
16.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 697-701, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875650

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To stu dy the effect of psoralen on osteoporosis in postmenopausal rats and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. METHODS :Totally 60 healthy female SD rats were randomly divided into normal group ,model group ,positive control group(0.09 mg/kg estradiol ),psoralen low-dose ,medium-dose and high-dose groups (22,44,88 mg/kg),with 10 rats in each group. Except for normal group ,the other groups were ovariectomized to establish Postmenopausal osteoporosis model. After 2 months of normal feeding after operation ,normal group and model group were given the constant volume of normal saline intragastrically,and administration groups were given the corresponding solution intragastrically ;the volume was 0.005 mL/g, once a day ,for consecutive 98 days. 24 h after last administration ,the BMD of femur and vertebra of right lower extremities in rats was determined. The contents of serum calcium ,osteocalcin and P1NP,the serum levels of BMP2 and VEGF were determined;mRNA and protein expression of PI3K,Akt and mTOR in femur tissue were detected.RESULTS :Compared with normal group ,BMD of femur and vertebra ,serum contents of calcium ,osteocalcin,P1NP and serum levels of BMP 2,VEGF in model group were decreased significantly ,while the mRNA and protein expression of PI 3K,Akt and mTOR were increased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with model group ,BMD of femur and vertebra ,serum levels of calcium , osteocalcin,P1NP and serum levels of BMP2(except for psoralen medium-dose group ),VEGF(except for psoralen medium-dose group)were increased significantly in psoralen medium-dose and high-dose groups ,positive control group ,while the mRNA expression(except for psoralen low-dose group )and protein expression of PI 3K,Akt and mTOR in administration groups were decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01);BMD of femur ,serum levels of calcium ,BMP2 and PI 3K protein expression in psoralen high-dose group were significantly higher than positive control group (P<0.05),and mTOR mRNA expression in psoralen high-dose group was significantly lower than positive control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS :Psoralen can improve osteoporosis in postmenopausal rats ,the mechanism of which may b e associated with inhibiting PI 3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

17.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 438-442, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873484

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To study the effects of paeonol combined with cisplatin on the proliferation and apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cell MG- 63 and its possible mechanism. METHODS :MG-63 cells in logarithmic growth phase were divided into blank control group ,cisplatin group (4 µmol/L),paeonol group (50 mg/L),and low ,medium,high concentration combined groups (50,100,200 mg/L paeonol+ 4 µmol/L cisplatin ). CCK- 8 method was used to detect the cell proliferation rate at 24,48,and 72 hours of treatment. Annexin Ⅴ-FITC/PI double staining method was used to detect the cell apoptosis rate at 24 hours of treatment. The relative expression of PI 3KCA,Akt,mTOR,P-gp and PTEN mRNA in cells were detected by qRT-PCR. RESULTS :Compared with blank control group ,the cell proliferation rate at each time point ,and the relative expression of PI 3KCA,Akt and mTOR mRNA in cells were significantly reduced and the apoptosis rate and the relative expression of P-gp and PTEN mRNA in the cells were increased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with cisplatin group and paeonol group ,cell proliferation rate at each time point and the relative expression of PI 3KCA,Akt and mTOR mRNA in cells were decreased significantly in the high concentration combination group ,while the relative expression of P-gp and PTEN mRNA in the cells were significantly increased (P<0.01);there were statistical significance in some of the above indicators in the medium and low concentration combination groups(P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS :The combination of paeonol and cisplatin could inhibit the proliferation of MG- 63 cells and promote their apoptosis ,which may be related to the down-regulation of PI 3KCA,Akt and mTOR mRNA expression ,and the up-regulation of P-gp and PTEN mRNA expression.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872632

ABSTRACT

@#[Abstract] Objective: To investigate the effect of cytokeratin 13 (CK13) on radio-sensitivity of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma HNE1 cell line and its mechanism. Methods: HNE1 cells were divided into control group, anti-CK13#a group (CK13 knockdown), anti-CK13#b group (CK13 knockdown), control+sirolimus group (100 nmol/L sirolimus treatment for 1 h), and anti-CK13#a + sirolimus group (100 nmol/L sirolimus treatment for 1 h). After irradiation treatment (200 cGy/min irradiation for 5 min), cell proliferation in each group was measured by CCK-8 assay. Cell apoptosis rate in each group was determined by Flow cytometry. Expression of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway related PTEN gene was detected by qPCR, and WB was used to detect the expressions of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway related proteins. Results: In the case of radiotherapy, as compared with the control group, the proliferation of HNE1 cells after CK13 knockdown was significantly enhanced (P<0.01) while the apoptosis rate was significantly reduced (P<0.01), the contents of caspase-3 and γH2AX as well as the protein lever of PTEN in cells were significantly decreased, while the expressions of p-AKT and p-S6K were significantly increased (all P<0.01). Interestingly, additional treatment with sirolimus (PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway inhibitor) could rescue the accelerated cell proliferation and decreased cell apoptosis caused by CK13 knockdown (all P<0.05). Conclusion: CK13 knockdown can enhance the activity of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway by down-regulating PTEN, and ultimately reduce the radio-sensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma HNE1 cells.

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3484-3492, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906828

ABSTRACT

Compound reserpine and triamterene tablets (CRTT), a compound antihypertensive drug developed by Chinese scientists, is still widely used in clinical practice. However, the mechanisms by which CRTT treats hypertension remain to be fully understood. This study used network pharmacology to analyze CRTT's antihypertensive mechanisms with in vitro experiments. The targets of the four chemical components of CRTT were collected from the Swiss Target Prediction database; 1 828 protein targets related to hypertension were collected from the Therapeutic Target Database (TTD) and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. The CRTT-hypertension network model was constructed using a search tool for recurring instances of neighbouring genes (STRING). Gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis of targets of interest was conducted with the Metascape database. In the in vitro study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were treated with 1 μmol·L-1 angiotensin Ⅱ (AngⅡ) and CRTT was administered at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 μmol·L-1. Changes in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein serine threonine kinase/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (PI3K/Akt/eNOS) pathway in HUVEC and the cyclic guanosine monophosphate/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGMP/PKG) pathway in VSMC were determined by Western blot. Network pharmacological analysis revealed that the antihypertensive effect of CRTT is closely associated with biological pathways such as vascular tone regulation, adrenergic receptor activation, protein kinase activity and signaling pathways such as the cGMP/PKG signaling pathway, vascular smooth muscle contraction, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes and calcium signaling pathways. The in vitro study confirmed that CRTT increased the levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (p-PI3K), phosphorylated protein serine threonine kinase (p-Akt), phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS) in HUVEC and the levels of eNOS, phosphorylated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (p-VASP), and PKG in VSMC through multiple targets and pathways. These results suggest that the activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway and endothelial-dependent NO/cGMP signaling may be involved in the CRTT-mediated hypotensive effect.

20.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 3000-3007, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906781

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To study the effects of sulforaphane on the prolifera tion and apoptosis of human renal tubular epithelial cells HK- 2 induced by high glucose ,and to investigate its mechanism primarily. METHODS :HK-2 cells were divided into normal group ,high glucose group ,irbesartan group (positive control ,1 μmol/L),sulforaphane low ,medium and high concentration groups (10,20,40 μmol/L). The cells in normal group were cultured in DMEM medium for 96 hours. T he cells in other groups were cultured in high glucose DMEM medium (containing 40 mmol/L glucose )for 48 hours. After inducing cell injury,the cells were added with corresponding drugs for 48 hours. Survival rate and apoptotic rate of cells were detected. mRNA expression of cyclin D 1,caspase-3,Bcl-2 and Bax as well as protein expression of p-mTOR ,p-AMPK,p-Akt and p-PI 3K were also determined. In addition ,HK-2 cells were divided into normal group ,high glucose group ,sulforaphane high concentration group(40 μmol/L),acardicin group (AMPK agonist ,1 mmol/L),sulforaphane high concentration+compound C group (sulforaphane 40 μmol/L+AMPK inhibitor compound C 40 μmol/L),perifoxine group (Akt inhibitor ,19.95 μmol/L)、sulforaphane high concentration+SC 79 group(sulforaphane 40 μmol/L+Akt agonist SC79 4 μmol/L). After cultured with the same method , protein expression of p-mTOR ,p-AMPK,p-Akt and p-PI 3K were detected in HK- 2 cells. RESULTS :Compared with normal group,survival rate of HK- 2 cells,mRNA expression of cyclin D 1 and Bcl- 2 as well as protein expression of p-AMPK were decreased significantly in high glucose group (P<0.05);apoptotic rate ,mRNA expression of caspase- 3 and Bax ,protein expression of p-mTOR ,p-Akt and p-PI 3K in HK- 2 cells were increased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with high glucose group,above indexes of sulforaphane low ,medium and high concentration groups ,irbesartan group were all improved significantly (P<0.05);the improvement of above indexes in sulforaphane medium and high concentration groups were significantly better those of sulforaphane low concentration group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in above indexes between sulforaphane high concentration group and irbesartan group (P>0.05). Compared with sulforaphane high concentration group,there were no significant difference in the protein expression of p-AMPK ,p-mTOR in acardicin group and p-mTOR ,p-Akt and p-PI 3K in perifoxine group (P>0.05);the protein expression of p-AMPK in sulforaphane high concentration+compound C group was decreased significantly (P<0.05),while the protein expression of p-mTOR was increased significantly (P<0.05);the protein expression of p-mTOR 、p-Akt、p-PI3K in sulforaphane high concentration+SC 79 group were increased significantly (P< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS :Sulforaphane can promote the proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells and inhibit its apoptosis ;its mechanism may be associated with up-regulating the expression of p-AMPK and down-regulating the expression of p-mTOR ,p-Akt and p-PI 3K.

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