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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252471, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355868

ABSTRACT

Abstract Smog has become the fifth season of Pakistan especially in Lahore city. Increased level of air pollutants (primary and secondary) are thought to be responsible for the formation of smog in Lahore. Therefore, the current study was carried out for the evaluation of air pollutants (primary and secondary) of smog in Wagah border particularly and other sites (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. For this purpose, baseline data on winter smog from March to December on primary and secondary air pollutants and meteorological parameters was collected from Environmental Protection Department and Pakistan Meteorological Department respectively. Devices being used in both departments for analysis of parameters were also studied. Collected data was further statistically analyzed to determine the correlation of parameters with meteorological conditions and was subjected to air quality index. According to results, PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found very high above the NEQS. NOx concentrations were also high above the permissible limits whereas SO2 and O3 were found below the NEQS thus have no roles in smog formation. Air Quality Index (AQI) of pollutants was PM 2.5(86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) and SO2 (10-95). AQI of PM 2.5 remained between moderate to very unhealthy levels. AQI of PM 10 remained between good to hazardous levels. AQI of NOx remained between good to unhealthy for sensitive groups' levels. AQI of O3 and SO2 remained between good to moderate levels. Pearson correlation showed that every pollutant has a different relation with different or same parameters in different areas. It is concluded from the present study that particulate matter was much more responsible for smog formation. Although NOx also played role in smog formation. So there is need to reduce sources of particulate matter and NOx specifically in order to reduce smog formation in Lahore.


Resumo Smog tornou-se a quinta estação do Paquistão, especialmente na cidade de Lahore. Acredita-se que o aumento do nível de poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) seja responsável pela formação de poluição atmosférica em Lahore. Portanto, o presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação dos poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) do smog na fronteira de Wagah em particular e em outros locais (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. Para este propósito, os dados de referência sobre a poluição atmosférica de inverno de março a dezembro sobre poluentes atmosféricos primários e secundários e parâmetros meteorológicos foram coletados do Departamento de Proteção Ambiental e do Departamento Meteorológico do Paquistão, respectivamente. Dispositivos sendo usados ​​em ambos os departamentos para análise de parâmetros também foram estudados. Os dados coletados foram posteriormente analisados ​​estatisticamente para determinar a correlação dos parâmetros com as condições meteorológicas e foram submetidos ao índice de qualidade do ar. De acordo com os resultados, PM 10 e PM 2,5 foram encontrados muito acima do NEQS. As concentrações de NOx também estavam muito acima dos limites permitidos, enquanto SO2 e O3 foram encontrados abaixo do NEQS, portanto, não têm papéis na formação de smog. O índice de qualidade do ar (AQI) de poluentes foi PM 2,5 (86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) e SO2 (10-95). O AQI de PM 2,5 permaneceu entre níveis moderados a muito prejudiciais à saúde. O AQI de PM 10 permaneceu entre níveis bons e perigosos. AQI de NOx permaneceu entre bom e não saudável para os níveis de grupos sensíveis. O AQI de O3 e SO2 permaneceu entre níveis bons a moderados. A correlação de Pearson mostrou que cada poluente tem uma relação diferente com parâmetros diferentes ou iguais em áreas diferentes. Conclui-se do presente estudo que o material particulado foi muito mais responsável pela formação de smog. Embora o NOx também tenha desempenhado um papel na formação do smog. Portanto, é necessário reduzir as fontes de partículas e NOx, especificamente para reduzir a formação de smog em Lahore.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Pakistan , Smog , Environmental Monitoring , Cities , Particulate Matter/analysis
2.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 710-714, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934889

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To examine the correlation between atmospheric PM2.5 and emergency call for respiratory diseases.@*Methods@#The daily emergency call for respiratory and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases was collected from Hangzhou Emergency Medical Center from 2018 to 2020, and meteorological and atmospheric pollutant data were collected from Hangzhou Municipal Center for Ecological and Environmental Monitoring during the same period, including daily mean air temperature, daily mean relative humidity, PM2.5, PM10 and SO2 levels. The correlation between atmospheric PM2.5 and emergency call for respiratory and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases was examined using a generalized additive model, and the risk of emergency call was predicted using excessive risk (ER) and its 95%CI.@*Results@#The daily mean emergency call was 14 (interquartile range, 12) cases for respiratory diseases and 20 (interquartile range, 7) cases for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in Hangzhou City from 2018 to 2020, and the daily mean PM2.5 mass concentration was 29.77 (interquartile range, 21.32) μg/m3. Cumulative exposure to PM2.5 for 5 or 6 d caused the largest effect on the emergency call for respiratory diseases, and an increase in PM2.5 by 10 μg/m3 led to a 1.93% (95%CI: 0.76%-3.11%) rise in the emergency call for respiratory diseases. Cumulative exposure to PM2.5 for 4 d caused the largest effect on the emergency call for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, and an increase in PM2.5 by 10 μg/m3 led to a 1.88% (95%CI: 0.80%-2.97%) rise in the emergency call for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Cumulative exposure to PM2.5 for 7 d caused the largest effect on the emergency call for respiratory diseases among residents aged 60 years and older, and an increase in PM2.5 by 10 μg/m3 led to a 4.37% (95%CI: 2.70%-6.06%) rise in the emergency call for respiratory diseases. Cumulative exposure to PM2.5 for 4 d caused the largest effect on the emergency call for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases among residents aged 60 years and older, and an increase in PM2.5 by 10 μg/m3 led to a 2.44% (95%CI: 0.97%-3.52%) rise in the emergency call for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. However, exposure to PM2.5 had no marked effects on emergency call for respiratory or cardio-cerebrovascular diseases among residents aged <60 years.@*Conclusions@#Elevated atmospheric PM2.5 mass concentration may lead to an increase in the daily emergency calls for respiratory and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, notably among residents aged 60 years and older.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940628

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the effect of Qingfei Jiangmai decoction (QJD) on the content of mercapturic acids in urine in healthy people amid PM2.5 (particles 2.5 microns or less in size) pollution. MethodA total of 84 healthy students of 18-30 years old in Beijing were recruited and they were randomized into the test group (42 in total, with 1 dropout) and control group (42 in total, with 3 dropouts). During the pollution, the test group and the control group respectively took QJD granules and placebo for 7 days (1 bag/time, 2 times/day), and another 7-day intervention with the same drugs was performed at an interval of 4 weeks. The time-activity patterns were recorded during the intervention. On-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) was performed to detect the content of PM2.5-related metabolites S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA), 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA), N-acetyl-S-(2-nitrile ethyl)-L-cysteine (CEMA), and N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxy ethyl)-L-cysteine (HEMA) in urine before and after intervention. Statistical analysis was followed. ResultThe content of CEMA, HEMA, 3-HPMA, and HMPMA in the test group was all higher after the intervention than before the intervention, with the significant difference in HEMA (P<0.05). After intervention, content of HEMA and SPMA was significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (P<0.05), and the difference in HEMA (Z=-3.614, P<0.01) and HMPMA (Z=-1.988, P<0.05) before and after invention in the test group was significantly larger than that in the control group. After the intervention, HEMA in the test group was significantly higher than that in the control group (F=7.597, P<0.01). ConclusionDuring PM2.5 pollution, QJD can increase the excretion of HEMA, a metabolite of ethylene oxide, in the urine of healthy people in Beijing, and enhance the detoxification process of toxic components in PM2.5, which is of great value in preventing and treating haze-related illnesses.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923970

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the composition and concentration of atmospheric particulate pollutants in four seasons in the industrial and clean living areas, and to provide a scientific basis for the strategy of controlling industrial pollution and atmospheric environment. Methods An industrial area dominated by the automobile industry in Shanghai and a relatively clean living area were selected. Samples were collected simultaneously in both areas and continuously for 7 days in the middle of each season. The composition and concentration of PM2.5 were determined, and the ecological risk of heavy metals in PM2.5 was evaluated by the potential ecological risk index method. Results We found PM2.5 concentration was associated with seasonal changes. The PM2.5 concentration in living areas was the highest in winter, followed by spring, and the lowest in summer. The PM2.5 concentration in industrial areas was the highest in spring, followed by winter, and the lowest in summer. The heavy metals in PM2.5 were the same, including Al, Cr, Mn, Ni, As, Cd, Hg and Pb. The content of Cr, Cd and Pb in PM2.5 in the industrial area is significantly higher than that in the living area. The potential ecological hazard coefficient of PM2.5 heavy metal Cd in the industrial zone was the highest, up to 189.47, and it was the main component of the total potential ecological hazard index of heavy metals. According to the total potential risk grade of heavy metals, the heavy metal Cd in the industrial area had different degrees of ecological harm with seasonal changes. The ecological harm degree of heavy metal Cd was the highest in winter, high in spring and autumn, and low in summer. Conclusion Although the concentration of PM2.5 in the industrial area is not higher than that in the living area, the content of Cr, Cd and Pb in the PM2.5 in the industrial area is significantly higher than that in the living area. The concentration of PM2.5 in the industrial area is mainly related to seasons, industrial production and human factors. The potential ecological harm coefficient of heavy metal Cd in PM2.5 is the highest in comparison with other heavy metals such as Cr, Hg and Pb, and it is the main component of the total potential ecological harm index ofheavy metals.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923948

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the composition and concentration of atmospheric particulate pollutants in four seasons in the industrial and clean living areas, and to provide a scientific basis for the strategy of controlling industrial pollution and atmospheric environment. Methods An industrial area dominated by the automobile industry in Shanghai and a relatively clean living area were selected. Samples were collected simultaneously in both areas and continuously for 7 days in the middle of each season. The composition and concentration of PM2.5 were determined, and the ecological risk of heavy metals in PM2.5 was evaluated by the potential ecological risk index method. Results We found PM2.5 concentration was associated with seasonal changes. The PM2.5 concentration in living areas was the highest in winter, followed by spring, and the lowest in summer. The PM2.5 concentration in industrial areas was the highest in spring, followed by winter, and the lowest in summer. The heavy metals in PM2.5 were the same, including Al, Cr, Mn, Ni, As, Cd, Hg and Pb. The content of Cr, Cd and Pb in PM2.5 in the industrial area is significantly higher than that in the living area. The potential ecological hazard coefficient of PM2.5 heavy metal Cd in the industrial zone was the highest, up to 189.47, and it was the main component of the total potential ecological hazard index of heavy metals. According to the total potential risk grade of heavy metals, the heavy metal Cd in the industrial area had different degrees of ecological harm with seasonal changes. The ecological harm degree of heavy metal Cd was the highest in winter, high in spring and autumn, and low in summer. Conclusion Although the concentration of PM2.5 in the industrial area is not higher than that in the living area, the content of Cr, Cd and Pb in the PM2.5 in the industrial area is significantly higher than that in the living area. The concentration of PM2.5 in the industrial area is mainly related to seasons, industrial production and human factors. The potential ecological harm coefficient of heavy metal Cd in PM2.5 is the highest in comparison with other heavy metals such as Cr, Hg and Pb, and it is the main component of the total potential ecological harm index ofheavy metals.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936426

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish an evaluation method of uncertainty for the determination of lead in ambient air PM2.5 by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Methods According to HJ657-2013 “Determination of Lead and Other Metal Elements in Air and Exhaust Particulates by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry”, the concentration of lead in ambient air PM2.5 was determined. A mathematical model was established to analyze the source of uncertainty and to calculate each component of uncertainty. The components were combined into the standard uncertainty, and the relative expanded uncertainty was finally obtained. Results The expanded uncertainty of lead in ambient air PM2.5 was 0.16 ng/m3, and the measurement result of lead was (1.75±0.16)ng/m3. Conclusion The main source of uncertainty of this method comes from the relative standard uncertainty introduced by sample pretreatment.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Particulate matter (PM), a major component of ambient air pollution, accounts for a substantial burden of diseases and fatality worldwide. Maternal exposure to PM during pregnancy is particularly harmful to children's health since this is a phase of rapid human growth and development.@*METHOD@#In this review, we synthesize the scientific evidence on adverse health outcomes in children following prenatal exposure to the smallest toxic components, fine (PM@*RESULTS@#Maternal exposure to fine and ultrafine PM directly and indirectly yields numerous adverse birth outcomes and impacts on children's respiratory systems, immune status, brain development, and cardiometabolic health. The biological mechanisms underlying adverse effects include direct placental translocation of ultrafine particles, placental and systemic maternal oxidative stress and inflammation elicited by both fine and ultrafine PM, epigenetic changes, and potential endocrine effects that influence long-term health.@*CONCLUSION@#Policies to reduce maternal exposure and health consequences in children should be a high priority. PM


Subject(s)
Adult , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Disease Models, Animal , Endocrine System Diseases/chemically induced , Epigenomics , Female , Humans , Immune System Diseases/chemically induced , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced , Oxidative Stress , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/chemically induced , Young Adult
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886819

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the pollution characteristics of 12 kinds of metals and metalloid elements in PM2.5 in Xi'an city, and to assess the health risks. Methods In 2018, PM2.5 samples were collected regularly every month at two monitoring points in Lianhu District and Yanta District of Xi'an City. The content of twelve metal and metalloid elements (Sb, Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Mn, Ni, Se, and Ti) in the samples were determined. The test results were statistically analyzed and evaluated according to different regions and seasons. The health risk assessment model recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was used to assess the health risks of the metal and metalloid elements. Results A total of 165 PM2.5 samples were collected and analyzed. The qualified rates of As and Cd were 51.52% and 83.03%, respectively, and there was no significant difference between regions (P>0.05). The qualified rate of As in each season from high to low was summer> autumn> winter> spring. The average concentration of As was 8.21 ng/m3, being 1.37 times higher than the standard. The average concentration of As in each season exceeded the standard, and the order from high to low was winter> spring> autumn> summer. The average concentrations of other elements did not exceed the standard. HQ value and HI value of As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Mn, Ni, Hg, Ti and Se were all less than 1. The ILCR value of carcinogenic elements As, Cd, Cr and Ni was between 3.63×10-07 ~2.58×10-05. The ILCR value was highest for As, followed by Cr. The ILCR value was highest in winter, followed by spring and autumn, and lowest in summer. The order of ILCR value was adult males> adult females> children and adolescents. Conclusion The pollution of metal and metalloid elements in the atmospheric PM2.5 in Xi'an in the winter is most serious. Arsenic and chromium in PM2.5 pose a higher potential health risk to the population through the respiratory route.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886690

ABSTRACT

@#To investigate the effects of intratracheal instillation of PM2.5 suspension on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice and the intervention of neotuberostemonine (NTS), the BLM dose (1.5 or 3.0 U/kg) and PM2.5 frequency (1 or 2 times per week) were studied by factorial experiment design. After intratracheal instillation of BLM (1.5 or 3.0 U/kg) on day 0, PM2.5 (5 mg/kg) was intratracheally injected to mice once or twice a week from day 1 to day 21, and the mice in the treatment group were given 30 mg/kg NTS by gavage once a day from day 8 to day 21. The degree of pulmonary fibrosis was evaluated by lung coefficient, hydroxyproline (HYP) content, HE staining and Masson staining lung sections as well as their semi-quantitative index (HE inflammatory score and collagen volume fraction, CVF). The results showed that the HE scores increased significantly in mice singly given PM2.5 once a week, the HYP content and HE score increased in mice singly given PM2.5 twice a week, but their CVF values did not significantly increase. However, the CVF values increased significantly in mice treated with PM2.5 and BLM co-infusion. These results suggested that PM2.5 (administered singly) could significantly increase BLM-induced collagen deposition and greatly aggravate pulmonary fibrosis although it mainly caused pulmonary inflammation rather than pulmonary fibrosis. NTS could significantly reduce the CVF value and α-SMA protein level of the model mice. It can be concluded that PM2.5 has great influence on patients with respiratory diseases, while NTS can improve pulmonary fibrosis induced by the combination of PM2.5 and BLM.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886105

ABSTRACT

Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a mixture consisting of a wide range of chemical constituents including carbonaceous aerosols, water soluble ions and inorganic elements, and has become the major air pollutant in most cities in China. Evidence suggests that exposure to ambient PM2.5 induces damage on the cardiovascular system and can increase risk of the development and mortality of ischemic heart diseases (IHD). However, the effects of exposure to specific PM2.5 constituents on IHD remain unclear, and its underlying mechanisms are yet to be investigated. Here we reviewed studies investigating the association of short- and long-term exposure to specific PM2.5 constituents with IHD, which may provide useful clues for future relevant studies.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886082

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze characteristics of heavy metals in metro station’s airborne PM2.5 and to evaluate its health risk in a South China city. Methods A metro stations were selected for the study. Sampling sites of metro station included ground control, station hall and platform. The PM2.5 sampling was conducted one time per day for three consecutive days. The concentrations of ten heavy metals (As、Cr、Cd、Ni、Hg、Pb、Mn、Sb、Se、Cu) were determined. Inhalation exposure to these heavy metals2.52.5 range from 0.06 ng/m3 to 49.22 ng/m3. The concentrations of Mn、Cr and Ni in metro station’s airborne PM2.5 were respectively 3.75 times, 2.23times and 2.12 times higher than those in ground control. Increased lifetime cancer risk of carcinogenic heavy metal Cr exposure outrange the acceptable level (10-6) when its exposure time exceed 5 hours per day for lifetime. Cancer risk of carcinogenic heavy metal As exposure outrange the acceptable level (10-6) when its exposure time for adult male population exceed 8 hours per day for lifetime. Non-carcinogenic hazards risks of heavy metal Mn、Cu、Pb、Se、Hg and Sb in metro station’s airborne PMPM2.5 were little. Conclusions Airborne particulate matter in metro station has become one of the important sources of heavy metal exposure. Further attention should be paid to the possible carcinogenic risk of heavy metals in metro station’s airborne PM2.5 for long-term exposure.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878319

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Epidemiological studies reveal that exposure to fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm, PM @*Methods@#EVs were isolated from the serum of healthy subjects, quantified @*Results@#PM @*Conclusions@#EVs treatment promotes cell survival and attenuates PM


Subject(s)
A549 Cells , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Serum
13.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 473-475, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877129

ABSTRACT

Abstract@#Exposure to atmospheric PM2.5 is closely related to the morbidity and mortality of kidney diseases such as chronic kidney disease, membranous nephropathy and kidney cancer. Acute and chronic PM2.5 exposure lead to the damage of glomerular filtration and kidney tissue of mice. PM2.5 induces cellular oxidative stress, inflammatory response, endoplasmic reticulum stress, renin angiotensin system and bradykinin system activation, so that causes renal blood vessel and tissue damage, decreases glomerular filtration rate and clearance capacity, and mediates the occurrence of kidney damage and diseases. This article reviews the studies into the impact of PM2.5 on kidney and its mechanism form 2016 to 2020, so as to provide the basis for the prevention and treatment of kidney injury induced by PM2.5.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862725

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the correlation between atmospheric particulate matter and confirmed cases of influenza in Pudong New Area, Shanghai, and to provide a basis for formulating relevant control measures. Methods The meteorological factors (average temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric pressure), atmospheric pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3) and confirmed cases of influenza of different ages and genders from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2018 were collected. Data was fitted to a generalized additive model of Poisson distribution to assess the correlation between atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10) and the number of confirmed cases of influenza. Results There was a correlation between atmospheric particulate matter and the number of confirmed cases of influenza in Pudong New Area. For each increase of 10 μg/m3 in the concentration of the two types of particulate matter, the confirmed cases increased by 0.638% (95%CI: 0.413%~0.864%), and 0.520% (95%CI: 0.324%~0.715%), respectively, when the lag was 0-7d (lag07). People of different ages and genders were affected by atmospheric particulate matter differently. After incorporating the effects of SO2, NO2, CO, and O3 in the multi-pollutant model, the effect of atmospheric particulate matter on the number of influenza cases had changed. Conclusion The increase of atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10) concentration increased the number of confirmed cases of influenza in Pudong New Area.

15.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1096-1099, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829526

ABSTRACT

Objective @#To investigate the pollution of metal elements in PM2.5 at the metro station by monitoring, so as to provide evidence for health protection strategies.@*Methods@#The PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms, in the tunnels, and above the ground of two selected metro stations in some city were collected and measured by electronic balance. The concentrations of Fe, Al, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ba and Cd in PM2.5 were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The pollution index (PI) and enrichment factor (EF) of these elements were analyzed.@*Results@#The concentration of PM2.5 was (101.46±32.88) μg/m3 on the platforms, (104.42±32.95) μg/m3 in the tunnels and (74.25±13.29) μg/m3 above the ground. The highest Fe concentrations were (33.19±5.93) μg/m3 on the platforms and (39.95±11.56) μg/m3 in the tunnels, accounting for (33.73±9.40)% and (42.72±17.17)% of PM2.5. The average PI values of Fe, Mn and Ba in PM2.5 on the platforms were 29.67, 9.24 and 7.13, in the tunnels were 36.30, 11.23 and 8.30, respectively, with very high level of pollution; the average EF values of Fe, Mn and Ba in PM2.5 on the platforms were 20.15, 4.55 and 4.33, in the tunnels were 19.44, 4.16 and 4.07, with serious, medium and medium level of enrichment, respectively.@*Conclusion@#The main metal pollutants in PM2.5 at the metro station are Fe, Mn and Ba, which are enriched in the metro environment.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829011

ABSTRACT

Objective@#High PM concentration is the main feature of increasing haze in developing states, but information on its microbial composition remains very limited. This study aimed to determine the composition of microbiota in PM in Guangzhou, a city located in the tropics in China.@*Methods@#In Guangzhou, from March 5 to 10 , 2016, PM was collected in middle volume air samplers for 23 h daily. The 16S rDNA V4 region of the PM sample extracted DNA was investigated using high-throughput sequence.@*Results@#Among the Guangzhou samples, , , , , and were the dominant microbiota accounting for more than 90% of the total microbiota, and was the dominant gram-negative bacteria, accounting for 21.30%-23.57%. We examined the difference in bacterial distribution of PM between Beijing and Guangzhou at the genus level; was found in both studies, but was only detected in Guangzhou.@*Conclusion@#In conclusion, the diversity and specificity of microbial components in Guangzhou PM were studied, which may provide a basis for future pathogenicity research in the tropics.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , Air Pollutants , Bacteria , Classification , China , Cities , Environmental Monitoring , Microbiota , Particle Size , Particulate Matter , RNA, Bacterial , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828976

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To screen the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBE) treated with atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM ).@*Methods@#HBE cells were treated with PM samples from Shenzhen and Taiyuan for 24 h. To detect overall protein expression, the Q Exactive mass spectrometer was used. Gene ontology (GO), Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG), and Perseus software were used to screen DEPs.@*Results@#Overall, 67 DEPs were screened in the Shenzhen sample-treated group, of which 46 were upregulated and 21 were downregulated. In total, 252 DEPs were screened in the Taiyuan sample-treated group, of which 134 were upregulated and 118 were downregulated. KEGG analysis demonstrated that DEPs were mainly enriched in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and HIF-1 signal pathways in Shenzhen PM samples-treated group. The GO analysis demonstrated that Shenzhen sample-induced DEPs were mainly involved in the biological process for absorption of various metal ions and cell components. The Taiyuan PM -induced DEPs were mainly involved in biological processes of protein aggregation regulation and molecular function of oxidase activity. Additionally, three important DEPs, including ANXA2, DIABLO, and AIMP1, were screened.@*Conclusion@#Our findings provide a valuable basis for further evaluation of PM -associated carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Bronchi , Metabolism , Computational Biology , Epithelial Cells , Metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Particle Size , Particulate Matter , Proteomics
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827810

ABSTRACT

To investigate the inflammatory mechanism of nasal instillation of fine particulate matter (PM)on hippocampal tissue injury in mice. Thirty C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 3 groups(n=10):control group, low-dose group, high-dose group. The nasal instillation doses of PM in the low-dose group and the high-dose group were 1.5 mg/kg BW and 7.5 mg/kg BW, respectively, and the control group was given saline with an equal volume. Saline was sprayed once every other time for 12 times. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined by ELISA method. HE staining and electron microscopy were used to observe the pathological changes and ultrastructure of lung tissue and hippocampus. The inflammatory cytokine levels in hippocampus were detected by antibody chip technique. There was no significant effect of PM nasal instillation on serum TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels (P>0.05), and there was no obvious pathological changes in lung tissue structure. In hippocampus, low-dose and high-dose PM exposure could lead to disordered neuronal arrangement in the hippocampal CA3 region, and there were neurological changes around the neuron cells and ultrastructural changes such as edema around small blood vessels. Compared with the control group, the levels of inflammatory cytokines such as CX3CL1, CSF2 and TECK in the low-dose group were increased significantly (P <0.05), while sTNFR1 was decreased significantly (P<0.05); the inflammatory factors CX3CL1, CSF2, and TCA-3 were significantly increased in the high-dose group (P<0.05), while leptin, MIG, and FASLG were significantly decreased (P<0.05). Nasal instillation of PM can induce tissue damage in the hippocampus of mice, and its mechanism of action may be the olfactory brain pathway. The increasing of TNF-α and IL-6 and the decreasing of sTNFR1 and FASLG may be involved in inflammatory mechanisms.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825679

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the pollution status of phthalate esters in household indoor air particles in Wuhan. Methods The indoor air particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 from residential houses in Wuhan were collected. The concentrations of 15 phthalate esters were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results A total of 5 phthalates were detected, including DMP, DEP, DiBP, DBP, and DEHP. The detection rate of DiBP, DBP and DEHP was 100%, while DMP and DEP were detected in only some of the samples. Conclusion Phthalate esters pollution was widespread in indoor air particles of residential houses in Wuhan. DiBP, DBP and DEHP were the main pollutants. Decoration materials and plastic household articles were important sources of the phthalate esters pollution, and their impact as a health hazard needs attention.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825672

ABSTRACT

Objectives To evaluate relationship between PM2.5 exposure and the risk of lung cancer. Methods Searched Chinese literatures with cohort studies from CNKI and Wanfang databases and English literatures with cohort studies from Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science (from inception to April 2020),and the key words were “particulate matter”、“particle”、“PM2.5”、“lung cancer”、“lung carcinoma”、“lung tumor”、“lung tumour”、“lung neoplasm”、“lung adenocarcinoma”、“incidence”、“morbidity”. Used NOS to assess the quality of these studies , and used Stata 15.1 software to perform meta -analysis. Results A total of 6 articles were included.The fixed effect model was selected after heterogeneity test. (P>0.1, I2<50%)The Meta-analysis showed that the risk of lung cancer may increase for per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 exposure (pooled RR= 1.07, 95%CI:1.06-1.09). The results of sensitivity analysis showed that no significant changes in the combined effect were observed after excluding any study, indicating that the results of this meta-analysis were relatively stable. Conclusion The risk of lung cancer may increase with increased exposure to PM2.5 in air pollution.

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