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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252471, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355868

ABSTRACT

Abstract Smog has become the fifth season of Pakistan especially in Lahore city. Increased level of air pollutants (primary and secondary) are thought to be responsible for the formation of smog in Lahore. Therefore, the current study was carried out for the evaluation of air pollutants (primary and secondary) of smog in Wagah border particularly and other sites (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. For this purpose, baseline data on winter smog from March to December on primary and secondary air pollutants and meteorological parameters was collected from Environmental Protection Department and Pakistan Meteorological Department respectively. Devices being used in both departments for analysis of parameters were also studied. Collected data was further statistically analyzed to determine the correlation of parameters with meteorological conditions and was subjected to air quality index. According to results, PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found very high above the NEQS. NOx concentrations were also high above the permissible limits whereas SO2 and O3 were found below the NEQS thus have no roles in smog formation. Air Quality Index (AQI) of pollutants was PM 2.5(86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) and SO2 (10-95). AQI of PM 2.5 remained between moderate to very unhealthy levels. AQI of PM 10 remained between good to hazardous levels. AQI of NOx remained between good to unhealthy for sensitive groups' levels. AQI of O3 and SO2 remained between good to moderate levels. Pearson correlation showed that every pollutant has a different relation with different or same parameters in different areas. It is concluded from the present study that particulate matter was much more responsible for smog formation. Although NOx also played role in smog formation. So there is need to reduce sources of particulate matter and NOx specifically in order to reduce smog formation in Lahore.


Resumo Smog tornou-se a quinta estação do Paquistão, especialmente na cidade de Lahore. Acredita-se que o aumento do nível de poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) seja responsável pela formação de poluição atmosférica em Lahore. Portanto, o presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação dos poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) do smog na fronteira de Wagah em particular e em outros locais (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. Para este propósito, os dados de referência sobre a poluição atmosférica de inverno de março a dezembro sobre poluentes atmosféricos primários e secundários e parâmetros meteorológicos foram coletados do Departamento de Proteção Ambiental e do Departamento Meteorológico do Paquistão, respectivamente. Dispositivos sendo usados ​​em ambos os departamentos para análise de parâmetros também foram estudados. Os dados coletados foram posteriormente analisados ​​estatisticamente para determinar a correlação dos parâmetros com as condições meteorológicas e foram submetidos ao índice de qualidade do ar. De acordo com os resultados, PM 10 e PM 2,5 foram encontrados muito acima do NEQS. As concentrações de NOx também estavam muito acima dos limites permitidos, enquanto SO2 e O3 foram encontrados abaixo do NEQS, portanto, não têm papéis na formação de smog. O índice de qualidade do ar (AQI) de poluentes foi PM 2,5 (86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) e SO2 (10-95). O AQI de PM 2,5 permaneceu entre níveis moderados a muito prejudiciais à saúde. O AQI de PM 10 permaneceu entre níveis bons e perigosos. AQI de NOx permaneceu entre bom e não saudável para os níveis de grupos sensíveis. O AQI de O3 e SO2 permaneceu entre níveis bons a moderados. A correlação de Pearson mostrou que cada poluente tem uma relação diferente com parâmetros diferentes ou iguais em áreas diferentes. Conclui-se do presente estudo que o material particulado foi muito mais responsável pela formação de smog. Embora o NOx também tenha desempenhado um papel na formação do smog. Portanto, é necessário reduzir as fontes de partículas e NOx, especificamente para reduzir a formação de smog em Lahore.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Pakistan , Smog , Environmental Monitoring , Cities , Particulate Matter/analysis
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469289

ABSTRACT

Abstract Smog has become the fifth season of Pakistan especially in Lahore city. Increased level of air pollutants (primary and secondary) are thought to be responsible for the formation of smog in Lahore. Therefore, the current study was carried out for the evaluation of air pollutants (primary and secondary) of smog in Wagah border particularly and other sites (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. For this purpose, baseline data on winter smog from March to December on primary and secondary air pollutants and meteorological parameters was collected from Environmental Protection Department and Pakistan Meteorological Department respectively. Devices being used in both departments for analysis of parameters were also studied. Collected data was further statistically analyzed to determine the correlation of parameters with meteorological conditions and was subjected to air quality index. According to results, PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found very high above the NEQS. NOx concentrations were also high above the permissible limits whereas SO2 and O3 were found below the NEQS thus have no roles in smog formation. Air Quality Index (AQI) of pollutants was PM 2.5(86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) and SO2 (10-95). AQI of PM 2.5 remained between moderate to very unhealthy levels. AQI of PM 10 remained between good to hazardous levels. AQI of NOx remained between good to unhealthy for sensitive groups levels. AQI of O3 and SO2 remained between good to moderate levels. Pearson correlation showed that every pollutant has a different relation with different or same parameters in different areas. It is concluded from the present study that particulate matter was much more responsible for smog formation. Although NOx also played role in smog formation. So there is need to reduce sources of particulate matter and NOx specifically in order to reduce smog formation in Lahore.


Resumo Smog tornou-se a quinta estação do Paquistão, especialmente na cidade de Lahore. Acredita-se que o aumento do nível de poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) seja responsável pela formação de poluição atmosférica em Lahore. Portanto, o presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação dos poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) do smog na fronteira de Wagah em particular e em outros locais (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. Para este propósito, os dados de referência sobre a poluição atmosférica de inverno de março a dezembro sobre poluentes atmosféricos primários e secundários e parâmetros meteorológicos foram coletados do Departamento de Proteção Ambiental e do Departamento Meteorológico do Paquistão, respectivamente. Dispositivos sendo usados em ambos os departamentos para análise de parâmetros também foram estudados. Os dados coletados foram posteriormente analisados estatisticamente para determinar a correlação dos parâmetros com as condições meteorológicas e foram submetidos ao índice de qualidade do ar. De acordo com os resultados, PM 10 e PM 2,5 foram encontrados muito acima do NEQS. As concentrações de NOx também estavam muito acima dos limites permitidos, enquanto SO2 e O3 foram encontrados abaixo do NEQS, portanto, não têm papéis na formação de smog. O índice de qualidade do ar (AQI) de poluentes foi PM 2,5 (86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) e SO2 (10-95). O AQI de PM 2,5 permaneceu entre níveis moderados a muito prejudiciais à saúde. O AQI de PM 10 permaneceu entre níveis bons e perigosos. AQI de NOx permaneceu entre bom e não saudável para os níveis de grupos sensíveis. O AQI de O3 e SO2 permaneceu entre níveis bons a moderados. A correlação de Pearson mostrou que cada poluente tem uma relação diferente com parâmetros diferentes ou iguais em áreas diferentes. Conclui-se do presente estudo que o material particulado foi muito mais responsável pela formação de smog. Embora o NOx também tenha desempenhado um papel na formação do smog. Portanto, é necessário reduzir as fontes de partículas e NOx, especificamente para reduzir a formação de smog em Lahore.

3.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 172-178, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-994963

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the correlation between atmospheric particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5) concentration and the number of chronic kidney disease (CKD) hospital admissions in the elderly in Taiyuan city. Methods:The atmospheric PM 2.5 concentration in Taiyuan city during 2019—2021 was used as the environmental exposure data, and the number of CKD admission of the elderly patients (> 60 years old) in Taiyuan city at the same time was used as the disease progression index. The distributed lag nonlinear model was used to analyze overall and lag effects of PM 2.5 average daily concentration on the elderly patients admitted to CKD. Results:A total of 6 037 cases elderly patients with CKD admitted to hospital were included, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.36∶1. The average daily concentration of PM 2.5 was 52.80 μg/m 3, which did not exceed China's air quality standard (75 μg/m3); But in autumn and winter, the average daily concentration of PM 2.5 significantly exceeded the normal reference value, with the highest value reaching 302 μg/m 3. The relationship between the average daily concentration of PM 2.5 and the number of elderly patients admitted to CKD was nonlinear and there was a lag effect. The relative risk ( RR) value reached the maximum when PM 2.5 average daily concentration was 87 μg/m 3 with lag time of 11 days [1.074(95% CI 1.018-1.321)]. The subgroup analysis results showed that the risk of admission of elderly female CKD patients was higher than that of male patients with lag time of 10 days, and the RR was 1.073(95% CI 1.001-1.151). Elderly CKD patients with hypertension (PM 2.5 87 μg/m 3) and diabetes (PM 2.5 88 μg/m 3) had a higher risk of admission when exposed to PM 2.5, with maximum RR values of 1.067(95% CI 1.002-1.136) and 1.162(95% CI 1.021-1.320), respectively. Conclusions:High atmospheric PM 2.5 concentration in Taiyuan city can increase the risk of admission in elderly patients with CKD, especially in women and patients with hypertension or diabetes.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988901

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the synergetic effect of temperature and PM2.5 on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. MethodWe collected cardiovascular and cerebrovascular death cases,air pollution and meteorological data during the same period in Pudong New Area from 2013 to 2018.We used generalized additive models (GAMs) with poisson regression including non-stratification model, nonparametric bivariate response model and pollution-stratified parametric model, to assess the interaction between temperature and PM2.5 and on the number of cardiovascular cerebrovascular and cerebrovascular disease deaths. ResultsThe exposure-response relationship between temperature and the number of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular deaths exhibited "U" type and the most comfortable temperature was 18.9 ℃. When the concentrations of PM2.5 increased by 10 μg·m-3, the deaths of total, male, female, ≤75 years and >75 years increased, respectively, by 0.60%(95%CI: 0.30%‒0.91%), 0.77%(95%CI:0.34%‒1.20%), 0.46%(95%CI:0.05%‒0.86%), 0.66%(95%CI:0.03%‒1.30%) and 0.59%(95%CI:0.26%‒0.92%). With the increase of PM2.5 concentration level, the impact of temperature on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases gradually increased, and the impact was the most significant when the concentration of PM2.5 was more than 150 µg·m-3. There were different sensitive people in different seasons. ConclusionPM2.5 concentration levels of mild pollution and above can exacerbate the negative effects of temperature on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

5.
China Tropical Medicine ; (12): 631-2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979778

ABSTRACT

@#Abstract: Objective To understand the pollution characteristics and sources of PM2.5 in the atmosphere during heating and non-heating periods in Urumqi City in 2021, and provide scientific basis for pollution control during different periods. Method A total of 188 air samples were collected from area A and area B of Urumqi City, and 12 metal elements and 5 water-soluble ions were quantitatively analyzed, and the pollution sources were analyzed by enrichment factor method and principal component analysis method. Results In 2021, the mass concentrations of PM2.5 in areas A and B of Urumqi were 45.0 (20.0, 158) µg/m3 and 28.0 (17.5, 66.0) µg/m3, respectively, with statistically significant difference (Z=-2.870, P<0.05). During the heating period, the concentrations were 110 (68.0, 250) µg/m3 and 61.0 (31.0, 88.0) µg/m3, respectively, with no statistically significant difference (Z=-3.822, P<0.01). During the non-heating period, the concentrations were 18.0 (13.0, 22.3) µg/m3 and 18.0 (12.8, 22.0) µg/m3, respectively, with no statistically significant difference (Z=-0.596, P>0.05). The SNA (the sum of SO42-, NO3-and NH4+) accounted for 71.7% and 23.4% of PM2.5 in A area during heating and non-heating periods, respectively, with statistically significant difference (Z=-8.057, P<0.01); the corresponding proportions in B area were 60.7% and 24.9%, with statistically significant difference (Z=-6.672, P<0.01). During the heating and non-heating periods, the ratios of NO3-/SO42-are 0.63 and 0.54 in A area were 0.63 and 0.54, respectively, with statistically significant difference (Z=-2.382, P<0.05); and the corresponding ratios in B area were 0.72 and 0.53, respectively, with statistically significant difference (Z=-3.182, P<0.05). The ratio of NO3- to SO42- was less than 1 in both heating and non-heating periods in the two areas. and the correlation between five water-soluble ions was significant (P<0.05). The correlation coefficient between NH4+ and SO42-, NO3-and Cl- in A and B areas during heating periods were all >0.9, indicating that NH4+and SO42-, NO3- and Cl- bind in (NH4)2SO4, NH4HSO4, NH4NO3, and NH4Cl. During non-heating periods, the correlation between NH4+ and each ion was slightly lower. During heating periods in area A, Sb, As, Cd, Pb, and Tl were severely enriched (EF>100). During non-heating periods in the same area, As, Cd, Pb, Tl, and Hg were severely enriched (EF>100). During heating periods in area B, Sb, As, Cd, Pb, and Hg were severely enriched (EF>100), and during non-heating periods in the same area, Sb, Cd, and Hg were severely enriched (EF>100). Coal emission, photochemical secondary pollution, motor vehicle exhaust, dust and industrial pollution were the main sources of PM2.5 pollution in the two areas, and the contribution rate of fixed sources was higher than that of mobile sources. Conclusion In 2021, the mass concentration of PM2.5, water-soluble ions and metal elements in Urumqi City were higher in area A than area B, the heating period was higher than the non-heating period, the excess rate of area A was higher than that in area B, and the contribution rate of fixed air pollution was greater than that of mobile sources.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979201

ABSTRACT

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the main chronic inflammatory diseases that pose a global threat. Its symptoms persist for a long time, recur, and seriously affect the physical and mental health of the patients. Existing research has shown that the occurrence and development of AR are related to genetic and environmental factors. In recent years, the harm of air pollution to human health has received increasing attention, and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is the main harmful component of air pollutants. Its small particle size makes it easy to absorb various harmful substances, enter the respiratory tract, damage the nasal mucosa, and participate in the occurrence and development process of AR. At present, a large number of epidemiological studies have confirmed that PM2.5 is positively related to the incidence rate and severity of symptoms of AR, but its exact mechanism is still unclear. Therefore, studying the mechanism of PM2.5 exposure on AR damage is expected to provide new clues for exploring the pathogenesis and deterioration of AR. This article reviewed the epidemiological studies and toxicological mechanisms of PM2.5 exposure and AR in recent years; discussed the potential biological mechanisms of PM2.5 induced AR occurrence and development, including nasal mucositis damage, oxidative stress, and immune damage. Furthermore, a new research direction was proposed, which suggested that neuroimmune disorders and bacterial imbalance may be involved in the progression of AR and play a certain role in the toxic effects induced by PM2.5. We aim to provide ideas and a theoretical basis for developing effective measures to prevent and treat AR.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979197

ABSTRACT

Background A number of studies have shown that heavy metals in atmospheric PM2.5 have impacts on human health, while studies on the impact of long-term and low-concentration exposure to lead in PM2.5 on human health are limited. Objective To investigate the pollution characteristics of lead in ambient PM2.5 and assess its chronic health risks. Methods Daily PM2.5 concentration data in Jinan from 2014 to 2019 were collected, and the year-by-year trend of PM2.5 concentration was analyzed. Licheng District (an industrial area) and Shizhong District (a residential area) were elected to install an ambient PM2.5 monitoring stationrespectively. The sampling instrument was a 100 L·min−1 high-flow PM2.5 sampler, with a cumulative sampling time of 20-24 h per day, using a quartz fiber filter membrane for lead detection and a glass fiber filter membrane for PM2.5 determination. The sampling frequency was 7 consecutive days per month from the 10th to the 16th (A total of 493 d were sampled and some were missing; 172 d during the heating period and 321 d during the non-heating period). Two PM2.5 samples were collected in one monitoring site each day. A total of 986 samples were collected in one monitoring site. The lead content in PM2.5 samples was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The concentration of PM2.5 was measured by weighing method. The annual average concentration and enrichment factor of lead in PM2.5, the change trend of lead content per unit mass of PM2.5, and the difference between heating period and non-heating period from 2014 to 2019 were estimated. Technical guide for environment health risk assessment of chemical exposure (WS/T 777-2021) was used to assess the health risks of exposure to lead in PM2.5. Results The average annual concentration of lead in PM2.5 ranged from 23.2 ng·m−3 to 154.7 ng·m−3. The average concentration in heating period from 2015 to 2019 was higher than that in non-heating period, and the differences in 2015, 2017, and 2019 were statistically significant (P < 0.01 or 0.001). The enrichment factors ranged from 200 to 1342 in 2014 to 2019. The average enrichment factors in heating period in 2015, 2017, and 2018 was higher than those in non-heating period, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05 or 0.001). The lead contents per unit mass of PM2.5 ranged from 493 ng·mg−1 to 1944 ng·mg−1, and the differences between heating period and non-heating period in 2014, 2017, and 2018 were statistically significant (P < 0.05 or 0.001). The average annual concentration and enrichment factor of lead in PM2.5 showed a downward trend, and thus the lead content per unit mass of PM2.5 also decreased. From 2014 to 2019, the carcinogenic risk of lead in PM2.5 in Jinan ranged from 1.69×10−8 to 2.45×10−6, showing a significant downward trend year by year, and the 95th percentile decreased by 3%-46% from the previous year. The carcinogenic risk level of lead was reduced to an acceptable level (<1×10−6) after 2017. Conclusion From 2015 to 2019, lead concentration and enrichment factor in PM2.5 increase during heating period compared with non-heating period, but it is not completely consistent of lead content in PM2.5 per unit mass. From 2014 to 2016, exposure to lead in PM2.5 may elevate carcinogenic risk to human. After 2017, the carcinogenic risks of exposure to lead in PM2.5 are at an acceptable level.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979152

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore PM2.5 concentration modeling and prediction based on the monthly average concentrations of PM2.5 in Shanghai since 2015, and to provide new ideas about PM2.5 prediction methods. Methods The seasonal factors were introduced into the Grey Model (GM). GM(1,1) model modified with seasonal factors was established and compared with seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA) model. The data of 2015-2021 was used for modeling and prediction, and the data from January to October in 2022 was used as a validation set to evaluate the prediction effectiveness. The monthly average PM2.5 concentrations in Shanghai from November to December in 2022 were predicted. Results Seasonal ARIMA model showed RMSE=4.02 and MAPE=15.50% in the validation set, while GM(1,1) model modified with seasonal factors showed RMSE=3.30 and MAPE=11.59%. GM(1,1) model modified with seasonal factors predicted the monthly average PM2.5 concentrations in Shanghai from November to December in 2022 to be 24.99 and 34.83μg/m3, respectively. Conclusion The prediction effect of GM(1,1) model modified with seasonal factors has better predictive performance than seasonal ARIMA model. The grey prediction model modified with seasonal factors can be considered when predicting seasonal time series such as the concentration of PM2.5.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-973646

ABSTRACT

Background The contribution of long-term ambient PM2.5 exposure to hypertension should not be ignored. However, the conclusions of whether dietary factors play a role in regulating PM2.5-related hypertension are still inconsistent. Objective To explore the correlation between long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and blood pressure indicators (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure) in adults in Ningxia and a potential moderating effect of dietary factors. Methods A set of cross-sectional survey data from March, 2013 to May, 2018 was retrieved from the China Northwest Cohort-Ningxia, and the average ambient PM2.5 concentration in the previous three years was also collected to estimate the long-term exposure of the participants. Binary logistic regression model was used to validate the correlation between long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and hypertension in Ningxia, and linear model was used to study the correlation between long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and blood pressure indicators (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure), and to explore the influence of dietary factors on ambient PM2.5-related hypertension. Results A total of 11470 participants were included in the study, 42.2% male and 57.8% female. The three-year average ambient PM2.5 concentration before the baseline survey was 37.0 μg·m−3. Each 1 μg·m−3 increase in ambient PM2.5 was associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR=1.111, 95%CI: 1.097, 1.125), and increased systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure by 0.886 (95%CI: 0.783, 0.990), 0.570 (95%CI: 0.500, 0.641), 0.676 (95%CI: 0.600, 0.751), and 0.316 (95%CI: 0.243, 0.389) mmHg, respectively. The stratified analysis showed that the OR and 95%CI of hypertension were 1.171 (1.097, 1.254), 1.117 (1.064, 1.174), and 1.160 (1.116, 1.207) respectively for each 1 μg·m−3 increased in PM2.5 with low frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption and salty taste respectively. The OR and 95%CI of hypertension were decreased when the moderate and high frequency of vegetable and fruit intake and moderate and light taste applied, the values were 1.091 (1.062, 1.121) and 1.114 (1.097, 1.131), 1.105 (1.082, 1.129) and 1.111 (1.092, 1.13), 1.115 (1.090, 1.140) and 1.102 (1.083, 1.121) respectively. Compared with low frequency of vegetable and fruit intake and salty taste, the increase degree of ambient PM2.5 related systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure also decreased in middle and high frequency of vegetable and fruit intake and moderate and light taste. Conclusion Long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 is significantly associated with increased risks of hypertension and blood pressure in Ningxia area. Increasing the frequency of vegetable and fruit intake and decreasing salty taste may reduce the effect of ambient PM2.5 on hypertension and blood pressure.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Weather conditions are a possible contributing factor to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of irreversible loss of vision. The present study evaluated the joint effects of meteorological factors and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on AMD.@*METHODS@#Data was extracted from a national cross-sectional survey conducted across 10 provinces in rural China. A total of 36,081 participants aged 40 and older were recruited. AMD was diagnosed clinically by slit-lamp ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Meteorological data were calculated by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis and were matched to participants' home addresses by latitude and longitude. Participants' individual PM2.5 exposure concentrations were calculated by a satellite-based model at a 1-km resolution level. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models paired with interaction analysis were performed to investigate the joint effects of meteorological factors and PM2.5 on AMD.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of AMD in the study population was 2.6% (95% CI 2.42-2.76%). The average annual PM2.5 level during the study period was 63.1 ± 15.3 µg/m3. A significant positive association was detected between AMD and PM2.5 level, temperature (T), and relative humidity (RH), in both the independent and the combined effect models. For PM2.5, compared with the lowest quartile, the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across increasing quartiles were 0.828 (0.674,1.018), 1.105 (0.799,1.528), and 2.602 (1.516,4.468). Positive associations were observed between AMD and temperature, with ORs (95% CI) of 1.625 (1.059,2.494), 1.619 (1.026,2.553), and 3.276 (1.841,5.830), across increasing quartiles. In the interaction analysis, the estimated relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and the attributable proportion (AP) for combined atmospheric pressure and PM2.5 was 0.864 (0.586,1.141) and 1.180 (0.768,1.592), respectively, indicating a synergistic effect between PM2.5 and atmospheric pressure.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study is among the first to characterize the coordinated effects of meteorological factors and PM2.5 on AMD. The findings warrant further investigation to elucidate the relationship between ambient environment and AMD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , China/epidemiology , Macular Degeneration/etiology , Meteorological Concepts
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970289

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to investigate the association of ambient PM2.5 exposure with blood pressure (BP) at the population level in China.@*METHODS@#A total of 14,080 participants who had at least two valid blood pressure records were selected from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey during 2011-2015. Their long-term PM2.5 exposure was assessed at the geographical level, on the basis of a regular 0.1° × 0.1° grid over China. A mixed-effects regression model was used to assess associations.@*RESULTS@#Each decrease of 10 μg/m3 in the 1 year-mean PM2.5 concentration (FPM1Y) was associated with a decrease of 1.24 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84-1.64] mmHg systolic BP (SBP) and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.25-0.75) mmHg diastolic BP (DBP), respectively. A robust association was observed between the long-term decrease in PM2.5 and decreased BP in the middle-aged and older population. Using a generalized additive mixed model, we further found that SBP increased nonlinearly overall with FPM1Y but in an approximately linear range when the FPM1Y concentration was < 70 µg/m3; In contrast, DBP increased approximately linearly without a clear threshold.@*CONCLUSION@#Efficient control of PM2.5 air pollution may promote vascular health in China. Our study provides robust scientific support for making the related air pollution control policies.


Subject(s)
Middle Aged , Humans , Aged , Particulate Matter/analysis , Blood Pressure , Air Pollutants/analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Hypertension/etiology , East Asian People , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982763

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the impact of PM 2.5 concentration in Shanghai on the incidence of allergic rhinitis(AR) in the population, and provide strategies for early warning and prevention of AR. Methods:Collect daily average concentrations of atmospheric pollutants monitored in Shanghai from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2019, and clinical data of AR patients from five hospitals in Shanghai during the same period. We used a time-series analysis additive Poisson regression model to analyze the correlation between PM 2.5 levels and outpatient attendance for AR patients. Results:During the study period, a total of 56 500 AR patients were included, and the daily average concentration of PM 2.5 was(35.28±23.07)μg/m³. There is a correlation between the concentration of PM 2.5 and the number of outpatient attendance for AR cases. There is a positive correlation between the daily average number of outpatient for AR and levels of PM 2.5 air pollution((P<0.05)) . We found that every 10 μg/m³ increase in PM 2.5, the impact of on the number of AR visits was statistically significant on the same day, the first day behind, and the second day behind, with the strongest impact being the exposure on the same day. Every 10 μg/m³ increases in PM 2.5, the number of outpatient visits increased by 0.526% on the same day(95%CI 1.000 50-1.010 04). Conclusion:The atmospheric PM 2.5 concentration in Shanghai is positively correlated with the number of outpatient for AR, and PM 2.5 exposure is an independent factor in the onset of AR. This provides an important theoretical basis for AR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Incidence , China/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Rhinitis, Allergic/etiology
13.
Indian Pediatr ; 2022 Jun; 59(6): 447-450
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225336

ABSTRACT

Recent research in epidemiological modelling reveals that air pollution affects child health in various ways resulting in low birthweight, stillbirth, preterm birth, developmental delay, growth failure, poor respiratory and cardiovascular health, and a higher risk of anemia. India has embarked on the national clean air program, but a much stronger coordinated multi-sectoral approach is required to minimize the child health burden caused by air pollution. Air pollution should be treated as a public health crisis that can only be managed with policy backed by science, gradual transition to clean energy use, emission reduction supported by clean air technologies, long-term commitment from the Government, and cooperation of the citizens.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-972899

ABSTRACT

Introduction@#During this pandemic, overcrowding in classroom caused by a lack of educational facilities and poor indoor air quality are the main causes of respiratory diseases among children and adolescents. Therefore, it is essential to measure and assess the indoor air quality where children spend extended periods of time such as school. @*Materials and methods@#This study covered four schools with old buildings and four schools with new buildings in Bayanzurkh, Sukhbaatar, Khan-Uul, Chingeltei district of Ulaanbaatar. We collected PM10 and PM2.5, carbon dioxide, air temperature, humidity, and microbiological count from chosen classrooms and compared to the MNS4585:2016 standard. SPSS-24 was used to do statistical analysis on the information gathered during the evaluation.@*Results and Discussion@#The 24-hour average PM2.5 concentration was 64.3 (95% CI: 64.1-64.5) mcg/m3, which was 4.3 times higher than the WHO guideline value and 1.3 times higher than the MNS4585:2016 standard. The 24-hour average PM10 concentration was 85.3 (95 % CI: 85.1-85.6) mcg/m3, which is 1.9 times higher than WHO guideline value. In older school buildings, the 24-hour average PM2.5 concentration was 5.6 times higher than the WHO guideline value and 1.7 times higher than the MNS4585:2016; the average PM10 concentration was 2.8 times higher than the WHO guideline value and 1.3 times higher than the MNS4585:2016. The air temperature and carbon dioxide concentration in classroom was met the MNS4585: 2016. The average relative humidity of all schools is 24.2±6.5%, which is 14-16% lower than the MNS4585: 2016. @*Conclusion@#The indoor air quality of the school in new and old buildings was similar poor, therefore a variety of steps are needed to improve it.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960559

ABSTRACT

Background PM2.5 pollution has become a widely concerned environmental health problem. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) are the main harmful components of PM2.5, and their sources and carcinogenic risk deserve attention. Objective To analyze the source apportionment of PAHs in ambient PM2.5 in Fuzhou, and to evaluate the potential carcinogenic risk through inhalation due to exposure to PAHs. Methods In this study, two sampling sites were set up in Cangshan (industrial area) and Taijiang (commercial and residential area) districts in Fuzhou City. PM2.5 was collected from 10th to 16th of each month from 2017 to 2020 by membrane filtration method. The concentrations of ambient PM2.5 were measured by weighing, and the concentrations of 16 PAHs, including naphthalene(NAP), acenaphthylene(ACY), acenaphthene(ACE), fluorene(FLU), phenanthrene(PHE), anthracene(ANT), fluoranthene(FLT), pyrene(PYR), benzo[a]anthracene(BaA), chrysene(CHR), benzo[b]fluoranthene(BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene(BkF), benzo[a]pyrene(BaP), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene(IcdP), dibenzo[a,h]anthracene(DahA), and benzo[g,h,i]perylene(BghiP), were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and fluorescence detector. The concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs were compared in the two districts and the concentrations of PAHs were also compared in different seasons. The diagnostic ratio [FLT/(FLT+PYR), IcdP/(IcdP+BghiP), BaA/(BaA+CHR), and BaP/BghiP] method and positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis were used to determine the sources of PAHs in PM2.5 in Fuzhou. The excess carcinogenic risk (ECR) model was used to assess the potential health risk of inhalation exposure to PAHs. Results During 2017–2020, the M (P25, P75) concentration of ambient PM2.5 in Cangshan and Taijiang districts of Fuzhou were 35.0 (25.0, 47.5) and 34.0 (25.5, 46.0) μg·m−3 respectively, and the percentages of PM2.5 exceeding the national standard in Cangshan and Taijiang were 2.68% and 4.17%, respectively, without significant differences (P>0.05). The M (P25, P75) concentrations of ΣPAHs in Cangshan was 5.03 (3.07, 7.67) ng·m−3, higher than that in Taijiang, 3.20 (2.05, 5.59) ng·m−3 (P<0.05). The M (P25, P75) concentrations of PAHs monomers except ACY, FLU, and ACE in Cangshan were higher than those in Taijiang (P<0.05). The concentrations of ΣPAHs in PM2.5 in four seasons in Cangshan were higher than those in Taijiang (P<0.05). In both districts, the concentration of ΣPAHs in winter was higher than those in spring, summer, and autumn (P<0.05). According to the diagnostic ratio method, the median ratios of FLT/(FLT+PYR) in the two districts ranged from 0.4 to 0.5, and those of IcdP/(IcdP+BghiP), BaA/(BaA+CHR), and BaP/BghiP were from 0.2 to 0.5, from 0.2 to 0.35, and less than 0.6, respectively. The results of PMF analysis showed the proportions of four factors in Cangshan were 37.9%, 13.2%, 24.0%, and 24.9%, respectively. The major load contributors to factor 1 included FLT, PHE, and PYR; to factor 2, FLU, ACY, and ACE; to factor 3, DahA; to factor 4, BghiP, IcdP, and BaP. The proportions of four factors in Taijiang were 23.6%, 19.3%, 22.0%, and 35.1%, respectively. The main load contributor to factor 1 was DahA; to factor 2, BghiP; to factor 3, FLT, PHE, and PYR; to factor 4, IcdP, BaP, BbF, BkF, CHR, and BaA. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalences (BEQ) in Cangshan and Taijiang districts were 1.87 ng·m−3 and 1.61 ng·m−3, respectively. The excess carcinogenic risks of PAHs through inhalation exposure was 3.83×10−6 and 3.30×10−6, respectively. Conclusion The complex sources of PAHs in ambient PM2.5 include dust, vehicle emissions, industrial emissions in Fuzhou, and are different in selected two districts. The level of PAHs in ambient PM2.5 may pose a potential carcinogenic risk to local population.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960557

ABSTRACT

Background There is a lack of evidence on whether exposure to PM2.5 and its constituents would affect the relationship between the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) and central obesity. Objective To investigate the effect of exposure to PM2.5 and its constituents on the correlation between the DASH dietary pattern and the prevalence of central obesity. Methods The data were obtained from the baseline survey of the "Xinjiang Multi-Ethnic Natural Population Cohort Construction and Health Follow-Up Study" in Urumqi. A DASH score was calculated according to intake frequency of 8 food groups, and summed from intake frequency of recommended food groups scored from 1 to 5 from low to high, and intake frequency of restricted food groups scored from 1 to 5 from high to low. A higher DASH score indicates better compliance with the DASH dietary pattern. We estimated exposure using satellite-derived PM2.5 and a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) for its constituents, including organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42−), nitrate (NO3−), ammonium (NH4+), and soil dust. Central obesity was defined by waist circumference: ≥90 cm for men or ≥85 cm for women according to Criteria of weight for adults (WS/T 428—2013). A logistic regression model was used to analyze the effects of the DASH dietary pattern as well as PM2.5 and its constituents on central obesity, and a stratified analysis was used to explore the effects of PM2.5 and its constituents on the association between the DASH dietary pattern and central obesity. Results The study included 9 565 urban residents, aged (62.30±9.42) years, with a central obesity prevalence rate of 60.75%. After adjusting for selected confounders, the DASH score Q5 group had a 17.5% lower risk of central obesity than the Q1 group (OR=0.825, 95%CI: 0.720-0.947). PM2.5 and its constituents OC, BC, SO42−, NH4+, and soil dust were positively associated with the prevalence of central obesity, but no association was observed between constituent NO3− exposure and central obesity. The stratified analysis revealed that the prevalence of central obesity was reduced in the DASH score Q5 group in participants exposed to low concentrations of PM2.5 and its constituents NO3−, NH4+, and soil dust, while the protective effect of the DASH pattern on central obesity disappeared in subjects exposed to high concentrations of PM2.5 and its constituents NO3−, NH4+, and soil dust. Conclusion Exposure to PM2.5 and its constituents NO3−, NH4+, and soil dust could attenuate the protective effect of the DASH pattern on central obesity.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960469

ABSTRACT

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has attracted more and more attention in the field of environmental pollution and public health. Previous studies have found that PM2.5 can be inhaled and deposit in the airway and alveoli, and even spread to the whole-body tissues and organs through blood, resulting in various toxic effects. The malignant transformation of lung epithelial cells associated with long-term exposure to PM2.5 may play an important role in the occurrence and development of lung cancer. This paper reviewed recent studies on the mechanisms of malignant transformation of lung epithelial cells associated with PM2.5 exposure, and discussed the main biological mechanisms, including epigenetics, tumor microenvironment, and other biological pathways. Besides, the potential research directions of malignant transformation of lung epithelial cells associated with PM2.5 exposure were proposed. This work aims to provide a scientific basis and reference for public health management and air quality assessment.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960441

ABSTRACT

Background Air pollutants PM2.5 and its adsorbed metal elements are important factors affecting public health. Objective To explore the distribution characteristics and sources of metal elements in atmospheric PM2.5 in Lanzhou from 2019 to 2020, and to assess the health risks of metal elements to different groups of residents through inhalation. Methods From January 2019 to December 2020 in two districts of Lanzhou City (Chengguan District and Xigu District), regular PM2.5 and metal elements [antimony (Sb), aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and thallium (Tl)] were regularly monitored, and their concentrations were described by the median (M) and 25th and 75th percentiles (P25, P75) as not following a normal distribution (because the detection rates of the five elements Be, Cr, Hg, Ni, and Se were less than 70%, the five elements were not included in subsequent analysis), and then compared with the secondary concentration limits in the Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB 3095-2012). The differences between the medians of the two groups were compared by the Mann-Whitney U rank sum test, and the differences among the medians of multiple groups were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis H rank sum test; the enrichment factor (EF) method and principal component analysis were used to evaluate the pollution degree of the metals and their sources; the health risks of five non-carcinogenic metals (Sb, Al, Pb, Mn, and Tl) and two carcinogenic metals (As and Cd) in PM2.5 were evaluated by hazard index (HI) and hazard quotient (HQ) using the incremental lifetime cancer risk (LCR) model and the non-carcinogenic risk assessment model, respectively. Results The PM2.5 concentrations [M (P25, P75)] in Lanzhou City were 38.50 (26.00, 65.00) and 41.00 (29.00, 63.10) μg·m−3 in 2019 and 2020, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (Z=−0.989, P > 0.05). The average levels of the metal elements from high to low were: Al > Pb > Mn > As > Cd > Sb > Tl, and the annual average concentration of each metal element in 2019 was higher than that in 2020 (P<0.05). The M ( P25, P75) of PM2.5 concentrations in Chengguan and Xigu districts were 52.98 (17.00, 61.00) and 55.40 (17.00, 67.00) μg·m−3, respectively, with no statistically significant differences (P<0.05); the concentrations of Sb and Al in Chengguan District were lower than those in Xigu District (P<0.05), and the concentrations of other metal elements were not different between the two areas (P>0.05). There were seasonal differences in the concentrations of PM2.5 and seven metal elements in Lanzhou City (except PAl=0.007, the other Ps < 0.001). The results of the enrichment factor method showed that the EF values of the six metals (Sb, Al, As, Cd, Pb and Tl) were all greater than 1. Among them, except As, the EF values of other metal elements were all greater than 10, and the EF values of Al and Cd were both greater than 100. The results of principal component analysis showed that the variance contributions of the three principal components were 45.61%, 24.22%, and 14.42%, and the cumulative contribution reached 84.25%. The principal component 1 included Pb, As, Cd, and Sb, the principal component 2 included Al and Mn, and the principal component 3 contained Tl. The non-carcinogenic risks of the five metals were, in descending order, Al > Mn > Pb > Tl > Sb, among which the HQ values of the remaining four metals were less than 1 for adults and children, except the HQ value of Al for adults, which was greater than 1. The ILC values of carcinogenic metal As for adult males, adult females, and children were 2.68×10−5, 2.51×10−5, and 1.45×10−5, respectively; the ILC values of carcinogenic metal Cd for adult males, adult females, and children were 1.53×10−6, 1.43×10−6, and 8.26×10−7, respectively. Conclusion There is pollution of atmospheric PM2.5 and its adsorbed metal elements in Lanzhou. As and Cd elements may pose potential carcinogenic risks to the residents.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940628

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the effect of Qingfei Jiangmai decoction (QJD) on the content of mercapturic acids in urine in healthy people amid PM2.5 (particles 2.5 microns or less in size) pollution. MethodA total of 84 healthy students of 18-30 years old in Beijing were recruited and they were randomized into the test group (42 in total, with 1 dropout) and control group (42 in total, with 3 dropouts). During the pollution, the test group and the control group respectively took QJD granules and placebo for 7 days (1 bag/time, 2 times/day), and another 7-day intervention with the same drugs was performed at an interval of 4 weeks. The time-activity patterns were recorded during the intervention. On-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) was performed to detect the content of PM2.5-related metabolites S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA), 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA), N-acetyl-S-(2-nitrile ethyl)-L-cysteine (CEMA), and N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxy ethyl)-L-cysteine (HEMA) in urine before and after intervention. Statistical analysis was followed. ResultThe content of CEMA, HEMA, 3-HPMA, and HMPMA in the test group was all higher after the intervention than before the intervention, with the significant difference in HEMA (P<0.05). After intervention, content of HEMA and SPMA was significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (P<0.05), and the difference in HEMA (Z=-3.614, P<0.01) and HMPMA (Z=-1.988, P<0.05) before and after invention in the test group was significantly larger than that in the control group. After the intervention, HEMA in the test group was significantly higher than that in the control group (F=7.597, P<0.01). ConclusionDuring PM2.5 pollution, QJD can increase the excretion of HEMA, a metabolite of ethylene oxide, in the urine of healthy people in Beijing, and enhance the detoxification process of toxic components in PM2.5, which is of great value in preventing and treating haze-related illnesses.

20.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 710-714, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934889

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To examine the correlation between atmospheric PM2.5 and emergency call for respiratory diseases.@*Methods@#The daily emergency call for respiratory and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases was collected from Hangzhou Emergency Medical Center from 2018 to 2020, and meteorological and atmospheric pollutant data were collected from Hangzhou Municipal Center for Ecological and Environmental Monitoring during the same period, including daily mean air temperature, daily mean relative humidity, PM2.5, PM10 and SO2 levels. The correlation between atmospheric PM2.5 and emergency call for respiratory and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases was examined using a generalized additive model, and the risk of emergency call was predicted using excessive risk (ER) and its 95%CI.@*Results@#The daily mean emergency call was 14 (interquartile range, 12) cases for respiratory diseases and 20 (interquartile range, 7) cases for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in Hangzhou City from 2018 to 2020, and the daily mean PM2.5 mass concentration was 29.77 (interquartile range, 21.32) μg/m3. Cumulative exposure to PM2.5 for 5 or 6 d caused the largest effect on the emergency call for respiratory diseases, and an increase in PM2.5 by 10 μg/m3 led to a 1.93% (95%CI: 0.76%-3.11%) rise in the emergency call for respiratory diseases. Cumulative exposure to PM2.5 for 4 d caused the largest effect on the emergency call for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, and an increase in PM2.5 by 10 μg/m3 led to a 1.88% (95%CI: 0.80%-2.97%) rise in the emergency call for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Cumulative exposure to PM2.5 for 7 d caused the largest effect on the emergency call for respiratory diseases among residents aged 60 years and older, and an increase in PM2.5 by 10 μg/m3 led to a 4.37% (95%CI: 2.70%-6.06%) rise in the emergency call for respiratory diseases. Cumulative exposure to PM2.5 for 4 d caused the largest effect on the emergency call for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases among residents aged 60 years and older, and an increase in PM2.5 by 10 μg/m3 led to a 2.44% (95%CI: 0.97%-3.52%) rise in the emergency call for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. However, exposure to PM2.5 had no marked effects on emergency call for respiratory or cardio-cerebrovascular diseases among residents aged <60 years.@*Conclusions@#Elevated atmospheric PM2.5 mass concentration may lead to an increase in the daily emergency calls for respiratory and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, notably among residents aged 60 years and older.

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