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1.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(3): 216-221, Mar. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285354

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Sleep disorders induce anxiety and forgetfulness and change habits. The chemical hypnotic drugs currently used have serious side effects and, therefore, people are drawn towards using natural compounds such as plant-based healing agents. Abscisic acid (ABA) is produced in a variety of mammalian tissues and it is involved in many neurophysiological functions. Objective: To investigate the possible effect of ABA on pentobarbital-induced sleep and its possible signaling through GABA-A and PPAR (γ and β) receptors, in male Wistar rats. Methods: The possible effect of ABA (5 and 10 µg/rat, intracerebroventricularly) on sleep onset latency time and duration was evaluated in a V-maze model of sleep. Pentobarbital sodium (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was injected to induce sleep 30 min after administration of ABA. PPARβ (GSK0660, 80 nM/rat), PPARγ (GW9662, 3 nM/rat) or GABA-A receptor (bicuculline, 6 µg/rat) antagonists were given 15 min before ABA injection. Diazepam (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was used as a positive control group. Results: ABA at 5 µg significantly boosted the pentobarbital-induced subhypnotic effects and promoted induction of sleep onset in a manner comparable to diazepam treatment. Furthermore, pretreatment with bicuculline significantly abolished the ABA effects on sleep parameters, while the amplifying effects of ABA on the induction of sleep onset was not significantly affected by PPARβ or PPARγ antagonists. The sleep prolonging effect of ABA was significantly prevented by both PPAR antagonists. Conclusions: The data showed that ABA boosts pentobarbital-induced sleep and that GABA-A, PPARβ and PPARγ receptors are, at least in part, involved in ABA signaling.


RESUMO Introdução: Os distúrbios do sono induzem a ansiedade e esquecimento e mudam hábitos. Os medicamentos hipnóticos químicos utilizados atualmente têm efeitos colaterais graves e, portanto, as pessoas são atraídas para o uso de compostos naturais, como agentes de cura à base de plantas. O ácido abscísico (ABA) é produzido em uma variedade de tecidos de mamíferos e está envolvido em muitas funções neurofisiológicas. Objetivo: Investigar o possível efeito do ABA no sono induzido por pentobarbital e sua possível sinalização por meio dos receptores GABA-A e PPAR (γ e β), em ratos Wistar machos. Métodos: O possível efeito do ABA (5 e 10 µg/rato, intracerebroventricularmente) no tempo de latência e duração do início do sono foi avaliado em um modelo de labirinto em V de sono. Pentobarbital sódico (40 mg/kg, intraperitonealmente) foi injetado para induzir o sono 30 minutos após a administração de ABA. PPARβ (GSK0660, 80 nM/rato), PPARγ (GW9662, 3 nM/rato) ou antagonistas do receptor GABA-A (bicuculina, 6 µg/rato) foram administrados 15 minutos antes da injeção de ABA. Diazepam (2 mg/kg, intraperitonealmente) foi utilizado como grupo de controle positivo. Resultados: ABA a 5 µg aumentou significativamente os efeitos sub-hipnóticos induzidos por pentobarbital e promoveu a indução do início do sono de forma comparável ao tratamento com diazepam. Além disso, o pré-tratamento com bicuculina aboliu significativamente os efeitos do ABA nos parâmetros do sono, ao passo que os efeitos amplificadores do ABA na indução do início do sono não foram significativamente afetados pelos antagonistas do PPARβ ou PPARγ. O efeito de prolongamento do sono do ABA foi significativamente prevenido por ambos os antagonistas do PPAR. Conclusões: Os dados mostraram que o ABA estimula o sono induzido por pentobarbital e que os receptores GABA-A, PPARβ e PPARγ estão, pelo menos em parte, envolvidos na sinalização ABA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Sleep , Abscisic Acid/pharmacology , Receptors, GABA-A/metabolism , PPAR-beta/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Pentobarbital/pharmacology , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Rats, Wistar
2.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1412-1426, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922631

ABSTRACT

Endogenously eliminating the hematoma is a favorable strategy in addressing intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study sought to determine the role of retinoid X receptor-α (RXR-α) in the context of hematoma absorption after ICH. Our results showed that pharmacologically activating RXR-α with bexarotene significantly accelerated hematoma clearance and alleviated neurological dysfunction after ICH. RXR-α was expressed in microglia/macrophages, neurons, and astrocytes. Mechanistically, bexarotene promoted the nuclear translocation of RXR-α and PPAR-γ, as well as reducing neuroinflammation by modulating microglia/macrophage reprograming from the M1 into the M2 phenotype. Furthermore, all the beneficial effects of RXR-α in ICH were reversed by the PPAR-γ inhibitor GW9662. In conclusion, the pharmacological activation of RXR-α confers robust neuroprotection against ICH by accelerating hematoma clearance and repolarizing microglia/macrophages towards the M2 phenotype through PPAR-γ-related mechanisms. Our data support the notion that RXR-α might be a promising therapeutic target for ICH.


Subject(s)
Anilides/pharmacology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hematoma/drug therapy , Humans , Macrophages , Microglia , Neuroprotection , PPAR gamma , Retinoid X Receptor alpha
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888154

ABSTRACT

Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex(Houpo) can treat peptic ulcer disease(PUD), the mechanism of which remains unclear. In this study, network pharmacology and molecular docking were employed to predict the mechanism of Houpo in the treatment of PUD. Through literature review and TCMSP screening, 15 main active ingredients were obtained. The SwissTargetPrediction database was used to predict the potential targets of the ingredients, and Therapeutic Target Database(TTD), DrugBank, and Human Phenotype Ontology(HPO) to screen the disease-related targets. A total of 49 potential targets were obtained by the intersection of active ingre-dients-related targets and disease-related targets. Cytoscape 3.6.1 was employed to construct the protein-protein interaction network for the targets with high confidence(score>0.700) screened out by STRING. The DAVID database was used for GO and KEGG pathway enrichment of potential targets. GO enrichment analysis showed that the treatment mechanism was mostly related to nuclear receptor activity, ligand-activated transcription factor activity, and G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor activity. KEGG enrichment analysis found that Houpo could regulate material metabolism, endocrine system, p53 signaling pathway, and PPAR signaling pathway. Molecu-lar docking verified that all 15 ingredients had good binding activities with key targets(CHRM1, CHRM2, FABP1, mTOR, and STAT3). The results mean that Houpo can treat PUD by participating in cell metabolism, inhibiting inflammatory cytokines, and regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptic Ulcer , Protein Interaction Maps , Receptor, Muscarinic M1 , Signal Transduction
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10465, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153508

ABSTRACT

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is related to a higher risk of neonatal mortality, minor cognitive deficit, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In previous studies, genetic variants in the FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) and PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) genes have been associated with metabolic disease, body mass index, and obesity among other outcomes. We studied the association of selected FTO (rs1421085, rs55682395, rs17817449, rs8043757, rs9926289, and rs9939609) and PPARγ (rs10865710, rs17036263, rs35206526, rs1801282, rs28763894, rs41516544, rs62243567, rs3856806, and rs1805151) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with IUGR, through a case-control study in a cohort of live births that occurred from June 1978 to May 1979 in a Brazilian city. We selected 280 IUGR cases and 256 controls for analysis. Logistic regression was used to jointly analyze the SNPs as well as factors such as maternal smoking, age, and schooling. We found that the PPARγ rs41516544 increased the risk of IUGR for male offspring (OR 27.83, 95%CI 3.65-212.32) as well as for female offspring (OR=8.94, 95%CI: 1.96-40.88). The FTO rs9939609 TA genotype resulted in a reduced susceptibility to IUGR for male offspring only (OR=0.47, 95%CI: 0.26-0.86). In conclusion, we demonstrated that PPARγ SNP had a positive effect and FTO SNP had a negative effect on IUGR occurrence, and these effects were gender-specific.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , PPAR gamma/genetics , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Fetal Growth Retardation/genetics , Genotype
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821903

ABSTRACT

@#[Abstract] Objective: To investigate the mechanisms of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1c (CPT1c) expression to affect the proliferation and apoptosis of human thyroid papillary cancer B-CPAP cells through the AMP-dependent/activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway in the low glucose and hypoxic conditions. Methods: Firstly,humanthyroidpapillarycarcinomaB-CPAP cells were cultured under normal condition or low glucose and hypoxic condition respectively, followed with the treatment of AMPK inhibitor compound C. Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of AMPK, p-AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and CPT1c; the proliferation and apoptosis were detected by CCK-8 and Flow cytometry, respectively. Then PPARα-siRNA was synthesized and transfected into B-CPAP cells to knock down PPARα, and then the cells were cultured under normal or low glucose and hypoxic condition respectively.Above indicators were also detected to verify the regulation of PPARα on CPT1c. Finally, the human luciferase reporter plasmid containing CPT1c gene promoter was constructed, and the effect of PPARα on the activity of CPT1c promoter luciferase activity was observed by immunofluorescence. Results: The expressions ofAMPK, p-AMPK, PPARα and CPT1c were significantly increased in B-CPAP cells under low glucose and hypoxia condition (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while cell proliferation and apoptosis rate did not change significantly (P>0.05). After the treatment of AMPK inhibitor compound C, the expressions of p-AMPK, PPARα and CPT1c in low glucose and hypoxia group were significantly decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), the inhibitory rate on cell proliferation and apoptosis rate were significantly increased (P<0.05). However, the change range was smaller than that in the normal culture + compound C group (P<0.05).After PPARα knockdown, the expressions ofAMPK, p-AMPK, PPARα and CPT1c in cancer cells cultured under normal conditions were significantly decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the inhibitory rate on cell proliferation and apoptosis rate were significantly increased (P<0.05). While under low glucose and hypoxia condition, the expression of CPT1c in cells after transfection was significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the inhibition rate on cell proliferation and the apoptosis rate were significantly increased (P<0.05); However, the change range was still lower than that of normal condition group after transfection (P<0.05).After PPARα overexpression, the ratio of fluorescence in the empty vector group was not significantly different from that of the blank group (P>0.05), and the ratio of fluorescence was significantly increased in PPARα over-expression group (P<0.05). Conclusions: AMPK can increase the expression of PPARα to promote the expression of CPT1c in thyroid cancer B-CPAP cells under low glucose and hypoxia conditions, thereby inhibiting cell apoptosis and maintaining cell proliferation ability.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846722

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish an efficacious and efficient fermentation method of enhancing the anti-adipogenesis effect of mulberry (Morus alba) leaves using Cordyceps militais. Methods: Dried mulberry leaves, dried mulberry leaves with 50% raw silkworm pupa and raw silkworm pupa were fermented with Cordyceps militais for 4 weeks at 25 °C, after which the dried mulberry leaves and fermented product were extracted with 70% ethanol and subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contents of cordycepin, pelargonidin, chlorogenic acid, iso-quercetin and caffeic acid were determined. We then used the 3T3-L1 cells to investigate whether extracts of fermentation enhanced anti-adipogenesis activity in vitro. Results: HPLC showed that fermentation changed the contents of cordycepin, pelargonidin, chlorogenic acid, iso-quercetin and caffeic acid. Furthermore, fermented dried mulberry leaves with 50% raw silkworm pupa had a better efficacy of anti-adipogenesis than dried mulberry leaves, fermented dried mulberry leaves and fermented silkworm pupa and inhibited triglycerides accumulation and glucose consumption. Additionally, fermented dried mulberry leaves with 50% raw silkworm pupa inhibited PPAR-? signaling. Conclusions: Fermentation with Cordyceps militaris enhanced anti-adipogenesis efficacy of mulberry leaves.

7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e9201, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089347

ABSTRACT

Methylophiopogonanone A (MO-A), a homoisoflavonoid extracted from Ophiopogon japonicus, has been shown to attenuate myocardial apoptosis and improve cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the hypolipidemic effects remain unknown. This study was performed to investigate a potential hypolipidemic effect of MO-A in hyperlipidemia rats, as well as its underlying mechanism of action. A rat model of hyperlipidemia was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Animals were randomly divided into three groups (n=8/group): normal control group (NC), HFD group, and HFD+MO-A (10 mg·kg-1·d-1) treatment group. The effects of MO-A on serum lipids, body weight, activity of lipoprotein metabolism enzyme, and gene expression of lipid metabolism were evaluated in HFD-induced rats. In HFD-induced rats, pretreatment with MO-A decreased the body weight gain and reduced serum and hepatic lipid levels. In addition, pretreatment with MO-A improved the activities of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase in serum and liver, down-regulated mRNA expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, and up-regulated mRNA expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in the liver. Our results indicated that MO-A showed strong ability to ameliorate the hyperlipidemia in HFD-induced rats. MO-A might be a potential candidate for prevention of overweight and dyslipidemia induced by HFD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ophiopogon/chemistry , Benzodioxoles/pharmacology , Lipid Metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Hyperlipidemias/prevention & control , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Benzodioxoles/isolation & purification , Feces/chemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hyperlipidemias/metabolism , Isoflavones/isolation & purification , Lipids/analysis
8.
J Biosci ; 2019 Dec; 44(6): 1-13
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214218

ABSTRACT

Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity are two common pathophysiological conditions of metabolic syndrome(MetS), a collection of similar metabolic dysfunctions due to sedentary lifestyle and overnutrition. Obesity arises fromimproper adipogenesis which otherwise has a crucial role in maintaining proper metabolic functions. Downstream eventsarising from obesity have been linked to T2DM. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activator gamma (PPAR-c),responsible for maintaining lipid and glucose homeostasis, is down-regulated under obesity leading to a weakened insulinsensitivity of the human body. In course of our review we will outline details of the down-regulation mechanism, provide anoverview of the current clinical therapeutics and their shortcomings. Toxicity studies on the seminal drug troglitazone,belonging to the most effective glitazone anti-diabetic category, is also discussed. This will lead to an overview aboutstructural adaptations on the existing glitazones to alleviate their side effects and toxicity. Finally, we forward a concept ofnovel therapeutics mimicking the glitazone framework, based on some design concepts and preliminary in silico studies.These could be later developed into dual acting drugs towards alleviating the deleterious effects of obesity on normalglucose metabolism, and address obesity in itself.

9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-200388

ABSTRACT

Diabetic nephropathy is global problem with several drugs into trial without much success the current article highlights the role of thiazolidinedione’s in diabetic nephropathy by scrutinizing and reconnoitring the cellular and intracellular mechanism and shielding action and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma receptors (PPAR?) receptors. Not only anti-diabetic action but renal protective effect with evidence based study has been highlighted. PPAR ?-is versatile target having numerous benefits and mainly preventing fibrosis in diabetic experimental model and some clinical case report yet, the benefits are not up to mark, since renal failure itself causes volume expansion and the thiazolidinedione’s (TZDs) also preserve salt and water and lead to congestive heart failure which constraints its clinical application. Dual activators and balaglitazone selective PPAR modulator are having upcoming potential for treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Further detail investigation on such drug is needed to explore. However adverse effect like heart failure, osteoporosis and volume expansion effect over-rides the beneficial effect thus limiting its clinical use of currently available TZDs.

10.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2351-2354, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-778750

ABSTRACT

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and plays a central regulatory role in lipid metabolism. Recent studies have found that PPARα agonists play a key role in the prevention and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which has also been reported in other liver diseases. This article reviews the role and mechanism of PPARα in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, viral hepatitis, cholestatic liver disease, drug-induced liver injury, and hepatocellular carcinoma, so as to provide a reference for the research on the new application of conventional drugs associated with PPARα.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772043

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the inhibitory effect of genistein on activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the role of the autophagy pathway regulated by PPAR-γ in mediating this effect.@*METHODS@#Cultured HSC-T6 cells were exposed to different concentrations of genistein for 48 h, and HSC activation was verified by detecting the expressions of -SMA and 1(I) collagen; autophagy activation in the cells was determined by detecting the expressions of LC3-II and p62 using Western blotting. The autophagy inhibitor 3-MA was used to confirm the role of autophagy in genistein-induced inhibition of HSC activation. A PPAR-γ inhibitor was used to explore the role of PPAR-γ in activating autophagy in the HSCs.@*RESULTS@#Genistein at concentrations of 5 and 50 μmol/L significantly inhibited the expressions of -SMA and 1(I) collagen ( < 0.05), markedly upregulated the expressions of PPAR-γ and the autophagy-related protein LC3-II ( < 0.05) and significantly down-regulated the expression of the ubiqutin-binding protein p62 ( < 0.05) in HSC-T6 cells. The cells pretreated with 3-MA prior to genistein treatment showed significantly increased protein expressions of -SMA and 1(I) collagen compared with the cells treated with genistein only ( < 0.05). Treatment with the PPAR-γ inhibitor obviously lowered the expression of LC3-II and enhanced the expression p62 in genistein-treated HSC-T6 cells, suggesting the activation of the autophagy pathway.@*CONCLUSIONS@#PPAR-γ- regulated autophagy plays an important role in mediating genistein-induced inhibition of HSC activation .


Subject(s)
Anticarcinogenic Agents , Pharmacology , Autophagy , Collagen Type I , Genistein , Pharmacology , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Humans , PPAR gamma , Physiology
12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1078-1083, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774921

ABSTRACT

The renewed interest in dimeric salicylates as broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic agents provided a rationale to investigate the dimerization of the substituted salicylate -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA-A, ) as a strategy to solve its instability to decarboxylation and to generate analogues and/or pro-drugs of this native pre-cannabinoid. Activation of the carboxylic group with the DCC-HOBt-DMAP protocol afforded a high yield of the OBt ester , that was next converted into the highly crystalline di-depsidic dimer upon treatment with DMAP. The mono-depsidic dimer was also formed when the reaction was carried out with partially decarboxylated THCA-A samples. The structure of the depsidic dimers was established by spectroscopic methods and by aminolysis of into the pre-cannabinoid amide . Both dimers showed excellent shelf stability and did not generate significant amounts of -THC upon heating. However, only the didepsidic dimer activated PPAR-, the major target of pre-cannabinoids, but strong binding to serum proteins abolished this activity, also shielding it from the action of esterases.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802233

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the protective effect of formula of Gougancai decoction (FGD) on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats, in order to provide basis for the development of pharmaceutical preparations or healthcare products. Method: Sixty rats were randomly divided into normal group, Silymarin group (120 mg·kg-1) and FGD groups (475, 950, 1 900 mg·kg-1). The normal group and the model group were given equal volume of saline by gavage, while the other groups were administered with the corresponding dose of drugs according to the body weight. After 10 days, the acute liver injury model was established with 12% carbon tetrachloride peanut oil solution (5 mL·kg-1), except the normal group. All of the rats were put to death to collect serum and liver tissues. The contents of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TBIL), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were detected by biochemical methods, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in liver tissues were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbnent assay(ELISA). Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) protein expression in liver tissues were detected by Western blot, and htoxylin eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the variation of liver histopathological. Result: Compared with the normal group, the serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP and the content of TBIL, MDA in the model group were significantly increased (Pα, IL-1β, IL-6 in liver tissue were remarkably increased (PPκB was enhanced in liver tissue (Pγ was down-regulated (PPPα, IL-1β, IL-6 (PPκB (PPγ (PPConclusion: FGD has a protective effect on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats, and its mechanism may be related to the activation of PPAR-γ and the inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway, with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728017

ABSTRACT

Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipids and have several pharmacological efficacies. MELs also show skin-moisturizing efficacy through a yet-unknown underlying mechanism. Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is a membrane protein that contributes to the water homeostasis of the epidermis, and decreased AQP3 expression following ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation of the skin is associated with reduced skin moisture. No previous study has examined whether the skin-moisturizing effect of MELs might act through the modulation of AQP3 expression. Here, we report for the first time that MELs ameliorate the UVA-induced downregulation of AQP3 in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT keratinocytes). Our results revealed that UVA irradiation decreases AQP3 expression at the protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, but that MEL treatment significantly ameliorated these effects. Our mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor analysis revealed that phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase or p38, mediates UVA-induced AQP3 downregulation, and that MEL treatment significantly suppressed the UVA-induced phosphorylation of JNK. To explore a possible mechanism, we tested whether MELs could regulate the expression of peroxidase proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), which acts as a potent transcription factor for AQP3 expression. Interestingly, UVA irradiation significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of PPAR-γ in HaCaT keratinocytes, whereas a JNK inhibitor and MELs significantly rescued this effect. Taken together, these findings suggest that MELs ameliorate UVA-induced AQP3 downregulation in HaCaT keratinocytes by suppressing JNK activation to block the decrease of PPAR-γ. Collectively, our findings suggest that MELs can be used as a potential ingredient that modulates AQP3 expression to improve skin moisturization following UVA irradiation-induced damage.


Subject(s)
Down-Regulation , Epidermis , Glycolipids , Homeostasis , Humans , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Keratinocytes , Membrane Proteins , Peroxidase , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , PPAR gamma , Protein Kinases , RNA, Messenger , Skin , Transcription Factors , Water
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA), is acquired by dietary intake or the in vivo conversion of α-linolenic acid. Many enzymes participating in LCPUFA synthesis are regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Therefore, it was hypothesized that the tissue accretion of endogenously synthesized DHA could be modified by PPARα. MATERIALS/METHODS: The tissue DHA concentrations and mRNA levels of genes participating in DHA biosynthesis were compared among PPARα homozygous (KO), heterozygous (HZ), and wild type (WT) mice (Exp I), and between WT mice treated with clofibrate (PPARα agonist) or those not treated (Exp II). In ExpII, the expression levels of the proteins associated with DHA function in the brain cortex and retina were also measured. An n3-PUFA depleted/replenished regimen was applied to mitigate the confounding effects of maternal DHA. RESULTS: PPARα ablation reduced the hepatic Acox, Fads1, and Fads2 mRNA levels, as well as the DHA concentration in the liver, but not in the brain cortex. In contrast, PPARα activation increased hepatic Acox, Fads1, Fads2 and Elovl5 mRNA levels, but reduced the DHA concentrations in the liver, retina, and phospholipid of brain cortex, and decreased mRNA and protein levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain cortex. CONCLUSIONS: LCPUFA enzyme expression was altered by PPARα. Either PPARα deficiency or activation-decreased tissue DHA concentration is a stimulus for further studies to determine the functional significance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Clofibrate , Docosahexaenoic Acids , Fatty Acid Desaturases , Liver , Mice , Peroxisomes , PPAR alpha , Retina , RNA, Messenger
16.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 975-978,983, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-754253

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the correlation between peroxisome proliferator-activated re-ceptor-gamma ( PPAR-γ) gene polymorphism and preeclampsia ( PE) . Methods 110 PE patients and 110 normal pregnants who delivered in our hospital from May 2016 to October 2018 were selected as the study subjects. Detection of two loci of PPAR-γ gene by SNaPshot technique: rs10865710 and rs4684847. Re-sults ⑴ rs10865710:The genotype frequencies of CC, CG and GG in the control group were 44. 55%, 42. 73% and 12. 73%, respectively, and those in the PE group were 31. 82%, 44. 55% and 23. 64%, re-spectively. There was a critical difference in the distribution of genotype frequencies between the two groups (x2 =5. 975, P=0. 050); The frequencies of C and G alleles were 65. 91% and 34. 09% in the control group, 54. 09% and 45. 91% in the PE group, respectively. There was significant difference in the fre-quency distribution of C and G alleles between the two groups (x2 =6. 402, P=0. 015). ⑵ rs4684847:the genotype frequencies of CC, CT and TT in control group were 94. 55%, 5. 45%, 0, and those in PE group were 84. 55%, 15. 45% and 0, respectively,with significant difference in the distribution of genotype frequencies between the two groups (x2 =5. 875, P =0. 015). The frequencies of C and T alleles in control group were 97. 27%, 2. 73% and those in PE group were 92. 27% and 7. 73%, respectively,with significant difference in allele frequency distribution between the two groups (x2 = 5. 551, P = 0. 030). ⑶ The frequency of GG genotype and G allele at rs10865710 locus in PE group was significantly higher than that in control group [OR (95% CI) =2. 600 (1. 190 - 5. 679), P = 0. 021; OR (95% CI) = 1. 64 (1. 117 -2. 411), P =0. 015]. The frequencies of CT genotype and T allele at rs4684847 locus in PE group were significantly higher than those in control group [OR (95% CI) =3. 168 (1. 199 -8. 374), P =0. 026; OR (95% CI) =2. 987 (1. 155 -7. 726), P =0. 030]. Conclusions The single nucleotide polymorphisms of PPAR-γ gene rs10865710 and rs4684847 may be related to the susceptibility to preeclampsia in Chinese population.

17.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 533-540, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810761

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by bioinformatics methods to find key pathways and potential therapeutic targets for NASH.@*Methods@#GSE61260 chip was downloaded from the public microarray database and liver biopsy samples from 24 NASH cases and 38 healthy controls were included. The Limma software package in R language was used to screen DEGs under the condition of difference multiple > 1.5 and adj. P < 0.05. The clusterProfiler software package was used for GO analysis and KEGG analysis. The STRING online database was used for protein-protein interaction analysis, and the L1000 and DrugBank databases were used for drug prediction.@*Results@#Compared with healthy control group, 857 DEGs were screened out in NASH group including 167 up-regulated genes and 690 down-regulated genes. GO analysis showed that DEGs were mainly involved in inflammation and cholesterol metabolism. KEGG analysis showed that DEGs were mainly enriched in PPAR, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, oxidative phosphorylation and other signaling pathways. Among them, eight genes of ACSL4, CYP7A1, FABP4, FABP5, lipoprotein lipase, ME1, OLR1 and PLIN1 were enriched in PPAR signaling pathway, and 165 interaction nodes were formed with 47 DEGs-encoded proteins. Lipoprotein lipase interacted with 21 DEGs, and its up-regulated expression had improved lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and anti-inflammatory effects. Four drugs (gemfibrozil, bezafibrate, omega-3 carboxylic acid and glycyrrhizic acid) were screened by L1000 and DrugBank to activate lipoprotein lipase. Presently, these four drugs are clinically used to treat hypertriglyceridemia or to improve inflammation. In this regard, we speculated that the pharmacological effects of these four drugs had improved NASH by activating lipoprotein lipase to promote liver lipid metabolism and alleviate inflammation.@*Conclusion@#PPAR signaling pathway is closely associated to the occurrence and development of NASH, and thereby lipoprotein lipase agonist is a new attempt to treat NASH.

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-200680

ABSTRACT

Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles found in most plant and animal cells that perform diverse metabolic functions including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-based respiration, β-oxidation of fatty acids (FAs), and cholesterol metabolism. Peroxisomes are found in most eukaryotic cells, and their essential role has been emphasized by the discoveries of several human disorders caused by the lack of peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are unique for their ability to proliferate in response to several structurally different chemicals, which are designated "peroxisome proliferators (PPs)," in rodent liver cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) proteins belong to the superfamily of a phylogenetically related protein termed nuclear hormone factor. Activation of PPAR-? reduces triglyceride level and is involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPAR-? causes insulin sensitization and enhances glucose metabolism, whereas activation of PPAR-?/? enhances fatty acids metabolism. Thus, PPAR family of nuclear receptors plays a major regulatory role in energy homeostasis and metabolic function. Since intervention of PPAR agonist can provide therapeutic targets for a range of diseases such as dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, inflammation, a neurodegenerative disorder, and cancer, this review was carried out to update existing knowledge on these nuclear receptors

19.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-199636

ABSTRACT

Background: Hyperlipidemia is a well known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especially atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?), a member of this nuclear receptor family, has emerged as an important player in this scenario, with evidence supporting a central co-ordinated role in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and inflammatory and vascular responses, all of which would be predicted to reduce atherosclerotic risk. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) is the primary pathway for removal of cholesterol from the circulation, and its activity is meticulously governed by intracellular cholesterol levels. Hence in this study we investigated the effect of Lutein on PPAR? and LDLR expression in liver of wistar rats.Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 each. Group I served as control. Group II III, IV, V and VI rats were received high cholesterol diet. Group III was treated with Atorvastatin 5mg/kg. Group IV, V and VI rats were treated with 25mg/kg, 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg of Lutein. After 16 weeks, liver tissue samples were collected from all the groups of animals to evaluate the expression of PPAR? and LDLR.Results: The expression of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) was significantly increased in Lutein treated hypercholesterolemic male wistar rats.Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that Lutein activates LDL receptor and PPAR? in hypercholesterolemic male wistar rats.

20.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 573-588, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777032

ABSTRACT

In gliomas, the canonical Wingless/Int (WNT)/β-catenin pathway is increased while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) is downregulated. The two systems act in an opposite manner. This review focuses on the interplay between WNT/β-catenin signaling and PPAR-γ and their metabolic implications as potential therapeutic target in gliomas. Activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway stimulates the transcription of genes involved in proliferation, invasion, nucleotide synthesis, tumor growth, and angiogenesis. Activation of PPAR-γ agonists inhibits various signaling pathways such as the JAK/STAT, WNT/β-catenin, and PI3K/Akt pathways, which reduces tumor growth, cell proliferation, cell invasiveness, and angiogenesis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, curcumin, antipsychotic drugs, adiponectin, and sulforaphane downregulate the WNT/β-catenin pathway through the upregulation of PPAR-γ and thus appear to provide an interesting therapeutic approach for gliomas. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an antiangiogenic agent. The downstream action of this opposite interplay may explain the TMZ-resistance often reported in gliomas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Neoplasms , Metabolism , Therapeutics , Dacarbazine , Pharmacology , Down-Regulation , Glioma , Metabolism , Therapeutics , Humans , PPAR gamma , Metabolism , Temozolomide , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Physiology
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