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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 463-475, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364328

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O remodelamento cardíaco patológico se caracteriza por disfunção diastólica e sistólica, levando à insuficiência cardíaca. Neste contexto, o cenário disfuncional do trânsito de cálcio miocárdico (Ca2+) tem sido pouco estudado. Um modelo experimental de estenose aórtica tem sido extensamente utilizado para aprimorar os conhecimentos sobre os principais mecanismos do remodelamento patológico cardíaco. Objetivo Entender o processo disfuncional dos principais componentes responsáveis pelo equilíbrio do cálcio miocárdico e sua influência sobre a função cardíaca na insuficiência cardíaca induzida pela estenose aórtica. Métodos Ratos Wistar de 21 dias de idade foram distribuídos em dois grupos: controle (placebo; n=28) e estenose aórtica (EaO; n=18). A função cardíaca foi analisada com o ecocardiograma, músculo papilar isolado e cardiomiócitos isolados. No ensaio do músculo papilar, SERCA2a e a atividade do canal de Ca2+ do tipo L foram avaliados. O ensaio de cardiomiócitos isolados avaliou o trânsito de cálcio. A expressão proteica da proteínas do trânsito de cálcio foi analisada com o western blot. Os resultados foram estatisticamente significativos quando p <0,05. Resultados Os músculos papilares e cardiomiócitos dos corações no grupo EaO demonstraram falhas mecânicas. Os ratos com EaO apresentaram menor tempo de pico do Ca2+, menor sensibilidade das miofibrilas do Ca2+, prejuízos nos processos de entrada e recaptura de cálcio pelo retículo sarcoplasmático, bem como disfunção no canal de cálcio do tipo L (CCTL). Além disso, os animais com EaO apresentaram maior expressão de SERCA2a, CCTL e trocador de Na+/Ca2+. Conclusão Insuficiência cardíaca sistólica e diastólica devido à estenose aórtica supravalvular acarretou comprometimento da entrada de Ca2+ celular e inibição da recaptura de cálcio pelo retículo sarcoplasmático devido à disfunção no CCTL e SERCA2a, assim como mudanças no trânsito de cálcio e na expressão das principais proteínas responsáveis pela homeostase de Ca2+ celular.


Abstract Background Maladaptive cardiac remodelling is characterized by diastolic and systolic dysfunction, culminating in heart failure. In this context, the dysfunctional scenario of cardiac calcium (Ca2+) handling has been poorly studied. An experimental model of aortic stenosis has been extensively used to improve knowledge about the key mechanisms of cardiac pathologic remodelling. Objective To understand the dysfunctional process of the major components responsible for Ca2+ balance and its influence on cardiac function in heart failure induced by aortic stenosis. Methods Male 21-day-old Wistar rats were distributed into two groups: control (sham; n= 28) and aortic stenosis (AoS; n= 18). Cardiac function was analysed by echocardiogram, isolated papillary muscle, and isolated cardiomyocytes. In the papillary muscle assay, SERCA2a and L-type Ca2+ channel activity was evaluated. The isolated cardiomyocyte assay evaluated Ca2+ handling. Ca2+ handling protein expression was analysed by western blot. Statistical significance was set at p <0.05. Results Papillary muscles and cardiomyocytes from AoS hearts displayed mechanical malfunction. AoS rats presented a slower time to the Ca2+ peak, reduced Ca2+ myofilament sensitivity, impaired sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ influx and reuptake ability, and SERCA2a and L-type calcium channel (LTCC) dysfunction. Moreover, AoS animals presented increased expression of SERCA2a, LTCCs, and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Conclusion Systolic and diastolic heart failure due to supravalvular aortic stenosis was paralleled by impairment of cellular Ca2+ influx and inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ reuptake due to LTCC and SERCA2a dysfunction, as well as changes in Ca2+ handling and expression of the major proteins responsible for cellular Ca2+ homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Aortic Valve Stenosis/pathology , Heart Failure/pathology , Papillary Muscles , Calcium/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/metabolism , Myocardial Contraction/physiology
2.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198679

ABSTRACT

Background: The mitral valve apparatus, consisting of the mitral valve leaflets and commissures and subvalvular apparatus- papillary muscles and chordae tendinae; is one of the most complex and intricately designedstructures present in the human body and therefore the understanding of anatomical variations of papillarymuscles becomes important for surgical interventional procedures, in response to the increasing incidence ofvalvular heart defects. The aim of the cadaveric analysis was to identify the disparity in the morphometry of thepapillary muscles of the mitral valve complex. Therefore this study was taken up with an effort to extend theconcepts previously presented as well as to overcome deficiencies in the knowledge of gross architecture andpositional nomenclature of the papillary muscles.Materials and methods: Fifty formalinized cadaveric hearts were the material for study. Papillary muscles of leftventricle were classified according to a system developed by Berdajs et al., (2005), by precisely measuringshapes lengths and widths.Results: The significant outcome of this study indicates that no two papillary muscles out of the 50 specimenshad the same size, shape or position. All the hearts had two distinct groups of muscles – anterolateral andposteromedial. Specific analysis of each group revealed data regarding the muscles. In the antero-lateral groupof the specimens, the maximum height and width of the muscles was 37.40mm and 17.06mm respectively and inthe postero-lateral group, 33.86 and 26.90mm respectively. Conical shaped muscles were the most commonlyfound muscles owing to the minimum obstruction posed by them to blood flow.Implication: Better understanding of morphological variations can help cardiothoracic surgeons to customizesurgical procedures according to the papillary muscle pattern of the individual patient

3.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 1633-1637, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-857061

ABSTRACT

In some states such as myocardial ischemia, heart failure, angina pectoral and myocardial ion channel disease and so on, one person may catch with a rapid cardiac arrhythmia, e-ven a generate ventricular fibrillation or a sudden death, especially in the case of emotional agitation, stress or sympathetic tone increasing abnormally, and exogenous administration of epinephrine , followed by a significant rising of catecholamine. All the above have a relationship with the sympathetic excitatory for ct and p receptors, the regulation of myocardial ion channel function, changing the myocardial action potential, and the myo cardial excitability. From the perspective of myocardial electro-physiology , this paper analyzes the effect of adrenal receptors on the regulation of ion channels, which plays a main action in the myocardial depolarization process, as well as the effect on the action potential duration, aiming to deepen the understanding of the mechanism of catecholamine inducing ventricular arrhythmias.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198453

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Papillary muscles are the conical muscle masses project into the cavity of ventricle and areinserted into the valve cusps by chordae tendinae. They prevent the cusps from being forced back into the atriumduring ventricular contraction. Their number and positions are highly variable. An anomalous papillary musclecan act as an ectopic foci. Hence these variations should be assessed before any operative intervention on thevalve. Present study aim to analyse these variations in detail.Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive observational study to analyse the variations in number andposition of papillary muscles in ventricles of 100 adult human hearts ranging in age from 17 to 80 yearsobtained from autopsy specimens. The methodology used was the dissection method according to standardautopsy techniques. The data obtained were quantified as frequencies (in %).Results: Of the 100 hearts studied, the right ventricle consisted of the usual three groups of papillary muscles in84% of hearts whereas the remaining 16% of hearts had only two groups (rudimentary SPMs). The left ventricleconsisted of two groups of papillary muscles in 73% of hearts ; three groups in 23%; four groups in 4% and noneof the hearts contained single papillary muscle. Regarding the positions, the right ventricle had APMs inanterobasal position, the PPMs in posterobasal position and SPMs was located close to ventricular septum andno extra group of papillary muscles were found. In left ventricle, 73% of hearts had APMs and PPMs in anterolateraland posteromedial positions respectively, whereas in 27% (23% and 4%) hearts, the extra group of papillarymuscles (third group and fourth group) were interlinked to PPMs and was situated in posterolateral position.Conclusion: These findings suggest that the variations in number and positions of papillary muscles should beanticipated before any operative intervention on the valvular apparatus.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-693146

ABSTRACT

Objective Toinvestigatetheexpressionofsuppressorofcytokinesignaling1(SOCS1)inoverloaded ventricle papillary muscle, so as to understand its expression characteristics in structural remodeling after the overloading and the biomechanical properties of the muscle under cubic jellyfish toxin-1(CfTX-1) pretreatment that can affect cell signal transduction. Methods Abdominal aortic-venous fistula (AVF) were operated in Kunming mice (n=5), and the cardiac left ventricles were harvested after two weeks of fistulation. The mice in normal group were sham operated as a control (n=5). In vitro culture, the left ventricular papillary muscle of normal mice was used (n=20). In the stretching group, the isolated papillary muscles were double-ratio stretched and fixed on silicone plate. In the relaxation group, the muscles were not stretched. A separated subgroup that transfected with SOCS1 plasmids were set in each group of stretching and relaxation. The papillary muscle samples of each group were cultured in culture medium for 3 days at 37 ℃, and then homogenized for extracting total protein. The total protein was separated by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The 23 ku band with SOCS1 was used as the target band, and the integrated optical density (IOD) value was measured by computer image analysis method. The expression of SOCS1 protein was detected by Western Blot and the imprinted IOD value was also measured. The papillary muscle in the stretching group was stretched by micro-positioned stretching method, and the initial load was 1 g. After stabilization, the papillary muscle was stretched by 15 mm for continuously 5 times, and the passive tension characteristic curves during the first and fifth stretching were observed and recorded. The peak passive tension (PTmax) and its deceleration velocity (DV) of the papillary muscle were calculated based on the curves. Results Comparing with the AVF group, the normal group had higher IOD values of 23 ku band and SOCS1 blot in total protein of the papillary muscle, and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.01). The IOD value of 23 ku band in the SOCS1 transfected stretching group was significantly higher than those of the two relaxation groups, and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.01). However, the difference of this value was not statistically significant between the two relaxation groups. The average IOD value of SOCS1 blot in the SOCS1 transfected stretching group was higher than those of the normal stretching group and the SOCS1 transfected relaxation group, and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.01). Comparing with the normal group, the AVF group had higher PTmax and ultimate PTmax of the papillary muscles, and had a lower DV values, and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.01). Conclusions The expression of SOCS1 is sensitive to tension load, and has a positive effect as an overload-sensitive signal in improving myocardial adaptability, protecting myocardial structure and maintaining systolic and diastolic function. CfTX-1 also has a positive effect on improving the compliance of ventricular papillary muscles.

6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(5): e5742, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839290

ABSTRACT

Cardiac remodeling is defined as changes in shape and function of the heart in response to aggression (pressure overload). The sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase cardiac isoform 2a (SERCA2a) is a known factor that influences function. A wide spectrum of studies report a decrease in SERCA2a in heart failure, but none evaluate it's the role in early isolated diastolic dysfunction in supravalvular aortic stenosis (AoS). Our hypothesis was that SERCA2a participates in such dysfunction. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats (60-80 g) were divided into AoS and Sham groups, which were submitted to surgery with or without aorta clipping, respectively. After 6 weeks, the animals were submitted to echocardiogram and functional analysis by isolated papillary muscle (IPM) in basal condition, hypoxia, and SERCA2a blockage with cyclopiazonic acid at calcium concentrations of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mM. Western-blot analyses were used for SERCA2a and phospholamban detection. Data analysis was carried out with Student's t-test and ANOVA. AoS enhanced left atrium and E and A wave ratio, with preserved ejection fraction. Basal condition in IPM showed similar increases in developed tension (DT) and resting tension (RT) in AoS, and hypoxia was similar between groups. After cyclopiazonic acid blockage, final DT was equally decreased and RT was similar between groups, but the speed of relaxation was decreased in the AoS group. Western-blot was uniform in all evaluations. The hypothesis was confirmed, since functional parameters regarding SERCA2a were changed in the AoS group.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Aortic Stenosis, Supravalvular/complications , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/physiopathology , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Aortic Stenosis, Supravalvular/metabolism , Calcium-Binding Proteins/analysis , Collagen/analysis , Diastole/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Echocardiography , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/etiology , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Indoles , Myocardial Contraction/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/analysis , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/metabolism , Time Factors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/metabolism , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-646624

ABSTRACT

A previously healthy 61-year-old man presented to the emergency department with chest pain and dyspnoea for 6 hours. Examination revealed distress with an apical pansystolic murmur. Initial electrocardiogram showed sinus tachycardia and ST elevation in leads II, III, and aVF compatible with an inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Point-of-care echocardiography in the emergency department showed a flail anterior mitral leaflet and severe mitral regurgitation, leading to a provisional diagnosis of papillary muscle rupture. Emergency cardiac catheterization showed 100%, 80%, and 70% occlusion of the middle right coronary, left anterior descending, and left circumflex arteries, respectively. An emergency triple vessel coronary artery bypass grafting and mitral valve replacement was performed. Posteromedial papillary muscle rupture resulting in mitral regurgitation was confirmed intraoperatively. The patient recovered uneventfully. In the absence of primary percutaneous coronary intervention, thrombolysis decisions should be made with extreme caution if mechanical complications of ST-elevation myocardial infarction are suspected.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Cardiac Catheterization , Cardiac Catheters , Chest Pain , Coronary Artery Bypass , Diagnosis , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Middle Aged , Mitral Valve , Mitral Valve Insufficiency , Myocardial Infarction , Papillary Muscles , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Point-of-Care Systems , Rupture , Tachycardia, Sinus , Ultrasonography
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-618469

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate papillary muscle function and construction in myocardial infarction(MI) patients by two-dimensional speckles tracking imaging(2D-STI),and to analyze the influence factors of ischemic mitral regurgitation.Methods Fifty myocardial infarction with ischemic mitral regurgitation(IMR) patients were brought into case group.The patients were divided into two groups:Ant MI group and Inf-Pos-MI group.Forty-five health volunteers were involved as control group.Anterior,posterior papillary muscle longitudinal strain (ALS,PLS),delay time(DT),fractional shortening (FS),length between the posterior or anterior papillary muscle tips and the contralateral anterior mitral annualr (APM AMA,PPM AMA),mitral leaflet closure (MLC),inter distance papillary muscle (IPMD) were aquired respectively.Papillary muscle function and construction among the groups were compared,and the effective factors of IMR were evaluated.Results Between the control group and Ant-MI group,the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter(LVEDD),left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volume(LVEDV,LVESV),left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF),ALS,delay time(DT),A FS,IPMD,MLC,APM-AMA,PPM-AMA were significantly different(all P <0.05).Between the control group and Inf-Pos-MI group the LVEDD,LVEDV,LVESV,EF,DT,PPM-AMA,MLC,PLS,P-FS were significantly different(P <0.05).Between the Ant-MI group and Inf-Pos-MI group,the LVEDD,LVEDV,LVESV,EF,MLC,ALS,PPM-AMA,PLS were significantly different (all P < 0.05).In the Ant-MI group,LVEDV,ALS,MLC were significantly correated with Gensini score(r =0.71,-0.65,0.56;P <0.05).In the Inf-Pos-MI group,PPM AMA,PLS were significantly correated with Gensini score(r =0.65,-0.76;P <0.05).In the Ant MI group and Inf-Pos-MI group,the ALS,PLS,PPM-AMA were significantly different (P < 0.05).Its correlates in Logistic analysis of Ant-MI group included LVEDV,MLC,DT with OR 1.48,1.72,1.54(P <0.05),respectively.Its correlates in logistic analysis of Inf Pos-MI group included PLS,PPM-AMA,DT with OR 1.78,1.57,1.56 (P <0.05),respectively.Conclusions There are different extent of damage of papillary muscle function and construction in Ant-MI group and Inf-Pos-MI group.The increases of LVEDV and MLC and desynchronization of PMs are risk factors of IMR in Ant-MI group.The increases of PMP-AMA,decrease PLS and desynchronization of PMs are risk factors of IMR inInf-Pos-MI group.

9.
Chinese Circulation Journal ; (12): 878-880, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-503861

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of papillary musclehypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods: Our research contained 2 groups: Papillary muscle hypertrophic cardiomyopathy group,n=21 patients treated in our hospital from 2013-01 to 2015-12 including 18 male and 3 female; Control group,n=50 subjects without cardiovascular disease those were conifrmed by our hospital at the same period of time. Clinical and MRI examinations were conducted in all patients, the ifndings were compared between 2 groups. Results: Compared with control subjects, papillary musclehypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients had the main symptoms of shortness of breath, chest tightness and pain; associated with systolic murmur; ECG could be normal or with T wave inversion; cardiac MRI showed that 1/2 papillary muscle diameter>1.1cm. Blood levels of triglyceride, left atrial diameter, inter-ventricular septum thickness, the values of E/A and EDT were statistically different between 2 groups, allP<0.05. Conclusion: Clinical features of papillary muscle hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were lack of speciifcity, the morbidity and clinical signiifcance should be further investigated.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-605624

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic duodenal papillary muscle small incision(EST)combined with duodenal papillary balloon dilation(EPBD)in the treatment of elderly patients with bile duct stones.Methods 100 elderly patients with bile duct stones were treated with endoscopic stone removal. Among them,55 patients were treated with SEST combined with EPBD(EPBD group),45 patients were treated with a single EST(EST group),the rate of stone removal,the occurrence rate of lithotripsy and the incidence of complications were compared between the two groups.Results The SEST +EPBD group at a time calculi clearance rate,postopera-tive hyperamylasemia,post pancreatitis,cholangitis were 98.2%,7.3% and 3.6%,1.8%,the EST group were 97.7%,6.7%,6.7%,3.6% and the difference between the two groups had no significant(all P >0.05).The SEST+EPBD group of gravel formation rate was 3.6%,lower than 13.3% in the EST group,the difference was statistically significant(χ2 =9.647,P <0.05).The SEST +EPBD group had no bleeding,bleeding in EST group incidence rate was 11.1%,the difference was statistically significant(χ2 =11.235,P <0.05);The recurrence rate of the SEST +EPBD group was 1.8%,which was lower than 11.1% in the EST group,the difference was statistically significant (χ2 =10.113,P <0.05 ).Conclusion EST combined with EPBD in the treatment of elderly common bile duct stones is safe and effective,which can significantly reduce the incidence of debris and bleeding,reduce the recurrence rate of common bile duct stones.

11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-175426

ABSTRACT

Background: The moderator band has the right bundle of His within the right ventricle. It also is known to prevent the over dilatation of RV. It is important because of its involvement in RV infarcts, in differentiating RV from LV in congenital anomalies, in VPDs & VTs and in VSDs. The present literature is very much lacking in its morphometry. Materials and Methods: Moderator band was looked for in 50 hearts and only in this study did we find it in all the hearts. The length, the thickness, the distance from the tricuspid valve along with the presence of any trabeculations in the septal end or in the papillary muscle end were looked for and recorded. Results: The average length was 14.71±4.99mm, the average thickness was 4.97±1.64 mm, the average distance from the tricuspid orifice was 19.85±5.92 mm. The attachment to the anterior papillary muscle was found to be branched in 8 hearts that is having an incidence of 14% . The septal end were branched and separated as two in only two specimens. Only one specimen had branched attachments on both the apical and septal ends. Conclusion: The distance from tricuspid valve and knowledge of branching are important in corrective surgeries of the VSDs. An awareness of length and thickness helps the clinician to differentiate moderator band from the other structures, which may result in misdiagnosis during echocardiography. Its presence may in fact be of significance in preventing over distension of the heart in RV myocardial ischaemia.

12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-166701

ABSTRACT

Abstracts: Background & Objective: Aim of present study was morphological and morphometric observation of papillary muscles of tricuspid valve of human heart. Methodology: This study was carried out in 36 human (24 males and 12 females) heart from adult cadavers, which were dissected according to standard technique. All papillary muscles were observed for their shapes, numbers and dimensions in centimeters. Data were tabulated and statistical comparison were done using “chi square” and “z” test. Results: The average length of anterior, posterior and septal papillary muscle was 1.42 ± 0.29 cm, 0.94 ± 0.23 cm and 0.18 ± 0.08 cm while average breadth of anterior, posterior and septal papillary muscle was 0.41± 0.12 cm, 0.29± 0.09 cm and 0.11± 0.01 cm respectively. The anterior papillary muscles presented 1 head in 27.78% and 2 heads in 25%, while posterior papillary muscles presented 1 head in 27.78% and 2 heads in 25%. All the septal papillary muscles presented with 1 head. Single anterior papillary muscle was found to be 97.22% while posterior papillary muscle was found to be single in 72.28% and double in 27.78. Septal papillary muscle was found to be single in 25% cases and absent in 38.89% cases. Conclusion: Data obtained from this study might be helpful for reparative surgical procedures of tricuspid valve.

13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-164459

ABSTRACT

Background: Aim of the present study was to observe the measurements of posterior papillary muscles present in tricuspid valve of human heart. Measurements of posterior papillary muscles in tricuspid valve gains utmost importance in cardiac surgeries because they are the causes of myocardial infarction in recent times because of its variations and detection of these causes by advent in modern technologies which will help in treatment of tricuspid valve diseases. Material and methods: This study was carried out on 96 normal formalin fixed human heart specimens. Dissection was performed according to standard techniques. Posterior papillary muscles were observed and length, width and thickness of each muscle were measured and documented. Results: In the present study, numbers of posterior papillary muscles were present with a frequency of 0-7, with most common appearance of 2 muscles in 38 hearts (39.6%) and least common incidence of 0 muscles in 1 heart (1%). Posterior papillary muscles were present in 95 hearts, with maximum number of 7 muscles in 1 heart (1%) and minimum number of 1 muscle in 27 hearts (28.1%). In measurements of papillary muscles, posterior papillary muscle mean height was 1.05±0.37 cm, mean width was 0.63±0.17 cm and mean thickness was 0.5±0.11 cm respectively. Conclusion: This study serves to understand the morphometry of posterior papillary muscles better and can help in various surgical procedures and cardiac treatment done on tricuspid valve.

14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-174720

ABSTRACT

Background: Aim of the present study was to observe the morphology, measurements and types of papillary muscles present in tricuspid valve of human heart. Morphology, measurements and attachments of papillary muscles in tricuspid valve gains utmost importance in cardiac surgeries and causes of myocardial infarction in recent times because advent in modern technologies in treatment of tricuspid valve diseases. Materials andMethods: This studywas carried out on 96 normal fresh formalin fixed human post-mortemheart specimens. Hearts are not grouped into any criteria of sex and age. Dissection was performed according to standard techniques. Types of papillary muscles observed and length, width and thickness of each muscle are measured and documented. Results: In the present study, number of papillary muscles was present with a frequency of 2-10. Maximum numbers of papillary muscles were 10 seen in only one heart (1%) and minimum numbers of papillary muscles were 2 seen in 3 hearts (3.1%). Anterior papillary muscles were present in all 96 (100%) hearts. Maximum numbers of muscles observed were 3 seen in 6 hearts (6.3%) and minimum number muscle was 1 seen in 66 (68.8%) hearts, which was normal. Two papillary muscles were seen in remaining 24 hearts (25%). Posterior papillary muscles were present in 95 (98.95%) hearts. Seven papillary muscles were observed in only 1 (1%) heart and only 1 papillary muscle was seen in 27 (28.1%) hearts. In measurements of papillary muscles, anterior papillary muscle mean height was 1.49±0.44 cm; mean width was 0.82±0.21 cm and mean thickness was 0.64±0.15 cm respectively and posterior papillarymuscle mean height was 1.05±0.37 cm,mean width was 0.63±0.17 cm and mean thickness was 0.5±0.11 cm respectively. Conclusion: We hope this study will serve to understand the tricuspid valve complex and morphometry of different papillary muscles better and it will help in various surgical procedures and cardiac treatment done on tricuspid valve.

15.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-377501

ABSTRACT

We report the successful treatment of an 81-year-old woman after a difficult diagnosis of mitral valve regurgitation resulting from partial rupture of the posterior papillary muscle. The patient, with a chief complaint of dyspnea, was admitted to our hospital in October, 2010. Echocardiography revealed severe MR and an oscillating abnormal mass attached to the mitral posterior leaflet was assessed as vegetation. Her general condition worsened and coronary angiography revealed 90% stenosis at #6 and 99% stenosis at #12. Partial papillary muscle rupture of post acute myocardial infarction was ruled out. Urgent surgery was performed. It is found that tissue we had assessed as vegetation was a part of the posterior papillary muscle with no signs of infection. MVP with quadrangular resection (P3), annuloplasty and CABG (LITA-LAD, SVG-OM) was performed. The patient was discharged on the 28th postoperative day. Echocardiography showed no MR for four years after the surgery.

16.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-376101

ABSTRACT

A 72-year-old man, in whom hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) had been treated with medication for 4 years, complained of general fatigue and mild dyspnea on effort. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography revealed diffuse left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and LV obstruction from the mid-portion to the outflow tract with a peak pressure gradient of 94 mmHg. Additionally, anterior displacement of the abnormal, hypertrophied anterior papillary muscle (PM) and restricted motion of the anterior mitral leaflet, caused by the shortened chordae arising from the abnormal PM, were found. Furthermore, during the systolic phase, the abnormal, hypertrophied anterior PM was shifted to the septal side, causing LV obstruction with systolic anterior motion of the mitral leaflet. The diagnosis was HCM with LV obstruction due to abnormal PM. Mitral valve replacement (MVR) using a mechanical valve and excision of the abnormal PM was performed. His postoperative course was uneventful, and he was discharged on the 14th postoperative day. Postoperative echocardiography revealed no residual obstruction and no pressure gradient in the LV, indicating that complete release of the LV obstruction had been accomplished. In cases of HCM with LV obstruction due to an abnormal mitral subvalvular apparatus, transaortic septal myectomy may not always be an effective procedure. Therefore, we propose that MVR with excision of the PM should be considered one of the useful surgical procedures for such cases.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-458013

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the relationship between ischemic mitral regurgitation and geometric angles of the mitral valve leaflets in patients with coronary artery disease and papillary muscle dysfunction by transesophageal echocardiography(TEE) ,and to evaluate anatomy and pathophysiology mechanicm of the ischemic mitral regurgitation with left ventricular papillary muscle dysfunction .Methods A total of 84 subjects were enrolled in this study .All of the subjects were divided into group A (healthy volunteers constituted the control group ,n =40) ,group B (chronic inferior or posterior myocardial infarction patients with papillary muscle dysfunction group ,n =44) ,group C(patients from group B after mitral valvuloplasty surgery ,n = 20) .The relationship between mitral regurgitation and geometric angles of the mitral valve leaflets and mitral annulus were studied by TEE .Results Geometric angle between the mitral valve leaflets and mitral annulus were significantly larger in group B ,and geometric angles of the mitral valve leaflets and mitral annulus was positive correlated with degree of mitral regurgitation .Degree of mitral regurgitation significantly reduced in group C ,no significant difference was found at the geometric angles of the mitral valve leaflets and mitral valve annular compared with group A .Conclusions The degree of mitral regurgitation were highly correlated with geometric angles of the mitral valve leaflets and mitral valve annular in patients with left ventricular papillary muscle dysfunction caused by coronary heart disease .Repair of the mitral valve leaflets surgery can significantly reduce geometric angles of the mitral valve leaflets and mitral valve annular ,and reduce the degree of mitral regurgitation significantly .

18.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-374612

ABSTRACT

Preservation of subvalvular mitral apparatus and maintenance of continuity between structures and annulus is recognized, and widely accepted as a significant factor for avoiding impairment to ventricular function and preventing left ventricular rupture during mitral valve replacement. However, we encountered a patient who developed posteromedial papillary muscle rupture following chordal sparing mitral valve replacement. The patient was a 67-year-old man who underwent mitral valve replacement with a porcine bioprosthesis 29M for acute mitral valve insufficiency due to several spontaneous chordal ruptures. The subvalvular apparatus of both leaflets was retained, the center of the anterior leaflet was excised elliptically, and the entire posterior leaflet was preserved. Although his postoperative course was uneventful, the transthoracic echocardiogram showed a floating structure prolapsing through the aortic valve in the left ventricle synchronizing with the cardiac cycle. The severed papillary muscle was removed successfully via an aortotomy through the native aortic valve on the 57th day after the first surgery. The patient recovered with no events. Surgeons should consider avoiding an excessive tension on the preserved chordae and delivering a cardioplegia sufficiently and uniformly during mitral valve replacement.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79737

ABSTRACT

We present here a 44-year-old male patient with hydatid disease who was referred to our hospital due to dyspnea and chest pain for the last 2 month before admission. Using echocardiography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography the heart hydatid was diagnosed. However, hydatid disease of the interventricular septum is rare; particularly, the involvement of mitral apparatus with mitral regurgitation (MR) is an exceptionally rare presentation. Early diagnosis and an integrated treatment strategy are crucial. Surgical excision was performed and the patient had an uneventful recovery and follow-up at 3 months.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis/parasitology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ventricular Septum/parasitology
20.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-362964

ABSTRACT

Papillary muscle rupture is one of the common complications of acute myocardial infarction. We report a case of 77-years-old man with an acute posterior papillary muscle rupture without obvious coronary artery disease. The patient presented with cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema. Emergency coronary angiogram showed no obstruction in coronary arteries. An echocardiogram and right heart catheterization data suggested acute mitral regurgitation caused by ruptured posterior papillary muscle. Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support was induced because of his unstable hemodynamics, and then emergency mitral valve replacement was performed. Intraoperative findings suggested some ischemic changes in the posterior papillary muscle. Pathologically, both old and new ischemic lesion presented in the same papillary muscle. Moreover, severe thickening of a small vessel wall was noted. This case presented one of the possible mechanisms of so-called idiopathic papillary muscle rupture.

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