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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812932

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two phenotypes of Paragonimus westermani isolated from Fujian Province with different sizes of metacercariae, and perform a phylogenetic analysis of various geographical isolates of P. westermani from Asia, so as to identify the possible genetic characteristics associated with the P. westermani phenotypes. Methods P. westermani metacercariae with different sizes (large metacercariae, 380–420 μm in diameter; small metacercariae, 320–340 μm) isolated from freshwater crabs were used to infect dogs, and the eggs and adult worms of P. westermani were collected from the dog stool samples and lung tissues. Then, the egg size and morphology were compared. In addition, genomic DNA was extracted from the adult worms of the two phenotypes of P. westermani and used for the PCR amplification to yield the complete mitochondrial genome sequence. Sequence structure and phylogenetic analyses were performed based on the complete mitochondrial genome of P. westermani. Results Following infection with large and small P. westermani metacercariae, the adult worms recovered from the dog lung had a thick body, and had oral and ventral suckers. The ventral sucker was located slightly in front of the midline of the body, and testes, ovary and vitelline gland were seen in the adult worms. Following fixation, the adults appeared oval, with an approximately 1.7∶1 of the length-width ratio. The length and width of the eggs isolated from the fecal samples of dogs infected with large and small P. westermani metacercariae varied significantly, and the large metacercariae produced bigger eggs than the smaller metacercariae. Based on the morphological features of adults and eggs and the ITS2 sequences, both phenotypes were identified as P. westermani. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence analysis of adults showed almost consistent sequences in the protein-coding region of the mitochondrial genome of adult worms derived from large and small metacercariae, with a major variation seen in the former non-coding region. Sliding window analysis revealed the most polymorphic region within the ND4 gene across the mitochondrial genome from various geographical isolates of P. westermani, and phylogenetic analysis showed that both phenotypes were clustered into the Chinese branch of P. westermani, which was close to the Japanese branch and distinct from the South/Southeast Asian branch. Conclusions The genetic distance between the phenotypes of P. westermani isolated from Fujian Province is near at a mitochondrial genome level, with no remarkable genetic differentiation seen; however, the mutation and structural changes in the non-coding region may result in the phenotypic variations. In addition, there is a distinct variation of the evolutionary rate in the mitochondrial coding genes, suggesting the selection of appropriate molecular markers during the phylogenic researches.

2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180595, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040622

ABSTRACT

The genetic information of ancient Paragonimus westermani, the oriental lung fluke infecting over 20 million people worldwide, has not been thoroughly investigated thus far. We analysed genetic markers (COI and ITS2) of P. westermani from coprolite specimens (n = 6) obtained from 15th to 18th century Korean mummies. Our results indicated that all P. westermani sequences were generally distinct from the other species of the genus Paragonimus. The sequences were clustered into three groups: Group I for East Asia; Group II for South and Southeast Asia; and Group III for India and Sri Lanka. In this study, we found that ancient P. westermani sequences in Korea belong to Group I, adding invaluable information to the existing knowledge of Paragonimus paleogenetics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mummies/parasitology , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Paragonimus westermani/isolation & purification , Feces/parasitology , Paleodontology , Parasite Egg Count , Phylogeny , Asia , Paragonimus westermani/genetics
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168666

ABSTRACT

Paragonimiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Paragnonimus species. The primary site of infection is the lung, and extrapulmonary involvement is also reported. When infected with Paragonimus westermani, which is the dominant species in Korea, the central nervous system is frequently involved along with the liver, intestine, peritoneal cavity, retroperitoneum, and abdominal wall. Ectopic paragonimiasis raises diagnostic challenge since it is uncommon and may be confused with malignancy or other inflammatory diseases. Here, we report an ectopic paragonimiasis case initially presented with recurrent abdominal pain. The patient developed abdominal pain 3 times for the previous 3 years and the computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed fluid collection with wall enhancement. Recurrent diverticulitis was initially suspected and part of the ascending colon was resected. However, the specimen showed intact colon wall without evidence of diverticulitis and multiple parasite eggs and granulomas were found instead. The size of about 70 μm, the presence of an operculum and relatively thick egg shell suggested eggs of Paragonimus species. With appropriate exposure history and a positive antibody test, the definitive diagnosis was made as peritoneal paragonimiasis.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Abdominal Abscess , Abdominal Pain , Abdominal Wall , Abscess , Animals , Central Nervous System , Colon , Colon, Ascending , Diagnosis , Diverticulitis , Egg Shell , Eggs , Granuloma , Humans , Intestines , Korea , Liver , Lung , Ovum , Paragonimiasis , Paragonimus , Paragonimus westermani , Parasites , Parasitic Diseases , Peritoneal Cavity
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168660

ABSTRACT

An epidemiological study was performed to know the recent infection status of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae (PwMc) in freshwater crayfish, Cambaroides similis, from 2 streams in Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea. Crayfish were collected from creeks in Bogil-do (Island), Wando-gun, and in a creek near Daeheung Temple in Haenam-gun. The infection rate of crayfish with PwMc in Bogil-do was 89.8%, and the metacercarial burden was 37 PwMc per the infected crayfish. Crayfish in a creek near Daeheung Temple were larger and twice heavier than those in Bogil-do. Of them, 96.5% were infected with PwMc. An average of 140 metacercariae was found in the infected crayfish, almost quadruple to those of Bogil-do. There was a strong correlation between the number of PwMc and body weight of the crayfish. These results suggest that P. westermani metacercariae are still prevalent in crayfish of the 2 regions in Jeollanam-do, Korea.


Subject(s)
Astacoidea , Body Weight , Epidemiologic Studies , Fresh Water , Incidence , Korea , Metacercariae , Paragonimus westermani , Paragonimus , Republic of Korea , Rivers
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168658

ABSTRACT

During civil engineering construction near Sejong-ro, Jongro-ku, Seoul, cultural sites were found that are thought to have been built in the 15th century. This area was home to many different people as well as the leaders of the Yi dynasty. To gain further insight into the life styles of the inhabitants of the old capital, soil samples were collected from various areas such as toilets, water foundations, and drainage ways. Parasite eggs were examined by microscopy after 5 g soil samples were rehydrated in 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. A total of 662 parasite eggs from 7 species were found. Species with the highest number of eggs found were Ascaris lumbricoides (n=483), followed by Trichuris trichiura (138), Trichuris vulpis (21), Fasciola hepatica (8), Clonorchis sinensis (6), Paragonimus westermani (4), and Metagonimus yokogawai (2). These findings indirectly indicate the food habits of the people in Yi dynasty.


Subject(s)
Ascaris lumbricoides , Clonorchis sinensis , Drainage , Eggs , Fasciola hepatica , Feeding Behavior , Foundations , Heterophyidae , Korea , Life Style , Microscopy , Ovum , Paragonimus westermani , Parasites , Seoul , Soil , Trichuris , Water
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-493722

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effects of 3 kinds of ELISA reagents on the detection of human paragonimiasis. Meth?ods A total of 45 serum samples from patients with paragonimiasis,218 serum samples from patients with other parasitic dis?eases as well as 80 serum samples from healthy people were detected by GD?ELISA(IgG antigen ELISA detection reagent),ES?ELISA(using excretory/secretory(ES)products of Paragonimus westermani),and sAg?ELISA(using semi?purified antigen (sAg)of P. westermani),respectively. The effects of the 3 reagents were evaluated and compared. Results The sensitivities of GD?ELISA,ES?ELISA,and sAg?ELISA were 95.6%(95%CI:89.6%~100.0%),93.3%(95%CI:86.0%~100.0%)and 86.7%(95%CI:76.8%~96.6%),respectively;the specificities of the above three reagents were 88.6%(95%CI:85.0%~92.2%),88.9%(95%CI:85.3%~92.5%)and 99.0%(95%CI:97.9%~100.0%),respectively,and the Youden indexes of them were 0.84,0.82 and 0.86,respectively. Conclusion sAg?ELISA is more suitable than GD?ELISA and ES?ELISA for clin?ical sample tests in paragonimiasis endemic areas in China.

7.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 655-658, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-672949

ABSTRACT

Objective A field investigation of worm eggs in dog feces,classification of crabs and metacercaria infection were carried out in Nanbai Town of Zunyi County,Guizhou Province.Methods One or two villages were selected as the survey sites in Nanbai Town of Zunyi County and the local dogs and crabs were chosen as survey objects.Worm eggs in dog feces were detected using natural precipitation method.On the base of holotype,the classification of crabs was identified.Then,crabs were mashed and metacercaria were detected.Results From November 2014 to September 2015,through this survey in Xiejia Village and Longquan Administration Village,fifty-three fresh feces of dogs were collected and three worm eggs were detected,such as Dipylidium caninum egg,Toxocara canis egg and Spirometra mansoni egg.Forty-two crabs were caught,including fourteen female adults (two larvaes) and twenty-eight male adults (nine larvaes).All these crabs were identified as Sinopotamonzunyiense by morphological method and metacercaria was not detected.Conclusion Nanbai Town of Zunyi County only has Sinopotamonzunyiense;metacercaria is not detected,which means that this local area is not a Paragonimus epidemiological region;only three worm eggs are detected in dog feces.

8.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2015 Feb ; 33 (5_Suppl):s156-159
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157068

ABSTRACT

Paragonimiasis is a foodborne parasitic zoonosis caused by lung fl uke species of the genus Paragonimus. The Paragonimus westermani is the most common human pathogen in Asian countries. In northeast India, Paragonimus heterotremus has been documented as the only human pathogen in the earlier literature. In India, P. westermani infection in humans remained undetermined. Herein, we report a case of pulmonary paragonimiasis due to P. westermani in an adult female in Manipur. The diagnosis was made by morphological and molecular characterisation of the eggs in the sputum. This is the fi rst confi rmed case of paragonimiasis due to P. westermani in India.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200944

ABSTRACT

Here, we report a case of pulmonary paragonimiasis that was improved with initial anti-tuberculosis (TB) therapy but confused with reactivated pulmonary TB. A 53-year-old Chinese female presented with a persistent productive cough with foul smelling phlegm and blood streaked sputum. Radiologic findings showed subpleural cavitary consolidation in the right upper lobe (RUL). Bronchoscopic and cytological examination showed no remarkable medical feature. She was diagnosed with smear-negative TB, and her radiologic findings improved after receiving a 6-month anti-TB therapy. The chest CT scans, however, obtained at 4 months after completion of anti-TB therapy showed a newly developed subpleural consolidation in the RUL. She refused pathologic confirmation and was re-treated with anti-TB medication. Nevertheless, her chest CT scans revealed newly developed cavitary nodules at 5 months after re-treatment. She underwent thoracoscopic wedge resection; the pathological examination reported that granuloma caused by Paragonimus westermani. Paragonimiasis should also be considered in patients assessed with smear-negative pulmonary TB.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Cough , Delayed Diagnosis , Female , Granuloma , Humans , Middle Aged , Paragonimiasis , Paragonimus westermani , Smell , Sputum , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tuberculosis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-118765

ABSTRACT

Paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Vietnam, research on Paragonimus and paragonimiasis has been conducted in northern and central regions of the country. Using a combination of morphological and molecular methods, 7 Paragonimus species, namely P. heterotremus, P. westermani, P. skrjabini, P. vietnamensis, P. proliferus, P. bangkokenis and P. harinasutai, have been identified in Vietnam. Of these, the first 3, P. heterotremus, P. westermani and P. skrjabini, are known to infect humans in other countries. However, in Vietnam, only P. heterotremus, found in some northern provinces, has been shown to infect humans. Even nowadays, local people in some northern provinces, such as Lai Chau and Yen Bai, are still suffering from P. heterotremus infection. In some provinces of central Vietnam, the prevalence and infection intensity of P. westermani metacercariae in freshwater crabs (the second intermediate hosts) are extremely high, but human cases have not been reported. Likewise, although P. skrjabini was found in Thanh Hoa Province, its pathogenicity to humans in Vietnam still remains uncertain. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of Vietnamese Paragonimus species provides new insights on the phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Paragonimus. Comprehensive molecular epidemiological and geobiological studies on the genus in Vietnam and adjacent countries are needed to clarify the biodiversity and public health significance of the lung flukes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Paragonimiasis/epidemiology , Paragonimus/classification , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Shellfish/parasitology , Vietnam/epidemiology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45620

ABSTRACT

A 94-year-old female with end-stage renal disease presents with fever, fatigue, and hematochezia. She had previously resided in Hunan Province, China, and Myanmar, and she immigrated to Taiwan 30 years ago. Colonoscopy revealed a colonic ulcer. Biopsy of the colonic ulcer showed ulceration of the colonic mucosa, and many Paragonimus westermani-like eggs were noted. Serum IgG antibody levels showed strong reactivity with P. westermani excretory-secretory antigens by ELISA. Intestinal paragonimiasis was thus diagnosed according to the morphology of the eggs and serologic finding. After treatment with praziquantel, hematochezia resolved. The present case illustrates the extreme manifestations encountered in severe intestinal paragonimiasis.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Helminth/blood , Antigens, Helminth/immunology , Colonic Diseases/complications , Colonoscopy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/complications , Humans , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Paragonimiasis/complications , Paragonimus westermani/immunology , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Taiwan , Ulcer/complications
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222445

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary paragonimiasis is a relatively rare cause of lung disease revealing a wide variety of radiologic findings, such as air-space consolidation, nodules, and cysts. We describe here a case of pulmonary paragonimiasis in a 27-year-old woman who presented with a 2-month history of cough and sputum. Based on chest computed tomography (CT) scans and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) findings, the patient was suspected to have a metastatic lung tumor. However, she was diagnosed as having Paragonimus westermani infection by an immunoserological examination using ELISA. Follow-up chest X-ray and CT scans after chemotherapy with praziquantel showed an obvious improvement. There have been several reported cases of pulmonary paragonimiasis mimicking lung tumors on FDG-PET. However, all of them were suspected as primary lung tumors. To our knowledge, this patient represents the first case of paragonimiasis mimicking metastatic lung disease on FDG-PET CT imaging.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Diagnostic Errors , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Paragonimiasis/diagnosis , Paragonimus westermani/isolation & purification , Positron-Emission Tomography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
General Medicine ; : 19-23, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-374862

ABSTRACT

<b>BACKGROUND</b>: We describe a 40-year-old Thai woman living in Japan who was transferred to Juntendo University Hospital after lung cancer was suspected. Chest X-ray showed a nodular lesion and pleural effusion in the left lung. Laboratory data showed eosinophilia. She denied having consumed raw or undercooked food at the initial interview. Microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Paragonimus westermani specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibody was positive at a high titer, confirming the diagnosis of P. westermani infection. She was successfully treated with oral praziquantel. All primary practitioners should be aware that paragonimiasis is an important pulmonary disease that can cause nodular lesions on chest X-ray.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177043

ABSTRACT

Seroprevalence of the IgG antibodies for Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani, Taenia solium metacestode (cysticercus), and Spirometra erinacei plerocercoid (sparganum) was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sera of patients in Korea from 1993 to 2006. A total of 74,448 specimens referred nationwide from 121 hospitals revealed an IgG positive rate of 7.6% for the 4 parasites. The IgG positive rate (18.7%) for the 4 parasites in 1993 decreased gradually to 6.6% in 2006. Individual positive rate decreased from 5.2% (1993) to 1.6% (2006) for C. sinensis, from 2.8% (1993) to 1.1% (2006) for P. westermani, from 8.3% (1993) to 2.2% (2006) for cysticercus, and from 2.6% (1993) to 1.6% (2006) for sparganum. The positive rate was highest (21.2%) in the group of patients who ranged in age from 50-59 yr old, and in the group that was referred from the Seoul area (55.9%). In conclusion, our results suggest that tissue invading parasitic infections should always be included in differential diagnosis for patients with eosinophilia associated lesions of the central nervous system, liver, and lungs in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Antibodies, Helminth/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Clonorchiasis/diagnosis , Clonorchis sinensis/immunology , Cysticercosis/diagnosis , Cysticercus/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophilia/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Paragonimiasis/diagnosis , Paragonimus westermani/immunology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sparganosis/diagnosis , Sparganum/immunology
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117561

ABSTRACT

Paragonimus westermani is a lung fluke that is usually found in the lungs, but may be found in unusual locations. A case of omental and mesenteric paragonimiasis was found incidentally during surgical intervention for rectal cancer. A 59-yr-old male patient visited our hospital for low abdominal pain and decreasing stool caliber. He had a history of ingestion of raw freshwater fish and crab. He was diagnosed as having rectal cancer, and a palliative Hartmann's procedure was performed. During the operation, several seeding nodules were found. Microscopic findings showed numerous paragonimus ova in the resected omental and mesentery. We report a case of heterotopic paragonimiasis in the abdominal cavity after rectal cancer surgery.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Cavity , Abdominal Pain , Eating , Fresh Water , Humans , Lung , Male , Mesentery , Ovum , Paragonimiasis , Paragonimus , Paragonimus westermani , Rectal Neoplasms , Seeds , Trematoda
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-415302

ABSTRACT

A patient with eosinophilic syndrome due to Paragonimus infection wag treated with praziquantel and cured.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151020

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the infection status of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae in freshwater crabs (n = 363) and crayfish (n = 31) from October 2007 to October 2008 using the crush method. All of the freshwater crabs, Eriocheir japonicus, were negative for P. westermani metacercariae while 10 (32.3%) of the 31 examined crayfish were positive. The 10 positive crayfish were caught in Haenam, Jeollanam-do, and there were 8-59 (mean 28.4) metacrcariae per infected crayfish. These results suggest that P. westermani metacerariae are still transmitted by crayfish enzootically in southern Korea, and that freshwater crabs may transmit metacercariae only on rare occasions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astacoidea/parasitology , Brachyura/parasitology , Humans , Korea/epidemiology , Paragonimiasis/epidemiology , Paragonimus westermani/isolation & purification , Prevalence
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153557

ABSTRACT

Paragonimiasis is a parasitic infection that occurs following the ingestion of infectious Paragonimus metacercariae from crabs or crayfish. Pulmonary paragonimiasis is the most common clinical manifestation of this infection, but several ectopic paragonimiasis cases have also been reported. Among them, cases of subcutaneous paragonimiasis are rare, especially in children. We report a case of subcutaneous paragonimiasis of the right abdominal wall with pleural effusion with hepatic involvement and without abnormal pulmonary infiltration in a boy aged 2 years and 5 months. He had eaten soybean sauce-soaked freshwater crabs (kejang) 6 months prior to complaining of right abdominal wall distension. On evaluation, right pleural effusion without abnormal pulmonary infiltration was detected, as well as blood eosinophilia, an elevated serum IgE level, pleural fluid eosinophilia and a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that detected P. westermani antibody in the serum. Thoracentesis, praziquantel administration, and excision of subcutaneous lesions were performed. After treatment, the eosinophil count and serum IgE level were decreased, and the subcutaneous lesions did not recur. The frequency of paragonimiasis has decreased recently, but it is still prevalent in Korea. Paragonimiasis should be suspected if pleural fluid eosinophilia is associated with blood hypereosinophilia and a high level of serum IgE; however clinicians should obtain a thorough history of travel and food habits.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Wall , Aged , Astacoidea , Child , Eating , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Feeding Behavior , Fresh Water , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Korea , Metacercariae , Paragonimiasis , Paragonimus , Paragonimus westermani , Pleural Effusion , Praziquantel , Soybeans
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serologic tests for specific antibody nowadays are widely employed for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. Recently, an increasing numbers of kits have adopted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of parasitic antibodies. In this study, we evaluated two ELISA reagents for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. METHODS: A total of 553 serum and 156 CSF samples were assayed using an in-house micro-ELISA and Genedia(R) Ab ELISA (Green cross PBM, Korea) for Cysticercus, Paragonimus westermani, Clonorchis sinensis, and Sparganum. We reviewed the medical records of all patients. The results from Genedia(R) Ab ELISA kit were compared with those from the in- house micro-ELISA method. RESULTS: The overall concordance rate between the two ELISA tests was 95.5%. When compared with the clinical information, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the in-house micro-ELISA were 100%, 99.0~99.6%, 82.4~96.4%, and 100%, and the respective figures for Genedia(R) Ab ELISA kit were 92.9~100%, 88.0~97.3%, 41.7~50%, and 99.9~100% with kappa agreement of 0.53-0.63. Comparison of two ELISA methods showed a significant difference (P<0.05). Retesting of 85 discordant samples showed that the concordance rate of the in-house ELISA was 97.7% and that of Genedia(R) Ab ELISA was 28.2%. CONCLUSION: Genedia(R) Ab ELISA kit showed an intermediate level of kappa agreement compared with the in-house ELISA. Further studies are necessary to improve the concordance rate of the two methods, and a careful interpretation of these results is required for a precise diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Clonorchis sinensis , Cysticercus , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Indicators and Reagents , Medical Records , Paragonimus westermani , Parasitic Diseases , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests , Sparganum , Streptothricins
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