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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247433, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339336

ABSTRACT

Abstract The life cycle of stink bug, Glyphepomis dubia and the development of two egg parasitoids (Telenomus podisi and Trissolcus basalis) were studied at the Federal University of Maranhão, at 26 ± 2oC, relative humidity (RH) of 60 ± 10% and 12h photophase. Individuals used in the study were collected from seven rice fields located around the municipality of Arari, Maranhão, Brazil, and maintained in greenhouse and laboratory for the life cycle studies. From egg to adult, G. dubia took 35.2 days to complete the life cycle. The oviposition period was 37 days, with egg masses of about 12 eggs each and viability of 93.1%. Longevity was 53 and 65 days for females and males, respectively. The egg parasitoids Te. podisi and Tr. basalis parasitized and developed in G. dubia eggs; however, the biological characteristics of Tr. basalis were affected. Emergence of the parasitoids was higher for Te. podisi (83.5%) compared to the records for Tr. basalis (50.4%). Therefore, G. dubia may potentially achieve a pest status and Te. podisi is a promising biological control agent for G. dubia management in Brazil due to its higher longevity and better reproductive parameters.


Resumo O ciclo de vida do percevejo, Glyphepomis dubia e a biologia de dois parasitoides de ovos (Telenomus podisi e Trissolcus basalis) foram estudados na Universidade Federal do Maranhão, a 26 ± 2oC, umidade relativa (UR) de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 12h. Sete indivíduos de G. dubia foram coletados em lavoura de arroz localizada no município de Arari, Maranhão, Brasil e mantidos em casa de vegetação e laboratório para estudos de ciclo de vida. Do ovo ao adulto, G. dubia levou 35.2 dias para completar o ciclo de vida. O período de oviposição foi de 37 dias com massas de ovos com cerca de 12 ovos/massa e viabilidade de 93.1%. A longevidade foi de 53 e 65 dias, respectivamente, para fêmeas e machos. Os parasitoides de ovos, Te. podisi e Tr. basalis parasitaram e se desenvolveram em ovos de G. dubia, no entanto as características biológicas de Tr. basalis foi afetada. A emergência dos parasitoides foi maior para Te. podisi (83.5%) em comparação com o registrado para Tr. basalis (50.4%). Portanto, G. dubia poderá apresentar potencial para atingir o status de praga e Te. podisi é um promissor agente de controle biológico para ser utilizado no manejo de G. dubia no Brasil, pois apresentou maior longevidade e os melhores parâmetros reprodutivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Oryza , Wasps , Heteroptera , Hemiptera , Hymenoptera , Oviposition , Ovum , Biology
2.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 66(2): e20210086, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387820

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma are promising for the biological control of insect pests in several crops, including cassava, which is severely attacked by Erinnyis ello L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Evaluating the biological aspects of these parasitoids to understand their dynamics is an important step towards the implementation of this control strategy in the field. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the biology of Trichogramma manicobai Brun, Moraes & Soares, 1984, and T. marandobai Brun, Moraes & Soares, 1986 in E. ello eggs. The parasitoids were obtained by collecting E. ello eggs from a commercial production of cassava, and the host's eggs were obtained from laboratory and greenhouse rearings. The average duration of a generation (T), net reproduction rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and the finite rate of increase (λ) were estimated, and from these, the fertility life table was calculated. The results indicated that T. marandobai has both higher net reproduction rate and a higher intrinsic rate of increase as well as requires less time to double its population than T. manicobai. Thus, T. marandobai has potential for natural and conservative biological control of E. ello. In addition, its potential in applied biological control should be evaluated through studies on the viability of its mass rearing in alternative hosts and its dispersion behavior in the field.

3.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 66(3): e20220035, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407493

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This work aims to evaluate the toxicity of insecticides used for stink bug control to the egg parasitoids Telenomus podisi and Trissolcus teretis. We tested ethiprole and sulfoxaflor + lambda-cyhalothrin in comparison with thiamethoxam + lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos. Three independent bioassays were conducted in the laboratory and repeated for each parasitoid species, to evaluate the effect of insecticides on pupal and adult stages of the parasitoids and the effects of insecticide sprays on host eggs prior to parasitism. Ethiprole at concentrations of 100 and 133.3 g/100 L H2O was classified as harmless (class 1), according to the International Organization of Biological Control to both pupae and adults of T. podisi. When tested against T. teretis, ethiprole was classified as harmless (class 1) and slightly harmful (class 2), but it still was the most selective pesticide among the studied chemicals. When adult parasitoids of both species were exposed to sprayed host eggs, parasitism rates were similar. The other treatments triggered more severe negative side effects to the parasitoids, especially to adults. Overall, ethiprole was the least toxic compound among the studied products and should be preferred in integrated pest management aimed at preserving these biocontrol agents, while the other tested insecticides should be evaluated under semi-field and field conditions to verify their higher toxicity.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 928-933, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153425

ABSTRACT

Abstract Species of Trichogramma Westwood, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammtidae) are frequently used as biological control agents against Lepidoptera, but practical application of these egg endoparasitoids are complicated because of their complex taxonomy. This study aimed to compare sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA (ITS2-rDNA) of Trichogramma accessions with those deposited in GenBank in order to access the reliability of the ITS2 as a barcode for discriminating species and evaluating the genetic diversity. ITS2-rDNA sequences obtained from seventeen specimens of Trichogramma confirmed previous identifications based on morphological characteristics. Multiple sequence alignment revealed the existence of highly conserved regions in ITS2 sequences while the neighbour-joining dendrogram indicated that the specimens formed three clusters comprising T. manicobai and T. marandobai (group I), T. galloi (group II) and T. pretiosum (group III). The ITS2 marker was shown to be a powerful DNA barcode for discriminating Trichogramma species and could be used to complement the morphological approach.


Resumo Espécies de Trichogramma Westwood, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) são freqüentemente usadas como agentes de controle biológico contra Lepidoptera, esses endoparasitóides de ovos apresentam taxonomia complexa, o que dificulta sua aplicação prática. Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar seqüências de regiões espaçadoras internas transcritas de DNA ribossômico (ITS2-rDNA) de acessos de Trichogramma com aquelas depositadas no GenBank, a fim de avaliar a confiabilidade do ITS2 barcode para discriminar espécies e avaliar a diversidade genética. As seqüências de ITS2-rDNA obtidas de dezessete espécimes de Trichogramma confirmaram identidades anteriores com base em características morfológicas. O alinhamento de múltiplas sequências revelou a existência de regiões altamente conservadas nas sequências ITS2, enquanto o dendrograma indicou que os espécimes formavam três grupos compreendendo T. manicobai e T. marandobai (grupo I), T. galloi (grupo II) e T. pretiosum (grupo III). O marcador ITS2 mostrou ser um poderoso DNA barcode para discriminar espécies de Trichogramma podendo ser usado como complemento da abordagem morfológica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hymenoptera/genetics , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Sequence Analysis, DNA , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics
5.
Biota Neotrop. (Online, Ed. ingl.) ; 21(3): e20211202, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285466

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Insect galls host a rich and diverse fauna of secondary dwellers, which compose the associated fauna. In Brazil, many inventories of insect galls in Cerrado areas have recorded secondary dwellers. These records were scattered in several papers. This study gathered literature data to provide an overview of the arthropod fauna associated with insect galls in the Brazilian Cerrado. We searched for scientific publications in online academic databases and retrieved 16 papers with data on the secondary dwellers. We limited our search to the period from 1988 to 2020. We updated the name of plant species and verified endemism and geographic distribution in Flora do Brasil 2020. We provided plant species uses based on the Tropical Useful Plants 2014. We found 163 gall morphotypes with secondary dwellers (16.8% of the total of gall morphotypes of the Brazilian Cerrado) on 94 plant species in 37 families. Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, and Malpighiaceae exhibited the greatest number of records. These are the richest families in insect galls in the Brazilian Cerrado. Most arthropod fauna were recorded in galls of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). Most records were in leaf galls, the predominant galled organ. Parasitoids were more frequent than successors, inquilines, and predators. Eulophidae and Eurytomidae were the most frequent parasitoid families. Inquilines were represented by Coleoptera, Diplopoda, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Psocoptera, and Thysanoptera; successors by Acari, Araneae, Cecidomyiidae (Diptera), Coleoptera, Collembola, and Formicidae (Hymenoptera), whereas predators by Pseudoscorpiones and Diptera. Most records were presented in suprageneric categories, showing that the taxonomic knowledge is very deficient. 29 plant species are endemic to Brazil and totaled 45 gall morphotypes with secondary dwellers; 46 plant species are useful and host secondary dwellers in 62 gall morphotypes. These data add ecological and economic importance to these arthropods.


Resumo: As galhas de insetos abrigam uma fauna rica e diversificada de habitantes secundários que compõem a fauna associada. No Brasil, muitos inventários de galhas de insetos em áreas de Cerrado registram habitantes secundários. Estes registros, dispersos em vários artigos, foram reunidos para fornecer uma visão ampla da fauna de artrópodes associados às galhas de insetos no Cerrado brasileiro. Buscamos publicações científicas nas bases de dados acadêmicas virtuais e encontramos 16 artigos com informações de habitantes secundários. Limitamos nossa busca ao período de 1988 a 2020. Atualizamos o nome das espécies botânicas e verificamos sua distribuição geográfica e endemismos no site Flora do Brasil 2020. Fornecemos os usos das espécies vegetais com base no site Tropical Useful Plants 2014. Encontramos 163 morfotipos de galhas com habitantes secundários (16,8% do total de morfotipos de galhas do Cerrado brasileiro) em 94 espécies de plantas de 37 famílias. Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae e Malpighiaceae exibiram o maior número de registros. Estas são as famílias mais ricas em galhas de insetos no Cerrado brasileiro. A maioria da fauna de artrópodes foi assinalada em galhas de Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). A maioria dos registros foi em galhas foliares, órgão vegetal com maior riqueza de galhas. Os parasitoides foram mais frequentes que os sucessores, inquilinos e predadores. Eulophidae e Eurytomidae foram as famílias de parasitoides mais frequentes. Os inquilinos foram representados por Coleoptera, Diplopoda, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Psocoptera, e Thysanoptera; os sucessores por Acari, Araneae, Cecidomyiidae (Diptera), Coleoptera, Collembola e Formicidae (Hymenoptera); enquanto os predadores por Pseudoscorpiones e Diptera. A maioria dos registros foi apresentada em categorias supragenéricas, mostrando que o conhecimento taxonômico é muito deficiente. Vinte e nove plantas são endêmicas do Brasil e totalizam 45 morfotipos de galhas com habitantes secundários; 46 espécies vegetais são úteis e hospedam habitantes secundários em 62 morfotipos de galhas. Estas informações acrescentam importância ecológica e econômica a estes artrópodes.

6.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 65(1): e20200073, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156013

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Trissolcus teretis has been recorded to parasitize eggs not only of Euschistus heros and Diceraeus melacanthus but also of other stink bug species in the most important soybean producing countries of South America such as Brazil, Argentina as well as other countries of the Neotropical region. Despite several studies relating to its natural incidence and parasitism, the impact of different temperatures on biology and parasitism capacity of T. teretis on eggs of E. heros and D. melacanthus is practically unknown. Considering that biological traits can be highly influenced by temperature, research on T. teretis parasitism at different temperatures and hosts is of theoretical and practical interest. We therefore evaluated T. teretis parasitism and development on eggs of E. heros and D. melacanthus at 15ºC, 20ºC, 25ºC, and 30ºC. Temperature had an impact on the parasitoid reared on eggs of both studied hosts. Although we recorded parasitism at an extreme temperature of 15ºC, these conditions are unfavorable for T. teretis parasitism, impairing parasitoid biological traits, especially survival of larvae and adult parasitism. Therefore, for application in crop fields where temperatures of 15ºC or lower are common, additional studies are necessary to investigate the possible need to increase parasitoid numbers during releases or to choose smaller intervals between multiple releases.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 122-132, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089282

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hymenopteran parasitoids are important biological control agents in agroecosystems, and their diversity can be increased with habitat heterogeneity. Thus, the purpose of the study is to evaluate the influence of distance of rice-growing areas from natural fragment, type of crop management (organic and conventional) and crop stages (vegetative and reproductive stages) on parasitoids family diversity. The work took place in two irrigated rice crops, one with organic management (O.M.) and another one with conventional management (C.M.), in the municipality of Nova Santa Rita, RS, Brazil, during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons. The parasitoids were collected with Malaise trap arranged at different distances in relation to the native vegetation surrounding the rice crop in both places. Specimens were collected twice a month from seeding until the rice harvest. Average abundance between management, distances and rice development were compared. The most abundant families were Platygastridae, Mymaridae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae and Trichogrammatidae. Parasitoid average abundance was significantly higher on OM only in the second season. There was a negative correlation between distance from native vegetation and parasitoid abundance in C.M. areas. There were differences in the composition of the parasitoid assembly between the phenological stages of rice.


Resumo Os himenópteros parasitoides são importantes agentes de controle biológico em agroecossistemas com sua diversidade variando de acordo com a heterogeneidade de habitat. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da distância de áreas com fragmentos de vegetação natural das áreas de cultivo de arroz, o tipo de manejo (orgânico ou convencional) e os estágios da cultura (vegetativo e reprodutivo) na diversidade de famílias de parasitoides. O trabalho foi conduzido em duas áreas com plantio de arroz irrigado, uma com manejo orgânico (MO) e outra com manejo convencional (CM), no município de Nova Santa Rita, RS, Brasil, durante a safra 2013/2014 e 2014/2015. Os parasitoides foram coletados com armadilha Malaise colocadas sob diferentes distâncias em relação a vegetação nativa circundante ao cultivo em ambas as áreas. Os espécimes foram coletados duas vezes ao mês da semeadura até a colheita. Foram comparadas a abundância média entre os manejos, distâncias e estágio de desenvolvimento do arroz. As famílias mais abundantes foram Platygastridae, Mymaridae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae e Trichogrammatidae com suas abundâncias variando ao longo da safra. A abundância média de parasitoides foi significativamente maior no MO somente na segunda safra. Houve uma correlação negativa entre a distância da vegetação nativa e a abundância de parasitoides. Houve diferença na composição da assembleia de parasitoides entre os estágios fenológicos do arroz.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oryza , Brazil , Forests , Cities , Biodiversity
8.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0832018, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1118050

ABSTRACT

Ichneumonidae are solitary parasitoids that mainly attack larvae and pupae of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera, which constitute important agricultural pests. The objective of the present paper was to characterize the assemblage of Ichneumonidae associated to the conventional and organic cultivation of Guarana (Paullinia cupana) crop in Manaus City (Amazonas State, Brazil) with faunistic analysis. The samples were collected at Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA), using Malaise and Moericke traps, between September 2012 and February 2013. We collected 296 specimens of Ichneumonidae, represented by 14 subfamilies, 41 genera and 63 morphospecies. The faunistic analysis revealed the predominance of rare and less frequent genera (54.2% in conventional and 47.1% in organic crop management). Venturia Schrottky was highlighted as superabundant, super frequent and constant (46.4% of the specimens) in conventional cultivation. In organic cultivation, Eiphosoma Cresson (15.6% of the specimens), Venturia (15.1%), Polycyrtidea Viereck (7%), Stethantyx Townes (6%), Enicospilus Stephens and Diapetimorpha Viereck (both 5.5%), Polycyrtus Spinola and Podogaster Brullé (both 5%) were more abundant, more frequent and constant. The observed differences reflect the type of crop management. Considering that organic crop management do not use agrochemicals, there is a greater diversification of the landscape. On the other hand, a reduction in richness and abundance has been observed in conventional crop management, due to its greater alteration and uniformity of the landscape. This study evidences a high number of rare, less frequent and accidental genera, and reveals the predominant groups in each crop cultivation system.(AU)


Ichneumonidae são parasitoides solitários e atacam principalmente larvas e pupas de Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Hymenoptera, que constituem importantes pragas agrícolas. O objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar a assembleia de Ichneumonidae associada ao cultivo de guaraná (Paullinia cupana) de manejo convencional e orgânico, em Manaus (Amazonas, Brasil) por meio de análise faunística. As coletas foram realizadas na EMBRAPA, com o uso de armadilhas Malaise e Moericke, entre setembro de 2012 e fevereiro de 2013. Foram coletados 296 exemplares de Ichneumonidae, em 14 subfamílias, 41 gêneros e 63 morfoespécies. A análise faunística revelou predominância de gêneros raros e pouco frequentes (54,2% no manejo convencional e 47,1% no orgânico). Venturia Schrottky destacou-se no manejo convencional como superabundante, superfrequente e constante (46,4% dos exemplares). No manejo orgânico, Eiphosoma Cresson (15,6% dos exemplares), Venturia (15,1%), Polycyrtidea Viereck (7%), Stethantyx Townes (6%), Enicospilus Stephens e Diapetimorpha Viereck (ambos 5,5%), Polycyrtus Spinola e Podogaster Brullé (ambos 5%) foram muito abundantes, muito frequentes e constantes. As diferenças observadas refletem o tipo de manejo da cultura. No manejo orgânico, por não utilizar agroquímicos, há uma maior diversificação da paisagem. Já no manejo convencional há uma redução da riqueza e abundância, por possuir maior perturbação e uniformidade da paisagem. Este estudo evidenciou o elevado número de gêneros raros, pouco frequentes e acidentais e expôs os grupos predominantes em cada sistema de manejo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Paullinia/parasitology , Hymenoptera/classification , Lepidoptera/classification , Pupa , Coleoptera , Brazil , Pest Control, Biological , Agricultural Pests , Larva
9.
Ciênc. rural ; 47(4): e20160684, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-839783

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This note is the first report of Syntomopus parisii De Santis 1976 and Leptomeraporus sp. (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) simultaneously parasitizing Melanagromyza sojae Zehntner, 1900 (Diptera, Agromyzidae) in Brazil. The Pteromalidae parasitoids are natural enemies of stem miner flies, opening perspectives for biological control of soybean stem miner fly.


RESUMO: Esta nota é o primeiro registro de Syntomopus parisii De Santis 1976 e Leptomeraporus sp. (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) parasitando simultaneamente Melanagromyza sojae Zehntner, 1900 (Diptera, Agromyzidae) no Brasil. Os parasitoides Pteromalidae são inimigos naturais de moscas minadoras do caule, abrindo perspectivas para o controle biológico da mosca minadora do caule da soja.

10.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 60(4): 302-307, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-829865

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A review of bee species used as hosts of mutillid wasps in the Neotropical region is presented. Three new confirmed host records are provided for the mutillid species Hoplomutilla biplagiata Mickel, 1939, Pappognatha limes Mickel, 1939, and Tallium aracati Casal, 1962. Two potential host records are provided for Euspinolia rufula Mickel, 1938 and Lophomutilla inca Fritz and Pagliano, 1993. Additionally, Mutilla hoplitiformis Strand, 1909, is transferred to the genus Darditilla. Correlations between host nesting habits and female mutillid morphology are discussed. Lastly, all known confirmed and potential host records in the Neotropical region are compiled.

11.
Acta méd. costarric ; 58(3): 122-125, jul.-sep. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-791457

ABSTRACT

Resumen:Se describe un brote de dermatitis producido por la picadura de una pequeña avispa áptera Sclerodermus sp. (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae), en un grupo de estudiantes de un colegio de San José, capital de Costa Rica. Se encontró también al escarabajo xilófago Calymmaderus pupatus (Coleoptera, Ptinidae), que sirve de huésped a la avispita, la cual necesita depositar sus huevos, como parasitoide, en las larvas del coleóptero para su reproducción. Casos autóctonos de esta dermatitis se conocen en los cinco continentes y esto contrasta con la ausencia de reportes procedentes de América Central.Los lugares en donde se observaron las lesiones, a veces numerosas en la misma persona, fueron: brazos, cuello, piernas, espalda, abdomen, pecho, cara y codos. El tipo de lesión se caracteriza por dolor y ardor en el momento de la picadura, seguido de una pápula eritematosa de tamaño variable, hasta un centímetro de diámetro e intenso prurito, con una duración de una a dos semanas. Se observaron cuadros urticariformes y angioedematosos e inclusive infecciones secundarias como consecuencia del rascado.El problema se atacó con una fumigación dirigida al coleóptero, con un insecticida capaz de penetrar la madera llena de galerías del escarabajo y sus larvas. Pocos días después de la fumigación, se encontraron numerosos ptínidos adultos muertos, así como gran cantidad de betílidos, en los muebles dañados por el escarabajo.


Abstract:This article describes an outbreak of dermatitis caused by stings from a small apterous wasp, Sclerodermus sp. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), among a group of students attending a school in San José, of Costa Rica. Also present was the xylophagous beetle, Calymmaderus pupatus (Coleoptera: Ptinidae), which serves as a host for this parasitic wasp and on which the wasp depends for its reproduction. The female wasps lay their eggs on the beetle larvae in the wood and the wasp larvae develop as parasitoids. Autochthonous cases of dermatitis caused by bethylid wasps are known from all other five continents but, as far as we are aware, this is the first report from Latin America, and the first report of Sclerodermus from Central America.The sites in which the lesions were located, sometimes numerous in the same person, were: arms, neck, legs, back, abdomen, breast, face and elbows. The type of lesionwas characterized by being painful, with a burning sensation, at the moment of the sting, followed by an erythematous papule lesion of variable size, up to one centimeter in diameter and with intense pruritus, lasting from one to two weeks. Urticariform lesions and angioedema were observed, as well as secondary infections consequence of the scratching of the lesions.The problem was solved by a fumigation directed against the coleoptera beetle, with an insecticide capable of penetrating the wood that was filled with tunnels made by the adult beetles and larvae. A few days after the fumigation numerous dead beetles and bethylid wasps were found in the furniture damaged by the beetles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Costa Rica , Dermatitis , Wasps
12.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(4): 1149-1159, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-829680

ABSTRACT

Abstract:Food web studies, which include qualitative and quantitative information about species interactions for all trophic levels in a specific community, are important tools to characterize the community structure, and to understand the role of species interaction in natural communities. With this aim, we collected fruits of Senegalia tenuifolia from a total of nine sites from three different areas in Minas Gerais, from June to August 2011. Fruits were collected and taken to the laboratory in special containers, to allow insect development and description. And then, we characterized the food web of insects associated with these seeds, and described interactions between these organisms and the host plant, and assessed the impact of insect attacks on seed germination with an experiment under controlled conditions. Additionally, we estimated the available NPK content and the Carbon:Nitrogen ratio in both fruits and seeds. In S. tenuifolia seeds, we have found 937 associated insects of 15 species structured in four trophic levels. We found two Bruchinae seed-feeders species: Merobruchus terani and Stator maculatopygus. We also have observed the seed-feeding hymenopteran species Allorhogas sp. 1 and Prodecatoma sp. 1, and hymenopteran parasitoids species such as Eupelmus sp.1, Lyrcus sp.1, Eurytoma sp.1, Horismenu s sp.1, Chelonus sp.1, Aprostocetus sp.1, Eiphosoma sp.1 and an unidentified Pteromalinae. Considering quantitative food web metrics, our data have suggested low values of generality and high values of trophic vulnerability, besides others, which demonstrated how species interactions are specialized. The impact of seed-feeding insects on seeds was found severe and prevented their germination. Lastly, seeds contained higher NPK content than fruits. In conclusion, the seed predation food web supported by S. tenuifolia has depicted two different features: specialized species interactions, considering parasitoids and seed-feeding species, and, generalized species interactions, considering host-plant and seed-feeding species. Indeed, seeds are resources with high nutrient concentration supporting a rich and complex food web. Finally, S. tenuifolia seeds are directly impacted by seed-feeding insects, preventing them from germination, which could result in a negative effect on host-plant population.


Resumen:Estudios de redes alimentarias, que incluyen información cualitativa y cuantitativa sobre las interacciones entre especies para todos los niveles tróficos en una comunidad específica, son herramientas importantes para caracterizar la estructura de la comunidad, y para comprender el papel de la interacción de las especies en las comunidades naturales. Con este objetivo, se recolectaron frutos de Senegalia tenuifolia de un total de nueve sitios de tres áreas diferentes, en Minas Gerais, entre junio y agosto 2011. Los frutos fueron recolectados y llevados al laboratorio en contenedores especiales, para permitir el desarrollo y descripción del insecto. Luego, se caracterizó la red alimentaria de los insectos asociados a estas semillas, se describieron las interacciones entre estos organismos y la planta hospedera, y se evaluó el impacto del ataque de insectos en la germinación de semillas mediante un experimento en condiciones controladas. Además, se estimó el contenido de NPK y la relación carbono:nitrógeno en frutos y en semillas. En semillas de S. tenuifolia, se encontraron 937 insectos de 15 especies estructuradas en cuatro niveles tróficos. Se encontraron dos especies de Bruchinae que se alimentan de semillas: Merobruchus terani y Stator maculatopygus. También se observaron especies de himenópteros que se alimentan de semillas: Allorhogas sp. 1 y Prodecatoma sp. 1, y especies de himenópteros parasitoides como: Eupelmus sp.1, Lyrcus sp.1, Eurytoma sp.1, Horismenus sp.1, Chelonus sp.1, Aprostocetus sp.1, Eiphosoma sp.1 y un Pteromalinae no identificado. Nuestros datos sugieren valores bajos de generalidad trófica y valores altos de vulnerabilidad trófica, además de otros, lo que demuestra cómo las interacciones entre especies son especializadas. El impacto en las semillas de los insectos que se alimentan de estas es severo e impidió su germinación. Por último, las semillas tenían un mayor contenido de NPK que los frutos. En conclusión, la red alimentaria de depredación de semillas con S. tenuifolia tiene dos características: interacciones de especies especializadas, considerando parasitoides y especies comedoras de semillas, e interacciones generalizadas entre especies, teniendo en cuenta la planta hospedera y las especies comedoras de semillas. De hecho, las semillas son recursos con alta concentración de nutrientes que proveen una rica y compleja red trófica. Por último, las semillas de S. tenuifolia se ven directamente afectadas por los insectos que se alimentan de semillas, que les impide la germinación, lo que podría resultar en un efecto negativo en la población planta-hospedero.


Subject(s)
Predatory Behavior , Germination/physiology , Insecta/classification , Fabaceae/anatomy & histology , Plants/classification
13.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 81(2): 150-158, abr.-jun. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1005009

ABSTRACT

O objetivo foi estudar a seletividade de inseticidas aos inimigos naturais na cultura do algodão (Gossypium hirsutum L.r. latifolium Hurtch), cultivar DeltaOpal, no município de Malhada (BA) e conhecer a fauna benéfica associada. O trabalho foi conduzido na safra 2010/2011, com delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos: (1) Fipronil 200 SC (0,38 L.ha-1); (2) Alfacipermetrina 100 SC (0,30 L.ha-1); (3) Lufenuron 50 CE (0,30 L.ha-1); (4) Imidacloprid 200 SC (0,30 L.ha-1); (5) Paration Metil 600 CE (1,00 L.ha-1); e (6) Testemunha (água). A aplicação dos produtos foi feita 80 dias após a emergência, com avaliações um dia antes da aplicação e 1, 7 e 14 dias após a aplicação (DAA) por meio do pano de batida e armadilha Moericke. Em laboratório, os insetos foram triados, contados e identificados em famílias. A toxicidade dos produtos varia em função do grupo do inimigo natural. A Imidacloprida é seletiva às aranhas, sendo os demais inseticidas medianamente tóxicos (Alfacipermetrina e Paration Metil: 1º e 14º DAA; Lufenuron: 14º DAA) ou tóxicos (Fipronil e Alfacipermetrina: 7º DAA). Fipronil (1º DAA), Alfacipermetrina (7º DAA) e Paration Metil (14º DAA) são medianamente tóxicos aos adultos de joaninhas. Os inseticidas estudados são tóxicos às larvas de joaninhas, com mais impacto até os sete dias após a aplicação, com exceção do Paration Metil, classificado como inócuo até esse período. Registra-se a ocorrência de 13 famílias de aranhas e 18 famílias de hymenópteros parasitoides em agroecossistema de algodão na região de Malhada (BA).(AU)


The aim of this work was study the selectivity of insecticides in favor of natural enemies in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum latifolium Hurtch Lr), DeltaOpal cultivar, in the city of Malhada (BA), and to know the associated beneficial fauna. The study was conducted at the agricultural year of 2010/2011. The design was conducted in randomized blocks with six treatments and four replications. The treatments were: (1) Fipronil 200 SC (0.38 L.ha-1); (2) Alphacypermethrin 100 SC (0.30 L.ha-1), (3) Lufenuron 50 EC (0.30 L.ha-1), (4) Imidacloprid 200 SC (0.30 L.ha-1), (5) Methyl parathion 600 EC (1.00 L.ha-1), and (6) control (water). The product was applied 80 days after emergence, and the evaluations were performed one day before application and 1, 7 and 14 days after application (DAA). The samples were taken using the sampling method beating cloth and Moericke traps. Natural enemies were brought to the laboratory for sorting, counting and identification by family. The toxicity of the products ranged according to the group of natural enemies. Imidacloprid is selective to the spiders and insecticides are moderately toxic (Methyl Parathion and Alphacypermethrin: 1 and 14th DAA; Lufenuron: 14th DAA) or toxic (Fipronil and Alphacypermethrin: 7thDAA). Fipronil (1 DAA), Alphacypermethrin (7th DAA) and Methyl Parathion (14th DAA) are moderately toxic to adult ladybirds. The analyzed insecticides are toxic to the larvae of ladybirds, with more impact until seven days after the application, with the exception of Methyl Parathion classified, as innocuous until this period. The occurrence of 13 families of spiders and 18 families of parasitic Hymenoptera is registered in cotton agroecosystems in the region of Malhada, in the state of Bahia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Gossypium , Insecticides/toxicity , Pest Control , Pest Control, Biological
14.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 58(2): 99-102, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, mapas
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-714735

ABSTRACT

New data on Marthiella Buffington (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae), with description of a new species. A new species of Marthiella Buffington (Hymenoptera, Figitidae) from Brazil and Nicaragua is described and illustrated. Rhabdeucoela semirufa Kieffer is transferred to Marthiella and a new combination was established: Marthiella semirufa. A key for identifying species of Marthiella is provided in this study.

15.
Braz. j. biol ; 72(4): 847-852, Nov. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660380

ABSTRACT

Natural enemies of the Class Insecta are important agents in the balance of aphid populations and an alternative to using insecticides to control these insects. The aim of this study was to identify the species of natural enemies associated with aphids present in peach orchards and observe the efficiency of capturing different sampling methods. The experiment was conducted from July, 2005 to September, 2006 in six peach orchards 'Chimarrita', in Araucária, PR, Brazil. The samples were taken by visual analysis in peach plants and weeds, yellow pan traps, sticky traps and funnels. Predator species were identified: Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, Cycloneda pulchella, Cycloneda sanguinea, Eriopis connexa, Harmonia axyridis, Hippodamia convergens and Scymnus sp. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), Allograpta sp., Palpada sp. and Toxomerus sp. (Diptera, Syrphidae) and Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) and the parasitoids: Diaretiella rapae, Opius sp. and Praon sp (Braconidae). Examples of Encyrtidae and Eulophidae await identification. Chrysoperla sp. was a less abundant species. There were no statistically significant differences between the different sampling methods tested.


Os inimigos naturais da Classe Insecta são importantes agentes no equilíbrio das populações de afídeos e uma forma alternativa ao uso de inseticidas no controle desses insetos. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as espécies de inimigos naturais associados aos afídeos presentes em pomares de pessegueiros, além de verificar a eficiência de captura de diferentes métodos de amostragem. O experimento foi realizado de julho de 2005 a setembro de 2006, em seis pomares de pessegueiros 'Chimarrita' em Araucária-PR, Brasil. As amostragens foram realizadas por meio de: análise visual em plantas de pessegueiros e plantas invasoras; armadilhas amarelas; armadilhas adesivas, e funil. Foram identificados os predadores: Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, Cycloneda pulchella, Cycloneda sanguinea, Eriopis connexa, Harmonia axyridis, Hippodamia convergens, Scymnus sp. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), Allograpta sp., Palpada sp., Toxomerus sp. (Diptera, Syrphidae) e Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae), além dos parasitoides: Diaretiella rapae, Opius sp. e Praon sp. (Braconidae). Exemplares de Encyrtidae e Eulophidae aguardam identificação. Chrysoperla sp. foi a espécie menos abundante. Não foram constatadas diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os diferentes métodos de amostragem testados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aphids/physiology , Pest Control, Biological , Predatory Behavior/physiology , Prunus/parasitology , Brazil , Population Density , Predatory Behavior/classification , Seasons
16.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 56(3): 383-384, July-Sept. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-651777

ABSTRACT

First records of Glyphepomis adroguensis (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) and its parasitoid, Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae), on rice fields in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Eggs, nymphs, and adults of Glyphepomis adroguensis Berg, 1891 (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) were observed for the first time on rice fields (Oryza sativa L.) in Charqueadas (29º59'S, 51º31'W) and Eldorado do Sul (30º02'S, 51º23'W) of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Telenomus podisi Ashmead, 1893 (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae) was found in G. adroguensis eggs.


Primeiros registros de Glyphepomis adroguensis (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) e seu parasitoide, Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae), em arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul. Ovos, ninfas e adultos de Glyphepomis adroguensis Berg, 1891 (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) foram observados pela primeira vez no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, em lavouras de arroz irrigado (Oryza sativa L.) em Charqueadas (29º59'S, 51º31'W) e Eldorado do Sul (30º02'S, 51º23'W). Telenomus podisi Ashmead, 1893 (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae) foi encontrado em ovos de G. adroguensis.

17.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 55(3): 406-410, July-Sept. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-602254

ABSTRACT

Biodiversity within the subfamily Alyssinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya (Spain). The study of parasitoid Hymenoptera is of significance for the assessment of diversity in a given area because of their role in the regulation of insects populations. The present work analyses diversity within Alysiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) in the Forested Estate of Artikutza, located in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya, western Pyrenees, Spain. Collection of specimens was spread over two years and was carried out in two different habitats: mixed forest and beech forest. A total of 2,270 specimens, belonging to 22 separate genera, were captured. Subsequently, alpha, beta and gamma diversities were analysed, and the beech forest was proven to host greater diversity than the mixed forest. A sampling strategy was adopted for the analysis of Alysiinae phenology and its relationship with environmental climatic conditions; as a result, a direct relationship between phenology and temperature was attested.


Biodiversidade na Alyssinae subfamília (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) no Parque Natural Peñas de Aya (Espanha). O estudo dos himenópteros parasitóides é significativo para uma avaliação da diversidade em determinada área por causa do seu papel no controle das populações de insetos. O presente trabalho analisa a diversidade no taxon Alysiinae (Himenóptero, Braconidae) na área de floresta de Artikutza, localizada no Parque Natural de Peñas de Aya, Pirinéus ocidentais, Espanha. A coleta de espécimes dividiu-se em dois anos e foi realizada em dois habitats diferentes: floresta mista e floresta de faias. No total, foram capturados 2.270 exemplares pertencentes a 22 gêneros distintos. Subsequentemente, as variedades alfa, beta e gama foram analisadas, comprovando-se que a floresta de faias apresenta uma diversidade maior que a floresta mista. Adotou-se a estratégia de amostra para análise da fenologia da Alysiinae e da sua relação com as condições climáticas ambientais, de onde se concluiu que existe uma relação direta entre a fenologia e a temperatura.

18.
Braz. j. biol ; 71(3): 735-738, Aug. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597182

ABSTRACT

Protapanteles (Protapanteles) enephes (Nixon, 1965) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) was reared from the host Fountainea ryphea phidile (Geyer, 1837) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae), collected on Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae) in São Carlos, São Paulo state, Brazil. The hyperperparasitoids Conura sp. (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae) and a Pteromalidae species are registered on this microgastrine species. Male and female specimens and cocoon of Protapanteles (Protapanteles) enephes are illustrated for the first time.


Protapanteles (Protapanteles) enephes (Nixon, 1965) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) foi obtido do hospedeiro Fontainea ryphea phidile (Geyer, 1837) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae), cujas larvas foram coletadas sobre Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae) em São Carlos, estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os hiperparasitoides Conura sp. (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae) e uma espécie de Pteromalidae são registrados sobre essa espécie de Microgastrinae. Espécimes machos, fêmeas e casulo de Protapanteles (Protapanteles) enephes são ilustrados pela primeira vez.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Wasps/anatomy & histology , Wasps/classification , Brazil , Croton/parasitology
19.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 55(2): 285-286, June 2011.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-593269

ABSTRACT

First report of parasitism on pupae of Opsiphanes invirae amplificatus Stichel (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) by Conura (Conura) maculata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae) in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This scientific note records the parasitism on pupae of Opsiphanes invirae amplificatus Stichel (1904) by Conura (Conura) maculata (Fabricius). This is a report of this interaction in the subtropical region of South America and the first report of the occurrence of this parasitoid in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.


Primeiro registro de parasitismo em pupas de Opsiphanes invirae amplificatus Stichel (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) por Conura (Conura) maculata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae) no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Esta nota científica registra o parasitismo em pupas de Opsiphanes invirae amplificatus Stichel (1904) por Conura (Conura) maculata (Fabricius). Este é um registro desta interação na região subtropical da América do Sul e o primeiro relato de ocorrência deste parasitóide no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

20.
Biota neotrop. (Online, Ed. port.) ; 11(2): 357-365, Apr.-June 2011. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-596889

ABSTRACT

In this study we recorded the occurrence of insect galls, inductors and parasitoids in plants of several physiognomies of Brazilian Cerrado in the Serra dos Pireneus, Goiás State, Brazil. We found 62 morphotypes of gall on 28 botanical families, comprising 44 genera and 51 species. The plant families that showed the greatest richness of galls were Fabaceae, with eight morphotypes, and Styracaceae with six. Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae) was the host plant species with the greatest gall richness, featuring five morphotypes. Most of galls occurred on the leaves (82.6 percent), 45.1 percent in vegetation of typical savanna and 35.4 percent in rocky savanna. Dipteran, Hemipteran and Lepidopteran galls were found, being 50.9 percent of them induced by Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). Several parasitoids were obtained, Eulophidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) was the most representative group (occurring in approximately 40 percent of the galls). Nine species of plants were recorded for the first time in the Neotropical as host of gallers.


Neste estudo, registramos a ocorrência de galhas, galhadores e parasitóides em plantas de várias fitofisionomias de Cerrado na Serra dos Pireneus, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foram encontrados 62 morfotipos de galhas em 28 famílias botânicas, compreendendo 44 gêneros e 51 espécies. As famílias botânicas que apresentaram maior riqueza de galhas foram Fabaceae, com oito morfotipos e Styracaceae com seis. Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae) foi a espécie de planta hospedeira mais rica em galhas, apresentando cinco morfotipos. A maioria das galhas ocorreu nas folhas (82,6 por cento) e em fitofisionomias de cerrado típico (45,1 por cento) e cerrado rupestre (35,4 por cento). Galhas de Diptera, Hemiptera e Lepidoptera foram encontradas, sendo 50,9 por cento induzidas por Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). Vários parasitóides obtidos, dentre eles, Eulophidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) foram foi o grupo mais representativo (ocorrendo em aproximadamente 40 por cento das galhas). Nove espécies de plantas são registradas pela primeira vez na região Neotropical como hospedeiras de galhadores.

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