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1.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(3): 442-451, jul.-sep. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357382

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El SARS-CoV-2 es un virus ARN monocatenario de la familia de los coronavirus, causante de la COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019). Este virus es responsable de la pandemia actual que, desde su aparición a finales de 2019, ha provocado la muerte de millones de personas y ha tenido un impacto global no solo a nivel sanitario sino también económico y social. Por ello, el presente artículo tiene como objetivo revisar la información más actualizada sobre el SARS-CoV-2, empezando por describir los mecanismos de transmisión del virus, su fisiopatología y filogenética. Asimismo, presentará a las variantes emergentes del SARS-CoV-2, su relevancia para la salud pública local y global, su epidemiología en Perú, y finalmente, el rol y la importancia de las vacunas en este contexto.


ABSTRACT SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus of the coronavirus family, which causes COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019). This virus is responsible for the current pandemic, which, since its emergence in late 2019, has caused millions of deaths and has had a global impact not only on public health but also on social and economic areas. Therefore, this article aims to review the most up-to-date information on SARS-CoV-2, beginning with the description of the pathophysiology and phylogenetics of the virus. Also, we will present the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, their relevance for local and global public health, their epidemiology in Peru, and finally, the role and importance of vaccines in this context.

2.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 15(2): 98-114, 20210516.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252498

ABSTRACT

SARS CoV-2 se transmite principalmente a través de la vía aérea. La media del tiempo desde la exposición hasta la presentación de la sintomatología es de 5 días. Los pacientes infectados pueden permanecer asintomáticos o tener un amplio espectro de manifestaciones como: fiebre, tos seca y malestar general. Aproximadamente, el 20% de pacientes con la COVID-19 requiere hospitalización (10% en área general, el 5% requiere cuidados intermedios y el 5% restante ingresa a cuidados intensivos debido a su estado de gravedad). Los exámenes de laboratorio y radiológicos muestran anomalías de común presentación, pero inespecíficas. El diagnóstico es a través de la prueba de reacción en cadena de polimerasa de transcripción inversa cuando detecta SARS CoV-2. El objetivo de la revisión que se presenta es sintetizar elementos importantes relacionados con la fisiolopatología, manifestaciones clínicas y diagnóstico de la COVID-19.


SARS CoV-2 is transmitted primarily through the airway. The mean time from exposure to presentation of symptoms is 5 days. Infected patients can remain asymptomatic or have a wide spectrum of manifestations such as: fever, dry cough, and general malaise. Approximately 20% of patients with COVID-19 require hospitalization (10% in the general area, 5% require inter-mediate care, and the remaining 5% enter intensive care due to their serious condition). Labora-tory and radiological examinations show common but nonspecific abnormalities. Diagnosis is through the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test when it detects SARS CoV-2. This systematic review aimed to synthesize important elements related to the physiopathology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pathology , Coronavirus Infections , Natural History , Patients , Signs and Symptoms , Diagnosis
3.
Acta méd. peru ; 38(1): 53-57, ene.-mar 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278193

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se describe la evidencia actual del efecto del SARS-CoV-2 a nivel de tejido renal. Se realizó una revisión narrativa de los artículos publicados en SCOPUS y PUBMED hasta septiembre de 2020. Los resultados se dividieron en las siguientes secciones: evidencia del efecto directo del virus en el riñón, mecanismos de invasión celular, mecanismos de injuria celular y las potenciales implicaciones terapéuticas de estos hallazgos. El SARS-CoV-2 invade las células del túbulo proximal y los podocitos, a través del receptor ECA-2. La invasión y replicación viral podrían producir daño mediante un efecto citopático directo aunado a un daño mediado por la respuesta inmune. Debido a la expresión celular de ECA-2, se ha propuesto a los Inhibidores del Sistema Renina- Angiotensina-Aldosterona como un potencial tratamiento contra la COVID-19. Sin embargo, a la fecha, la evidencia no apoya su uso.


ABSTRACT We describe evidence on SARS-CoV-2 effect on the kidney. We carried a narrative review of articles published in SCOPUS and PUBMED until September 2020. The results were divided into six topics: evidence of direct effect of virus on the kidney, mechanisms of cellular invasion, mechanisms of kidney injury, and potential therapeutic implications. SARS-Cov-2 gains access to proximal tubule cells and podocytes via ACE-2 receptors. Viral invasion and replication may induce kidney damage through a direct cytopathic effect and immune-mediated damage. Due to ACE-2 cellular expression, Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors have been proposed as potential treatment for COVID-19. However, current evidence does not support its therapeutic use.

4.
Rev. neuropsiquiatr ; 84(1): 25-32, ene-mar 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251974

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Desde su inicio, en diciembre del 2019, la pandemia causada por el nuevo coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), ha infectado a más de 116 millones de personas. A las bien documentadas manifestaciones respiratorias causadas por el SARS-CoV-2, se está añadiendo un creciente número de manifestaciones neurológicas y psiquiátricas entre los pacientes afectados y sobrevivientes. En este artículo se revisan y describen los potenciales mecanismos de invasión del virus al sistema nervioso. Sobre la base de estudios precedentes en coronavirus similares (MERS-CoV y SARS-CoV) y la evidencia actual, se plantea que las posibles rutas de neuroinvasión que emplea el SARS-CoV-2 son la transneuronal (vía axonal retrógrada, a través de los nervios periféricos), la hematógena/linfática (libre a través de la sangre y linfa o en el interior de las células inmunes) y la digestiva (mediante disrupción de la barrera intestinal). Si bien es necesario conducir más investigaciones en varias áreas, dilucidar las rutas de neuroinvasión, así como las capacidades neurotrópicas del virus, son puntos de vital importancia para entender y tratar las múltiples manifestaciones neurológicas y psiquiátricas, así como las potenciales secuelas a largo plazo que los pacientes infectados puedan desarrollar.


SUMMARY Since its beginning, in December 2019, the pandemic caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 116 millions of people. In addition to the well-documented respiratory manifestations caused by SARS-CoV-2, an increasing number of neurological and psychiatric manifestations are being reported among affected individuals and survivors. In this article we describe the potential invasion mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 to the nervous system. On the basis of preceding studies on similar coronaviruses (MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV) and current evidence, three possible neuroinvasion routes used by SARS-CoV-2 are suggested: the transneuronal pathway (retrograde axonal pathway through the peripheral nerves), the hematogenous / lymphatic pathway (free through the blood and lymph or inside immune cells), and the digestive pathway (through disruption of the intestinal barrier). Although more research is needed in several areas, the elucidation of neuroinvasion routes and of the neurotropic capacities of the virus, are vital to understand and treat the multiple neurological and psychiatric manifestations as well as the long-term sequelae that the infected patients may potentially develop.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908910

ABSTRACT

Pathophysiology is a comprehensive subject, which is very important to cultivate the clinical comprehensive thinking of medical students. Pathophysiology involves a wide range of subjects and contents, and is one of the major and difficult courses in basic medicine. Based on many years of research and practice, we have developed main-line-problem-based learning (ML-PBL). ML-PBL is a diversified teaching mode, including the main line teaching method, clinical case discussion method, and the main line synopsis explaining method. The analysis of application results shows that ML-PBL teaching improves the student performance. Furthermore, ML-PBL is more conducive to cultivating the comprehensive clinical thinking ability, improving the independent learning ability, and fully mobilizing the learning initiative.

6.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 36(3): e405, 2021. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1367044

ABSTRACT

Desde que Edward Heyde vislumbró en 1958 una misteriosa asociación entre estenosis aórtica y hemorragia digestiva han transcurrido seis décadas y se ha suscitado no poca controversia. En la época en que fue propuesta, el estatus técnico y metodológico de la ciencia médica y una interpretación sesgada de su idea original impidieron obtener un sustento estadístico y fisiopatológico que le otorgara un amplio reconocimiento como entidad clínica individual. Los avances en varias disciplinas permitieron demostrar que su frecuencia de presentación excede el efecto del azar, además de esclarecer con precisión y elegancia sus mecanismos fisiopatológicos. Su consolidación como síndrome nos revela una verdadera encrucijada entre la cardiología, la gastroenterología, la hematología y el laboratorio, especialidades involucradas tanto en su proceso de comprensión como en su manejo práctico en la actualidad. Sin embargo, a pesar de tener una incidencia no desdeñable y adquirir un papel central en la conducción clínica de la estenosis aórtica, esta entidad parece haber pasado de ser resistida a relativamente ignorada. Con el objetivo de contribuir a su visibilidad, la presente revisión ofrece un panorama integral sobre el tema, incluyendo una perspectiva histórica de los principales aportes en pos de su conocimiento y un abordaje en profundidad de sus mecanismos, las claves de su detección clínica y su impacto en el manejo de la estenosis aórtica y otras entidades con fisiopatología afín.


Since Edward Heyde perceived in 1958 a mysterious association between aortic stenosis and gastrointestinal bleeding, six decades have passed and no little controversy has arisen. At the time it was proposed, the technical and methodological status of medical science and a biased interpretation of his original idea prevented obtaining a statistical and pathophysiological support that would grant it wide recognition as and individual clinical entity. Advances in several disciplines allowed to demonstrate that its frequency of presentation exceeds the effect of chance, besides clarifying with precision and elegance its pathophysiological mechanisms. Its consolidation as a syndrome reveals a true crossroads between Cardiology, Gastroenterology, Hematology and Laboratory, specialties involved both in its understanding process and in its practical management today. However, despite having a not negligible incidence and acquiring a central role in the clinical conduction of aortic stenosis, this entity seems to have gone from being resisted to relatively ignored. With the objective of contributing to its visibility, this review offers a comprehensive overview of the subject, covering the main historical contributions to its knowledge and approaching in depth its mechanisms, the keys to its clinical detection and its impact on the management of aortic stenosis and other entities with related pathophysiology.


Desde que Edward Heyde imaginou em 1958 uma misteriosa associação entre estenose aórtica e hemorragia gastrointestinal, seis décadas se passaram e não houve pouca controvérsia. Na época em que foi levantada, o estado técnico e metodológico da ciência médica e uma interpretação tendenciosa de sua ideia original impediram a construção de um apoio estatístico e fisiopatológico que lhe concederia amplo reconhecimento como entidade clínica individual. Avanços em diversas disciplinas permitiram demonstrar que sua frequência de apresentação excede o efeito do acaso, além de esclarecer com precisão e elegância seus mecanismos fisiopatológicos. Sua consolidação como síndrome revela uma verdadeira encruzilhada entre Cardiologia, Gastroenterologia, Hematologia e Laboratório, especialidades envolvidas tanto em seu processo de compreensão quanto em sua gestão prática hoje. No entanto, apesar de ter uma incidência não desprezível e adquirir um papel central no manejo clínico da estenose aórtica, esta entidade parece ter passado de resistida para relativamente ignorada. Com o intuto de contribuir para sua visibilidade, esta revisão oferece um panorama abrangente do tema, revendo as principais contribuições históricas ao seu conhecimento e abordando em profundidade seus mecanismos, as chaves para sua detecção clínica e seu impacto na gestão da estenose aórtica e outras entidades com fisiopatologia relacionada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aortic Valve Stenosis/complications , Angiodysplasia/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , von Willebrand Diseases/complications , Angiodysplasia/etiology , Angiodysplasia/therapy , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy
7.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(6): 654-663, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142210

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Metabolomics uses several analytical tools to identify the chemical diversity of metabolites present in organisms. These metabolites are low molecular weight molecules (<1500 Da) classified as a final or intermediary product of metabolic processes. The application of this omics technology has become prominent in inferring physiological conditions through reporting on the phenotypic state; therefore, the introduction of metabolomics into clinical studies has been growing in recent years due to its efficiency in discriminating pathophysiological states. Regarding endocrine diseases, there is a great interest in verifying comprehensive and individualized physiological scenarios, in particular for growth hormone deficiency (GHD). The current GHD diagnostic tests are laborious and invasive and there is no exam with ideal reproducibility and sensitivity for diagnosis neither standard GH cut-off point. Therefore, this review was focussed on articles that applied metabolomics in the search for new biomarkers for GHD. The present work shows that the applications of metabolomics in GHD are still limited, since the little complementarily of analytical techniques, a low number of samples, GHD combined to other deficiencies, and idiopathic diagnosis shows a lack of progress. The results of the research are relevant and similar; however, their results do not provide an application for clinical practice due to the lack of multidisciplinary actions that would be needed to mediate the translation of the knowledge produced in the laboratory, if transferred to the medical setting.

8.
Insuf. card ; 15(3): 76-83, oct. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149358

ABSTRACT

Alrededor de un tercio de los adultos en la mayoría de las comunidades presentan hipertensión arterial (HTA). En Argentina, los registros denotan una prevalencia del 33,5%; donde el 44,6% son hombres y el 25,9% son mujeres. Se estima que un tercio de la población con HTA desconoce que la padece y la mitad se encuentra bajo tratamiento antihipertensivo; pero sólo la cuarta parte está bien controlada. Por otro lado la epidemia de insuficiencia cardíaca (IC) alcanza aproximadamente los 61 millones de individuos a nivel mundial, y se encuentra estrechamente relacionada con la HTA, siendo ésta la principal etiología sobre todo en Europa y Estados Unidos. De aquí surge el vínculo entre ambas entidades, ya muy conocidas y con fármacos avalados para su tratamiento hace ya mucho tiempo. Tanto la HTA como la IC (sea con fracción de eyección preservada o reducida) son patologías muy vinculadas y prevalentes en todas las comunidades. Los últimos avances en investigación nos llevan a plantearnos que a mayor reducción de los valores de presión arterial, se generan una cascada de mecanismos beneficiosos para el sistema cardiovascular que conllevan beneficios clínicos francos. Ahora bien, ¿existen nuevas terapéuticas que puedan encausar el rumbo de estos pacientes o sólo existen nuevos y más estrictos objetivos con los fármacos que previamente conocíamos?


About a third of adults in most communities have high blood pressure (HBP). In Argentina the records show a prevalence of 33.5%; where 44.6% are men and 25.9% are women. It is estimated that a third of the population with HBP is unaware that they suffer from it and half are under antihypertensive treatment; but only a quarter is well controlled. On the other hand, the epidemic of heart failure (HF) reaches approximately 61 million individuals worldwide, and is closely related to hypertension, this being the main etiology, especially in Europe and the United States. From here arises the link between both entities, already well known and with drugs endorsed for their treatment for a long time. Both HBP and HF (whether with preserved or reduced ejection fraction) are highly linked and prevalent pathologies in all communities. The latest advances in research lead us to consider that the greater the reduction in blood pressure values, a cascade of beneficial mechanisms for the cardiovascular system are generated that lead to frank clinical benefits. Now, are there new therapies that can guide the course of these patients or are there only new and stricter objectives with the drugs that we previously knew?


Cerca de um terço dos adultos na maioria das comunidades tem hipertensão arterial (HTA). Na Argentina, os registros mostram uma prevalência de 33,5%; onde 44,6% são homens e 25,9% são mulheres. Estima-se que um terço da população com HTA desconhece que a sofre e metade está em tratamento anti-hipertensivo; mas apenas um quarto está bem controlado. Por outro lado, a epidemia de insuficiência cardíaca (IC) atinge cerca de 61 milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo, e está intimamente relacionada à hipertensão, sendo esta a principal etiologia, principalmente na Europa e nos Estados Unidos. Daqui surge o vínculo entre as duas entidades, já bastante conhecidas e com medicamentos há muito endossados para o seu tratamento. Tanto a HTA quanto a HF (seja com fração de ejeção preservada ou reduzida) são patologias altamente vinculadas e prevalentes em todas as comunidades. Os últimos avanços nas pesquisas nos levam a considerar que quanto maior a redução dos valores da pressão arterial, gera-se uma cascata de mecanismos benéficos para o sistema cardiovascular que levam a francos benefícios clínicos. Agora, ¿existem novas terapias que podem orientar o curso desses pacientes ou existem apenas alvos novos e mais rígidos com medicamentos que conhecíamos anteriormente?

9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210231

ABSTRACT

The hypopharyngeal diverticulum of the cervical esophagus, also knows as Zenker's diverticulum, is the most common esophageal diverticulum. It develops at the junction of the hypopharynx and the esophagus. Themost present symptom is dysphagia. Between the period of 01/01/2018 to 31/12/2018, we accessed two patients with esophageal diverticulum.both underwent surgical treatment -diverticulectomy at department of the visceral surgery II of the Military HospitalMohamed V of Rabat.Morocco.The aim of this report is to evaluate the diagnostic methods and the surgical outcomes by comparing them to others technics used in the treatment of the esophageal diverticulum

10.
Caracas; Observatorio Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación; ago. 2020. 57-78 p. ilus.(Observador del Conocimiento. Revista Especializada de Gestión Social del Conocimiento, 5, 3).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1120131

ABSTRACT

El objetivo principal de este trabajo es describir los principales aspectos biológicos, epidemiológicos y clínicos,con especial énfasis en la fisiopatología, ocasionado por el SARS-CoV-2.El Coronavirus 2 del Síndrome Agudo Respiratorio Severo,es un orthocoronavirinae, del grupoI V, pertenecientes al género betacoronavirus,que causa la actual enfermedad pandémica definida por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS)(2020), como COVID-19.Esta es considerada por los expertos mundiales como una infección viral emergente. Su origenes veterinario y su transmisión zoonótica, a partir de virus que tienen como reservorios a murciélagos y como hospedador intermediario al pangolín, desde el cual se infiere que pudo adaptarse al ser humano, para transmitirse de persona a persona,mediante gotitas respiratorias y secreciones nasales contaminadas con partículas altamente infecciosas. No se descarta la transmisión fecal-oral. La enfermedad posee un periodo de incubación de 2 a 14 días (promedio:5,2 días) y hasta ahora las medidas de prevención y control más eficientes son la cuarentena social obligatoria, el uso de tapabocas, lavado de manos con agua y jabón por al menos 20 segundos,o con productos en gel con alcohol al 70%, mantener una distancia mínima entre las personas de 2 metros. Lo aprendido de los otros dos betacoronavirus humanos relacionados, causantes de las epidemias previas: SARS-CoVen 2002-2003 y el MERSen 2012 ,permiten encarar de mejor forma la actual pandemia(AU)


The main objective of this work is to describe the main biological, epidemiological and clinical aspects, with special emphasis on pathophysiology, caused by SARS-CoV-2. Coronavirus 2 of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome is a member of group IV orthocoronavirinae, belonging to the betacoronavirus genus, which causes the current pandemic disease defined by the World Health Organization as COVID-19. This is considered by world experts as an emerging viral infection. Its origin is veterinary and its zoonotic transmission, from viruses that have bats as reservoirs to pangolin an as an intermediate host, from which it is inferred that it could have adapted to the human being, transmitted from person to person by means of respiratory droplets, and highly infectious contaminated nasal secretions Fecal-oral transmission is not ruled out. The disease has an incubation period of 2 to 14 days (5.2 days in mean), and until now the most efficient prevention and control measures are the obligatory social quarantine, the use of face masks, hand washing with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, or with products in gel with 70 alcohol, keeping a minimum distance between people of 2 meters. What has been learned from the other two related human betacoronaviruses that caused the previous epidemics: SARS-CoV in 2002-2003 and MERS in 2012, allow us to better face the current pandemic(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Viruses , Hand Disinfection , Causality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Bodily Secretions , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Pandemics
11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210204

ABSTRACT

Introduction:The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic is a continuing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), result in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). By May 27th, 2020, over 5.61million people have been infected with COVID 19 across the globe in over 200 countries with more than 350,000 deaths. So far more than 2.3million people have recoveredfrom the COVID 19 pandemic.Objective:To review literatures associated withvarious pathophysiology on the body systems identified and published so as to guide effective management of patient with COVID 19. To highlight some pathological dimensions of the systems significantly affected by COVID 19 to identify gaps for the enhancement of further studies Methodology:The LILACS-BIREME, SCIELO, PUBMED, ACADEMIA, SCIENCE DOMAIN databases and some textbooks were accessed for the study. Scientific papers published in English between January and May, 2020 on the pathophysiology of COVID 19 were reviewed. A total of 89 reports published between 1stJanuary 2020 to 29thMay 2020 were identified and reviewed. Sixty-sevenpublications meeting the inclusion criterion on COVID 19 pathophysiology were selected for this review. Finally, an analysis was conducted and the papers were assessed in agreement with the study objectives.Results andDiscussion:The review has discovered different pathophysiological changes on about sevenbody systems namely respiratory, cardiovascular, hematological, nervous, urinary, digestive and reproductive systems.Conclusion:There are a lot of pathophysiological dimensions that have devastating effect on the body systems which may need immediate investigations, treatmentand further studies.

12.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-209704

ABSTRACT

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is an unknown corona virus causing COVID-19 disease responsible for the ongoing pandemic affecting over 190 countries, with a mortality rate of about 5%. The high mortality rate resulted from its ability to elicit cytokine storm via non-specific immune response with delay in specific immune response, notably worst in the elderly, HIV, immunocompromised and cancer diseased patients. The article therefore provides frontline health care workers, the opportunity to understand and equip themselves with management options, public health measures used in coping with COVID-19 infections and enables personnel to make quick preparation for Symptomatic COVID-19 infection in-order to reduce mortalities in health facilities. It also provides a summarised teaching material for medical and allied health students around the world.Methodology: Credible data and information were obtained from the World health organization situation report, Johns Hopkins University Corona Virus resource centre and other notable journal publications. Most information wason public domain.Results: Clinical featuresreported include pneumonia, renal dysfunction, hepatobiliary dysfunction and residual tissue damage, especially in the lungs in those that survive. The literature highlights the blood work-up picture (Leucopenia, increased cytokines IL-6, ferritin, Serum creatinine, urea, AST, GGT, ALT and Viremia) and radiological features of the disease. ELISA and RT-qPCR test are required for diagnosis using sputum, or pharyngeal swab, blood, serum, urine and faecal samples which lead to faeco oral transmission. ELISA/R PCR is also required for disease exclusions in coexisting epidemics such as MERS-CoV, SARS-COV and other viral diseases.Treatment modalities employed thus far are trials that have produce results including targeted therapy, anti-retroviral, Favipiravir, Remdesivir, antibody-serum and antimalaria drugs such as chloroquine and quinine which are found among some protocols in African setting and other developing countries. Currently, ongoing preventive measures (face mask, social distancing and hand hygiene, community testing, isolation of confirmed cases and tracking of the exposed, remain the key corner stone in the management of COVID-19 pandemic.Conclusion:COVID-19 disease still remain unclear to many scientists and its pandemic still ongoing. There are many research and clinical trials ongoing while some drugs are used off in-order to mitigate the damage caused by the virus in Human body. Cytokine storm needs immunomodulators and viral targeted therapy as discussed in-order to reduce tissue damage, and eventually morbidity and mortalities from COVID-19 infections.

13.
J Biosci ; 2020 Jan; : 1-11
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214364

ABSTRACT

Epigenetic mechanisms including the post-translational modifications of histones, incorporation of histonevariants and DNA methylation have been suggested to play an important role in genome plasticity by allowingthe cellular environment to define gene expression and the phenotype of an organism. Studies over the pastdecade have elucidated how these epigenetic mechanisms are significant in orchestrating various biologicalprocesses and contribute to different pathophysiological states. However, the role of histone isoforms and theirimpact on different phenotypes and physiological processes associated with diseases are not fully clear. Thisreview is focussed on the recent advances in our understanding of the complexity of eukaryotic H2A isoformsand their roles in defining nucleosome organization. We elaborate on their potential roles in genomic complexity and regulation of gene expression, and thereby on their overall contribution towards cellular phenotypeand development of diseases

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-203770

ABSTRACT

Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a microbial (usually bacteria) infection affecting the heart tissue orthe adjacent vascular endothelium. The blood-circulating microbes usually need to be available in a certaininoculum to allow invasion and thus infect the heart. Moreover, if the valve annulus is affected, the infection willspread into the extravascular areas. The main causative agents in IE are bacteria; however, other causes such asfungi are still a possibility in many cases. The most common bacteria seen are staphylococci and streptococci,and they collectively account for approximately 80% of cases; while S. Aureus, in particular is the most aggressiveone. Objectives: We aimed to review the literature regarding the pathophysiology of infective endocarditis,clinical features, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of this disease. Methodology: PubMed database wasused for articles selection. Conclusion: Diagnosing of infective endocarditis remains the pivotal step inmanagement of these patients; thus, it had been studied widely for many years. Duke or modified Duke Criteriaremain the most famous tool in diagnostic assessment, and they incorporate information from multiple sourcesinto minor and major criteria which will reflect the probability of the disease in the suspected patients. Themainstay treatment of infective endocarditis is intravenous antibiotics, titred to serum levels, and the choicedepends on the suspected causative organism and the valve involved in IE being native or prosthetic. Infectiveendocarditis prophylaxis is still a major point of difference among clinicians. Some institutions advocate forantibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing any dental procedure; while, others advised against prophylacticantibiotic.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-861706

ABSTRACT

With the decrease of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, the proportion of Hp-negative peptic ulcer tends to increase. Hp-negative peptic ulcer has a high rate of bleeding and ulcer recurrence, with difficulty in diagnosis and treatment. This article reviewed the diagnosis, clinical characteristics and pathophysiology of Hp-negative peptic ulcer.

16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(7): e9646, 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132528

ABSTRACT

Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a clinical syndrome in which patients have symptoms and signs of HF with normal or near-normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≥50%). Roughly half of all patients with HF worldwide have an LVEF ≥50% and nearly half have an LVEF <50%. Thanks to the increased scientific attention about the condition and improved characterization and diagnostic tools, the incidence of HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) dropped while that of HFpEF has increased by 45%. HFpEF has no single guideline for diagnosis or treatment, the patient population is heterogeneously and inconsistently described, and longitudinal studies are lacking. To better understand and overcome the disease, in this review, we updated the latest knowledge of HFpEF pathophysiology, introduced the existing promising diagnostic methods and treatments, and summarized its prognosis by reviewing the most recent cohort studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Prognosis
17.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 667-681, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826772

ABSTRACT

Vasovagal syncope (VVS) and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) are the main forms of orthostatic intolerance in pediatrics and both are underlying causes of neurally-mediated syncope. In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the management of VVS and POTS in children and adolescents. A number of potential mechanisms are involved in their pathophysiology, but the leading cause of symptoms varies among patients. A few studies thus have focused on the individualized treatment of VVS or POTS based on selected hemodynamic parameters or biomarkers that can predict the therapeutic effect of certain therapies and improve their effectiveness. This review summarizes the latest developments in individualized treatment of VVS and POTS in children and indicates directions for further research in this field.

18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190501, 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Non-human primates contribute to the spread of the yellow fever virus (YFV) and the establishment of transmission cycles in endemic areas. OBJECTIVE To describe the severe histopathological aspects of YFV infection, 10 squirrel monkeys were infected with YFV and blood, brain, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lung, lymph node and stomach were collected at 1-7, 10, 20 and 30 days post-infection (dpi). METHODS Histopathological analysis and detection of the genome and viral antigens and neutralising antibodies were performed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and neutralisation test, respectively. FINDINGS Only one animal died from the experimental infection. The genome and viral antigens were detected in all investigated organs (1-30 dpi) and the neutralising antibodies from seven to 30 dpi. The brain contained perivascular haemorrhage (6 dpi); in the liver, midzonal haemorrhage and lytic necrosis (6 dpi) were observed. The kidney had bleeding in the Bowman's capsule and tubular necrosis (6 dpi). Pyknotic lymphocytes were observed in the spleen (1-20 dpi), the lung had haemorrhage (2-6 dpi), in the endocardium it contained nuclear pyknosis and necrosis (2-3 dpi) and the stomach contained blood in the lumen (6 dpi). MAIN FINDINGS Squirrel monkeys reliably reproduced the responses observed in human cases of yellow fever and, therefore, constitute an excellent experimental model for studies on the pathophysiology of the disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Saimiri/virology , Yellow Fever/diagnosis , Yellow fever virus/isolation & purification , Disease Models, Animal
19.
Rev. Salusvita (Online) ; 39(1): 169-187, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140438

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Cárie Dentária é o termo utilizado para caracterizar lesões em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento. Estes processos patológicos ocorrem nas superfícies dos dentes por meses ou até anos. Objetivo: Explorar a fisiopatologia da cárie dentária, para que os cirurgiões-dentistas entendam o processo carioso e possam escolher a melhor terapêutica. Metodologia: O estudo caracterizou-se por um levantamento bibliográfico, utilizando-se de artigos científicos indexados na base de dados PubMED/Medline, publicados no período dos últimos 5 anos. Foram consultados 7.918 trabalhos e, destes, 21 foram selecionados após criteriosa filtragem. Resultados e discussão: As lesões cariosas são resultados de um desequilíbrio fisiológico entre o conteúdo mineral do dente e os fluidos da cavidade oral, em que ­ através de reações metabólicas ­ provocam a queda do pH, contribuindo para a desmineralização. A cárie pode comprometer o esmalte, dentina e/ou cemento, podendo progredir à total destruição do dente. Conclusões: Em virtude disso, a fisiopatologia da cárie dentária é um fenômeno estudado por décadas e cada vez mais se sabe sobre os processos envolvidos. Compreendê-los, portanto, permite aos profissionais da área um embasamento necessário para que se possa escolher o manejo terapêutico mais adequado para cada caso.


Introduction: Dental Caries is the term used to characterize lesions in different stages of development. These pathological processes occur on tooth surfaces for months or even years. Objective: To explore the pathophysiology of dental caries, so that dental surgeons understand the carious process and can choose the best therapy. Methodology: The study was characterized by a bibliographic survey, using scientific articles indexed in the PubMED / Medline database, published in the last 5 years. A total of 7,918 papers were consulted and 21 were selected after careful filtering. Results and discussion: Carious lesions are the result of a physiological imbalance between the mineral content of the tooth and the oral cavity fluids, which - through metabolic reactions - cause the pH to drop, contributing to demineralization. Caries can compromise enamel, dentin and / or cementum and may progress to complete tooth destruction. Conclusions: Because of this, the pathophysiology of dental caries is a phenomenon studied for decades and is increasingly known about the processes involved. Understanding them, therefore, allows professionals in the area to have the necessary background to choose the most appropriate therapeutic management for each case.


Subject(s)
Dental Caries , Preventive Dentistry
20.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(3): e1548, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152623

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Gastrointestinal disorders are frequently reported in patients with Parkinson's disease whose disorders reduce the absorption of nutrients and drugs, worsening the clinical condition of patients. However, the mechanisms involved in modifying gastrointestinal pathophysiology have not yet been fully explained. Aim: To evaluate its effects on gastrointestinal motility and the involvement of the vagal and splanchnic pathways. Methods: Male Wistar rats (250-300 g, n = 84) were used and divided into two groups. Group I (6-OHDA) received an intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (21 µg/animal). Group II (control) received a saline solution (NaCl, 0.9%) under the same conditions. The study of gastric emptying, intestinal transit, gastric compliance and operations (vagotomy and splanchnotomy) were performed 14 days after inducing neurodegeneration. Test meal (phenol red 5% glucose) was used to assess the rate of gastric emptying and intestinal transit. Results: Parkinson's disease delayed gastric emptying and intestinal transit at all time periods studied; however, changes in gastric compliance were not observed. The delay in gastric emptying was reversed by pretreatment with vagotomy and splanchnotomy+celiac gangliectomy, thus suggesting the involvement of such pathways in the observed motor disorders. Conclusion: Parkinson's disease compromises gastric emptying, as well as intestinal transit, but does not alter gastric compliance. The delay in gastric emptying was reversed by truncal vagotomy, splanchnotomy and celiac ganglionectomy, suggesting the involvement of such pathways in delaying gastric emptying.


RESUMO Racional: Distúrbios gastrintestinais são frequentemente relatados em pacientes com doença de Parkinson cujos distúrbios reduzem a absorção de nutrientes e fármacos, agravando o quadro clínico dos pacientes. No entanto, os mecanismos envolvidos na alteração da fisiopatologia gastrintestinal ainda não foram totalmente elucidados. Objetivo: Avaliar os seus efeitos sobre a motilidade gastrintestinal e o envolvimento das vias vagal e esplâncnica. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos (250-300 g, n=84) foram utilizados e divididos em dois grupos. O grupo I (6-OHDA) recebeu injeção intraestriatal de 6-hidroxidopamina (21 µg/animal). O grupo II (controle) recebeu solução salina (NaCl, 0,9%) nas mesmas condições. O estudo do esvaziamento gástrico, trânsito intestinal, complacência gástrica e operações (vagotomia e esplancnotomia) foram realizadas 14 dias após a indução da neurodegeneração. Refeição teste (vermelho de fenol+glicose 5%) foi utilizada para avaliar a taxa de esvaziamento gástrico e o trânsito intestinal. Resultados: A doença de Parkinson retardou o esvaziamento gástrico e o trânsito intestinal em todos os tempos estudados; porém, alterações da complacência gástrica não foram observadas. O retardo do esvaziamento gástrico foi revertido por pré-tratamento com vagotomia e esplancnotomia+gangliectomia celíaca, sugerindo assim, o envolvimento de tais vias nos distúrbios motores observados. Conclusão: A doença de Parkinson compromete o esvaziamento gástrico, bem como o trânsito intestinal, mas não altera a complacência gástrica. O retardo do esvaziamento gástrico foi revertido pela vagotomia troncular, esplancnotomia e gangliectomia celíaca, sugerindo o envolvimento de tais vias no retardo do esvaziamento gástrico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Parkinson Disease , Vagotomy/adverse effects , Gastric Emptying/physiology , Gastrointestinal Motility/physiology , Gastrointestinal Transit/physiology , Rats, Wistar
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