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2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 119(5): 691-702, nov. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403389

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O infarto do miocárdio com elevação do segmento-ST (IAMCSST) é definido por sintomas acompanhados por alterações típicas do eletrocardiograma. Entretanto, a caracterização dos sintomas isquêmicos não é clara, principalmente em subgrupos, como mulheres e idosos. Objetivos Analisar a tipificação dos sintomas isquêmicos, métricas temporais e observar a ocorrência de desfechos intra-hospitalares, em análise dos escores preditivos, em pacientes com IAMCSST, em estratégia fármaco-invasiva. Métodos Estudo envolvendo 2.290 pacientes. Tipos de apresentações clínicas pré-definidas: dor típica, dor atípica, dispnéia, sincope. Medimos o tempo entre o início dos sintomas à demanda pelo atendimento e o intervalo entre a chegada à unidade-médica e trombólise. Odds-ratios (OR; IC-95%) foram estimadas em modelo de regressão. Curvas ROCs foram construídas para preditores de mortalidade. Nível de significância adotado (alfa) foi de 5%. Resultados Mulheres apresentaram alta prevalência de sintomas atípicos; maior tempo entre o início dos sintomas e a procura por atendimento; atraso entre a chegada ao pronto-socorro e a fibrinólise. A mortalidade hospitalar foi de 5,6%. Predição de risco pela classificação Killip-Kimball: AUC: [0,77 (0,73-0,81)] em classe ≥II. Subgrupos estudados [OR (IC-95%)]: mulheres [2,06 (1,42-2,99); p=0,01]; insuficiência renal crônica [3,39 (2,13-5,42); p<0,001]; idosos [2,09 (1,37-3,19) p<0,001]; diabéticos [1,55 (1,04-2,29); p=0,02]; obesos 1,56 [(1,01-2,40); p=0,04]; acidente vascular cerebral prévio [2,01 (1,02-3,96); p=0,04] correlacionaram-se com maiores taxas de mortalidade. Conclusão Apesar das mais altas taxas de mortalidade em alguns subgrupos, disparidade significativa persiste nas mulheres, com atrasos no reconhecimento dos sintomas e trombólise imediata. Destaca-se a aplicabilidade do escore Killip-Kimball na predição, independentemente da apresentação clínica.


Abstract Background ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is defined by symptoms accompanied by typical electrocardiogram changes. However, the characterization of ischemic symptoms is unclear, especially in subgroups such as women and the elderly. Objectives To analyze the typification of ischemic symptoms, temporal metrics and observe the occurrence of in-hospital outcomes, in the analysis of predictive scores, in patients with STEMI, in a drug-invasive strategy. Methods Study involving 2,290 patients. Types of predefined clinical presentations: typical pain, atypical pain, dyspnea, syncope. We measured the time between the onset of symptoms and demand for care and the interval between arrival at the medical unit and thrombolysis. Odds-ratios (OR; CI-95%) were estimated in a regression model. ROC curves were constructed for mortality predictors. The adopted significance level (alpha) was 5%. Results Women had a high prevalence of atypical symptoms; longer time between the onset of symptoms and seeking care; delay between arrival at the emergency room and fibrinolysis. Hospital mortality was 5.6%. Risk prediction by Killip-Kimball classification: AUC: [0.77 (0.73-0.81)] in class ≥II. Subgroups studied [OR (CI-95%)]: women [2.06 (1.42-2.99); p=0.01]; chronic renal failure [3.39 (2.13-5.42); p<0.001]; elderly [2.09 (1.37-3.19) p<0.001]; diabetics [1.55 (1.04-2.29); p=0.02]; obese 1.56 [(1.01-2.40); p=0.04]: previous stroke [2.01 (1.02-3.96); p=0.04] correlated with higher mortality rates. Conclusion Despite higher mortality rates in some subgroups, significant disparity persists in women, with delays in symptom recognition and prompt thrombolysis. We highlight the applicability of the Killip-Kimball score in prediction, regardless of the clinical presentation.

3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 119(3): 393-399, set. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403335

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O escore CHA2DS2-VASc está associado a desfechos clínicos adversos em pacientes com doença cardiovascular. O escore Syntax residual (residual Syntax score — rSS) é uma ferramenta de pontuação que tem valor prognóstico em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMCSST). Objetivos Este estudo objetivou investigar o valor preditivo do escore CHA2DS2-VASc para o rSS em pacientes com IAMCSST. Métodos Foram avaliados 688 pacientes consecutivos com IAMCSST submetidos à intervenção coronária percutânea. Além do escore CHA2DS2-VASc, variáveis demográficas e clínicas de referência foram analisadas. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo 1 - indivíduos com rSS até 8 (509 pacientes); grupo 2 - aqueles com rSS acima de 8 (179 pacientes). Valores p<0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados O escore CHA2DS2-VASc foi maior no grupo 2 [1 (0-2); 1 (1-3), p<0,001] comparado ao grupo 1. A incidência de hipertensão [151 (29,7%); 73 (40,8%), p=0,006], idade ≥75 anos [18 (3,5%); 21 (11,7%), p<0,001], diabetes mellitus [85 (16,7%); 50 (27,9%), p=0,001] e doença vascular [12 (2,4%); 11 (6,1%), p=0,029] foi maior no grupo 2. Na análise de regressão logística multivariada, o escore CHA2DS2-VASc (odds ratio — OR=1,355; intervalo de confiança de 95% — IC95%=1,171-1,568; p<0,001), idade ≥75 anos [OR=3,218; IC95%=1,645-6,295; p=0,001] e diabetes mellitus [OR=1,670; IC95%=1,091-2,557; p=0,018] foram preditores independentes de rSS elevado. A análise da curva receiver-operating characteristic demonstrou o bom valor preditivo do escore CHA2DS2-VASc para rSS elevado com valor de corte de 1,5 (área sob a curva/area under the curve — AUC= 0,611, IC95%=0,562-0,659, p<0,001). Conclusões O escore CHA2DS2-VASc tem valor preditivo para rSS em pacientes com IAMCSST. Além disso, o escore CHA2DS2-VASc foi um preditor independente de rSS mais alto.


Abstract Background The CHA2DS2-VASc score is associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. The residual Syntax score (rSS) is a scoring tool which has prognostic value in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Objectives Our aim in this study is to investigate the predictive value of the CHA2DS2-VASc score on rSS in STEMI patients. Methods A total of 688 consecutive patients with STEMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention were evaluated. Baseline demographic and clinical variables besides the CHA2DS2-VASc score were assessed. The patients were divided into two groups; patients with rSS of 8 or below as group 1 (509 patients) and more than 8 as group 2 (179 patients). A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The CHA2DS2-VASc score was higher in group 2 [1 (0-2); 1 (1-3), p<0.001] compared to group 1. The incidence of hypertension [151 (29.7%); 73 (40.8%), p=0.006], patients ≥75 years [18 (3.5%); 21 (11.7%), p<0.001], diabetes mellitus [85 (16.7%); 50 (27.9%), p=0.001] and vascular disease [12 (2.4%); 11 (6.1%), p=0.029] were higher in group 2. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the CHA2DS2-VASc score (OR=1.355; 95%CI=1.171-1.568; p<0.001), age ≥75 years [OR=3.218; 95%CI=1.645-6.295; p=0.001] and diabetes mellitus [OR=1.670; 95%CI=1.091-2.557; p=0.018] were independent predictors of high rSS. The receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that the CHA2DS2-VASc score had good predictive value for high rSS with a cut-off value of 1.5 (area under curve (AUC): 0.611, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.562-0.659, p<0.001). Conclusions The CHA2DS2-VASc score has a predictive value on rSS in patients with STEMI. The CHA2DS2-VASc score was also an independent predictor of higher rSS.

4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 119(3): 448-457, set. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403336

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A estratificação do risco de morte dos pacientes no contexto da angioplastia primária (ATC) é fundamental. Objetivo Identificar os fatores relacionados ao desfecho morte em pacientes submetidos a ATC. Métodos Estudo de caso-controle, utilizando como fonte de dados um registro brasileiro. A associação entre cada variável e o desfecho óbito foi avaliada via modelo de regressão logística binária. Consideramos significativo p<0,05. Resultados Foram analisados 26.990 registros, sendo 18.834 (69,8%) do sexo masculino, com idade mediana de 61 (17) anos. Na análise multivariada, as principais variáveis relacionadas ao desfecho óbito com seus respectivos odds ratio e intervalos de confiança (IC) com nível de significância de 95% foram a idade avançada 70 - 79 anos (2,46; 1,64 - 3,79) e ≥ 80 anos (3,68; 2,38 - 5,81), p<0,001, classificação de Killip II (2,71; 1,92 - 3,83), Killip III (8,14; 5,67 - 11,64), Killip IV (19,83; 14,85 - 26,69), p<0,001, disfunção global acentuada do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) (3,63; 2,39 - 5,68), p<0,001 e ocorrência de infarto após a intervenção (5,01; 2,57- 9,46), p<0,001. O principal fator protetor foi o fluxo TIMI III pós-intervenção (0,18; 0,13 - 0,24), p<0,001, seguido do TIMI II (0,59; 0,41 - 0,86), p=0,005, sexo masculino (0,79; 0,64 - 0,98), p= 0,032, dislipidemia (0,69; 0,59 - 0,85), p<0,001 e número de lesões tratadas (0,86; 0,9 - 0,94), p<0,001. Conclusão Os preditores de mortalidade nos pacientes submetidos a ATC foram: classificação de Killip, reinfarto, idade, disfunção global acentuada do VE, sexo feminino e fluxo TIMI 0/I pós-intervenção.


Abstract Background Identification of high-risk patients undergoing primary angioplasty (PCI) is essential. Objective Identify factors related to the causes of death in PCI patients. Methods This work consisted of a multicenter case-control study using a Brazilian registry of cardiovascular interventions as the data source. The association between each variable and death was assessed using a binary logistic regression model, p <0.05 was considered significant. Results A total of 26,990 records were analyzed, of which 18,834 (69.8%) were male patients, with a median age of 61 (±17) years. In the multivariate analysis, the main variables related to the causes of death with their respective odds ratios and 95%confidence intervals (CI) were advanced age, 70-79 years (2.46; 1.64-3.79) and ≥ 80 years (3.69; 2.38-5.81), p<0.001; the classification of Killip II (2.71; 1.92-3.83), Killip III (8.14; 5.67-11.64), and Killip IV (19.83; 14.85-26.69), p<0.001; accentuated global dysfunction (3.63; 2,39-5.68), p<0.001; and the occurrence of infarction after intervention (5.01; 2.57-9.46), p<0.001. The main protective factor was the post-intervention thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) III flow (0.18; 0.13-0.24), p<0.001, followed by TIMI II (0.59; 0.41 -0.86), p=0.005, and male (0.79; 0.64-0.98), p = 0.032; dyslipidemia (0.69; 0.59-0.85), p<0.001; and number of lesions treated (0.86; 0.9-0.94), p<0.001. Conclusion The predictors of mortality in patients undergoing PCI were Killip's classification, reinfarction, advanced age, severe left ventricular dysfunction, female gender, and post-intervention TIMI 0 / I flow.

7.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(3): 440-444, jul.-set. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403595

ABSTRACT

Abstract The persistent left superior vena cava is the most common venous anomaly in the systemic drainage in adults and tends to be asymptomatic. The persistent left superior vena cava causes rhythm disorders such as tachyarrhythmias or bradyarrhythmias. We report a case of persistent left superior vena cava diagnosed in a 53-year-old female patient admitted due to an acute coronary syndrome associated with unstable bradycardia. A transvenous peacemaker impressed the left atrium; therefore, a transthoracic echocardiogram was required to diagnose persistent left superior vena cava. The patient needed management with percutaneous intervention; she had an adequate evolution and subsequent discharge from the intensive care unit


Resumen La vena cava superior izquierda persistente es la anomalía venosa más frecuente en el drenaje sistémico en adultos; tiende a ser asintomática, pero causa trastornos del ritmo como taquiarritmias o bradiarritmias. Se presenta un caso de vena cava superior izquierda persistente diagnosticada en una paciente de 53 años hospitalizada por un síndrome coronario agudo asociado a bradicardia inestable. Un marcapasos transvenoso dejó una impresión en la aurícula izquierda, por lo que se requirió un ecocardiograma transtorácico para diagnosticar la vena cava superior izquierda persistente. La paciente necesitó una intervención percutánea con una adecuada evolución y se le dio el alta de la unidad de cuidados intensivos.

8.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 158(4): 225-230, jul.-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404844

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: En las guías actuales europeas para el manejo del infarto de miocardio posterior a la colocación de endoprótesis coronaria (stent), no existe consenso sobre la duración ideal de la terapia antiagregante plaquetaria dual (DAPT, dual antiplatelet therapy) para prevenir la trombosis-reestenosis del stent sin aumentar el riesgo significativo de sangrado. Objetivo: Reportar el porcentaje de sangrado mayor y de eventos cardiovasculares mayores asociados a la DAPT prolongada en pacientes atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Cardiología y tratados con intervención coronaria percutánea primaria y stent. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, prospectivo observacional y descriptivo no experimental. Los pacientes fueron captados de noviembre de 2016 a diciembre de 2017. Resultados: Fueron seleccionados 135 pacientes con una media de edad de 57 ± 10 años, quienes cumplieron un seguimiento clínico por tres años. La obesidad y la hipertensión destacaron como principales factores de riesgo. Posterior al uso de DAPT durante tres años, se registró 3.7 % de mortalidad, 1.48 % de sangrado mayor y 4.4 % de trombosis-reestenosis. Conclusiones: El uso prolongado de DAPT estaría justificado por la alta incidencia de trombosis-reestenosis, sin incremento significativo en el riesgo de sangrado y con disminución de los eventos cardiovasculares mayores.


Abstract Introduction: In current European guidelines for the management of myocardial infarction after coronary stent placement, there is no consensus on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) ideal duration to prevent stent thrombosis-restenosis without significantly increasing the bleeding risk. Objective: To report the percentage of major bleeding and presence of major cardiovascular events associated with prolonged DAPT in patients recruited at the National Institute of Cardiology, treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and stent. Methods: A longitudinal, prospective, observational, non-experimental, descriptive study was carried out. Patients were recruited from November 2016 to December 2017. Results: One-hundred and thirty-five patients with a mean age of 57 ± 10 years who completed the three-year follow-up were selected. Obesity and hypertension stood out as the main risk factors. After using DAPT for three years, 3.7% of mortality, 1.48% of major bleeding, and 4.4% of thrombosis-restenosis were recorded. Conclusions: Prolonged use of DAPT would be justified by the high incidence of thrombosis-restenosis, without a significant increase in bleeding risk, as well as a decrease in major cardiovascular events.

9.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(4): 472-480, Jul.-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394723

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The objective of this study is to explore the impacts of Omaha System-based continuing care on medication compliance, quality of life (QOL), and prognosis of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: A total of 100 CHD patients who were hospitalized and received PCI were selected and divided into the control group and the observation group, 50 patients per group, according to a random number table method. The control group was given routine care, while the observation group was applied Omaha System-based continuing care on the basis of the control group. Results: Follow-up demonstrated that the Morisky-Green score of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.001), indicating that the medication compliance of the observation group was significantly better than that of the control group (P<0.001). The short form-36 (SF-36) scores were notably higher after nursing compared with on admission; SF-36 scores of the observation group were significantly increased than those of the control group (P<0.001). The incidence of major adverse cardiac event (MACE) in the observation group was significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.001). The nursing satisfaction of the observation group was considerably higher than that of the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: Omaha System-based continuing care could improve the medication compliance and QOL, reduce the incidence of MACE, and benefit the prognosis of CHD patients after PCI.

10.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(4): 546-553, Jul.-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394725

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To review the evidence behind the role and relevance of redo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the current practice of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: A comprehensive electronic literature search was performed to identify articles that discuss the practice of PCI and redo CABG in patients that require coronary revascularization. All relevant studies are summarized in narrative manner to reflect current indications and preference. Results: The advancement in utilization of PCI has reduced the rate of redo CABG in patients with previous CABG that requires revascularization of an already treated coronary disease or a new onset of coronary artery stenosis. Redo CABG is associated with satisfactory perioperative outcomes but higher mortality at immediate postoperative period when compared to PCI. Conclusion: Redo CABG patients are less likely to develop comorbidities associated with revascularisation, but the operative mortality is higher and long-term survival rates are similar in comparison to PCI. There is a need for further research into the role of redo CABG in the current advanced practice of PCI.

11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(4): 430-438, Jul.-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394740

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients primarily treated with a no-touch saphenous vein graft with that of patients who received a conventional graft. Methods: The study included all individuals treated with a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on a saphenous vein graft (SVG) between January 2006 and June 2020. The RAND-36 health survey was used to assess HRQoL. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to test differences in HRQoL between the two groups. Effect size was estimated via Cohen's d. The average treatment effect between the groups was tested by propensity score matching (PSM). Results: Of the 346 patients treated with a PCI in a stenosed or occluded SVG, 165 responded to RAND-36 (no-touch: n=48; conventional: n=117). Patients with a no-touch graft reported better mean values on seven of the eight health survey domains. Statistically significant differences were observed for four of the domains, all in favour of the no-touch group. The effect size estimates indicated a small difference for five domains, with the highest values (>0.40) seen for the general health and energy/fatigue domains. PSM confirmed a statistically significant difference for the physical functioning and general health domains. Conclusion: At a mean follow-up of 5.4 years, patients who received a PCI in no-touch vein grafts showed significantly better HRQoL than those who received a PCI in conventional vein grafts.

12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(6): 802-807, June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387160

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: A decrease in the left ventricular ejection fraction (≤40%) in the setting of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is a significant predictor of mortality in the young ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction population. In this study, we aimed to investigate the predictors of left ventricular ejection fraction reduction and evaluate the long-term mortality rates in young ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients with or without decreased left ventricular ejection fraction. METHODS: We enrolled retrospectively 411 consecutive ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients aged 45 years or below who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Young ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients were divided into two groups according to their left ventricular ejection fraction (≤40%, n=72 and >40%, n=339), which were compared with each other. RESULTS: Statin use, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, peak creatine kinase-MB, prolonged ischemia time, left anterior descending artery-related infarction, proximally/ostial located lesion, and no-reflow were independently associated with low left ventricular ejection fraction. Additionally, long-term mortality was considerably higher in the left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% group than those in the left ventricular ejection fraction>40% group (18.1% versus 2.4%; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In young ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients, lesion properties (left anterior descending lesion, proximally located lesion), no-reflow, and prolonged ischemia time appeared to be important determinants for the left ventricular ejection fraction decline, rather than coronary disease severity or demographic and hematological parameters. Statin use may be preventive in the development of left ventricular ejection fraction decline in young ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients.

13.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(1): 105-113, jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397776

ABSTRACT

Antiplatelet therapy and percutaneous coronary intervention are two of the most important interventions in the management of coronary artery disease. In the last 20 years there has been groundbreaking advances in the pharmacotherapy and stent technology. Bleeding is the most feared complication of antiplatelet therapy, mainly due to the increase in major adverse cardiovascular events besides the bleeding itself. Different clinical decision tools have developed with the aim to define which patients have a high ischemic or bleeding risk, thus individualizing treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/trends , Stents , Dual Anti-Platelet Therapy , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Ischemia , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
15.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(2): 200-206, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376527

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Drug-eluting stents (DES) coated with rapamycin or paclitaxel as antiproliferative substances significantly reduced the incidence of clinical restenosis and had fewer side effects after percutaneous coronary intervention. However, DES coated with rapamycin or paclitaxel still cause restenosis due to abnormal tissue growth which remained a therapeutic problem, particularly in certain subgroups, possibly due to drug concentrations. This study examined the impact of different concentrations of rapamycin and paclitaxel on cytokine, cell viability and proliferation in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC)-derived foam cells. Methods: The foam cell model was established in vitro by incubating HASMC with 20 µg/mL oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) for 48 hours. Subsequently, foam cells were treated with different concentrations (0.01 µg/mL, 0.1 µg/mL, 0.5 µg/mL, 1 µg/mL, 5 µg/mL and 10 µg/mL) of rapamycin or paclitaxel for 48 hours, to measure cytokine, cell viability and proliferation by ELISA and MTT, respectively. Finally, viability and proliferation were measured by MTT after the foam cells were treated with 1 µg/mL rapamycin or paclitaxel combined with cytokine antibody for 48 hours. Results: After incubation of HASMC with ox-LDL, the ratios of cholesterol ester and total cholesterol increased significantly (55.29%) (P<0.01). Lipid staining with Oil Red O showed many lipid vacuoles and red dye particles in the cells. Meanwhile, cell viability and proliferation significantly increased compared with the control. This indicated that HASMC had been transformed into foam cells (P<0.01) while rapamycin or paclitaxel concentrations ≥0.1 µg/mL can significantly decrease the foam cell proliferation (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and 1 µg/mL of rapamycin or paclitaxel appeared the most effective concentration. As for cytokines, rapamycin or paclitaxel concentrations ≥1 ug/mL could significantly increase the level of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (P<0.05 or P<0.01), which was enhanced with the increase of drug concentration. However, rapamycin or paclitaxel concentrations ≥1 µg/mL could significantly reduce the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-35 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) (P<0.05 or P<0.01), which decreased with the increase of drug concentration. In addition, rapamycin or paclitaxel combined with anti-IL-1β, anti-IL-6, anti- TNF-α or anti-IL-35 had no significant effect on foam cell proliferation compared to the drug alone. However, rapamycin or paclitaxel combined with anti-IL-10 or anti-TGF-β can significantly enhance foam cell proliferation (P<0.01). In addition, there was no difference in the effects of the same concentrations of rapamycin and paclitaxel on foam cells. Conclusion: Although rapamycin or paclitaxel can reduce foam cell proliferation, too high or too low concentrations could decrease effectiveness. In particular, a high dose can induce foam cells to increase inflammatory cytokines secretion, reduce anti-inflammatory cytokines secretion, and thus affect the inhibiting proliferation. For rapamycin- and paclitaxel-eluting stents, this conclusion may explain the clinical observation of in-stent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. DES coated with an appropriate concentration of rapamycin or paclitaxel may, at least to some extent, contribute significantly to reducing incidence of late in-stent restenosis.

16.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 29(2): 185-198, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376877

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Realizar un metaanálisis de la frecuencia de hiperreactividad plaquetaria (HPR) para aspirina y clopidogrel con diferentes agregómetros, en pacientes con diabetes mellitus (DM) e hipertensión (HTA) sometidos a intervención coronaria percutánea (ICP). Método: Revisión sistemática con metaanálisis a partir de 40 búsquedas en tres bases de datos multidisciplinarias (PubMed, ScienceDirect y SciELO), siguiendo las fases de la guía PRISMA entre los años 2005 y 2021. Se garantizaron la reproducibilidad y la calidad metodológica por parte de dos investigadores que usaron la guía STROBE. Los análisis se basaron en frecuencias y metaanálisis de razón de disparidad, para lo cual se empleó el software Epidat con un intervalo de confianza del 95%. Resultados: Se incluyeron 22 estudios. La frecuencia de hiperreactividad plaquetaria para la aspirina fue desde el 18.8% hasta el 81.8% y para el clopidogrel desde el 18.2% hasta el 71.3%, lo que denota una importante heterogeneidad. Se observó que la frecuencia de hiperreactividad plaquetaria en pacientes diabéticos varió del 21% al 78.7%, mientras que en los pacientes hipertensos fue del 17.6% al 76.8%, y finalmente, la hiperreactividad plaquetaria fue 1,38 veces mayor en los pacientes diabéticos que en aquellos que no lo eran y 1,23 veces mayor en los pacientes hipertensos que en aquellos que no lo eran. Conclusiones: La diabetes mellitus y la hipertensión arterial, como enfermedades de base en pacientes sometidos a intervención coronaria percutánea, están asociadas a hiperreactividad plaquetaria, y esta, a su vez, como demostraron estudios previos, al desarrollo de eventos vasculares a largo plazo. De ahí que una valoración posterior al procedimiento con pruebas de agregometría plaquetaria resultaría potencialmente útil en el marco de la terapia personalizada.


Abstract Objective: To perform a metaanalyze of the frequency of platelet hyperreactivity for aspirin and clopidogrel with different aggregometers, in patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Method: Systematic review with metaanalysis using 40 searches in three multidisciplinary databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect and SciELO), following the phases of the PRISMA guide between the years 2005 and 2021. Reproducibility and methodological quality were guaranteed by two researchers using the STROBE guide. The analyzes were based on frequencies and odds ratio metaanalysis, using Epidat software with a 95% confidence interval. Results: 22 studies were included, the frequency of platelet hyperreactivity was from 18.8% to 81.8% in the case of aspirin, and in the case of clopidogrel from 18.2% to 71.3%, which denotes an important heterogeneity. It was observed that the frequency of platelet hyperreactivity in diabetic patients ranged from 21% to 78.7% and in hypertensive patients from 17.6% to 76.8%, and finally it was observed that the platelet hyperreactivity was 1.38 times higher in diabetic patients than in those who were not and 1.23 times higher in hypertensive patients than in those who were not. Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus and hypertension as underlying pathologies in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention are associated with the presence of platelet hyperreactivity, and this in turn -as shown by previous studies-, with the development of long-term vascular events, therefore a subsequent assessment. The procedure with platelet aggregometry tests would be potentially useful in the context of personalized therapy.

18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 119(1): 25-34, abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383723

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: O desconhecimento do paciente sobre o infarto agudo do miocárdio, suas complicações e os benefícios da revascularização precoce é um ponto crucial na determinação dos desfechos. Além disso, a relação entre fatores socioeconômicos e apresentação do paciente à intervenção coronária percutânea primária (ICPP) não foi totalmente estudada. Objetivos: Nosso objetivo foi investigar se o desconhecimento do paciente e outros fatores socioeconômicos impactam na apresentação do paciente à ICPP. Métodos: O estudo compreendeu 570 pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMCSST) revascularizados por ICPP. Os pacientes foram classificados em dois grupos de acordo com o tempo total de isquemia (tempo desde o início dos sintomas do IAMCSST até a dilatação com balão); grupo I: Pacientes com apresentação precoce (1-12 horas). Grupo II: Pacientes com apresentação tardia (>12-24 horas). Fatores socioeconômicos, desfechos clínicos incluindo mortalidade e eventos cardíacos adversos maiores (ECAM) foram avaliados em cada grupo. O valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significante. Resultados: Existem diferentes fatores socioeconômicos que afetam a apresentação do paciente à ICPP. A análise de regressão multivariada identificou os preditores socioeconômicos independentes da seguinte forma: baixa escolaridade - OR 4,357 (IC95% 1,087-17,47, p=0,038), isolamento social - OR 4,390 (IC95% 1,158-16,64, p=0,030) e desconhecimento sobre os benefícios da revascularização precoce - OR 4,396 (IC95% 1,652-11,69, p =0,003). A mortalidade e ECAM foram mais altas no grupo II. Conclusão: O desconhecimento do paciente e o baixo nível socioeconômico foram associados à apresentação tardia para a ICPP, com desfechos mais adversos.


Abstract Background: Patient unawareness about acute myocardial infarction, its complications and the benefits of early revascularization is a crucial point that determines the outcomes. Moreover, the relationship between socioeconomic factors and patient presentation to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) has not been fully studied. Objectives: Our objective was to investigate whether or not patient unawareness and other socioeconomic factors impact patient presentation to PPCI. Methods: The study comprised 570 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) revascularized by PPCI. The patients were classified into two groups according to the total ischemia time (the time from STEMI symptom onset to balloon dilatation); group I: Patients with early presentation (1-12 hours). Group II: Patients with late presentation (>12-24 hours). Socioeconomic factors, clinical outcomes including mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were evaluated in each group. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There are different socioeconomic factors affecting patient presentation to PPCI. Multivariate regression analysis identified the independent socioeconomic predictors as following: low educational level - OR 4.357 (CI95% 1.087-17.47, p=0.038), social isolation - OR 4.390 (CI95% 1.158-16.64, p=0.030) and unawareness about the benefits of early revascularization - OR 4.396 (CI95% 1.652-11.69, p=0.003). Mortality and MACE were higher in group II. Conclusion: Patient unawareness and low socioeconomic status were associated with late presentation to PPCI with more adverse outcomes.

19.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386332

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La disfunción del nódulo sinusal (DNS) es generalmente secundaria a la senescencia del nodo sinusal y del miocardio auricular circundante. Estamos presentando un paciente de 59 años de edad, hipertenso sin tratamiento y con antecedente de síncope en dos oportunidades en los últimos 4 meses. Ingresa debido a un flutter auricular con conducción auriculoventricular 1:1 con una frecuencia cardiaca de 280 lat/min que cede con goteo de amiodarona. Un Holter de 24 horas demostró un ritmo sinusal predominante, episodios paroxísticos de fibrilación auricular con respuesta ventricular alta, bradicardia sinusal de 47 lat/min. Se realizó el diagnóstico de disfunción del nódulo sinusal, Rubenstein tipo III (Síndrome Bradicardia-Taquicardia). Una coronariografía constató una estenosis del 80% en segmento proximal de la arteria coronaria derecha con componente espástico. La arteria del nódulo sinusal emerge del segmento proximal de la coronaria derecha. Se realizó una angioplastia exitosa con stent medicado. Otro estudio Holter de 24 horas de control pos-angioplastia registró nuevamente episodios paroxísticos de fibrilación auricular con respuesta ventricular alta y episodios de pausas de hasta 3.100 milisegundos por lo que se implantó un marcapasos bicameral. A pesar del restablecimiento de un flujo sanguíneo adecuado a la arteria del nódulo sinusal con la angioplastia de la coronaria derecha no se obtuvo una mejoría de la disfunción del nódulo sinusal.


ABSTRACT Sinus node dysfunction (SND) is generally secondary to senescence of the sinus node and the surrounding atrial myocardium. We are presenting a 59-year-old patient, hypertensive without treatment and with a history of syncope on two occasions in the last 4 months. He was admitted due to a 1: 1 atrioventricular conduction atrial flutter with a heart rate of 280 beats/min that subsides with an amiodarone drip. A 24-hour Holter monitor showed predominant sinus rhythm, paroxysmal episodes of atrial fibrillation with high ventricular response, sinus bradycardia of 47 beats/min. The diagnosis of sinus node dysfunction, Rubenstein type III (Bradycardia-Tachycardia Syndrome) was made. A coronary angiography confirmed an 80% stenosis in the proximal segment of the right coronary artery with a spastic component. The sinus node artery emerges from the proximal segment of the right coronary artery. A successful angioplasty was performed with a medicated stent. Another 24-hour Holter study of post-angioplasty control again recorded paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with high ventricular response episodes and pause episodes of up to 3,100 milliseconds, for which a dual-chamber pacemaker was implanted. Despite the restoration of adequate blood flow to the sinus node artery with right coronary angioplasty, no improvement in sinus node dysfunction was obtained.

20.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(1): 135-138, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365541

ABSTRACT

Abstract The modality of repeat revascularization due to late graft failure is a debated topic. The latest available European guidelines recommend redo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for cases of extensively diseased and/or occluded grafts and those with diffuse native vessel disease. We present the case of a patient being relieved of recurrent unstable angina pectoris with redo CABG using no-touch saphenous vein grafts after repeated and unsuccessful attempts with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This could be an alternative to PCI in patients with a complex medical history. Teamwork between cardiologists and surgeons is pivotal in deciding the best treatment modality.

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