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1.
Rev. argent. cir ; 116(1): 24-31, mar. 2024. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559262

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Antecedentes: los colgajos perforantes perimamarios son de gran utilidad en la reconstrucción mamaria inmediata en cirugía conservadora. Objetivo: describir los resultados del empleo de un algoritmo sobre colgajos perforantes perimamarios en la reconstrucción mamaria inmediata después de cirugía conservadora por cáncer de mama. Material y métodos: se llevó a cabo un estudio retrospectivo descriptivo. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de las pacientes operadas entre enero de 2020 y diciembre de 2022 por carcinoma de mama con cirugía conservadora y que requirieron reconstrucción con colgajos perimamarios. Las indicaciones incluyeron déficit de volumen, defecto de contorno y asimetría. Se evaluó el pedículo vascular del colgajo mediante Doppler color en todos los casos, lo que permitió seguir un algoritmo para la selección de la mejor opción de colgajo. Resultados: se realizaron 20 colgajos en 19 pacientes. Promedio de edad: 52 años ± 11 (rango 30-76). No existieron complicaciones intraoperatorias. Una paciente requirió reoperación por compresión del pedículo vascular del colgajo por hematoma, con la pérdida parcial, y otro colgajo sufrió epidermólisis superficial. No hubo pérdidas totales de ningún colgajo. Todas recibieron radioterapia posoperatoria y no experimentaron pérdida de volumen ni retracciones. Con un promedio de seguimiento de 15 meses, las pacientes valoraron los resultados a 6 meses como excelente en 7, bueno en 11 y regular en 2. Conclusión: la selección de colgajos perforantes locales para corregir defectos mamarios después de cirugía conservadora, mediante el examen con Doppler color preoperatorio para la identificación del pedículo vascular y un algoritmo específico, permitió obtener resultados estéticos satisfactorios sin requerir elementos aloplásticos ni revisiones posteriores.


ABSTRACT Background: Chest wall perforator flaps are a good option for immediate breast reconstruction after conservative surgery. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical results of an algorithm for using chest wall perforator flaps for breast reconstruction after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer. Material and methods: We conducted a descriptive and retrospective study. The information was retrieved from the medical records of the patients diagnosed with breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery and required reconstruction using chest wall perforator flaps between January 2020 and March 2022. The indications included volume deficit, contour defect and asymmetry. The vascular pedicle of the flap was evaluated by color Doppler ultrasound in all cases, which allowed us to follow an algorithm for selecting the best flap option. Results: Twenty flaps were made in 19 patients. Mean age: 52 years ± 11 (range 30-76). There were no intraoperative complications. One patient required reoperation due to a hematoma with compression of the vascular pedicle of the flap with partial flap loss, and another flap presented superficial epidermolysis. There were no cases of complete flap loss. All the patients underwent postoperative radiation therapy without loss of volume or retractions. Mean follow-up was 15 months. At 6 months, patients rated the results as excellent, good, and fair in 7, 11, and 2 cases, respectively. Conclusion: The selection of local perforator flaps to correct breast defects after conservative surgery, using preoperative color Doppler ultrasound to identify the vascular pedicle and a specific algorithm, allowed us to obtain satisfactory aesthetic results without the need for alloplastic elements or subsequent revisions.

2.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 38(4): 1-5, out.dez.2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1525491

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A reconstrução oncológica de defeitos extensos em cabeça e pescoço impõe ao cirurgião plástico a difícil decisão entre o uso de retalhos livres e retalhos pediculados. O retalho supraclavicular é um dos principais exemplos de retalho pediculado, sendo versátil, com espessura delgada e cor semelhante à região a ser reconstruída. Método: Um estudo retrospectivo foi realizado através da coleta de dados de prontuário de pacientes internados no Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo, entre dezembro de 2010 e março de 2020. Resultados: Dentre os 62 pacientes reconstruídos com retalho supraclavicular, 37 eram do sexo masculino e 25 do sexo feminino. Cinquenta e oito pacientes (93,5%) possuíam alguma comorbidade associada. Ao todo, 27 complicações relacionadas ao retalho (43,5%) foram registradas, sendo 5 necroses totais (8%). Conclusão: O retalho supraclavicular possui importante papel nas reconstruções oncológicas de cabeça e pescoço e deve ser considerado como opção em pacientes maus candidatos a retalhos microcirúrgicos.


Introduction: The oncological reconstruction of extensive defects in the head and neck requires the plastic surgeon to make a difficult decision between the use of free flaps and pedicled flaps. The supraclavicular flap is one of the main examples of a pedicled flap, being versatile, with a thin thickness and similar color to the region to be reconstructed. Method: A retrospective study was carried out by collecting data from medical records of patients admitted to the Cancer Institute of the State of São Paulo between December 2010 and March 2020. Results: Among the 62 patients reconstructed with a supraclavicular flap, 37 were male and 25 female. Fifty-eight patients (93.5%) had some associated comorbidity. In total, 27 complications related to the flap (43.5%) were recorded, 5 of which were total necrosis (8%). Conclusion: The supraclavicular flap plays an important role in head and neck oncological reconstructions and should be considered as an option in patients who are poor candidates for microsurgical flaps.

3.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 38(3): 1-5, jul.set.2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1525374

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A hidradenite supurativa (HS) é uma doença inflamatória crônica que afeta preferencialmente a pele intertriginosa e está associada a numerosas comorbidades sistêmicas. A área perineal é a segunda área mais comumente afetada depois da axila. A excisão ampla é o tratamento que tem maior probabilidade de atingir melhores resultados com menor risco de recorrência. Com a excisão cirúrgica extensa, o fechamento com retalho oferece maior probabilidade de tratamento definitivo. Alguns retalhos são descritos para reconstruir defeitos da região perineal após câncer, porém poucos deles são estudados no tratamento da HS. Relato de Caso: Mulher de 43 anos, com HS perineal, submetida a ressecção das lesões e reconstrução com retalho fasciocutâneo medial da coxa em V-Y bilateral como tratamento da doença. O retalho permitiu o fechamento completo do períneo total sem complicações graves. Conclusão: Este caso mostra que é útil e prático utilizar o retalho fasciocutâneo medial da coxa em V-Y para reconstrução perineal após ressecções amplas de pele, glândulas apócrinas e folículos pilosos no tratamento da HS, oferecendo boa cobertura de pele, e tecido celular subcutâneo com suprimento vascular confiável, que evita sequelas associadas a sacrifício de músculos e alcança dimensões maiores do que outros retalhos, podendo ser considerado em casos selecionados como uma alternativa no tratamento cirúrgico da HS perineal.


Introduction: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that preferentially affects the intertriginous skin and is associated with numerous systemic comorbidities. The perineal area is the second most commonly affected area after the armpit. Wide excision is the treatment most likely to achieve better results with a lower risk of recurrence. With extensive surgical excision, flap closure offers a greater likelihood of definitive treatment. Some flaps have been described to reconstruct defects in the perineal region after cancer, but few have been studied in treating HS. Case Report: A 43-year-old woman with perineal HS underwent resection of the lesions and reconstruction with a bilateral V-Y medial thigh fasciocutaneous flap to treat the disease. The flap allowed complete closure of the total perineum without serious complications. Conclusion: This case shows that it is useful and practical to use the V-Y medial thigh fasciocutaneous flap for perineal reconstruction after wide resections of skin, apocrine glands, and hair follicles in the treatment of HS, offering good skin coverage and subcutaneous cellular tissue with supply reliable vascular flap, which avoids sequelae associated with muscle sacrifice and reaches larger dimensions than other flaps, and can be considered in selected cases as an alternative in the surgical treatment of perineal HS.

4.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 38(2): 1-4, abr.jun.2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1443469

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Fournier's gangrene is characterized by tissue necrosis, which requires treatment employing debridement and antibiotics with wounds of varying sizes. The objective is to standardize the surgical techniques of reconstructions with flaps used to treat wounds after Fournier's gangrene. Method: A study was conducted by searching the PubMed/Medline, SciELO, and LILACS databases. Results: In wounds with skin loss of 25% to 50%, a local advancement cutaneous flap or a pudendal flap from the thigh was used; in wounds, greater than 50%, a superomedial thigh flap or myocutaneous flap from the gracilis muscle was used, with the aim of to enable proper reconstruction. Conclusion: Advancement and pudendal thigh flaps were used for wounds with up to 50% loss of scrotal skin substance, while the myocutaneous gracilis flap and supero-medial flap of the thigh were indicated for wounds with more than 50% of the total scrotal surface affected, after Fournier gangrene.


Introdução: Gangrena de Fournier é caracterizada por necrose tecidual, que necessita de tratamento por meio de desbridamento e antibióticos, com feridas de dimensões variadas. O objetivo é padronizar as técnicas cirúrgicas de reconstruções com retalhos utilizadas no tratamento das feridas após gangrena de Fournier. Método: Realizou-se estudo por meio da busca nas bases de dados PubMed/Medline, SciELO e LILACS. Resultados: Nas feridas com perdas cutâneas de 25% a 50%, foram utilizados retalho cutâneo local de avanço ou retalho pudendo da coxa, nas maiores de 50% foram necessárias as confecções do retalho superomedial da coxa ou retalho miocutâneo do músculo grácil, com intuito de possibilitar a reconstrução adequada. Conclusão: Os retalhos de avanço e pudendo da coxa foram utilizados para feridas com perda de substância cutânea escrotal de até 50%, enquanto os retalhos miocutâneo de músculo grácil e superomedial da coxa foram indicados para as feridas com mais de 50% da superfície escrotal total acometida, após gangrena de Fournier.

5.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 714-718, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009123

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore clinical effects of repairing skin and soft tissue defect of finger with free posterior interosseous artery perforator flap.@*METHODS@#Totally 8 patients with finger skin and soft tissue defect repaired with free posterior interosseous artery perforator flap were treated from May 2021 to November 2022, including 7 males and 1 female aged from 24 to 54 years old, and soft tissue defect area ranged from 3.0 cm×1.5 cm to 5.0 cm×3.0 cm. The time from injury to flap repair ranged from 3 to 83 h. The free posterior interosseous artery perforator flap was applied to repair finger defect, the area of the flap ranged from 3.5 cm×2.0 cm to 5.2 cm×3.5 cm, the donor area of flap was sutured directly. The survival, appearance, texture and donor complications of the flap were observed after operation, and Dargan functional standard was used to evaluate clinical effect of finger function.@*RESULTS@#All flap of 8 patients were survived, and followed up from 3 to 12 months. There was no obvious swelling, soft texture, obvious pigmentation, linear intaglio in donor area only, and without obvious complications were found. Among them, 3 patients'skin flaps were repaired for the defect of palm of the fingers, and sensory recovery was good, two-point discrimination ranged from 5 to 9 mm. According to Dargan functional evaluation, 3 patients excellent, and 5 good.@*CONCLUSION@#Free posterior interosseous artery perforation branch flap could be used to repair the defect of finger. The thickness of flap is moderate, operation is convenient, appearance and texture of the operative flap are good, and the donor site is small without obvious complications, and obtain satisfactory clinical effect.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Perforator Flap , Fingers , Upper Extremity , Ulnar Artery , Skin
6.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 701-707, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009121

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore method and clinical effect of microsurgical thinned anterolateral thigh perforator flap to repair soft tissue defects of foot and ankle.@*METHODS@#From March 2017 to January 2022, totally 20 patients with soft tissue defects of ankle joint were treated with micro-thinning anterolateral perforator flap for free transplantation, included 13 males and 7 females, aged from 22 to 58 years old with an average of (36.45±12.36) years old. The size of flap ranged from 8.0 cm×5.0 cm to 20.0 cm×12.0 cm. Before operation, perforating vessels on the anterolateral thigh region were detected and marked with a portable Doppler detector. For the defect width less than 8 cm, 11 patients were repaired with a single flap. For the defect width more than 8 cm, the wound could not be sutured directly, and the lobulated flap technique was used in 9 patients, the width was converted to length, and the donor site was closed directly. Under the microscope, all flaps were thinened in a stepwise manner from the center of the pedicle to the periphery. After operation, survival of the flap, the shape, texture, sensory function recovery were observes, and recovery of foot function was evaluated by Maryland foot function evaluation standard.@*RESULTS@#All 20 patients with microsurgical thinned anterolateral thigh perforator flaps were survived. Venous crisis occurred in 1 patient due to subcutaneous hematoma, after removal of the hematoma, the crisis was relieved and the flap survived successfully. The wounds in the donor and recipient sites healed well, and only linear scars left in the donor sites. Twenty patients were followed up for 3 to 26 months after operation, good shape of flaps without bloated, and good texture. The two-point discrimination of free flaps ranged from 9.0 to 16.0 mm, and the protective sensation was restored. The ankle flexion and extension function recovered well and patients could walk normally. According to Maryland foot function evaluation standard, 8 patients got excellent result, 10 patients good and 2 middle.@*CONCLUSION@#Microsurgical thinned anterolateral thigh perforator flap is an ideal method to repair soft tissue defects in functional area of foot and ankle, with good appearance and texture of the flap, no need for re-plastic surgery, reduced hospitalization costs, and less donor site damage.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Ankle/surgery , Thigh/surgery , Ankle Joint , Perforator Flap , Hematoma
7.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1138-1141, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009036

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effectiveness of dorsal perforator flap of cross-finger proper digital artery in the treatment of finger soft tissue defect caused by high-pressure injection injury.@*METHODS@#Between July 2011 and June 2020, 14 cases of finger soft tissue defect caused by high-pressure injection injury were repaired with dorsal perforator flap of cross-finger proper digital artery. All patients were male, with a mean age of 36 years (range, 22-56 years). The defects were located on the index finger in 8 cases, middle finger in 4 cases, and ring finger in 2 cases. The causes of injury include 8 cases of emulsion paint injection, 4 cases of oil paint injection, and 2 cases of cement injection. The time from injury to debridement was 2-8 hours, with a mean time of 4.5 hours. The soft tissue defects sized from 4.0 cm×1.2 cm to 6.0 cm×2.0 cm. The flaps sized from 4.5 cm×1.5 cm to 6.5 cm×2.5 cm. The donor site of the flap was repaired with skin graft. The pedicle was cut off at 3 weeks after operation, and followed by functional exercise.@*RESULTS@#All flaps and skin grafts at donor sites survived, and the wounds healed by first intention. Twelve patients were followed-up 16-38 months (mean, 22.6 months). The texture and appearance of all flaps were satisfactory. The color and texture of the flaps were similar to those of the surrounding tissues. The two-point discrimination of the flap was 10-12 mm, with a mean of 11.5 mm. There were different degrees of cold intolerance at the end of the affected fingers. At last follow-up, the finger function was evaluated according to the Upper Extremity Functional Evaluation Standard set up by Hand Surgery Branch of Chinese Medical Association, 3 cases were excellent, 8 cases were good, and 1 case was poor.@*CONCLUSION@#The dorsal perforator flap of cross-finger proper digital artery can effectively repair finger soft tissue defect caused by high-pressure injection injury. The operation was simple, and the appearance and function of the finger recover well.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Perforator Flap , Upper Extremity , Fingers/surgery , Ulnar Artery , Skin Transplantation
8.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 601-604, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981639

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effectiveness of folded transverse superficial epigastric artery perforator flap in repairing the large penetrating defect after buccal carcinoma resection.@*METHODS@#Between January 2019 and June 2021, 12 patients with buccal squamous cell carcinoma were treated. There were 6 males and 6 females with an average of 66.9 years (range, 53-79 years). The pathological stage was T3a-T4b, and the preoperative mouth opening was (3.08±0.46) cm. The disease duration ranged from 6 to 24 months, with an average of 15 months. After buccal carcinoma radical resection and neck lymph node dissection, the penetrating defects in size of 8 cm×6 cm to 16 cm×8 cm and in depth of 0.5-1.5 cm were remained. The transverse superficial epigastric artery perforator flap in size of 8 cm×6 cm to 14 cm×8 cm were harvested and folded to repair the penetrating defects. The donor site was sutured directly.@*RESULTS@#All 12 skin flaps survived after operation, and the wounds healed by first intention. No internal or external fistula complications occurred. All incisions at the recipient site healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 12-18 months (mean, 14 months). There was no obvious abnormality in the color and texture of the flap, the oral and facial appearances were symmetrical, and there was no obvious swelling in the cheek. At last follow-up, the patient's mouth opening was (2.89±0.33) cm, which was not significantly different from that before operation ( t=1.879, P=0.087). The subjective satisfaction scores of 12 patients were 6-8 points, with an average of 7.3 points. Significant scars remained at the donor site but concealed in location.@*CONCLUSION@#The folded transverse superficial epigastric artery perforator flap can be used as a surgical method for repairing large penetrating defects after the buccal carcinoma resection, with a good recovery of facial appearance and oral function.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Perforator Flap/blood supply , Skin Transplantation/methods , Epigastric Arteries/surgery , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Treatment Outcome
9.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 469-472, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981617

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the effectiveness of the temporal island flap pedicled with the perforating branch of zygomatic orbital artery for repairing defects after periocular malignant tumor resection.@*METHODS@#Between January 2015 and December 2020, 15 patients with periocular malignant tumors were treated. There were 5 males and 10 females with an average age of 62 years (range, 40-75 years). There were 12 cases of basal cell carcinoma and 3 cases of squamous carcinoma. The disease duration ranged from 5 months to 10 years (median, 2 years). The size of tumors ranged from 1.0 cm×0.8 cm to 2.5 cm×1.5 cm, without tarsal plate invasion. After extensive resection of the tumors, the left defects in size of 2.0 cm×1.5 cm to 3.5 cm×2.0 cm were repaired with the temporal island flap pedicled with the perforating branch of zygomatic orbital artery via subcutaneous tunnel. The size of the flaps ranged from 3.0 cm×1.5 cm to 5.0 cm×2.0 cm. The donor sites were separated subcutaneously and sutured directly.@*RESULTS@#All flaps survived after operation and the wounds healed by first intention. The incisions at donor sites healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 6-24 months (median, 11 months). The flaps were not obviously bloated, the texture and color were basically the same as the surrounding normal skin, and the scars at recipient sites were not obviously. There was no complication such as ptosis, ectropion, or incomplete closure of the eyelids and recurrence of tumor during follow-up.@*CONCLUSION@#The temporal island flap pedicled with the perforating branch of zygomatic orbital artery can repair the defects after periorbital malignant tumors resection and has the advantages of reliable blood supply, flexible design, and good morphology and function.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Skin Transplantation , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Surgical Flaps , Arteries/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Perforator Flap/blood supply
10.
Chinese Journal of Medical Aesthetics and Cosmetology ; (6): 85-89, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995905

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical experience of different types of femoral perforator flaps in the reconstruction of oral and maxillofacial head and neck defects.Methods:From January 2018 to January 2021, 573 patients with oral and maxillofacial head and neck defects reconstructed by femoral perforator flap were collected in the Department of Maxillofacial Oncology, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Military Medical University (age range of 21-76 years, with a male to female ratio of 1.23∶1). According to the type of perforator flap, the patients were divided into ALT group, AMT group, TFL flap group and free muscle flap group. The incidence of postoperative complications, wound healing time and drainage volume in femoral area were compared among the 4 groups.Results:The ALT flap was used in 527 cases: 22 flaps had vascular crisis, 14 flaps had infection, 8 flaps had necrosis, 519 flaps survived; the mean healing time of the wound was (14.50±3.19) days, and the mean drainage volume was (49.9±21.3) ml. 28 cases were repaired with AMT flap: 2 flaps had vascular crisis and 1 had infection. All the flaps survived; the mean healing time of the wound was (14.18±2.75) days, and the mean drainage volume was (50.3±23.0) ml. 11 cases were repaired by TFL flap: 1 flap had vascular crisis and 1 had infection. All the flaps survived. The mean healing time of the wound was (14.09±2.66) days, and the mean drainage volume was (54.1±25.0) ml. 7 cases were repaired by free muscle flap survived without vascular crisis, infection and other postoperative complications; the mean healing time of the wound was 14.14±1.86, and the mean postoperative drainage volume was (49.9±21.1) ml. There was no significant difference in complication rate (flap necrosis, vascular crisis, infection, etc.) and repair effect among 573 patients with different flap types. The postoperative follow-up was conducted for 6-24 months, and the donor area was smooth and good in appearance, without obvious scar or functional influence. The repair effect of the affected area was satisfactory.Conclusions:Although there is a certain proportion of perforator vessel variation in the femoral perforator flap, the flap can be designed freely according to different types of variation. The thigh perforator flap has an essential application value in the repair of oral and maxillofacial head and neck defects.

11.
Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 291-296, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995505

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical effect of a 3D reconstruction assisted preoperative optimal design of anterolateral abdomen cross-region free perforator flaps for repair of soft tissue defects of limbs.Methods:Twenty patients who were treated for soft tissue defects of hand, forearm, foot and ankle in the Department of Hand Surgery, the Sixth Hospital of Ningbo from October 2017 to January 2020 were included in this study. Among the patients,17 had soft tissue defects in hand and forearm and 3 with composite tissue defects including ankle and soft tissue defect of foot. The sizes of soft tissue defects in limbs ranged from 6 cm × 8 cm - 36 cm × 18 cm. Twenty free cross-area perforator flaps were optimal designed with CTA and 3D assisted reconstruction before surgery. Following combinations of flaps were designed: (1) Free perforator flap with inferior abdominal artery and superior abdominal artery; (2) Free perforator flap with superficial iliac circumflex artery and deep iliac circumflex artery; (3) Free perforator flap with superficial iliac circumflex artery and inferior abdominal wall perforator artery; (4) Free perforator flap with perforators of superficial iliac circumflex artery plus superficial abdominal artery; (5) Free perforator flap with perforating artery of lower abdominal wall and superficial artery of abdominal wall. The overall nutritional area of a combined flap were 272.3 cm 2± 12.5 cm 2, 107.4 cm 2± 9.3 cm 2, 193.6 cm 2± 24.2 cm 2, 155.2 cm 2± 20.1 cm 2 and 203.7 cm 2± 16.3 cm 2, respectively. All the donor sites were sutured directly in one stage. The appearance, texture, blood supply, colour, joint movement of affected limbs, recovery and function of donor sites were observed through postoperative follow-up visits at the outpatient clinic. Results:Among the 20 anterolateral transventral perforator flaps, 18 flaps survived successfully; One had partial necrosis after surgery, and healed after dressing change. Subcutaneous haematoma occurred in 1 flap, and survived after drainage. In this study, there was no postoperative infection of flap. A total of 19 flaps healed in one stage, except 1 that had a delayed healing and the flap wound was closed after dressing change for 1 week. According to Disability of Arm, Shouder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire evaluation, which is widely used in the world to evaluate the therapeutic effect after limb injury, combined with the 6-12 months of follow-up, the functional recovery of 17 patients with upper limbs iniury was 7 in excellent, 9 in good and 1 in poor. The overall excellent and good rate achieved 94.1%. All the 3 patients with foot injury recovered well, and the walking and jumping were not significantly affected. The results were all excellent according to the Maryland Foot Function Scoring. Sensation of flaps was evaluated according to the British Sensory Function Evaluation, it showed: 3 in S 2, 15 in S 3 and 2 in S 3+. All 20 flaps had good blood supply, in soft texture, good colour, feeling, thickness and movement. The donor sites all healed well. Conclusion:Combined with an optimal preoperative design, the perforator flap of anterior lateral wall cross-region can obtain a satisfactory clinical efficacy in repair of large area soft tissue defects. It is a feasible treatment method.

12.
Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 273-277, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995502

ABSTRACT

Objective:To summarise the effect of free perforator flap of radial collateral artery on reconstruction of first web contracture after hand injury.Methods:Retrospective analysis was conducted based on the clinical data of patients with first web contracture after hand injury in the Department of Hand and Foot Surgery and Rehabilitation, Guangdong Work Injury Rehabilitation Hospital from November 2019 to June 2022. Ten patients, 8 males and 2 females aged between 27 and 51 years old with an average of 40.5 years old were included. There were 6 left hands and 4 right hands. Width and the included angle of first web were measured before surgery. Four hands were classified as severe first web contracture, and the rest of 6 hands had moderate first web contracture. After release scars of the first web, the areas of wound were 5.5 cm × 2.0 cm - 10.5 cm × 3.0 cm. The flaps sized were 6.0 cm×2.5 cm - 11.0 cm × 3.5 cm. All of flaps carried the posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm. Donor sites were closed directly. All patients were included in postoperative follow-up regularly through outpatient clinic or via WeChat reviews. The colour, texture, process in change of the transferred flaps, donor and recipient sites healing and complications were observed.Results:All 10 flaps survived and the wound healed by first intention. The patients received 7 to 15 months (10.5 months in average) of postoperative follow-up. The flaps were not bulky, texture and colour were satisfactory and without pigmentation. Protective sensations restored in 6 patients. At the last follow-up, average included angle of the first webs was 47.14°±1.68°, in comparison with 35.43°±3.60° before surgery. The average width of first webs was 5.34 cm±0.52 cm, in comparison with 3.17 cm±0.75 cm before surgery, the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.01). Eight hands were rated excellent, and 2 were good. There were only linear scars left at the donor sites, without sign of radial nerve injury. Conclusion:The free perforator flap of radial collateral artery is a safe and effective method for repair of first web contracture after hand injury.

13.
Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 260-266, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995500

ABSTRACT

Objective:Exploring the clinical efficacy of using ultra-thin lobulated anterolateral thigh perforator flap(ALTPF) with retrograde separation of perforating vessels from the superficial and deep junction layer of the superficial fascia to repair large soft tissue defects in the foot.Methods:From August 2021 to November 2022, 8 patients (5 males and 3 females) were admitted to the Second Department of Hand and Foot Surgery, the Affiliated Central Hospital of Dalian University of Technology. The patients were 28 to 52 years old in age. The soft tissue defects were located in dorsal and plantar foot. At the plantar foot, the wound involved the weight-bearing area with explosion of bone, tendon or internal fixtures. The area of soft tissue defects was 6.0 cm × 5.0 cm - 16.0 cm × 8.0 cm, and the sizes of ALTPF were 8.0 cm ×5.5 cm - 18.0 cm × 8.5 cm. Preoperative high frequency CUD combined with CTA angiography were employed to locate the 2 flap perforator vessels. By keeping the perforator vessels at center and according to the soft tissue defect area and the wound shape, an ALTPF with a proper size and shape was designed in anterolateral thigh. The perforator were separated in the boundary layer between superficial and deep fascia, where it helped to obviously thin the flap. After the flap was harvested, it was further lobulated between the 2 perforators into 2 lobes after having confirmed the effective blood supply. Finally the lobulated ALTPF was transferred to covered the defect in foot. Cautions should be taken to ensure that the flap covered the weight-bearing area of foot. All the donor sites were directly sutured. Postoperative follow-up was conducted to observe the survival of flaps and the functional recovery of the reconstructed site, also to evaluate the clinical effect. Postoperative follow-up included outpatient visits and reviews over WeChat or telephone. Recovery of the ankle motor function was evaluated according to the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Societ (AOFAS) ankle-hind foot score scale.Results:All 8 ALTPF survived. Over 6 to 18 months (10.8 months in average) of follow-up, the transferred flaps had good blood supply, soft in texture, with good elasticity and thin in appearance. Appearance and function of donor sites recovered well, except 1 patient who had mild scar hyperplasia. The plantar flap had good abrasion resistance. No flap damage, bleeding or granulation tissue hyperplasia occurred when walking. The mean score of AOFAS ankle-hind foot score achieved 95.6.Conclusion:The application of ultra-thin lobulated ALTPF with retrograde separation of perforating vessels from the superficial fascia at the junction layer for repairing large soft tissue defects in the foot has good clinical efficacy.

14.
Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 254-259, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995499

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical effect of free anterolateral thigh perforator flap(ALTPF) in reconstruction of temporal scalp defect after blood circulation reconstruction surgery for moyamoya disease.Methods:From May 2020 to July 2022, 7 patients with scalp defect after revascularisation of moyamoya disease were treated in Department of Hand and Foot Microsurgery, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital (People’s Hospital of Zhengzhou University). The patients were 4 males and 3 females, aged 33-59 years old, at 43 years old in average. There were 5 defects in left tempus and 2 in right tempus. The sizes of scalp defect were 4.5 cm × 5.5 cm-7.5 cm × 9.5 cm. Debridement and VSD management were primarily performed. After wounds were stabilised, ultrasound location of perforator vessels of ALTPFs was performed. Having confirmed that the perforator vessels were suitable for the surgical requirements, flap transfers were then performed. The descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery was end-to-side anastomosed with the superficial temporal artery, and the descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex vein was end-to-end anastomosed with the superficial temporal vein. Postoperative follow-up was conducted through outpatient clinic visits, telephone and WeChat reviews. Appearance, texture of ALTPFs and the flap donor sites were observed in follow-ups. Comparisons of the changes of nervous system before and after surgery were made. Cognitive function of the patients was assessed with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), together with the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) .Results:All 7 flaps survived. One flap had vascular compromise 6 hours after surgery, and was rectified after surgical intervention. All the patients were included in the postoperative follow-up for 7-33 (average 19) months. All flaps had good appearance with soft texture. There was no obvious difference in colour comparing with the skin around the recipient region. The donor sites healed well without hypertrophic scar. Examinations of nervous system of the patients were found the same as that before surgery. Using Manual Muscle Testing (MMT), the average limb muscle strength of the patients was 4 before surgery and 4 after surgery, without change; Using the Ashworth assessment scale, the average preoperative and postoperative limb muscle tension in this group of patients was 1, without change; The Berg balance scale was used to evaluate the patient's balance function, with an average score of 42 before surgery and 42 after surgery, without any changes; There was no change in limb sensation before and after surgery; Using the MMSE, the average preoperative score and postoperative score of this group of patients were 25 points, without any change. Using the modified Barthel index scoring standard, the average preoperative score for this group of patients was 75 points, and the average postoperative score was 79 points, and the ADL of the patient had improved to various levels.Conclusion:Reconstruction of scalp defect with free ALTPF after revascularisation of moyamoya disease has obvious advantages, such as it closes the wound quickly, prevents infection and achieves a good appearance. This surgical procedure can produce a good clinical effect.

15.
Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 179-184, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995493

ABSTRACT

Objective:Verstaile free superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap(SCIAPF) were adopted for various reconstructive scenarios, and its clinical effect and value was evaluated.Methods:Retrospective analysis was performed on 42 patients with tissue defects admitted in the Department of Orthopeadic of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January 2015 to May 2019. Nine patients had injury in the foot, 8 in ankle, 8 in calf, 7 in forearm, 9 in hand, and 1 in the mouth. All of the defects were repaired by SCIAPF, including 28 single soft tissue defect wounds, 8 multiple soft tissue defect, and 6 composite defects. The size of soft tissue defect were 1.2 cm×1.8 cm-14.0 cm×20.8 cm. The size of flaps were 1.5 cm×2.0 cm-15.3 cm×22.3 cm. The patients entered follow up by outpatient clinic visit and telephone reviews to observe the survival of the flaps, functional recovery and complications.Results:In this series, there were 28 flaps, including 18 pedicled with superficia branch of superficial circumflex iliac artery, 2 pedicled with deep branch of superficial circumflex iliac artery, and 8 pedicled with 2 branches. Six were chimeric flaps. Among them, 4 flaps were iliac bone flaps with superficial branch of superficial circumflex iliac artery flaps, and 2 were superficial iliac circumflex artery flap with sartorius muscle flap. Eight cases were resurfaced with lobulated SCIAPF. Arterial anastomoses: end-to-side in 35 arteries and end-to-end in 7 arteries. Venous anastomosis: end-to-end in 27 veins and end-to-side in 15 veins. Venous return through superficial iliac circumflex vein in 25 flaps, through venae comitantes in 12 flaps and through both in 5 flaps. All flap donor sites were sutured directly. All flaps survived uneventfully except for one that compromised with end-to-side anastomotic dehiscence and bleeding, and survived after re-anastomosis. All flaps and donor sites healed primarily. During the follow-up of 6-24(mean, 11.5) months, the pliable flaps were ruddy in colour and soft in texture, without obvious bloatness and pigmentation. The donor site healed well with linear scars in 35 cases and mild scar hyperplasia in 7 cases. The donor hip function were normal. Three patients suffered a numbness of the thigh caused by intraoperative injury lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and it disappeared completely after 3 months.Conclusion:New applications of lobulated or chimeric SCIAPF, based on the SCIA vasculature or its branches, can meet most of the clinical repair requirement.

16.
Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 163-167, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995490

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of free thenar perforator flap on repair of finger pulp defect.Methods:From September 2019 to November 2021, 79 cases of finger injuries complicated with defects in the pulp of fingers received free thenar perforator flap transfer surgery for reconstruction of finger pulps in the Department of Hand and Foot Surgery, Taizhou Hospital, Zhejiang Province. The patients were 51 males and 28 females, aged from 17 to 52(37.5±5.2) years old. There were 34 finger-pulp defects of index fingers, 15 of middle fingers, 26 of ring fingers and 4 of little fingers. All patients were treated with free thenar perforator flaps sized 2.0 cm×2.5 cm-3.0 cm×3.5 cm. All thenar perforator flaps were pedicled with the perforator artery and subcutaneous superficial vein in the thenar region, and the vessels were anastomosed with the proper palmar digital artery and dorsal digital vein, respectively. At the same time, subcutaneous nerve and proper palmar digital nerve were sutured to reconstruct the sensation of flaps. During the operation, the dominant perforating branch of thenar was found being originated from the superficial palmar branch of radial artery in 27 cases, from the superficial palmar arch in 21 cases, from the perforating branch of metacarpophalangeal proper artery of thumb in 11 cases, from the radial artery in 10 cases and from the main artery of thumb in 10 cases. The origins of nerves within the flaps were found from the superficial branch of radial nerve(24 cases), the terminal branch of lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm(22 cases) and the palmar branch of median nerve(33 cases). The operation time was (96.7±10.7) minutes. The donor site for the flap was closed directly without skin grafting. Most of the follow-up were conducted through the visit of outpatient clinic and the patients from other regions were reviewed via telephone or WeChat.Results:All perforator flaps survived completely and the flap donor sites healed smoothly. Follow-up lasted for (20.5±3.8) months. The reconstructed finger pulp was not bulky and the texture was satisfactory. TPD of the flaps was (5.6±0.9) mm. Only a linear scar left in the flap donor sites without significant affect on thenar function.Conclusion:The vascular anatomy of thenar perforator flap is constant, which helps to regain sensations of the flap. The texture and thickness of the flap are similar to those of the finger. It is ideal for reconstruction of defect of finger pulp.

17.
Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 157-162, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995489

ABSTRACT

Objective:To discuss the pedicled perforator flap around ankle in complicated replantation of severed traumatic midfoot.Methods:From May 2017 to December 2020, a total of 4 patients with severed midfoot combined with severely traumatic soft tissue defects were treated in the Department of Micro-orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Luohe Medical Collage. The patients were all males and aged from 22 to 53 (mean, 44) years old. Two patients had left foot injured and 2 in right foot. Causes of injuries: One patient was injured by strangulation of a corn harvester belt, and 3 were crushed by a heavy steel bar. Three patients had the severed sites at the level of intertarsal joint and 1 at the base of metatarsus. The time from injury to admission was 2.0-5.0(mean, 3.5) hours. The severed feet were replanted by anterograde method. Pedicled perforator flaps around ankle were used to repair the soft tissue defects of feet in emergency surgery or post first-stage surgery. The sizes of the flaps were 7.5 cm×8.0 cm-9.0 cm×19.0 cm. Scheduled follow-ups were arranged at outpatient clinic or by online reviews. Appearance, texture, colour, blood supply and sensory-motor function of the replanted feet and flaps were observed. The function of the foot and ankle was evaluated according to the American Orthopaedic Foot Ankle Association (AOFAS).Results:All 4 patients engaged follow-ups lasted for 13-36(mean, 19.5) months. Three replantations survived after surgery. In the other case, a chronic necrosis of the broken foot was caused by skin necrosis, wound infection, and vascular embolism. And then the necrotic forefoot was released, and the wound was later repaired with a flap based medial supramalleolar branches. A total of 5 flaps in 4 patients survived. All flaps were in good appearance with good texture and colour. All flaps healed primarily, and all skin grafts survived. All of the 4 patients could walked without assistance. Sensation restored to S 3. The patient with a failed replantation had left with a mild claudication. According to AOFAS, 2 patients were in excellent, 1 in good and 1 in fair at the last follow-up. Conclusion:Replantation of severed midfoot with an early application of pedicled perforator flap around ankle for reconstruction of severely traumatic defect is an effective and feasible treatment strategy.

18.
Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 152-156, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995488

ABSTRACT

Objective:To summarise the clinical efficacy of free deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap (DIEPF) in repairing large wounds in upper limb.Methods:From June 2016 to March 2022, free DIEPF repair surgery were performed for 9 cases with large defects in elbow, forearm and wrist in the Department of Hand Surgery, Xuzhou Renci Hospital. The patients were 3 males and 6 females at 36-65(average 50) years old. The sizes of defect ranged from 6.0 cm×7.0 cm to 25.0 cm×33.0 cm. Seven defects combined with radius-ulnar fracture, 4 with wrist fracture, 4 with metacarpal fracture and 1 with humerus fracture. All defects had various degrees of injuries of tendon, blood vessel and nerve. A total of 10 flaps were harvested, and the size of flaps were 7.0 cm×8.0 cm-12.0 cm×35.0 cm. Vessels in 7 flaps of 6 patients were anastomosed with unilateral vascular pedicles and 3 with bilateral vascular pedicles. End-to-end arterial anastomosis was performed on 1 flap, and the other 9 flaps of 8 patients had end-to-side arterial anastomoses. End-to-end vein anastomoses were performed on all flaps. Umbilical reconstruction was performed at the abdominal donor site for 3 patients, and all donor site wounds were closed in stage I surgery. Scheduled outpatient and WeChat follow-up were made after surgery.Results:Nine flaps in 8 patients survived successfully. Partial skin necrosis occurred in 1 flap and repaired by skin grafting. Follow-up lasted for 6 to 60 months(12 months in average). At the last follow-up, the colour of the flaps was found being similar to the surrounding skin with mildly bloated and soft in texture. Sensation of the flaps recovered to S 2 in 5 patients, and not detected in 4 cases. Conclusion:The free DIEPF has a relatively constant perforator and the flap can be used for repairing a large area of defect. The donor site wound can be closed in Ⅰ stage surgery. Free DIEPF is suitable for repair of large upper limb wounds.

19.
Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 76-81, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995479

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the clinical value of CTA and CDU in perforator flap of peroneal artery.Methods:From February 2013 to October 2016, 47 patients who suffered with soft tissue defects and were hospitalised in the Department of Orthopaedics, the 920th Hospital of Joint Logistic Support Force of Chinese PLA were retrospectively reviewed and evaluated. All the defects were reconstructed by the perforator flap of peroneal artery. All patients received preoperative CTA and CDU scans before surgery. Appropriate perforator vessels were selected and the locating points in body surface and external diameters of the perforator vessels were recorded and compared with intraoperative findings. SPSS 22.0 statistical software was used for data analysis. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results:The intraoperative coincidence rate of the proposed perforator vessels was 97.87% for CDU and 95.74% for CTA, with no significant difference between the 2 groups( P>0.05). It was found that the preoperative CTA and CDU measurements were consistent with the actual intraoperative measurements, and there was no significant difference between the 2 groups( P>0.05). For CTA combined with CDU, an intraoperative coincidence rate was 100% in the location of peroneal perforating vessels. All flaps were followed-up for 1 to 18(mean 13.5) months. All the flaps survived well with good texture and appearance without complication. Conclusion:CDU and CTA are reliable and useful in preoperative vascular evaluation of peroneal perforator flap, and both can be used in a complementary or combined manner.

20.
Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 70-75, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995478

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the feasibility of an "ABC" three line perforator locating method in design and harvest of free anterolateral perforator flap of calf.Methods:Between March 2021 and November 2021, 42 patients with 62 wounds on hand and foot were treated in the Department of Hand Surgery, Suzhou Ruihua Orthopaedic Hospital. The "ABC" three line perforator locating method was applied to determine the location and source of perforating branch before operation and to guide the design and harvest of flap during operation in wound reconstruction. Among the 42 patients, 24 had the injury of single digit, 7 had the injuries with 2 digits, 4 with 3 digits, 1 with 4 digits, 1 of the first web, 1 in the wrist, 2 of the great toe, 1 of second toe and 1 in dorsal foot. The sizes of soft tissue defect were 1.5 cm×2.0 cm-3.0 cm×14.0 cm. The sizes of the flaps were 2.0 cm×2.5 cm-3.5 cm×15.0 cm. All donor sites were sutured directly. In the follow-up, sensations of flaps were evaluated following the sensory function evaluation standard of British Medical Research Council(BMRC), and the recovery of the donor and recipient sites was evaluated by the flap comprehensive evaluation scale. Regular follow-up were scheduled at outpatient clinic.Results:A total of 162 perforators were located before operation. There were 95 perforating branches being explored in the operation, of which 5 patients had 1 extra perforating branch than that located before surgery. Seventy-six perforating branches were found consistent with preoperative localisation, with a coincidence rate of 84.4%(76/90). Sixty-four perforating branches were found consistent with the preoperative source with an accuracy rate of 84.2%(64/76). All the 62 flaps survived without a vascular compromise. Follow-up lasted for 6-10(mean 7.1) months. The colour and texture of the flaps were excellent. The flaps were thin and wear-resistant. The sensory function of the flaps was evaluated at S 1-S 3 by BMRC. Comprehensive evaluation scale of flap was excellent in 38 patients and good in 4 patients. Conclusion:"ABC" three line perforator locating method in design of free anterolateral calf flap is a feasible and an ideal auxiliary method in surgical practice. It combines anatomical knowledge, clinical experience and Doppler ultrasound localisation as well as accurately guides the location and source prediction of perforator before surgery.

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